Symptoms and treatment of temporomandibular joint arthrosis
Arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint is characterized by dystrophic changes in facial tissues( connective, bony, cartilaginous).Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint can manifest itself both as a general character and as a local one. The cause of the pathology is enough to reveal it at an early stage.
What triggers the development of the disease?
Diseases of the endocrine, neurodystrophic, metabolic systems, as well as infection, contribute to the progression of the TMJ. To arthrosis of this type can lead to various inflammations in the joint that have been taking place for a long time, excessive stress on the lower jaw region, which contribute to the development of neuromuscular disorders in the maxillofacial area of the face. Among the risk factors are people who have no lateral teeth and with deformation of the occlusal base of the dentition. The patients suffering from arthrosis of the TMJ with teeth that are erased on the basis of a pathological nature. The listed diseases can be combined with each other. For example, the common disease of bruxism( when a person has a gnashing of teeth during sleep) can lead to abrasion of a pathological nature.
Thus, the arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint arises due to common and local factors. Maxillofacial joint changes under the influence of each of them.
TMJ: Distribution and Epidemiology
What is the jaw joint? It is formed of the temporal bone and the lower jaw. Together they form the temporomandibular joint. The joint produces motion in several variants: jaw movement forward, lowering it downwards and shifting to the side. Arthrosis of the mandibular joint is due to the restriction of the movement of the entire lower region. Soreness of the joints appears due to the thinning of the bones.
According to statistical data, about 30% of the world's population is at risk of osteoarticular system diseases. As practice shows, annually the number of patients diagnosed with arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint is growing. Why? Improper diet, poor ecology, passive lifestyle - all these factors are the main cause of the development of pathologies in the maxillofacial part and not only. However, the negligence of people to their health significantly complicates the situation - many do not go to the doctor, even if the signs of the disease are present.
Osteoarthritis of the TMJ can be observed in people of any age. However, among people more often there are people about 50-70 years old. The older the person, the higher the risk of earning a pathology - such a regularity was brought out by doctors. The scale of this problem is colossal, so doctors recommend trying to prevent the disease.
Diagnosis of maxillofacial part
Who are the risk factors for diseases of the maxillofacial face? So, people with arthrosis of the TMJ:
- Age category +50.
- Women in the period of menopause. The process of metabolism of bones and cartilage( tissues) is reduced.
- Post-traumatic injuries, operations in the temporomandibular lobe area.
- Disturbance of bite and other ailments of the maxillofacial side.
- Dental problems( lack of teeth).
- Prolonged inflammatory processes in the body( in particular, in the joints).
- Progression of osteoarthritis in other parts.
- Predisposition to the disease at the gene level.
Symptoms of arthrosis of the TMJ
Depending on the individual physiological qualities, the symptoms can manifest themselves as:
- a man complains of pains or incomprehensible noises;
- click or crunch in the affected area.
Dull, aching pain is not excluded, which is aggravated by the load on the affected joint. Some patients complain of jawiness in the morning or its shift to the side. Also, restrictions on opening the mouth and chewing food are possible. The latter occurs only on one side of the dentition, as a joint chewing leads to discomfort. Pathology progresses gradually, while in the anamnesis, various processes can take place. Among them: long-lasting inflammation of the joints, various kinds of trauma, transferred operations of the jaw region, lack of teeth, abrasion of the pathological teeth, improperly selected prostheses, contributing to damage to the entire jaw facial part of the face.
Typical symptoms of temporomandibular joint arthrosis:
- Pain sensations, especially with loads.
- Pain arising when chewing food from 1 or 2 sides.
- The asymmetry of the face is observed.
- There is a crunching or clicking when jaw movement.
- Limited movement when opening the mouth.
- In the morning, stiffness of movements in the affected area can be felt.
- Possible hearing loss.
- When probing, unclear sounds( clicks, crunching) and painful sensations are found.
- When probing the masticatory muscles, compression and tenderness can occur.
Arthrosis of the TMJ should be diagnosed with special instrumental methods. Doctors recommend taking computer tomography, radiography and contrast radiography. Thus, the stage of severity and signs of the disease are determined.
Treatment of arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint
Treatment should be comprehensive. The course of recovery takes a long time, however, leads to positive results. The disease is treated exclusively under the supervision of a doctor, otherwise you can aggravate the situation.
So, the treatment of arthrosis of the temporomandibular joint includes the following items:
- Certain mode of the day, lifestyle change.
- Taking medications.
