Gonarthrosis of the knee joint symptoms and treatment

Knee joint gonarthrosis

Gonarthrosis is a deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, a degenerative-dystrophic disease in which the hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of the tibia and femur is affected and gradually degrades. In the late stages of the pathology, when the cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, the bone tissue begins to suffer, the disease acquires the character of osteoarthritis. The bone becomes denser, cystic cavities are formed, osteophytes grow at the edges of the joint, which causes the loss of joint function and disability.

Gonarthrosis is in the first place in terms of prevalence among all arthroses. Mostly middle-aged and elderly people, mostly women, are ill. But gonarthrosis of the knee joint can also occur in young people. In such cases, it is often a secondary process and develops after the trauma of the knee joint( posttraumatic gonarthrosis).

Gonarthrosis develops gradually over many years. The main signs of the disease: pain in the knees, the integration of their mobility and the periodic development of synovitis( accumulation of fluid inside the articulation).At first, the symptoms of arthrosis are almost invisible, but as the joint deteriorates, it becomes more intense and negatively affects the quality of human life.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint
This is how the knee joint affected by arthrosis

Reasons and types of knee joint gonarthrosis

As a rule, it is impossible to single out one cause that led to the development of gonarthrosis. In most cases, there are 2-3 or more risk factors for the development of the disease.

The main groups of reasons:

  1. Increased load on the components of the joint. This situation is observed in athletes, in people engaged in heavy physical labor, as well as in patients suffering from obesity.
  2. Knee injury, congenital or acquired deformities of the musculoskeletal system. In such situations, the load on the joint is distributed unevenly and some areas of the cartilage are under increased pressure, which causes their destruction. An example of such deformations may be flatfoot, kyphosis, scoliosis, incorrect fusion of bones after fractures, etc.
  3. A disorder in the metabolism of cartilaginous tissue and its ability to self-renew. This situation leads to a shortage of substances in the body, necessary for the regeneration of hyaline cartilage, metabolic and endocrine disorders, a decrease in microcirculation in the tissues of the articulation.
  4. Disturbance of secretion of synovial fluid in the knee joint. As you know, the synovial fluid, which is produced by the synovial membrane of the joint, provides smooth movements, reduces the frictional force, and also nourishes the cartilage, which does not have its own vessels. If, for some reason, the synovia becomes smaller, degenerative changes develop in the cartilage, it cracks and collapses.

There are many more risk factors for gonarthrosis. Their definition is very important not only for treatment, but also for prevention. Having got rid of such negative influence, it is possible to completely stop the development of arthrosis and preserve the full function of the lower limb.

Depending on the cause of the onset, two types of gonarthrosis are distinguished:

  • Primary - diagnose when the true cause remains unknown. At risk are women, elderly people, patients with obesity, with metabolic and endocrine diseases.
  • Secondary - set when there is a clear link between arthrosis and its causative factor. For example, after a joint injury or surgery.

As a rule, the primary gonarthrosis is always bilateral, and the secondary one affects only one knee.

According to ICD-10( International Classification of Diseases 10 revision), gonarthrosis has the M17 code.

Professional athletes
Reinforced knee load may cause development of gonarthrosis

Degenerative gonarthrosis levels

Gonarthrosis is a chronic and slowly progressive disease. Symptoms, prognosis and tactics of treatment depend on the degree of pathological changes in the joint. There are three clinical stages of the disease:

  • Arthrosis of the 1st degree is characterized by the appearance of pain or discomfort after an increased stress on the joints, at the end of the working day. After rest, all signs disappear on their own. The amplitude of the movements is not disturbed, there is no deformation of the joint.
  • Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree. At this stage, pathology is diagnosed in most people, because it constantly makes itself felt. Patients complain of pain in the joint even after minor loads. Rest does not give the desired relief, and you have to take various painkillers. There is a limitation of the amplitude of movements in the knee, begins muscle atrophy, you can see the initial stage of limb deformation.
  • Knee Osteoarthritis of the 3rd stage. The pain bothers the person round the clock, for its occurrence it is not necessary even to load a joint. Anesthetics do not help anymore. The mobility of the knee is partially or completely lost, its deformations develop, which is often the cause of disability. Treatment in this case is only surgical.

4 degrees of arthrosis does not happen, but there is a fourth X-ray degree of pathological changes in the joint, which coincides with the third, clinical stage.

Symptoms of the disease

At the initial stage of the disease, it is difficult to diagnose, as patients do not take the symptoms seriously and perceive them as normal fatigue. Most people can not even say that they are concerned about pain, most likely, unpleasant sensations in the knees after work or excessive load of joints, which completely and quickly disappear after rest.

A characteristic sign is pain during descent or ascent on stairs, as well as starting pain( occurs at the first steps after rest, then disappears).Outwardly, there are no changes. From time to time, patients may note some swelling( reactive synovitis).Also, most people complain of crepitation in the knee( crackling sounds with active and passive movements).

Pain in the knee joint
Pain in the knee joint is the first and the main sign of arthrosis

As arthrosis progresses, the pain becomes more intense, appears more often after minor loads. Independently does not pass, which often prevents a person from falling asleep. We have to take analgesics. Synovitis appears more often, have a more persistent current. Also a rough crunch develops during movements. The amplitude of movement decreases. It becomes difficult for a patient to perform familiar things, for example, to get off his knees. The knee joint begins to deform, it becomes wider, the shin bends( the beginning of the formation of O- or X-shaped deformation of the legs).

At the last stage the pain is intense and constant, it is not removed even by medications. Significantly difficult movements in the knee, especially flexion. The leg is in a forced position. The knee is enlarged in volume. There may be varus or valgus deformities of the legs.

Because of the described changes, gait and limb support function are disrupted. This leads to the fact that a person moves only with the help of an additional support( crutches, walking stick) or is not able to walk at all.


