Causes of flat feet in children

Flattening in children: its prevention and treatment

At first glance, it may seem that the child has the same foot as an adult, only in miniature. But if you look closely, you will quickly see that this is not the case. The foot of any newborn baby is flat, but this does not mean that the child has a flat foot. The fact is that during the growing up of the foot passes through a series of metamorphoses, eventually becoming a full-fledged functional organ of the human skeleton. But even if the disease does appear, it is encouraging that in the case of the diagnosis of "flat feet", the children will be treated fairly effectively and almost always leads to complete recovery.

It should be borne in mind that in any child from the moment of birth, the arches of the feet are always filled with a fatty layer, which begins to decay only when the child begins to walk. That is why the footprint of the child is flat. Approximately to three years, the contours of the child's foot acquire the outlines of the foot of an adult person, muscles, ligaments and bones are strengthened, so that the baby can stay on his feet for a long time. At the same time, the older the child becomes, the more noticeable the arch of the foot.

Flat feet appear in cases where the formation of the foot for some reason occurs with disturbances. But even if a person did not suffer from this illness as a child, this does not give him any guarantees that in the future flat feet will not appear.

How to identify flat feet?

Usually flat feet are diagnosed by a doctor using planography. In this study, they are spread with a special solution of the foot of the patient, after which he must stand on blank paper sheets. Thus, a clear footprint is formed, along which it is possible to detect the presence of flat feet. But this method works best with adults, in the case of children, mistakes are often made because of the age characteristics of the foot. The footprint will be more like flat feet, the younger the child. That is why it is better to undergo a direct examination with an orthopedic doctor, in this case there is a high probability of an exact diagnosis of flat feet in preschool children.

Do not let the flat-footed "on its own"

Parents should pay special attention to such symptoms:

  • child when walking a club( turns the socks stop outside).This is one of the signs of a disease such as valgus flatfoot in children. Most often, such a symptom is manifested as a result of the muscles of the legs are too weak, so the child is unable to maintain the normal position of the foot. The normal position of the foot in this case is one in which the feet are parallel;
  • the child attacks the inside of the foot when walking. The gait is quite peculiar, it is very noticeable.

If one of these symptoms is detected, you should immediately consult a doctor and undergo a complete examination.

Prevention of

Disease Sometimes a congenital form of flat feet occurs, but these are rare, almost exceptional cases. Of all cases of flatfoot disease in childhood, these are not more than 3%.

To determine the causes of the appearance of this disease and to understand what exactly can act as the best prevention of flat feet in children, scientists conducted a number of studies. One of them showed that the flat feet are almost three times more likely to suffer from those children who constantly wear shoes. Children who spend most of their time barefoot are less likely to be affected. As a result, it was concluded that the baby's foot better developed in natural conditions.

Another study made it possible to reveal that a considerable influence on the correctness of the formation of the foot is exerted by the amount of the load applied to it. With a low motor activity, the risk of flat feet appears to be much higher. It is worth noting that this is a very urgent problem for our time, since now most children prefer to spend time in front of a computer or television, while almost completely ignoring walks and active games. Therefore, lately, we have to face a flat foot, which is accompanied by a violation of posture.

Also the development of flat feet can provoke the shoes that your child wears. It should be remembered that children's shoes should be with a hard back, soft instep and a small heel( about half a centimeter).The supinator in this case is intended to compensate for the absence of unevenness or pebbles under the feet. Also, do not give the child to wear someone else's or old shoes - in this case, the load on the foot will be incorrectly distributed.

An important factor for the normal formation of a foot in a child is a full and healthy diet. It is very important to provide the child with enough vitamins and correct phosphoric-calcium metabolism.

A growing pediatric foot requires regular training, whose role is perfectly performed by walking barefoot. It is very useful for the child to even walk on uneven surfaces at least occasionally - sand, stones, grass, etc. In this case, the child can remain in his toes, but the shoes must be removed. At home, by the way, you can recreate such surfaces. For example, as pebbles peas are perfect. These simple measures are quite effective prevention of flat feet in the child.

As you have already understood, the main cause of the appearance of the disease is most often a lack of exercise or an incorrect load on the foot. Children's bones grow, they are very susceptible to external influences, therefore it is necessary to take preventive measures to avoid this disease.

What kind of treatment is prescribed for flat feet?