- Carrying out the necessary procedures( physiotherapy, as well as surgical and orthopedic correction).
mode Some people find it hard to get used to the new regime of the day or the way of life in general. However, this is necessary for a complete cure. You will be much easier if you do not have the habit of gnawing your nails, chewing gum. Such actions create an additional burden on the lower jaw, which slows down the healing process. If you sing, then for some time you have to give it up. Thus, you should not do all that could create an excessive strain on the temporomandibular joint. As for food, it should be balanced, useful and soft. The use of solid food is excluded. It is recommended to include porridges, soups, juices, kefir in the diet. If you have bad habits( alcohol, smoking), then you need to reduce their consumption.
Drugs are prescribed only by a doctor, and a preliminary diagnosis is performed. When the diagnosis is established, prescribed painkillers( ointments and pills).Help remove pain ketorol, ibuprofen, paracetamol, ketoprofen. It is recommended to use chondroprotectors, which nourish intact cartilaginous tissue. Other medications can be prescribed that contribute to a quick recovery.
Physiotherapy. This method includes the following procedures:
- treatment is microwave;
- ultrasound therapy;
- laser therapy;
- dynamic currents as a method of treatment;
Procedures are performed in the presence of the attending physician.
Orthopedic treatment is a correction of teeth. Various devices can be used that will improve your health. To do this, use mouth restraints or palatine plates.
The final stage of arthrosis of the TMJ is treated by the operation. Depending on the type of operation, it can be deleted:
- articular head of the lower part of the jaw;
- articular disc;
- head with transplant replacement.
What kind of operation to conduct, the doctor decides. Everything depends on the severity of the disease. Rehabilitation includes a special diet and lifestyle. The recommendations of a specialist are exactly the same.
To treat arthrosis of the TMJ is difficult, it is better to prevent the disease. For this, observe prophylaxis( active lifestyle, proper nutrition) and visit the doctor in a timely manner.
Diseases of the jaw joint and recommendations for their treatment
Jaw joint components: ligament, disc, condyle, joint fossa and muscle
Jaw joint is a combined organ that provides movement of the lower jaw. Thanks to him, a person is able to chew food and pronounce sounds. The temporomandibular joint is located symmetrically over the auricles. The junction connects the lower jaw and the temporal bone. This area consists of the following structures:
- of the mandible;
- of the mandibular pits;
- of the articular tubercle;
- of the articular bag;
- of the articular ligaments.
The mandibular joint is covered with cartilage. They are elastic and do not cause painful sensations during movements of the jaw.
Diseases of the jaw joint
Usually jaw diseases occur as a result of her injuries, inflammation and malocclusion. Changes in the work of the jaw joint are manifested by a characteristic crunch, tenderness, clicks, impossibility to open the mouth, limited mobility. The cartilage disc wears out and the head falls out of the pit of the lower jaw. The list of diseases affecting the temporomandibular joint is quite wide. Here are just some of them, the most common ones.
- Arthritis - occurs when an infectious lesion articulation.
- Osteoarthritis - develops against the background of inflammation in the stage of chronicization.
- Dislocation is the displacement of the head.
- Ankylosis - characterized by a complete lack of movement due to the fusion of bones.
- Syndrome of dysfunction of the lower jaw and neuralgia.
When a patient visits a specialist, the doctor examines the damaged maxillary organ, conducts functional and diagnostic tests. Magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) is an alternative method of examination. It is harmless, has high accuracy. To establish the diagnosis, patients are most often sent for radiography, computed tomography or MRI of the maxillofacial joint.
Bone fracture and its forms
Fracture is the result of external impact on the joint. It can be open, closed, fragmented or single. As a result, such a trauma can lead to deformation of the lower jaw, loss of teeth, lack of sensitivity and migraines.
The picture shows a fracture of the lower jaw
First aid for a fracture of the lower jaw includes:
- fixation of the temporomandibular joint with a dense bandage;
- resting organization for the lower jaw;
- is a specialist advice.
The doctor creates conditions for adequate fusion of broken bone fragments and bite correction.
Osteomyelitis of the lower jaw
Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process in the bones of the lower jaw caused by ingestion of infectious agents. Infection often penetrates through carious teeth. Symptomatology of the disease:
- pain in the upper and lower jaw;
- tenderness of teeth;
- temperature increase;
- enlarged lymph nodes in the neck;
- results of a common blood test show an inflammatory response of the body.
Treatment for osteomyelitis.
- Access to the dentist and removal of affected teeth in the maxillary region.
- Oral cavity sanitation.
- In the presence of complications, an incision is made in the lesion, purulent lesions are removed.
Syndrome of joint dysfunction and neuralgia
The syndrome of dysfunction of the jaw joint is accompanied by symptoms such as soreness in chewing food and gnashing or clicks when jaw movements. Such a violation occurs because of excessive stress in the mandibular joint.
- Elimination of muscle tone.
- Application of analgesics.