At the 2 nd and 3 rd stage, it is not difficult to establish a diagnosis. You can do this at the first, but only if you suspect a disease. Diagnostic program includes:

  • examination by a doctor orthopedist or rheumatologist;
  • clarifying complaints and identifying risk factors;
  • objective examination of knee joints, determination of the amplitude of their movements;
  • X-ray examination;
  • joint ultrasound;
  • in severe for diagnostic cases resort to MRI or CT;
  • standard laboratory tests for blood and urine.
Radiography of knee joints
Radiography is a valuable and informative method for diagnosing gonarthrosis

Conservative treatment of

Knee arthrosis therapy consists of several methods, individually they are ineffective, but if you use the whole treatment complex, very soon you will begin to move without pain.

Read more: Osteoarthritis of the knee joint How to cure arthrosis of the knee joint?

The main tasks of treatment of gonarthrosis:

  • relieve a person from pain;
  • to adjust the nutrition of cartilaginous tissue and accelerate its recovery;
  • improve microcirculation;
  • reduce pressure and pressure on diseased hyaline cartilage joints;
  • to develop a good muscular knee joint corset for protection and support;
  • to increase the mobility of the joint;
  • prevent deformation and ankylosis.

This can be done using the methods described below.

Medication treatment

Not essential, but allows you to quickly eliminate pain and signs of inflammation. Most often prescribe drugs from the group of NSAIDs( diclofenac, meloxicam, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, celecoxib, aceclofenac, etc.).These drugs are used for both systemic therapy( tablets, injections), and for topical treatment( ointments, gels, creams, patches).They quickly and effectively relieve the pain, but they are forbidden to take long courses, as severe adverse reactions may occur.

Chondroprotectors are on the second place. These medicines in their composition have chondroitin and glucosamine( the main structural elements of the cartilage).Thus, it is believed that chondroprotectors with long-term admission can stop the progression of the disease and contribute to the restoration of already destroyed cartilage. Among the most popular drugs worth noting: Arthra, Dona, Structum, Teraflex, Hondrolon, Alflutop. Treatment should start with a monthly course of intramuscular or intra-articular injections, and then switch to 3-4 months of maintenance therapy with tablets. Only in this case it is possible to achieve a positive result.

Dona - modern and effective chondroprotector

The intra-articular injections are a popular method of treating gonarthrosis. Inside the knee can introduce chondroprotectors, as well as glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drugs of long-term action( Diprospan, Kenalog).The pain passes even after 1 injection, the effect can last for several months.

Also today, the introduction of so-called liquid transplants of synovial fluid( Fermatron, Hyastat, Synvisc, Ostenil) is popular. These drugs are based on hyaluronic acid, which compensate for the synovial deficiency in the joint and promote the resumption of cartilage.


Therapeutic exercises are the most important element of arthrosis therapy. Without regular special physical exercises, it is almost impossible to achieve improvement. Complex exercise therapy is selected individually, depending on the stage of arthrosis, the age of a person, his physical fitness, the presence of concomitant diseases.

Simple and effective complex of exercise therapy for arthrosis of knee joints:

Other methods of

Other methods of conservative therapy are:

  1. Massage and physiotherapy. They are used during remission, when acute pain is absent. Allow to improve blood circulation in the tissues of articulation, which contributes to the regeneration of damaged structures.
  2. Orthopedic aids. To protect the joint and prevent the progression of arthrosis, you can use special knee pads for physical work or sports. They perfectly support the articulation and protect it from damage. At the last stage of gonarthrosis, a cane can be used to facilitate movement and reduce pain.
  3. Treatment with folk remedies. Folk methods of therapy are very popular among the population. There are not one dozen recipes that can help reduce pain, improve the mobility of knee joints. But we must not forget that such treatment should be used only as an additional one, and not replace all other methods. Also, before using any prescription, you need to consult a doctor about possible contraindications.

Surgical treatment

Operation with gonarthrosis is prescribed in the following cases:

  • inefficiency of conservative therapy;
  • constant pain, which can not be eliminated in other ways;
  • deformity or ankylosis of the joint;
  • loss of leg function;
  • patient desire.
Endoprosthetics of the knee joint
Before and after arthroplasty of the knee joint

There are 2 groups of operations that are performed with gonarthrosis:

  • organ preserving,
  • knee arthroplasty.

All modern organ-preserving surgeries are performed by arthroscopy. There are several options for surgery: arthrodesis, arthroscopic debridement, periarticular osteotomy. The surgeon chooses the necessary procedure depending on the individual characteristics of the patient.

Endoprosthetics is the most effective and widespread type of operation for gonarthrosis. Replacement of the destroyed joint with an artificial prosthesis( in some cases, and bilateral prosthesis) allows you to save the mobility feet and live a full life without pain. It is also important to know that success depends not only on the operation, but also on the correctness of the rehabilitation period. Sometimes only such cardinal measures can help a person to move again without pain.


Full description of the first degree knee joint gonarthrosis: symptoms and treatment

Gonarthrosis is a chronic knee joint disease in which the cartilage is thinned and destroyed, followed by the involvement of bone surfaces in the process. The defeat of the joint with gonarthrosis slowly but steadily progressing: from minor changes to severe deformity and disability. The severity of the symptoms and the anatomical changes of the joint are reflected in the diagnosis statement, indicating the degree of the disease - from 1 to 3.

stage of development of gonarthrosis of the knee joint

Click on the picture to enlarge

Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 1st degree is the initial period of the disease when the pain is weak and other symptoms are often absent. However, even with minor, recurring complaints, it is necessary to contact a doctor( arthrologist, orthopedist or therapist), because at this stage the effectiveness of treatment is highest. At 1 degree of disease, non-drug treatment methods( diet, gymnastics) and preparations of predominantly prophylactic use( such as chondroprotectors) give a very good result. More serious medicines, if they are, are used in small courses only to relieve exacerbations.

Causes of the disease

Various causes lead to the onset of gonarthrosis, causing thinning and abrasion of articular cartilage:

  • age changes( cartilage is dense, blood supply is weakened);
  • overweight( increased load on the joint);
  • suffered injuries and infections of the knee;
  • inadequate stress on the joint( wearing weight, jumping from height, etc.);
  • metabolic diseases.

Six main symptoms of

A characteristic feature of the 1st degree of gonarthrosis is a mild symptomatology or absence of symptoms in general( in some cases the disease is detected accidentally, with the x-ray of the knee when injured or otherwise).But with a careful attitude to their health, patients still notice certain alarming signs:

  1. crunch in the knee,

  2. knee pain,

  3. stiffness,

  4. leg pain,

  5. joint shape change,

  6. knee edema.