Children often have longitudinal flat feet, which is successfully treated without surgery. In some cases, flat feet are congenital, then it must be treated from the first days of life. To treat the disease of this form, special langets and plaster bandages are usually used.

It is worth noting that you absolutely can not let the disease drift, when you have the first symptoms you need to see a doctor. Otherwise, you risk aggravating the situation, and the child will have instead of longitudinal combined flat feet, which combines longitudinal and transverse flat feet in children. This form of the disease is treated much more difficultly.

In general, because the main causes of the onset of the disease in a child are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as unstable bones, a treatment of a "toning" nature is prescribed. The main task of such treatment is to strengthen the muscles and ligaments, then they themselves will lead the foot into a normal state.

Therapy of this type includes curative gymnastics and massage.

Physical exercise( FL) with flat feet in children is the basis of treatment, because they can bring the muscles and ligaments of the foot into the right state.

Massage with flat feet in children is also an effective method of treatment, which improves blood circulation and improves muscle tone.

Also in the treatment of flat feet in children often use special orthopedic insoles and orthopedic shoes. This method of treatment allows you to adjust the load on the foot. It is also very useful to walk on uneven surfaces, as discussed above.

For the success of treatment, it is extremely important to diagnose the disease as early as possible and begin treatment, so do not delay the visit to the doctor when the first suspicions appear.

Causes of flatfoot in children

Quite often parents notice a flat foot in their child. Basically, the reason for concern is the comparison of the foot with the foot of an adult. Often the baby begins to tire quickly when walking, suffers from "pain in the legs."There are also complaints about back pain.

In children, this disease is congenital, which is caused by insufficiency of connective tissue. However, this is a significant rarity. More often flat feet are the result of incorrect actions.


To ensure that the child's growing foot is properly formed, the footwear must necessarily have a small heel, a hard back that fixes the heel, and an insole with a small elastic thickening on the inside of the foot.

For example, most modern sneakers are so springy when running and walking, which completely free the stop from this function, and it, like any muscle construction, begins to be lazy.

Power supply

Also, nutrition is important for the correct formation of the foot in a child. In its composition, the connective tissue is similar in part to the bone tissue and may suffer from inappropriate mineral metabolism and rickets. It should be in the daily diet to maintain a sufficient number of foods rich in calcium and phosphorus. Also, do not forget about the required amount of vitamin D and sunbathing in the winter.


If the child has a flatfoot, then you should know that the formation of elastic arches requires training and development. For this purpose, the "barefoot life" is best.

The child needs to walk on bunches of grass, earth, sand, stones - over anything that can make the weight of the body move from the heel to the toe, from one surface to the other, the legs will tense.

Such an exercise can be successfully carried out with the help of small balls, cubes, small small toys, beans, peas, beans, in general, you can use various irregularities in the floor. In this case, the child should not wear shoes, thick socks also fit.

When rest, massage and other methods do not help to eliminate the pain, you can resort to drug therapy. Systemic analgesics: aspirin, flugalin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol, etc. Topical application: indomethacin ointment, Dolgit cream, voltarenic gel, etc. Special treatment procedures : Novocain electrophoresis, hydrophoretic with hydrocortisone,paraffin-ozocerite applications, etc.

Release from the army of conscripts with flat feet( according to RF norms).

Based on the Regulation on Military Medical Examination No. 123 dated 25.02.2003, military service and admission to military schools and schools does not prevent people with the following disabilities:
  • I-II longitudinal flat-foot
  • Transverse flatfootI degree, in the absence of arthrosis in the joints of the foot( middle section), exostoses( bone-cartilaginous sprouting in the form of a spine) and contractures( restriction of joint mobility).
For the liberation from the army with a flatfoot, the following conditions must be met:
  • Longitudinal or transverse flatfoot II degree c, presence of severe pain, deforming arthrosis of the II stage of the joints of the middle part of the foot, contracture of the fingers;
  • Longitudinal flatfoot of III degree, transverse flat feet of III-IV degree
Conscripts with such types of violations fall into the category - limited to go( "B"), that is, they will be called only in wartime. They get a military ticket on their hands, and they go to the reserve.

