Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree of the cervical department
Osteochondrosis is understood as a pathological process that directly entails destructive processes first in the intervertebral discs themselves, and after and in the vertebrae itself and nearby tissues, ligaments and blood vessels. In this article, we will describe in detail as much as possible the problem of osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree in the cervical region.
According to experts, osteochondrosis as a whole can affect absolutely any parts of the spine, including thoracic, cervical, lumbar. Cervical osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree is the most common at the moment. It should be noted that this type of disease occurs in stages. Undoubtedly, in the absence of timely therapy, it begins to progress rapidly. Thus, the main changes at the functional level in the area of bone tissue become more pronounced with time, complications arise in the form of limiting the simplest movements and even reducing the overall sensitivity.
The main stages and degrees of the disease
At the moment in medicine, there are four main stages( degrees) of the disease called cervical osteochondrosis. It should be noted that the notion of "stage" and "degree" is often misunderstood. Despite the fact that they mean almost the same, they are not completely identical. The stage is understood as all structural disorders directly in the cervical spine, as well as in nearby tissues and internal organs. The degree reflects all the accompanying symptoms and complaints from the patient. So, with cervical osteochondrosis only 1 degree, clinical symptoms are not significantly manifested, and in some cases the patient and does not have to guess at the present ailment. In this case, patients, as a rule, complain of a minor pain in the neck, which is directly amplified by the next turn of the whole body or head. At visual inspection the doctor diagnoses local overstrain of muscles in this zone.
Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree of the cervical region often comes along with the so-called discogenic radiculitis. Due to some changes in the fibrous capsule itself, the distance between the cervical vertebrae directly decreases. As a consequence, there is a pinching of the nerve roots in this area. Patients predominantly complain of discomfort and pain in the neck, which also increases with the next turn of the body or head. Often, pain discomfort goes beyond this zone, there is a decrease in habitual performance, as well as weakness in the body.
In the absence of appropriate treatment, the existing pathological problems continue to progress, which already leads to a dislocation of intervertebral discs in this zone, a hernia appears. Discomfort with time only increases, this process also involves various kinds of motor disorders in the affected segment. Thus, osteochondrosis already progressively develops 3 degrees.
After the last 4 degrees of osteochondrosis, the previously destroyed intervertebral disc is usually replaced with a fibrous tissue. To the existing painful discomfort due to the introduction into the very pathological process of the so-called vertebral artery, brain disorders( for example, dizziness, a constant sense of tinnitus, and a general coordination disorder) are added.
Features of the cervical department
Before considering the main factors that cause osteochondrosis of the cervical stage of the 2nd stage, it is advisable to talk about its characteristic anatomical features.
- The neck is recognized as an absolutely movable part, but it borders directly on the already static department, namely with the thoracic.
- Cervical vertebrae distinguish seven, and the so-called segments - respectively, eight. The eighth segment is formed due to the so-called atlanto-occipital articulation.
- Absolutely all vertebrae differ in structure from the anatomical point of view. This is clearly confirmed by the example of the first vertebrae, namely the atlas and axis.
- All important "trenches" are located in the neck. This is the trachea, and some large vessels, and the esophagus.
Cervical osteochondrosis of 2-3 degrees is consistently formed due to several causes simultaneously, namely:
Osteochondrosis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 degrees - a description of all stages and species
Osteochondrosis is a degenerative-dystrophic disease affecting the intervertebral discs and causing their destruction with further progression and the appearance of neurological complications( disc protrusion, intervertebral hernia,etc.).
Much more often pain syndrome causes spondylarthrosis( arthrosis of the joints of the spine, for example, facet, uncovertebral), spondylolisthesis( displacement of the vertebrae relative to each other) and nonspecific pain in the back. Therefore, most often in everyday life, osteochondrosis is understood as a set of different types of degenerative changes in the spinal column, includingjoints of the spine and ligaments.