Let's examine these symptoms in more detail:

Knee crunch

A crunch in the knee, clearly audible to the sick, and sometimes to people nearby - one of the first symptoms. It occurs when the knee is stressed: the leg is bent in the knee, squats. Often the crunch is accompanied by a peculiar sensation of grinding, slipping or clicking in the knee. For a long time, a crunch can be the only complaint about which patients do not consider it necessary to go to the doctor.

Pain in the knee

Pain in the knee in case of 1 degree of arthrosis usually have a moderate intensity and are of a paroxysmal nature. They occur after a considerable load, mainly in the evening hours and pass fairly quickly in rest, in connection with which there is no need to take painkillers. Deterioration of the condition with increased pain is possible with a change in the weather( in wet, windy, cold weather).

knee pain during running

Sudden pain in the knee during running can be a symptom of gonarthrosis

Stiffness of the

With 1 degree of gonarthrosis, there are no obvious limitations on the function of the knee joint: patients completely bend and unbend the leg, can crouch, climb stairs. But there may be stiffness - a sense of difficulty or stiffness when moving in the knee, which causes the patients to apply additional forces under normal loads( walking, climbing the stairs).Gradually disappears the usual freedom of movement.

Pain in the legs

Due to stiffness, the load on the muscles of the lower leg and thigh increases - and at the end of the working day, aching pains in the legs often occur.

Joint shape change

Grade 1 arthroplasty is not accompanied by severe joint deformity. But with a close examination, the doctor, and sometimes the patient himself, can notice some changes in the normal shape of the knee: the appearance of outgrowths, tubercles and slight edema.

Edema of the knee

Edema at 1 degree is also unobtrusive. But the increase in the volume of the diseased knee in comparison with the healthy one is easy to establish when measuring with centimeter tape.

swelling of the knee with gonarthrosis

Methods of treatment

If any symptoms of gonarthrosis appear, even if very insignificant, it is necessary to consult a doctor-arthrologist or orthopedist. Only a doctor will be able to confirm the diagnosis, clarify the degree of destruction of the cartilage and joint and prescribe adequate treatment.

Non-pharmacological methods

In case of gonarthrosis of 1 degree, the most important are non-drug methods:

  1. gymnastics,

  2. physiotherapy,

  3. folk methods of treatment,

  4. diet.

1. Gymnastics

Gymnastics is an essential component of treatment at all levels of gonarthrosis. But at 1 degree, its regular holding gives a quick and well-noticeable result: pain disappears, ease of movement is restored, and a crunch disappears.

Gymnastics should be performed on a daily basis, continuing the exercises and after the improvement. Any exercises for movements in the knee joint( flexion-extension, withdrawal-reduction) are useful, but they should be performed without burdening, from the sitting or lying position - to reduce the load on the cartilage.

Gymnastics with gonarthrosis 1 degree

Complex of exercises for gonarthrosis 1 degree. Click to enlarge

2. Physiotherapy

For the treatment of gonarthrosis, almost all the methods of physiotherapy are used: laser, UHF, magnet, mud, ozocerite, balneotherapy( hydrotherapy), etc. Since there are no pronounced inflammatory changes at grade 1, physiotherapist appoints physiotherapyusually immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis and recommends repeated courses in 3-6 months.

physiotherapy of the knee joint by laser

Physiotherapy of the knee joint by laser

3. Folk methods of treatment

As folk remedies, folk remedies can be used. And at 1 degree, a weak pain in the knee can be completely eliminated only by them, without resorting to medications. Well help:

  • heating in a hot bath or warmed salt in a linen bag;
  • compresses with alcohol;
  • rubbing with alcohol, turpentine.

4. Diet

Proper nutrition with gonarthrosis is directed, first of all, to the correction of excess weight, as the main factor, weighting the course and accelerating the progress of the disease. To this end, appoint fractional meals( 4-5 times a day) in small portions with restriction of fats and digestible carbohydrates.

Also the menu is enriched with natural sources of cartilage tissue components( eat jelly, cold meat, meat-and-bone broth) and exclude irritating substances( alcohol, spicy, spicy and too salty dishes).This dietary advice is relevant, regardless, whether the patient has excess weight or not.


For the treatment of 1 degree of gonarthrosis used drugs from two main groups:

  1. NSAIDs( non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs),

  2. chondroprotectors.


Chondroprotectors are drugs that are most effective at the initial changes in cartilage. They prevent further destruction of the cartilaginous tissue and joint. To obtain the effect, chondroprotectors are used for long repeated courses. They are used inside and locally( applied to the skin around the joint).

At 1 degree, intra-articular administration of chondroprotectors is rarely prescribed.

Popular drugs: arthra, structum, chondroxide, teraflex, don.


The main task of NSAIDs is to relieve pain and signs of inflammation( swelling, etc.).But since pain is moderate at grade 1, and signs of inflammation are usually absent, NSAIDs are used in short courses to relieve exacerbations against the background of weather factors or heavy loads.

The use of drugs such as nimesulide( nimes, nimulide), ibuprofen( nurofen), diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, etc.


Although the symptoms of grade 1 gonarthrosis are poorly expressed, the disease is very serious and requires comprehensive treatment. Careful attitude to your health and care of joints will prevent heavy damage to the joints, prolong their full functioning and help maintain physical activity.

Author: Svetlana Agrimeeva


Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree: characteristic signs of the disease

Under gonarthrosis, which is also called arthrosis of the knee joint, it means the damage to the cartilage and bony growths appearing along the edge of the joint, as well as xytotic irritation of the joint tissue.

Knee joint gonarthrosis is one of the degenerative-dystrophic joint diseases. This disease has 3 degrees of severity, the most common is gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree, because only at this stage people begin to pay attention to this disease and practice treatment, practically ignoring the first degree.

It should be noted that arthrosis in general is a scourge of modern society, this disease was formerly characteristic only of middle-aged and elderly people. Now, arthrosis is not just young, they just do not have age limits, appearing even among young people as a result of injuries.

The risk group for this disease is overweight people, professional athletes and people with varicose veins of the legs experiencing serious physical exertion.