Prevention of flatfoot

  • The formation of the right gait, not to breed socks when walking - this overloads the inner edge of the foot and its ligaments.
  • With a predisposition to flatfoot to choose the right place of work( work not associated with long loads on the legs).
  • Properly selected shoes, on a thick and soft sole, heel not more than 4 cm.
  • Wearing insoles for long loads.
  • In your free time, give rest to your legs, at least 30 seconds, 3-4 times a day to stand on the outside of the feet.
  • After work it is recommended to take warm baths for feet, with their subsequent massage.
  • Walking barefoot on an uneven surface, over pebbles, along the sand, walking on the heels, the inner surface of the feet, tiptoe, moving games.
  • Maximum limit the wearing of shoes with high heels
  • Correctly dose physical exercise, avoid excessive loads
Healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, take food rich in vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium.

Why does postural stiffness disturb the posture?

The human body works as a whole. Between bodies there are not only anatomical, but also functional interrelations. With flatfoot, the center of gravity is displaced backward. In order to maintain balance, the spine has to deviate forward. Over time, deformation increases, posture is formed - round back .The normal arch of the foot works like a shock absorber. With flatfoot this function is violated. As a result, the spine and knees have increased loads. This leads to an even more severe violation of posture, scoliosis, herniated discs. In the knee joints arthrosis can develop. Flattening and problems on the part of the spine have some common causes: weakness of connective tissue, ligaments and muscles, obesity, increased physical activity.

Which mats can I use for flatfoot? How to choose them correctly?

Special massage mats have on their surface a variety of pebbles, protrusions, "pimples".They are widely used for the prevention and treatment of flat feet. Effects of massage mats :
  • effect on reflexogenic foot points;
  • improvement of blood circulation and lymph drainage( due to this there is a decrease in edema on the legs);
  • strengthening of muscles and ligaments;
  • elimination of cramps, pain;
  • elimination of stresses, increase in general tone.
Massage mats from flat feet are prophylactic and therapeutic .Usually preventive are made of softer materials, and therapeutic ones are made of more rigid materials. One-part massage mat is a single unit. The modular consists of several parts that can be interconnected. They can be marked with "pimples" of different sizes and shapes. Materials from which massage mats are made may also be different. Most often there are rubber( usually based on natural rubber), plastic, made of foamed polymers, on a silicone base. Many models have inserts from stones, for example, river pebbles. Rugs from the Altai birch are very popular. The correct choice of the massage mat with flatfoot will help the advice of :
  • First of all - consult a doctor .The expert will tell you which model of the rug is best to buy in your case.
  • It is best to buy a mat in the orthopedic salon .Before you buy the product, be sure to deploy it, stand with your bare feet and try to walk. If it causes pain or severe discomfort, it is better to choose another model.
  • For a child under 3 years old, a mat made of rubber is best. Later you can buy a model on a silicone base. Adults often recommend rugs from the Altai birch.
  • Try to choose a rug on which there is not one, but several different types of relief .This will provide different types of impact on the sole. For example, in addition to the "stones" on the surface may be villi for soft massage soles.
  • Inspect the mat before buying .Make sure that all the protrusions and "pimples" are strong enough. Think about how convenient it is to wash, store the selected model.
How to use a massage mat for the prevention and treatment of flat feet? Begin with a daily walk on the rug for 3-5 minutes, gradually increase the time. Usually 5-10 minutes is enough. It is worth remembering that the massage mat can not be used as the only method of treating flatfoot - the effect will bring only its use in combination with other techniques. To whom it is recommended to use massage mats:
  • for children and adults diagnosed with flat feet;
  • for children, in order to prevent flat feet;
  • to people, leading a sedentary lifestyle, to those with sedentary work;
  • to women, who often walk in shoes with stilettos.

How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?

Orthopedic insoles can be used for preventive purposes or to combat flatfoot. Medical orthopedic insoles need to be selected together with a doctor. Usually they are made individually, according to one of three methods:
  • Computer simulation of .A person stands on a special platform, which registers the pressure of various parts of the foot and transfers to the computer. An image is displayed on the monitor.
  • Manufacture of plaster casts .
  • Thermoforming . Insole is made of special material, which takes the form of a patient's foot.
  • Obtaining a print with a special bio-foam.
Orthopedic insoles are usually made of genuine leather or synthetic materials( flexible plastic, expanded polyethylene, microporous rubber).If a person has a lot of weight, more rigid materials are used: graphite, special plastics, steel. Also, the insole is made of silicone, but they are less comfortable, have low elasticity, wear out more quickly. But due to its flexibility, silicone insoles adapt well to the relief of the sole. In the manufacture of insoles for athletes take into account increased loads and intense sweating. Orthopedic insoles for diabetics have additional protection.