How to recognize osteochondrosis
In patients with osteochondrosis and other degenerative diseases of the spinal column, the following complaints are most often found:
- feeling of fatigue and discomfort in the spine( in the initial stages);
- paroxysmal pain in the neck, back and extremities in the form of "lumbago";
- limitation of mobility and volume of movements in the spine, depending on the affected department;
- pain in the heart, simulating an attack of angina pectoris;
- weakness in muscles, their atrophy or the appearance of spasms or cramps;
- impaired sensation in the arms and legs( decrease or increase), paresthesia( numbness, "goose bumps", tingling sensations);
- headache, dizziness due to impaired blood flow to the brain;
- swelling of the extremities, stiffness in their joints;
- dysuric and sexual disorders( decreased potency, impaired urination);
- shingles along the ribs;
- sleep disorder, decreased appetite.
When examined by a neurologist, the symptoms of prolapse or weakening of reflexes( depending on the level of lesion and the presence of compression) can be added to the clinic, the muscle strength in a particular muscle / muscle group decreases.
In the modern medical literature there are many classifications of osteochondrosis depending on various signs: localization, stage of lesion, clinical manifestations.
Species on the localization of pathology
Given the area of the lesion, local and widespread osteochondrosis is isolated. The local is localized within one anatomical and physiological area, the prevalent covering more than two areas.
Local process happens:
Classification of disk degeneration
There are 4 stages( degrees) according to Osna, 1971( currently not used to assess the clinical picture and the formulation of the diagnosis):
- Osteochondrosis of the 1st degree - the stage of the shift of the nucleus pulposus within the discus intervertebralis, is characterized by asymptomatic flow. In certain cases, symptoms of discalgia( pain sensations in the region of the disc) associated with involvement of the nerve fibers surrounding the vertebra in the pathological process and reflected pains corresponding to the localization of the affected spinal nerves( limbs, internal organs) may occur. Treatment does not require.
- Osteochondrosis of the second degree - the stage of vertebral dystopia - is characterized by the appearance of cracks in the discus intervertebralis, the weakening of the fibrous ring and the lesion of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The main symptoms are constant fatigue, discomfort in the spine, protrusion of the discs, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, subluxations of the vertebrae. It lends itself well to conservative treatment( chondroprotectors, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, vascular and other groups of drugs).
- Osteochondrosis of the third degree - the stage of complete rupture of the intervertebral disc - is determined by the appearance of severe irreversible vertebrologic complications( intervertebral hernia, infringement of nerve roots, deformation of the spine).The main method of treatment is surgical intervention.
- Osteochondrosis of the 4th degree - the stage of progression of degenerative processes - is characterized by the spread of destruction to structures surrounding the vertebra: vessels( microangiopathies, vascular thrombosis), spinal cord( myelitis, dura mater), ligamentous apparatus( destruction of the interosseous and yellow ligaments);formed ankylosis of the spinal column.
Stages of unstable osteochondrosis( characterized by the emergence of destabilization of the spinal column):
- Discogenic - only discus intervertebralis is involved in the pathological process.
- Discoartrogenic - dystrophic changes affect intervertebral joints and ligaments.
- Discoartroosteogenic - the process progresses, which is accompanied by the defeat of bone structures and the development of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.
Degrees of destruction of intervertebral discs by Sachs, 1987( currently reclassified):
0 - no changes detected;
1 - destruction of 1/3 annular plates of a fibrous ring;
2 - only the outer fibers of the disc retain their integrity, preventing the formation of hernias;
3 - complete destruction of discus intervertebralis and rupture of longitudinal ligament, marked clinical symptomatology.
At present, the X-ray classification of Zeker is often used to determine the stage and extent of osteochondrosis:
- The first stage is characterized by minor changes in lordosis in one or more segments.
- The second stage is established when on the roentgenogram the smoothness of lordosis + thickening of the disc, moderately expressed exostoses in front or behind, deformation of the hook-shaped processes is determined.
- The third stage is characterized by the appearance on the background of previous changes in the narrowing of the intervertebral foramen.
- The fourth stage( degree) is established with a significant narrowing of the intervertebral openings and the spinal canal.
Clinical classification of osteochondrosis manifestations used by neurologists:
- Cervical spine:
- reflex manifestations( cervicalgia, cervicocranygia, cervicobrachialgia with myotonic, vascular circulatory and neurodegenerative symptoms);
- radicular syndromes( compression lesion S1-S8, characterized by paralysis of the upper limb);
- is a radicular-vascular manifestation.