Causes of development of

The main cause of disease occurrence is mechanical factor. There is microtraumatization of articular cartilage, as a result of which begins its degeneration. As a consequence, the load on some parts of the joint surface increases, and further - its destruction. It was also found that with this disease there are changes in metabolism in cartilage tissue. The essence of these changes is a decrease in the saturation of chondroitin sulfate, which is a specific component of cartilage and nowhere else in the body is found.

In general, you can identify such causes of the disease:

  • intra-systemic fractures of the bones that form the knee joint;
  • arthrosis, which was caused by Paget's disease;
  • malignant and benign bone tumors;
  • rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

Degrees of severity of the disease

With the development of gonarthrosis passes several stages of the disease( degrees of severity):

Gonarthrosis 1 degree is the initial stage of the disease, which is often ignored by patients. She periodically has pain( usually after exercise), sometimes the knee swells up, the deformity of the joint is insignificant and invisible.

Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the second degree is a logical continuation and development of the disease. At this stage, the symptoms intensify, the intensity and duration of pain in the joint increases, and a crunch in the joint and bending difficulties may also appear. Deformation takes a pronounced character.

Gonarthrosis of the third degree is the most severe stage of the disease. It is characterized by pains that occur not only during movement, but also in those moments when the joint is in a state of rest, there is a reaction to changing weather conditions. The gait is greatly disturbed, the mobility of the joint is limited.

Also distinguish primary gonarthrosis( arising initially) and secondary gonarthrosis( occurs against the background of other diseases of the knee joint).

Characteristic signs of gonarthrosis

It is very important to notice the onset of the disease in time. As we have already said, people usually skip the signs of the disease and notice it only when it says "pripeklo."Treatment in this case will be more prolonged and difficult.

In general, the main symptoms of the disease are pain and limitation of mobility in the joint, as well as gait disturbance. Gonarthrosis develops gradually and time passes between the first and second severity severely.

A very characteristic sign of gonarthrosis, which distinguishes this disease from other diseases of the knee joint, is that the pain appears after a state of rest, and then gradually subsides( when a person "diverges").But by the end of the day the pain returns - this is due to the increased load on the affected joint.

Another characteristic feature of this disease is the appearance of osteophytes( marginal bone growths).Soft cartilage tissues constantly rub against osteophytes, which leads to inflammation of the joint membrane - synovitis, which manifests itself with redness, swelling and an increase in local temperature. Also, when you move or feel the joint, you can feel a crunch.


Diagnosis of the disease consists in interviewing the patient's complaints, checking the volume of movement in the joint and examining the joint itself. Naturally, according to such information, only preliminary conclusions are made, and the main ones are instrumental methods of diagnostics. In the case of gonarthrosis, this is primarily the radiography of the joints. Depending on the overall picture of the disease, the stage of the disease is determined. Also recently, in the diagnosis of gonarthrosis, arthroscopy and ultrasound are often used.

Is it possible to treat gonarthrosis at home?

Now the complex treatment of arthrosis is applied, in other words - the treatment is not limited to just one method. In this case, the treatment of gonarthrosis does not differ from the treatment of other osteoarthrosis of other location. With this disease, it is recommended to limit the load on the joint. But we must not forget that the practice of physiotherapy in this disease is mandatory, since movements in the joint make it possible to preserve its mobility, to provide an improvement in the nutrition of the joint elements. The complex of exercises is formed by the physician of exercise therapy or a methodologist in therapeutic physical culture. The main condition for choosing exercises is the fact, you can not load the knee, but you need to ensure its maximum mobility. That's why most exercises are done sitting or lying down. Also swimming and swimming in the pool will be very useful - water allows you to remove the load from the joint.

Almost always doctors recommend performing self-massage of the leg and thigh muscles, as well as the area of ​​the knee joint. This improves the blood supply of the joint, allows you to maintain your leg muscles in good condition.

In addition, anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are prescribed to relieve the pain syndrome. You can also use various analgesic and irritating ointments. Venotonics, vasos-regulating drugs will also be useful - they will improve the blood supply of the joint. And since the main problem is the state of cartilage, chondroprotectors are appointed for a long time, which are intended to improve his condition.

It often happens that people try to use folk remedies for gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree. Such treatment, in principle, is permissible, but only with the permission and approval of the attending physician, since much of what is printed in newspapers under the guise of "folk remedies" is in fact just a profanation.

Surgical treatment of

Often, conservative methods of therapy are useless or simply do not bring the desired result with a neglected form of the disease.

In such cases, a small surgical intervention( with relative preservation of the motor function of the joint) is possible - arthroscopy. In this case, the joint is washed, the damaged parts of the menisci and cartilage are removed, osteophytes are removed. This operation at low traumatism makes it possible to restore or improve the function of the joint for 2-3 years.

With more serious conditions, more serious operations can be assigned. In the overwhelming majority of cases, they give very good results and make it possible to keep the mobility of the joint for a fairly long time.

But the most common and effective method of advanced form of gonarthrosis, which allows a person to fully return to active life, is the endoprosthetics of the knee joint.


Knee joint gonarthrosis: symptoms and medical gymnastics

All information on this site is for informational purposes only and should not be accepted by you as an instruction for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. Remember that you have one health, therefore, only qualified specialists - doctors should take care of it!

This disease most often causes discomfort in the knee joint of people who have crossed the 40-year threshold. And although many suggest that the cause of pain in the legs when walking is the deposition of salts, in fact, it can be deforming arthrosis. With this disease, thinning of the cartilaginous tissue of the knee joint occurs at the expense of deterioration of its blood supply, which leads to complete destruction of cartilage and denudation of bones. As a result of rubbing the bare bones against each other, during the movement of the legs, a person suffering from gonarthrosis experiences terrible pain. Over time, if the disease is not treated, it leads to deformation of the knee joint and curvature of the entire limb.

Factors causing the development of the disease

Physicians call several reasons, which mainly cause the onset of gonarthrosis of the knee:

  • the presence of excess weight in humans;
  • is a sedentary lifestyle;
  • various injuries of the knee joint, transferred earlier( as a result of this, post-traumatic gonarthrosis of the knee joint may develop);
  • is the age of a person who has exchanged the fifth decade in his life;
  • engaging in activities that involve a long standing on their feet;
  • excessive load on the legs, for example, when playing sports;
  • presence in a person of a certain type of diseases, for example, diabetes, gout and others.