How is flatfoot encoded in the ICD?

In the international classification of flatfoot diseases two codes are assigned:
  • M21.4 - acquired flat foot;
  • Q66.5 - congenital flat foot.

What gymnastics can I perform with flatfoot?

Gymnastics with a flat foot are selected individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot. Start classes only after you consult a doctor and find out what exercises are recommended in your case. Some exercises that can be performed with a flatfoot : In prone position : 1. With your legs slightly apart, squeeze and unclench your toes for about 2 minutes. 2. With your legs spread out, rotate the feet clockwise, then in the opposite direction. 3. Pull your foot socks over. You can perform both legs simultaneously or alternately. 4. Detach the heels from the floor, leaning their toes. 5. Bend the legs in the knees, push them apart, simultaneously folding the soles together, so that they touch. Then "clap" your heels: dilute and reduce them, resting with your toes. 6. Place the right foot on the left ankle. Move the right foot along the left shin towards the knee, while trying to clasp her leg. Repeat with the left foot. In sitting position on the chair : 1. Squeeze the right hand into a fist and tightly clamp it between the knees. Raise the inner parts of the feet, and the outer one is pressed harder against the floor. Repeat several times. 2. Detach the heels from the floor - at the same time with both feet, then alternately. 3. Exercise similar to the previous one, only this time to tear off the socks. 4. Place different small items on the floor. Grab their fingers with your feet and shift from one place to another. 5. Bend your fingers while pulling your heels forward, then straighten them. The foot should "crawl" on the floor, like a caterpillar. In standing position : 1. Stand several times on your toes. Then alternately tear off the right and left heel from the floor. 2. Stand on your heels several times. In this case, the toes must be completely detached from the floor. 3. Perform several sit-ups and half-squats on your toes.

Is the physical education exemption given to a child with flat feet?

This question is solved individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot, other factors. With severe deformity and violation of foot function, the child can be completely released from physical culture. In other cases, it is classified in one of four groups:
  • group LFK: children who have a disease requiring an individual program of study;
  • special group: for children, for whom the load in ordinary lessons is too high, restrictions are required;
  • preparatory group: no restrictions in physical activity, but the child is exempted from the delivery of standards;
  • main group: no restrictions.

How does flatfoot differ from clubfoot?

Flat feet call any deformation of the foot, at which the longitudinal or transverse arch falls. The reasons for this violation can be different. Clubfoot is a congenital disorder whose causes are not yet fully established. In this case, the foot is most often turned down and inward.

What kind of sports can you practice with flatfoot?

In case of flatfoot, the following sports are recommended:
  • :
    • Free style swimming .It has a beneficial effect not only on the legs, but also on the spine column, the muscles of the back, helps to fight with impaired posture and other pathologies. But with flat feet, you should not get involved in swimming with a crawl, as this increases the load on the muscles of the legs.
    • Skiing .In this case, the load on the legs should be small. Intensive skiing is contraindicated.
    • Equestrian sport . Horse riding helps strengthen the muscles and tendons of the back, legs.
    • Some types of martial arts .Aikido, karate and kung fu do not assume an increased strain on the legs, but help strengthen the tendons and muscles.
    When flatfoot is not recommended such sports as skating, dancing, weight lifting, weight training, jumping, figure skating, hockey, walking on the steppes. Specialty: Practicing doctor of the 2nd category

    Published: 03.7.2013

    Flat feet in children. Causes, signs, prevention and treatment of flat feet in the child.

    Symptoms of flatfoot:

    • by the evening the possible appearance of edema of the feet, which will not be in the morning;
    • aching pain while standing or walking in the legs and feet;
    • rapid wear of the inside of the sole;
    • the child walks with his legs set wide, slightly bending his legs in the knees, unfolding his feet;
    • of the foot has an irregular shape or becomes wider;
    • ingrown toenails to the skin;
    • curvature of toes;
    • appearance of corns.
    Also, flat feet in children is detected using a simple test. You need to take a sheet of paper, oil your bare feet with oil and then put the baby on it, so that the weight of his body is distributed evenly. If the stops are ok, the picture on the leaf will look like in Figure 1. If the imprint looks like in Figure 2, then this indicates flatness, and you need to turn to the orthopedist rather.