- Thoracic spine:
- reflex manifestations;
- radicular syndromes( compression of intercostal nerves Th1-12).
- Lumbosacral spine:
- reflex manifestations( lumbago, lumbalgia, lumboschialgia with myotonic, vascular circulatory and neurodegenerative symptoms);
- radicular syndromes( compression lesion L1-5, S1-5);
- is a radicular-vascular manifestation.
The main methods for diagnosing pathology are ray methods( radiography, computed tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging.
Stages of osteochondrosis with contrast computed tomography:
- The contrast introduced into the pulpous core does not penetrate its boundaries.
- Contrast substance spreads to the inner third of the fibrous ring.
- The contrast agent extends to two-thirds of the fibrous ring.
- Contrast substance penetrates up to the outer plates of annulus fibrosus, which are well innervated;it is at this stage of the disease that the first symptoms appear.
- Contrast spreads around the circumference of the disc to 30º.
- Contrast substance is outside the disk and penetrates into the epidural space.
Degrees of osteochondrosis with magnetic resonance imaging:
M0 - pulpous nucleus not damaged, normal shape.
M1 - local decrease in luminescence and destruction of the gelatinous nucleus, cicatrical changes in the disc.
M2 - complete cessation of luminescence of the gelatinous nucleus.
How and how much to fight with osteochondrosis
|Medication( usually 2-3 weeks)|
|Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs|| Reduce pain, swelling of tissues, relieve inflammation, improve blood supply. A particular feature of this group is the wide choice of the forms of preparations: |
• for external use - ointments, creams, gels, aerosols, patches - Voltaren, Diclofenac, Diclac, Diklovit, Diklogen, Dorosan, Orthofen, Nyz, Nurofen, Ketonal;
• for oral administration - tablets, capsules, powder - Movalis, Nurofen, Naize, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Ketonal, Dexalgin, Aertal and others;
• for injection - Dexalgin, Ketanov, Diklak, Ketorol, Diclofenac, Ketonal, Movalis, Revmoxicam
|Muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants|| Relieve painful spasm of muscle tissue, prevent the development of seizures. |
The muscle relaxants are: "Sirdalud", "Tizalud", "Tizanil", "Midokalm", "Tolperizon", "Lyrics", "Algerika", "Pregabalin"
|Antidote preparations||"Furosemide", "Torasemide"from the body, reduce swelling of the inflamed muscles and nerves, thereby relieving pain|
|Neurotropic substances|| Complex preparations of B group vitamins restore the myelinated nerve membrane, improve the blood supply of nerve fibers. |
Basic preparations: Neurorubin, Milgamma, Vitaxam, Vitagamma, Kombilipen, Neurobion, Neuromultivit
|Chondroprotectors|| They help to restore cartilaginous tissue, prevent further destruction of interchondrous tissue. They have chondroitin and glucosamine in their composition. |
Chondroprotectors usually recommend: Teraflex, Arthra, Glucosamine Maximum, Artradol, Dona, Mukosat, Chondroxide, etc.
|Novokainovaya blockade||Introduction of local anesthetic Novokain 0.5%( 5-10 ml) to the near-vertebral or epidural space for pain relief|
|For patients with significant intervertebral hernia, doctors recommend the following operations:|| • Discectomy( removal of the damaged intervertebral disc); |
• microdiscectomy laser and ablative, chemonucleolysis;
|Non-pharmacological treatment methods( lasts up to six months)|
|Discharge of the spine||During the exacerbation, the patient is often recommended bed rest: lie on a hard surface, under the head - an orthopedic pillow. This is important in the presence of a disc hernia against the background of degenerative changes. In the absence of compression syndrome, maintaining normal physical activity( keyword - normal, normal, moderate) contributes to a faster recovery|
|Physiotherapeutic procedures|| The procedures include: |
• UFD in erythemal doses;
• Novocaine, hydrocortisone, lidase electrophoresis;
• diadynamic currents;
• cryotherapy of reflexogenic zones;
|Manual therapy||Manual therapy consists of flexing and extension of the spine, tilting, short-term application of force in different directions|
|Massage||Patients during recovery or remission are recommended to undergo 10-15 sessions of classical gentle massage|
|LFK||Complex of specially selected physicalexercises that help restore normal muscle tone, eliminate contractures|
- Kornilov N.V.- Traumatology and orthopedics.