In this case, the primary and secondary types of the disease are distinguished. So, a secondary disease is considered to have developed as a result of injuries of the knee joint or due to some disease. However, only the primary gonarthrosis of the knee joint can be bilateral.

Symptoms of the disease

Symptoms of this disease may differ from each other, depending on the stage of development of gonarthrosis of the knee joint.

1 degree:

  • the affected joint makes itself felt by the feeling of tightness in the knee region;
  • a person begins to experience difficulties during walking after waking up or a long walk, as well as after physical work and so on;
  • pain fades if you walk a little, and also at rest;
  • no noticeable violations in the joint work is not seen.

2 degree:

  • the pains become intense and last a long time;
  • when you move in the joint, you hear a crunchy sound;
  • weak mobility of the knee, especially in the morning;
  • the knee starts to bend badly - to unbend( it may stop bending at all);
  • appears swelling of the knee;
  • shows the first visible deformities of the foot;
  • there are painful sensations in the calf muscles in the evening and at night.

3 degree:

  • constant pain sensations whether you are on the move or at rest;
  • the knee starts to hurt simultaneously with deterioration of weather conditions;
  • limb deformities continue so intensively that they become visible to the eye;
  • amplitude of mobility of the knee joint is sharply reduced;
  • appearance of lameness during walking.

4 degree: in principle - very neglected state of the third degree of the disease, characterized by a strong deformation of the surfaces of the joint bones, as a result of which the gap between them is almost absent. This causes the patient to continuously intense pain.

If you show, at least some, signs of this disease, you need to see a doctor who will diagnose and tell you how to treat it.

Diagnosis and treatment of

The specialist will listen to your complaints, examine the knee and send to:


Knee joint gangarthrosis

Knee joint gonarthrosis is diagnosed annually in many patients who complain of knee pain and impaired limb mobility. In this disease, partial deposition of salts can be observed, that is calcification, which is formed in the soft tissues of the knee( the attachment of tendons and the ligamentous apparatus).In this connection, the people call the disease "deposition of salts".But such a phenomenon as calcification is not of clinical significance, since it is limited and associates development of gonarthrosis with salt deposition incorrectly.

Gonarthrosis is primarily a degenerative-dystrophic process occurring in the hyaline cartilage. The cause of pathological changes is a disorder of blood circulation in small vessels of bone tissue. It is against these violations that irreversible processes occur in the cartilage cover of the joints.

At the first stages, the disease progresses "at the cellular level," but with its development, pronounced changes are observed in the hyaline cartilage, which becomes turbid, delaminated and loses its elasticity. As a result of such unfavorable phenomena, cracks appear on the cartilage, and if you do not take urgent measures to restore it, the bone may be completely bare, remaining uncoated. The reaction of the body to this situation will be as follows: the individual zones of the bone( sclerosis) will become compacted, it will begin to expand around the periphery( the formation of spines-processes), as a result of which the axial curvature of the leg and its deformation will occur. Here so insignificant infringements in functioning of a joint gradually lead to deforming arthrosis, that is to widely known gonarthrosis.

Types of pathology

Knee joint gonarthrosis distinguishes primary and secondary, depending on the factors that provoked it.

  1. Primary deforming arthrosis may appear due to age-related changes, the presence of overweight, obesity. This ailment is present in a large percentage of older women who are overweight. It also occurs in obese men whose joints also do not cope with constant loads. Cartilage becomes thinner, bone begins to rub against the tissue and inflammation occurs. All this contributes to the natural and gradual development of gonarthrosis.
  2. Secondary deforming arthrosis occurs due to knee injury. This can be a trauma, a knee injury, a rupture or tearing of ligaments. Any intra-articular lesion, hemarthrosis and other factors can trigger a pathological process. The reasons for the emergence of secondary gonarthrosis include the presence of arthritis of various etiologies, as well as chondromatosis. If the initial problem is eliminated in a timely manner, then the probability of serious complications can be excluded.

Symptoms of

In the first stages, gonarthrosis manifests itself in light stiffness, tautness under the knee and minor pain sensations that become noticeable after prolonged walking and exposure to stress. Particularly feel the difficulty of movement in the morning. After a long pastime in a sitting position, walking is also difficult.

With the development of gonarthrosis, the limitation in mobility increases, the pains acquire a permanent character and intensify. Especially acute pain syndrome manifests itself on the inner part of the knee. At movements the majority of patients notice a joint crunch caused by friction of a bone about a fabric.

When the pathology is started, the knee practically stops bending and unbending, and attempts to straighten the entire leg are accompanied by unbearable pain. If there is no treatment at this stage, or it is not performed adequately, the result of complications will be lameness. In the future, a person can no longer walk without help or a crutch.

Relief occurs when the patient takes a recumbent position, but often people with gonarthrosis pain are tormented during rest and sleep.


A primary examination of the patient's knee may not reveal the entire clinical picture of the ailment. In cases where the disease is gaining momentum and progressing, the specialist discovers it by such signs:

  • knee deformation;
  • presence of contracture( joint does not bend);
  • curvature of the shank axis in the inner side;
  • presence of crunching and crackling during joint movements.

In situations where the contour of the knee is smoothed and a bulge is formed over the knee, the doctor diagnoses gonarthrosis with developing synovitis. That is, in the articular bag against the background of an aseptic inflammatory process accumulates effusion. This condition indicates the course of such a disease as arthrosis-arthritis. Palpation helps to identify the focus of inflammation. Diagnosis can also be performed without an X-ray, which makes it possible to accurately diagnose, identify all possible violations in the joint and determine the degree of arthrosis changes in the joint. During treatment, the X-ray is carried out repeatedly. This is necessary to monitor the dynamics of the process and to exclude the formation of tumors and other pathologies that damage the bones.