    Effects and treatment of flatfoot in children

    If flat feet in children are not treated, it can lead to adverse effects, such as chronic back and leg pain, developmental disorders of the skeleton. This disease can disrupt the spring functions of the foot, the cushioning almost disappears, and when walking, the entire shake is transferred to the shin and the hip joint, which can subsequently cause arthrosis. Therefore, the treatment of flat feet in children is a must! As a therapy for a child suffering from flat feet, physiotherapy, manual therapy, special massage, physical therapy are prescribed. Drugs can be prescribed, only as a last resort.

    Plane prophylaxis in children

    To rule out the occurrence of flatfoot you need to follow some rules:
    1. Useful charging. That the muscles were strengthened and normally developed they need a load in the form of daily gymnastics. The complex of exercises is done once a day, which consists of: - warm-up( the child should walk around the room for a few minutes first on his heels, then on his socks, gradually increasing the tempo);- sit the child on a chair and ask him to unbend and turn his toes alternately, while rotating his feet;- put a sheet of paper on the floor and tell the child to squeeze it well with bare feet, and then lift the crumpled ball from the floor with his toes;- Let the kid with his toes often pencils, designer details, small toys from the floor;- put the ball on the floor and ask the baby to roll it first with one leg, then the other( the balls need to use different shapes);- It is very useful to walk barefoot on an uneven surface, for example, on the ground or grass.
    2. Sports. If the child is engaged in the sports section, then care should be taken to ensure that the set of exercises corresponds to his age, weight and height. A child with flat feet should not run, rhythmic gymnastics. All these exercises can lead to injuries to the skeleton. For the treatment and prevention of flat feet, swimming is best.
    3. Prophylactic massage with flat feet - improves blood circulation, tones muscles. Every day before taking a bath you need to grind and knead the leg of the baby from the lower leg to the bones, then the foot from the heel to the toes. You can also buy a special massager for your legs. It is better if it is made of natural material, for example, wooden balls. When running cases of flatfoot, you need a medical massage, which should be performed only by a qualified specialist.
    4. Healing bath. Very useful everyday warm baths with sea salt.
    5. The right shoes. To stop when walking is not deformed and took a physiological shape, you need to properly choose shoes. Children's shoes should protect the baby's leg from bumps, do not interfere with the normal, natural development of the foot muscles and impart stability. It should be made of natural materials, light, with a hard back, with a foot strap and a small heel.

    Flatness: prevention, treatment, causes, symptoms

    The onset of the disease is possible in childhood or adulthood. The rickety type is possible, as you already guessed, because of rickets. Because of the disease, there is no normal development of bones. Traumatic type appears as a result of fractures of the ankle joint, bones of the foot. In addition, the trauma of the ligaments and muscles that strengthen the arches of the foot, is also capable of provoking the disease. Paralytic platypodia is possible because of the transferred poliomyelitis. Static appearance occurs in more than 75% of the disease.

    Symptoms of flatfoot in adults

    Flat feet, the first symptoms of which can be manifested by pain in the legs after prolonged standing or while walking. And, for the disease, the following clinical signs are characteristic:
    1. 1) The feet are painful even after a minor load.
    2. 2) Looking at your old shoes, you notice that it is worn from the inside and is worn out.
    3. 3) Ankles become swollen.
    4. 4) Noticeably increasing the legs in length and width, the old models of shoes are already small to you.
    5. 5) It's impossible to walk on stiletto heels.
    6. 6) During the last stage of the disease, apart from the legs, the lumbar spine is gradually worried, walking becomes painful. Headaches are possible.
    Symptoms of longitudinal flatfoot:
    • stops swollen at the end of the day( see causes of edema on the legs).
    • feet quickly get tired.
    • , when pressed in the middle of the foot, soreness is felt.
    • sore leg: foot, ankle, lower leg.
    • to choose the right shoes is really difficult.
    • possible soreness in the lumbar region.
    • longitudinal arch is not noticeable, the foot is swollen, the heel is flattened.
    • standard shoes can not be worn.
    • soreness in front of the leg,
    • appearance of calluses;