- Use of cooling dressings.
- Providing the affected body with rest.
Arthritis of the temporomandibular joint
Arthritis, which is characterized by the appearance of the inflammatory process, quite often affects the temporomandibular joint. The disease is divided into 3 types: purulent, rheumatoid and traumatic. Purulent inflammation occurs if the maxillofacial joint is infected. Infectious agents enter the organ with blood flow in case of angina, flu, hypothermia, inflammation of the ear.
- maxillofacial joint hurts when palpation;
- increased body temperature.
Arthrosis-affected joint with a depleted cartilaginous lining and damaged bone
The following treatment measures for purulent inflammation of the maxillofacial joint can be recommended:
- use of antibiotics;
- opening of purulent focus, treatment of maxillofacial areas with antiseptic solutions.
- rest of the jaw structures.
Rheumatoid inflammation of the joints is an infectious-allergic disease, in which many structures in the human body suffer. The cause of the disease is infection with streptococcal or staphylococcus cultures. The disease leads to atrophy of muscles and tendons.
Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis:
- physiotherapeutic procedures - electrophoresis on the affected area;
- gymnastics for the jaw;
- limitation of joint mobility.
In case of hemorrhages in the jaw area of the face, traumatic arthritis occurs. The mandibular joint can be deformed with traumatic influences from the outside. Therapeutic measures are similar to those listed above.
Osteoarthritis and dislocation of the lower jaw
The cause of osteoarthritis is a worn out jaw structure. People suffer from this disease after 50 years. The jaw can also wear out at an earlier age. This is due to the transferred diseases of the maxillofacial joint or poor-quality dental prosthetics.
The main symptom of osteoarthritis is the soreness of the affected area. Therapeutic measures:
- ensuring the rest of the joint;
- application of special tires;
When the dislocation of the lower jaw dislocates its head. Usually it shifts to the area of the tubercle. When palpation, the maxillary joint responds with pain, the patient is unable to open his mouth and speak. The lower jaw is always lowered.
To diagnose the condition with a dislocation, it is enough to hold a palpation or send the patient to an MRI, CT, X-ray. The picture shows damaged areas of the lower and upper jaw area, its displacement. Medical measures - this is the direction of the dislocation and immobilization of the jaw for 10 days.
Temporomandibular joint treatment |dysfunction of NNS |treatment of bruxism - Moscow
The treatment of the temporomandibular joint is a very laborious process and, unfortunately, many dentists do not have the knowledge and practical experience to help patients with such a problem. And the problem is serious, the number of people who need timely help is very large. For example, according to statistics in the US and Europe, the cost of treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction is second only to oncology.
Doctor Hollywood offers you modern complex treatment of the jaw joint, treatment of bruxism, which includes a wide range of procedures, individually selected for consultation with a doctor.
Causes of temporomandibular joint dysfunction
- dental errors( incorrect orthopedic and therapeutic treatment)
- joint injuries
- long dental appointments without rest breaks( 3 or more hours)
- decrease in bite altitude due to tooth loss and increased erosion
- involuntary clenching and gnashing of teeth( treatment of bruxism)
- excessive exercise in sports
- taking some hormonal contraceptive
- malocclusion and many other reasons
Symptoms When the symptoms of dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, they include:
- Night gnashing of teeth
- pain in the masticatory muscles or jaw joint;
- Pain in the jaw, neck or face;
- Tension of the jaw;
- The jaw is blocked or has limited movement;
- Painful click in the lower jaw joint;
- Changes in the correspondence between the upper or lower teeth.
Treatment in Doctor Hollywood
We recommend you to begin treatment with a visit to the consultation of the doctor of the maxillofacial surgeon, who specializes in the treatment of NFE, the treatment of bruxism. In most cases, enough non-surgical treatment is what we offer.
- Consultation of the physician of the maxillofacial surgeon of your category, where he listens to your complaints, conducts an examination, collects medical data, sends for diagnosis
- Diagnostics : most often requires computed tomography, orthopantomogram. All diagnostic equipment is available in our center.
- Impression of and manufacturing of diagnostic models for occlusion detection
- If necessary, an ENT doctor is invited.
Arthrosis of the jaw joint. Treatment and prevention
Temporomandibular joint is a paired joint on the facial part of the skull that connects the lower jaw and the base of the skull. Unique for this type of joint is the fact that there is a cartilaginous disc between the cartilage surfaces of the bones, which allows you to move in three directions - forward-backward, up-down and sideways.