Treatment of

Gonarthrosis of the knee joint is difficult to cure and in most cases conservative methods are not enough. Rest, bed rest and unloading of the injured knee contribute to recovery only with uncomplicated pathology. Specialists recommend that therapy be carried out in a stationary mode, then it is possible to use a cuff pull for the tibia in the treatment. Such a measure allows to fully relieve the load from the joint and provide it with unloading.

The therapeutic complex also includes therapeutic physical training. Exercises are necessary to improve blood circulation in the limb, preventing the development of contractures, maintaining muscle tone. It is also attributed to warming compresses and warm baths. In addition to all the doctor appoints physiotherapy procedures, magnetotherapy, laser therapy, massage.

When the disease is launched, surgery is applied, which gives a good result and permanently eliminates the problem.


  • Rational allocation of time for work and rest.
  • Exercise.
  • Refer to the doctor for any joint damage.


Knee joint arthritis 1, 2, 3 degrees: symptoms and features

  • Knee joint gynarthrosis of 3rd degree

A degenerative-dystrophic disease characterized by defeat and alteration of cartilage tissue, a decrease in its function, is called knee joint gonarthrosis. This insidious disease is associated with the slow destruction of connective tissue. Developing, gonarthrosis can affect all the elements of the joint: directly cartilage, ligaments, bone, articular membrane and periarticular muscles.

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Considering the onset of the development of knee disease can be a time when, under the influence of an unfavorable internal or external factor, there is a disturbance in the supply of cartilage. There is a shortage of nutrients with a decrease in the capacity of the vessels as a result of their spasm or blockage. This process can be combined with a malnutrition of the inner layer of the joint bag.

Changes in important biological processes lead to degeneration and death of cellular cartilage elements. The elasticity of the connective tissue decreases, defects appear in it. The so-called "dry joint" is formed, the deadly particles of which are capable of causing inflammation. Accompany this process will be ingress into the cartilage of substances capable of splitting and changing the composition of tissues.

Degeneration and destruction of the joint structure will constantly provoke further development of gonarthrosis. As a result, an important cushioning body will become incapable of performing its functions. On the surfaces of the cartilage, the growth of the growths will increase. The adjacent bone will change its shape, and the ligaments become shorter. There will be contracture - restriction of mobility. In the advanced stage, muscles are atrophied.

When reaching 60 - 70 years of age, such a disease as deforming gonarthrosis of the knee joint is diagnosed in almost 70% of people. But according to scientists, in recent years, the ailment has become noticeably "younger".

Symptoms of knee joint ganglion

At the initial stage of the disease, minor knee pain is felt, especially after a load. Patients, as a rule, pay little attention to this discomfort, since after rest everything passes. Sometimes the pain is felt in the thigh. Strengthen and acquire a permanent character discomfort will be in damp and wet weather. With inflammation, the joint of the knee increases in volume and swells.

As a typical representative of such a disease as arthrosis - knee joint gonarthrosis has the symptoms typical of it:

  • edema of the near-joint zone;
  • pain in connective tissue during movements;
  • sensation of instability in the cartilage;
  • articular changes( lead to the formation of O-shaped and X-shaped legs).

Many patients are forced to "pacing" the affected leg in the morning or after sitting on a chair for a long time. At the same time, they feel pain, a crunch in the knee joint and limited flexion-extensor movements. Gradually develops lameness, the patient loses the ability to move independently. When the disease passes into the final stage, a person can simply lay in a layer.

There is one feature that characterizes gonarthrosis of the knee joint - the symptoms of the disease are expressed regardless of the degree of progression of the process. Only with a steady increase in the signs of the disease, they will correspond to a certain stage.

Types of gonarthrosis

In traumatology and orthopedics, two types of knee joint gonarthrosis are distinguished, taking into account the pathogenesis of the disease: primary( idiopathic) and secondary. The first type of disease occurs usually for no apparent reason and in most cases is bilateral. Secondary gonarthrosis is formed already on the existing platform of pathological changes or knee injuries. It can occur at any age, often on the one hand.

Primary gonarthrosis

Approximately 40% of cases are diagnosed as primary gonarthrosis of the knee joints. The causes of this type of illness are metabolic disorders and disorders of the endocrine system. It is believed that any process that leads to damage to the cartilage can become a provoking factor in the development of the disease. Most of the gonarthrosis is bilateral, that is, it affects both knees.

Usually, primary gonarthrosis is diagnosed in the elderly. A variety of circulatory disorders in the limbs, such as varicose veins or atherosclerosis, also contribute to the occurrence of knee arthrosis. Favorable conditions for the disease creates a sedentary lifestyle . A sharp increase in the physical load on joints( prolonged running, jumping) also often leads to cartilage damage.

Two-sided gonarthrosis of the knee joint usually develops in such people:

  • patients with diabetes mellitus;
  • patients with thyroid disease;
  • people with excess weight;
  • women in the menopause and after it, due to the decrease in the amount of estrogens.

Secondary gonarthrosis

Secondary gonarthrosis is observed on one of the knee joints. And the left side lesion is formed when the right leg is injured, and vice versa. This occurs at a time when the weight of the body is unconsciously transferred to one side, exposing the intraarticular tissue heavily to the load. When research is usually found narrowing the gap, cartilage damage, deposition of salts, sharpening the edges of the condyles of the bones.

Often after injuries, secondary gonarthrosis of the knee joint develops - the reason for this is not enough correct treatment of fractures and permanent microtraumas of cartilage:

  • shock impacts on the knee joint during running, water and mountain skiing, snowboarding, when jumping, playing football, basketball;
  • trauma of the meniscus( tears, pinch, tears) as a result of unsuccessful movement;
  • prolonged static load on cartilage of the knee, for example, with prolonged sitting squatting.

Secondary gonarthrosis usually develops on the background of an inflammatory process of autoimmune or infectious nature. People who have too loose or weak ligaments from birth are at risk. This is due to the development of tissue dysplasia and uneven distribution of the load on the cartilage. Often gonarthrosis of the knee develops due to a trauma of the rounded bone forming part of the cartilage.

Degrees of gonarthrosis of knee joint

In medicine, it is accepted to distinguish 3 degrees of gonarthrosis - from the moment of minor changes, to catastrophic cartilage damage and its disappearance. It is established that at some stages of the disease people do not feel pain and discomfort when moving. Therefore, it is rather difficult to independently determine the gonarthrosis of the knee joint - that such things are not known to everyone. Stiffness helps to recognize the ailment.