    Degrees of flatfoot

    Let's call the general indicators of the degrees of the disease. The first is weakly expressed, it does not greatly disturb the patient. You can visually see the onset of the disease visually. The second degree or moderately expressed form often has pronounced changes. The disease is more pronounced, you gradually experience soreness in the ankle, foot. Visually visible are heavy movements and clubfoot. In the third form, a complete deformation occurs. Violated the functions of the musculoskeletal system, there may be more serious diseases. The soreness is very strong, it hurts to walk, and it's difficult to play sports. We call three stages of the longitudinal type of the disease.
    1. At the first degree of longitudinal flatfoot there is rapid fatigue of the legs. The soreness is not obvious, the patient can feel uncomfortable sensations when putting on shoes. Sometimes puffiness is possible in the morning.
    2. With the second form, the pain is more pronounced, sometimes it is very strong, the ankles and the shin extend. This degree complicates walking, making an ugly gait.
    3. With the third form, uneasy foot pains: feet, shins, sometimes makes itself felt low back. Also visible swelling in the joints of the foot.

    Degrees in transverse flatfoot

    In this case, the transverse arch of the foot becomes large, the length of the leg decreases. The big toes gradually deviate from the others, becoming a kind of hammer. The transverse type of flat feet is characteristic for a female over thirty years of age. Disturb the corns, the bone grows on the fingers. When the first form of this type of flatfoot periodically hurt feet, the front part is painful. At the second form there is soreness under the head of metatarsal bones. During the third degree the pain intensifies, usually corns appear in large quantities.

    Flattening in children

    According to medical statistics, more than half of children at 6-7 years of age appear on flat feet. To avoid flat feet in the future, you should treat yourself, starting with childhood. To correct the arch of the foot is really up to 13 years, until it is fully formed. This diagnosis is given to children from three to five years. Sometimes, from the very birth or from the beginning of circulation, heel-valgus feet are visible. By the age of three they become flat-valgus. Until the age of three, flat feet do not exist, since a fat pad appears on the inside of the foot. It is an additional shock absorber when walking. The most actual types of flatfoot in children are: longitudinal, transverse, flat-valgus feet and a mixed type of flatfoot. Plantogram is one of the most effective methods of diagnosing a child. To diagnose the foot, the baby is spread with a special liquid, after which the area that has been painted is analyzed. Due to age-related features, the diagnosis of flat feet in children is complicated. It is better to consult an orthopedic doctor, he will correctly identify the symptoms of flat feet. What can parents do? If the child slumps, perhaps, the presence of valgus platypodia. When the baby comes in when walking to the front edge of the foot, you should also contact the doctor for help. The foot is best formed in natural conditions. Therefore, in the summer, let the child walk barefoot on the grass, sand, stones. A certain physical load is important: moving games, walking. The child should not wear old shoes after someone: the load can be mis-distributed in the foot. In addition, make sure that the child is sitting at the table with an even posture.

    Treatment of flat feet in adults and children

    Therapy of longitudinal and transverse flat feet is similar. Medical measures applied to an adult can only improve his condition. While the children are fully recovered, as the baby's feet just begin to form completely. The doctor prescribes most often conservative treatment: medications in combination with physiotherapy procedures. Therapy is based on therapeutic exercises. Such physical culture is chosen specifically for the patient, the orthopedic doctor necessarily takes into account the age, the degree of the disease and its form. Excellent massage and hydromassage of feet helpfully. Active stimulation of the problem zone improves blood circulation and improves the tone of the muscles of the feet and legs. Orthopedic insoles with the disease restore the required lifting of the arches of the foot, correct the normal position of the foot, provide comfort while walking. At the initial stage, the insoles perfectly help to cope with the disease. Operation is the most effective method of treatment with significant deformities of the foot. Flattening in children is treated easier, without surgery. Muscles, bone and ligament tissues of children are still very sensitive to treatment. A rarely encountered congenital platypodia is treated with special bandages. Mostly, they use toning massage and physical training. Also effective for the feet are the contrast baths. Many doctors recommend wearing orthopedic shoes. Than at an earlier age you or a doctor discover flat feet, the more effective the treatment will be. For the purpose of prevention, the child should be checked by a doctor about 5 years.