With an incorrect distribution of the load on the upper and lower jaw very often develops a condition called arthrosis of the jaw joint. The development of arthrosis is facilitated by trauma and inflammation in the jaw joint, bite anomalies, dentition defects on the lower jaw. Under the influence of traumatic factors, the process of dystrophy, degeneration and gradual thinning of the articular surfaces occurs in it. As a result of pathological processes, when opening the mouth or chewing, soreness appears and, as a result, there is a restriction in the movement of the joint.
Causes of the disease
This disease often develops in people during hormonal changes in the body, when a metabolic disorder occurs. But nevertheless, the most common causes of arthrosis are dental problems and joint injuries. Osteoarthrosis of the jaw joint can develop with a one-stage injury, with damage to the articulating surfaces in the joint and further wrong fusion. Single-time injury often leads to arthritis, which, in the absence of treatment, goes into a neglected stage with the development of arthrosis.
Often the development of arthrosis is promoted by defects in the dentition. In the absence of molars - the main chewing teeth, there is a significant decrease in the bite, as a result not only the ratio of the upper and lower halves of the facial skull is broken, but also the work of the mandibular joint.
Another common cause is stress and dental errors in the treatment of teeth or non-compliance by patients themselves with the recommendations of dentists. Improper setting of a seal on chewing teeth can lead to asymmetry in the work of the jaw joint, unilateral overload. So, the arthrosis of the temporo-mandibular joint can develop due to:
- Micro- and macro-injuries of the joint
- Prolonged forced position with an open mouth( for example, when visiting a dentist)
- Loss of molars from one or both sides, and as a consequence, a decrease in the bite
- Incorrect bitedue to anomalies and defects of the tooth row
- Excessive stress on the joint, for example, when playing sports
When arthrosis of the jaw joint develops, the symptoms for a long time may be absentamb, but with the development of degenerative processes in the articular surfaces they start to disturb soreness beginning at heavy loads, and then with less significant, such as when talking or chewing soft food. The most common symptoms in this disease are:
- Pain in chewing in one of the jaw joints
- Asymmetry of the face
- Difficulties with a wide, and later with an average opening of the mouth
- Inability to perform joint movements in full
- Joint stiffness in the mornings
- Stress in the jointschewing muscles
- Irradiation of pain in the eye, ear, jaw
- In the cases that are neglected, there may be a decrease in hearing, headaches.
Treatment of arthrosis of the maxillofacial joint
Arthrosis of the maxillofacial joint has a long asymptomatic course, so patients turn to the doctor already in advanced stages, when extensive dystrophic processes occurred, in which the synovial joints of the joint are involved. Due to the fact that many doctors do not have enough information about arthrosis of the maxillofacial joint, treatment of this disease presents great difficulties. Among the measures aimed at normalizing the function of the joint are orthopedic, physiotherapeutic, medical and surgical methods of treatment. In addition, the essential components of therapy are diet and regimen.
- After the arthrosis of the maxillofacial joint has been diagnosed, the treatment begins with the appointment of a gentle diet, which helps reduce the burden on the affected joint. It is recommended to eat soft food, which does not require much physical effort for chewing. It is advisable to eat food in grated or pureed form. During this period, you should eat juices, cereals, sour-milk products, you can eat meat in the form of souffle, parfait, cutlets, meatballs.
- The patient's day regimen needs to be adjusted so that enough time is allowed for sleep and rest, to eliminate as far as possible factors that can cause stress or nervous overexertion. Also, for the period of arthrosis treatment of the jaw joint, chewing gums, long conversations should be discarded, try to control yourself and not clench your teeth with mental or nervous tension.
- As physiotherapeutic procedures, ultrasound, laser, magnetic therapy, iontophoresis, galvanotherapy, as well as massage and special exercises for the muscles of the face are prescribed. These measures have a long positive therapeutic and prophylactic effect, can stop pain attacks and significantly improve nutrition and blood circulation in the joint.
- When the arthrosis of the maxillofacial joint is diagnosed, the treatment should be aimed at eliminating the provoking factor. All patients are obliged to undergo an examination at the dentist. When identifying defects in the dentition, not sanitized or missing teeth, dental, orthodontic or orthopedic treatment is necessary. The doctor can recommend prosthetics or corrective therapy in the form of caps, special bite plates, mouth-opening restrictors, braces.
- In severe cases, a patient may be prescribed medication. It can be painkillers and anti-inflammatory ointments, tablets. Drugs containing chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine are also prescribed.
- In the absence of the effect of conservative therapy and a significant deterioration of the patient's condition, it may be recommended to treat arthrosis of the maxillofacial joint operatively. This is such a radical treatment that it is used only in especially severe cases. So, as a surgical solution to the problem, you can use the removal of the cartilaginous disk, the removal of the head of the lower jaw with the subsequent installation of the transplant. The latter method is the most effective, because it can almost completely restore the normal function of the joint.
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