Knee joint gonarthrosis 1 degree

Even today, it is very difficult for physicians to detect 1 degree of gonarthrosis. It is impossible to detect the changes that have begun in the tissue of cartilage even with X-ray examinations. Diagnosis of the disease relies primarily on an individual description of the patient's condition. For example, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree can be manifested by morning stiffness or slight pain in the cartilage.

Many note the disappearance of unpleasant sensations when overcoming a short distance and their renewal after a long walk. However, only a few know that with such symptoms it is necessary to go straight to the doctor immediately. Neglecting the first signs is risky. At this time, there may already be a slight narrowing of the joint gap, a crunch and tingling. Then the disease will only develop.

At the first degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, the cartilage does not deform, which is why people usually do not feel pain. In this period, the disease can be overcome not only with the help of medicines. Help preventive gentle charging, full and balanced nutrition.

Knee joint gonarthrosis of 2nd degree

In gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, the narrowing of the gap and the growth of osteophytes, osteophytes, over the surface of the joint becomes evident. Visually, one can observe a slight inflammation in the knee area, feel a pain syndrome while walking. X-ray method diagnoses reliably. The emergence of degenerative gonarthrosis of 2 degrees leads to a disruption of the nutritional process of the cartilaginous tissue.

The following factors can lead to the development of second degree gonarthrosis:

  • heavy work;
  • vascular disease;
  • problems with the absorption of nutrients by the body.

Because of the lack of ability to fully bend the leg, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree leads to curvature of the spine. The danger of this pathological process lies in the gradual formation of changes, while treatment removes inflammation and pain syndrome. The morphological changes that have occurred in the joint remain. Therefore, therapy should be started as soon as possible.

Knee joint gynarthrosis of 3 degree

Significant, sometimes irreversible changes in the joint occur at the third degree of knee gonarthrosis. On the X-ray, a rough deformation of the cartilage structure is seen. Patients constantly feel cutting pain. They do not stop day nor night, nor after loads, nor at rest. At this stage, people are practically immobilized, joints cease to bend, lameness develops.

Treatment of such patients is carried out in a complex manner. To defeat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree, drug therapy is used in combination with various physiotherapy procedures, such as electrophoresis, laser therapy, magnetotherapy, etc. In severe third degree gonarthrosis of the knee, when intraarticular injections do not help, surgical intervention is also used.


A disease affecting every seventh inhabitant of the planet is a gonarthrosis. It is a non-inflammatory, degenerative-degenerative process. It flows in a cartilaginous tissue covering the head of the bones that form the knee joint. Develop the disease can be unnoticed for several decades, and can arise in just a few months. Sometimes the ailment leads to disability.

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Gonarthrosis often occurs in parallel with other diseases of the knee joint. Because of the imposition of signs of one ailment on another, it can be extremely difficult for doctors to clearly distinguish the symptoms of gonarthrosis.

Signs and stages of gonarthrosis

A typical symptom of gonarthrosis is a feeling of constriction and stiffness in the knee joint. The onset of pain after prolonged walking, prolonged sitting, standing or lying. To become lighter, you usually have to "poke" your leg. With the development of the disease, discomfort becomes more stubborn and permanent. Limited mobility of the joint develops.

Often, patients who are diagnosed with gonarthrosis feel a crunch at the time of motion by the knee. When the disease progresses, lameness develops.

In the most difficult clinical cases, the patient becomes unable to move without the help of unauthorized persons, some supports or crutches. Often in the prone position discomfort disappears, but b Gonarthrosis: signs, forms, diagnosis, what is it?

Home Diseases Osteoarthritis Gonarthrosis: signs and types of the disease

Gonarthrosis: signs, forms, diagnosis, what is it

  • Prevention of gonarthrosis

Disease affectingevery seventh inhabitant of the planet is a gonarthrosis. It is a non-inflammatory, degenerative-degenerative process. It flows in a cartilaginous tissue covering the head of the bones that form the knee joint. Develop the disease can be unnoticed for several decades, and can arise in just a few months. Sometimes the ailment leads to disability.

IMPORTANT TO KNOW!Doctors are dumbfounded! The pain in the joints is FOREVER!Just before bedtime. .. Read on - & gt;

Gonarthrosis often occurs in parallel with other diseases of the knee joint. Because of the imposition of signs of one ailment on another, it can be extremely difficult for doctors to clearly distinguish the symptoms of gonarthrosis.

Signs and stages of gonarthrosis

A typical symptom of gonarthrosis is a feeling of constriction and stiffness in the knee joint. The onset of pain after prolonged walking, prolonged sitting, standing or lying. To become lighter, you usually have to "poke" your leg. With the development of the disease, discomfort becomes more stubborn and permanent. Limited mobility of the joint develops.

Often, patients who are diagnosed with granitis, feel a crunch at the time of motion of the knee. When the disease progresses, lameness develops.

In the most difficult clinical cases, the patient becomes unable to move without the help of unauthorized persons, some supports or crutches. Often when lying down, discomfort disappears, but there are times when pain reappears at night.

It's good to understand what it is - gonarthrosis is possible if you consider the stages of the disease:

  • gonarthrosis 1 degree: no external deformation of the knee, slight swelling of the joint, periodically showing severe pain;
  • gonarthrosis of 2 degrees: intense unpleasant sensations even after minimal load, pronounced "joint crunch", problems with full knee flexion;
  • gonarthrosis of 3 degrees: discomfort is experienced constantly, because of this - sleep disturbance, the body's response to weather change;the mobility of the joint is severely limited or absent completely, the gait changes, deformity of the legs is observed - they can have an X or O-shape.

Kinds of gonarthrosis on the side of the localization of

Given that the knee of which leg( right, left or both) will be diagnosed with an ailment, in medicine, a right-sided, left-sided and bilateral gonarthrosis is distinguished. Regardless of the location of the site: in one or both laps, the severity of the symptoms will depend on the severity of the course of the disease. The intensity of therapy will also be determined by the degree of neglect.