    Plane exercises

    1. 1) The legs should be set shoulder width apart. Then the feet unfold, first the heels are joined, then the socks. Make at least 12 repetitions.
    2. 2) Rotation. Sitting on a chair or standing, set the heels to the width of the shoulders. Rotate the feet in two directions. Do 12 repetitions.
    3. 3) Stop installation. Performed in a sitting or standing position. Place the feet on the outer, and then on the inner surface alternately. Do it 15 times.
    4. 4) Low attacks. Rise steadily. Perform a front leg thrust. Then turn over the other way and do the same. Without fail, keep your back straight. It should be repeated 15 times.
    5. 5) We are walking on the spot. Take quick steps. The feet look inward, the legs are bent at the knees. Do not move your shoulders, keep straight, legs are actively involved. The breathing is calm, the exercise is performed for half a minute. For children, the entire LF complex is performed in a play form.

    Complications of

    • tenderness in hips, feet, back and knees.
    • change in the shape of the foot - curvature, the appearance of the stone, too wide a foot, incorrect development of muscles and articular tissue.
    • irregularity of posture and gait.
    • with squats to keep the balance is very difficult.
    • the appearance of ingrown nails is possible.
    • clubfoot and heaviness of gait.

    Flatfoot prevention in adults

    People engaged in active work with permanent standing should periodically rest, move the main center of gravity to the outside of the foot. In addition, after a day's work it is useful to do foot massage, rub them. You can massage by walking barefoot on sand, grass or gravel. At home choose a massage mat. Correctly pick up your shoes so that it does not rub, do not press the foot, but it is better that no discomfort does not appear.

    Plane prophylaxis in children

    In children, prophylaxis should be carried out starting from 1 year of age. It will be concluded in the exclusion of rickets, poliomyelitis and other diseases. Already during the first steps of the child, think about the choice of quality footwear. However, without walking on the grass, gravel and sand can not do: "barefoot" kids are several times less likely to suffer from the disease. Watch that the child does not walk on a flat floor, but on an uneven surface. Older children are recommended gymnastics with simple walking on the heels and toes, the inside and outside of the legs. You can do jumps on the spot, climb the gymnasium ladder. Combine gymnastics with water procedures. It is not only excellent strengthening of muscles, but also perfect hardening.

    Danger of flat feet in childhood

    Flattening may be congenital or acquired, but the first form of the disease is extremely rare. The danger is an increase in the acquired form of the disease, since many simply do not pay attention to this problem in time. The tendency to increase the incidence of this problem in children has arisen for various reasons.

    Factors provoking the appearance of flat feet:

    • increase in the number of children with excess weight;
    • poorly made shoes;
    • concomitant diseases of internal organs, leading to deficiency of useful substances;
    • mechanical injuries and increased loads.

    Only a few of the parents realize how dangerous the appearance of flat feet in the baby. The erroneous opinion that this illness "will pass by itself" and the misconception that it does not affect health, often lead to the most unfortunate consequences. The structure of the foot and the presence of two physiological vaults help a person to absorb the load that falls on the entire musculoskeletal system. If the arches are flattened on the foot, it can no longer perform the functions of the "spring", and when moving, all the recoil falls on the other joints of the legs. Of all the types of flat feet in children, there is often longitudinal, and transverse and combined is much less common.

    Consequences in time of not begun treatment

    At different age at children healthy stop looks as it is shown in drawing.

    The change in foot functions at an early age and the redistribution of the load can cascade the following pathological conditions:

    • of the spine and its curvature;
    • degenerative-dystrophic changes in the joints of the feet( arthrosis);
    • osteochondrosis and intervertebral hernia.

    In addition, the load redistribution can change the central position of the heel, causing such common signs of flatfoot:

    • varus( deviation of the center of the heel inward);
    • valgus( displacement of the center outwards).
    Even inattentive parents can easily identify these signs of the disease. With the varus, the legs are O-shaped, and with the valgus, the X-shaped. In children up to 5-6 years old, this form of legs can periodically arise and then disappear, but the legs should be straight to the school, and the foot should be strictly in the center.

    The good news is that this disease in children is well amenable to correction, provided that the problem is identified at the age when it is still possible to form a foot. How to cure a flatfoot in a child, if you notice a foot deformity in a baby?

    The main condition for obtaining the result is his age. If you have time to take a series of medical activities to 12-13 years, then you can hope that the treatment will be very effective. Conversely, late treatment to the doctor and untimely therapy can cost you and your teenager dearly. The fact is that the consequences of flat feet( scoliosis, intervertebral hernia and valgus deformation of the foot) in an adult person are diseases that are difficult to treat and sometimes require surgical intervention.

    Treatment and prevention

    Russian cities have specialized orthopedic kindergartens.

    Many orthopedists confidently state that the treatment of this problem in children should begin with the elimination of factors that caused deformation of the foot. That is, in other words, before fixing a flatfoot in a child in conservative ways, it is necessary to eliminate all the causes that caused the disease.

    • If a child has excess weight and an unbalanced diet, it is necessary to visit a nutritionist and adjust the diet.
    • Show the orthopedist shoes in which your son or daughter walks, perhaps for her will need to order insoles. Why is it possible, you ask? Yes, because some shoes will have to be thrown away, since no insole can make the baby's shoes wider.
    • Such causes of flat feet in children, like foot traumas and high loads, can be prevented by releasing the student from physical education while you are treating.

    Many parents are interested in how to treat flat feet in children? Are conservative therapies sufficient, and in what cases do they resort to surgical techniques? If the diagnosis is made on time, then, as a rule, conservative measures are enough. The optimal age for rapid correction of deformity in children is the age of 6-7 years, when the problem can be completely eliminated.

    The older the child becomes, the more difficult it will be to conduct conservative activities. In adolescents over 13 years old, the choice of treatment is decided individually. Such children can prescribe lifelong use of insoles or operative intervention.

    From conservative methods of treatment of this disease apply the following:

    • selection of special shoes with strong back and insole;
    • physiotherapy treatment and contrast baths;
    • physiotherapy;

    Flattening in children: treatment, prevention, causes

    Flattening is an extremely common disease, which, scientifically speaking, causes deformation of the foot and a decrease in its longitudinal and transverse arches. What does this mean in practice? For some reason( trauma, hereditary disease, disruption in the development of the child), the foot deforms, becomes flat and loses its most important function - spring.

    And this means that the load from contact with a solid surface and shaking, which was previously compensated by foot, passes to the joints of the legs and spine. As a result, because of this disruption of the normal operation of the foot, the joints and spine experience an increased constant load and, as a consequence, various diseases of the knees, hips, lower backs appear.

    In children, the first signs of forming flatfoot can be found only in five to six years - before this age the bone apparatus of the foot has not yet formed completely, the functions of some of the bones are performed by cartilages, and the ligaments and muscles are much weaker than in the adult. And only after reaching five to six years of age, the formation of the foot is completed finally and the foot takes the form that will be preserved in the future. It is at this stage that flat feet in children are recognized.

    Causes of flat feet in children

    The causes of flatfoot formation in children can be different - this is the wrong way of life, and developmental disorders, and even heredity. In general, heredity is almost the most common cause of flat feet in children: if one of the parents has a flat foot, the risk is very high that this disease will occur in the child. In addition, any trauma to the foot can provoke the appearance of flat feet.

    Prevention of flatfoot in children

    Most diseases are cheaper to prevent than to cure - and flat feet in children is no exception, good methods of preventing flat feet at a young age are very simple. First, always make sure that the child wears the right shoes - it should fit exactly in size, do not be too wide or too narrow. Remember that ballet shoes - the most popular form of today's shoes on flat soles without any heels at all - increase the risk of flat feet in young children at times. Secondly, remember that excessive load on the legs in conditions of not fully formed musculoskeletal system also increases the risk of flatfoot( and these loads can be caused by lifting any weights, and simply increased body weight in the child).

    How to treat flat feet in children

    At an early stage, flat feet in children is easy to cure - it is much worse when the flatfoot turns into a neglected form. If, after noticing the first signs of flatfoot development in your child, you can limit yourself to buying orthopedic insoles correcting the formation of the arch of the foot in the child, then in the future for the treatment of flat feet will require much more serious procedures. As a rule, the main directions of treatment of flat feet in young children are special massage, physiotherapy and individual complexes of physical exercises that will have to be performed at home and regularly. They are all designed to strengthen the arch of the foot and correct its shape.

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