Two-way gonarthrosis

In medical practice, situations are very common where patients are diagnosed with one of the complex forms of arthrosis of the knee joint - gonarthrosis bilateral. Moreover, the cases of the development of the disease at once on two legs are much greater than the cases of the appearance of the disease on the one hand. In either case, gonarthrosis is primary - there is no apparent cause, and secondary - a provoked injury or disease.

Primary gonarthrosis

Usually, the primary form begins to form in childhood or young age. To serve as an excuse may be the formation of articular surfaces or ligamentous apparatus.

Due to the fact that the joint during walking constantly brings out loads that are not commensurable with its capabilities, it begins to deform. In adults, the disease can occur in the ordinary life cycle.

Usually primary bilateral bilateral gonarthrosis diagnoses to the elderly. Great risk of gonarthrosis in those who have an increased body weight. In this case, the malaise, small bone vessels are first affected by pathological changes. Because of this, the supply of essential nutrients to the synovial fluid that feeds the knee cartilage is impaired. Therefore, he begins to "feel hungry."

Then the turbidity begins to form in the joint, thinning and stratification of the tissue takes place. In some areas, the cartilage can disappear completely, exposing the surface of the bones. In response to such changes, the bones are flattened and expand into sides. Deformations are exposed to other elements of the knee - muscles, ligaments, capsule. Gradually the joint loses the ability to perform its functions and "fades."

Secondary gonarthrosis

The development of secondary gonarthrosis by the trigger mechanism in most cases becomes a systematic traumatization of cartilage.

Secondary posttraumatic gonarthrosis occurs against the background of such injuries as ligament ruptures, fractures, dislocations, severe knee injuries. This form of the disease develops in the same way as the primary gonarthrosis. Therefore, it needs timely treatment to the doctor and adequate treatment.

The development of the secondary form of gonarthrosis can result in:

  • operations to remove the meniscus - they disrupt the integrity of the knee structure and lead to its rapid wear;
  • disproportionately high burden on the legs, injuries;
  • large body weight - exerts excessive pressure on joints and cartilage of the knee;
  • arthritis - inflammation of the joints: a prolonged course of the disease leads to the formation of fluid in the joint cavity, which in time can be complicated by arthrosis;
  • surgery on the knee;
  • radical metabolic disorders, due to which the deposition of salts in the cavities of joint tissues occurs;
  • other factors and diseases, which for a long time were accompanied by spasm of the muscles of the legs or blood vessels.

Bilateral deforming gonarthrosis

One of the diseases, whose tactics of treatment at the modern level of orthopedics development is far from unambiguous, is the deforming gonarthrosis. According to the generally accepted opinion in medicine, there is only one factor in the progression of degenerative changes. It is represented by a violation of the limb axis, which subsequently leads to a significant overload of the knee joint articular tissue.

The treatment of deforming gonarthrosis should be considered separately, since it does not fit into the usual treatment regimen. This is due to the need for preventive surgical interventions. Their goal is to normalize biochemical relationships in the knee joint, which is necessary both to prevent the development of the disease and for treatment. This correction gives good results.

With the advent of arthroscopy, surgeons quickly realized the value of this method of treatment with deforming gonarthrosis: minimally invasive and low-traumatic. Already at the beginning of the operation, you can determine the further treatment tactics. If there is no cartilage in the inner and outer parts of the joint, total endoprosthetics is used. In the presence of one of the cartilage departments, corrective osteotomy may be indicated.

Right-sided gonarthrosis: symptoms and treatment

The main symptom of the disease is pain in the right knee. At the onset of gonarthrosis, a feeling of stiffness in the joint disturbs only in the morning. In the future, unpleasant feelings can manifest themselves after a long walk or stay on their feet. If you do not start treatment on time, in the late period of gonarthrosis the pain will be constantly disturbed. A person can not lead a habitual way of life for him.

There will be a characteristic crunch in the knee joint, the severity of which will depend on the progression of the disease. Obvious will be the deformation of the right knee joint, because of what the movements in the joint will gradually be limited.this is the most unfavorable manifestation of such a disease as the right-sided gonarthrosis.

For successful treatment, it is necessary to relieve the load from the knee with the help of such measures:

  • getting rid of excess weight;
  • performing special exercises to strengthen the muscles of the right leg;
  • limits the time spent on legs and walking.

Left-sided gonarthrosis: symptoms and treatment

The leading sign of left knee joint damage is pain. When gonarthrosis, they are initially palpable in the morning and go through a certain time.

In the late stages of the progression of the disease, the soreness of the left knee becomes palpable after a long hike or standing on the legs. The insidious symptom of gonarthrosis is the restriction of joint mobility and deformity of the knee.

At first the patient notices that he can not completely bend his left leg in the knee. With the passage of a long time, when the left-sided gonarthrosis progresses, the volume of movements in the knee decreases. The patient becomes increasingly difficult to walk, he can even become disabled. With severe left-sided gonarthrosis, unpleasant sensations in the knee are permanent. A crunch becomes audible.

Like the right-sided, the development of left-sided gonarthrosis is inherent in the "morning stiffness" of the joint - the difficulty of knee movements that occurs in the morning. Half an hour later, the volume of movements usually returns to normal.

Prevention of gonarthrosis

Medication therapy for gonarthrosis, despite its popularity and effectiveness, has a modest role. To solve a problem with an ailment prevention first of all helps. To prevent deforming gonarthrosis, a reasonable combination of exercise and rest, exercise in physical education, and timely access to a doctor will help. The active maintenance of the vascular and muscular system in tone will also help.

There are important rules for prevention. They allow, without waiting for the moment when signs of gonarthrosis begin to manifest, to improve the condition of knee ligaments:

  • constantly wear comfortable shoes;
  • adhere to the right and balanced diet;
  • exercise regularly;
  • avoid excessive loads on the knee joint;
  • take( preferably prescribed by a doctor) vitamin complexes.

To people who have only developed gonarthrosis, careful treatment of the health of knee joints is recommended. To prevent the progression of the disease, you need to avoid hypothermia of the legs. It will be necessary to perform every day for a few minutes all the "bicycle" exercise known since childhood. A complex of simple methods of prevention will help to reliably protect the body from the appearance of gonarthrosis.


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