- Orthopedics. National leadership Mironov SP, Kotelnikov GP, 2008.
- Traumatology and orthopedics. Kavalersky G.M.
- Epifanov VA- Osteocondritis of the spine.
- Shvets V.V.- Lumbar osteochondrosis.
- Altunbaev RA- "Osteochondrosis" or "Radiculitis"?(experience of approach to the terminological dilemma).
An unconditional leader among diseases of the spine, is osteochondrosis. Every year he chooses more and more young victims. It is very easy to get rid of it in the first stage, but the patients brush off the primary symptoms, believing that this is fatigue, etc. They hurry to the doctor, as a rule, when osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree has already developed.
Development of osteochondrosis in the second stage of
At this stage, the spine completely loses its stability, since the intervertebral discs no longer perform the amortization function. As a result, the disc is flattened under the weight of the vertebrae and there is a high probability that the nucleus will break through the fibrous ring that holds it.
As a result, protrusions can irritate the nerve roots or pinch vessels, nerves that pass through the spinal hole. This causes unpleasant consequences.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis of the second degree
Manifestations of the disease differ depending on the area of the lesion.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine of the 2nd degree causes dizziness first of all. This is due to the small diameter of the spinal anus. As a result of protrusion of the disc, the vessels and brain are squashed, and the required amount of blood is not received. In addition, there are acute headaches, numbness in the hands, pain in the shoulders.
- The lumbar spine osteochondrosis of the second degree manifests itself as a constant aching pain in the lower back, which accelerates under loads. For example, climbing stairs, wearing weights. Pain gives in the buttocks, thighs, pelvis, genitals.
- The osteochondrosis of the thoracic part of the second degree is manifested by shortness of breath. Against this background, oxygen starvation develops. There may be stitching pain in the region of the heart.
When these symptoms appear, you do not need to hesitate and write off them for existing diseases, bruises, fatigue, etc.
Osteochondrosis is very susceptible to people who lead a sedentary lifestyle, as their muscle corset eventually degrades, due to lack of exercise, the muscles become less and less inflated. Accordingly, a large load without the support of muscles collapses on the spine.
Pregnant women are also at risk. For them, osteochondrosis becomes a physiological condition. It develops against the backdrop of hormonal changes that cause softening of the vertebrae and because of the redistribution of gravity. To somehow help the body to transfer changes in the body, you need to engage in special gymnastics for pregnant women. In addition, such a pregnancy will help support the muscles, which guarantees a quick return to the form after pregnancy.
Treatment of osteochondrosis of the second degree
NSAIDs with osteochondrosis
The first thing the doctor does is to save the patient from painful symptoms and stop the development of the disease. To do this, use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).Most often prefer Diclofenac and its analogue - Voltaren.
These drugs block an enzyme that causes inflammation, respectively, the inflammatory process comes to naught. Take the drug three times a day, the course is one to two weeks. A longer period of use can cause an upset of the gastrointestinal tract.
Side effects: dizziness, allergy, urticaria, nausea and headache
Also prescribed drugs that trigger recovery processes. You can use ointments. When applying the ointment to the area of pain, the active substances go under the skin and are embedded in the reaction. Warming ointments increase the flow of blood, due to the expansion of blood vessels.
The use of ointments is especially important for massages. They will greatly accelerate the effect and help relax the muscles.
Vitamin complex for the control of osteochondrosis
The body spends a lot of useful elements on the treatment of the disease. Therefore, it is necessary to restore losses. Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree of the cervical spine and others, requires:
- Vitami PP ( nicotinic acid) is necessary to regulate the amount of cholesterol in the blood, improve microcirculation and enlarge small vessels.
- Vitamin B1 ( thiamin) supports the work of the heart, soothes the nervous system.
- Vitamin B6 ( pyridoxine) stimulates metabolism, participates in the formation of blood cells.
- Vitamin B12 ( cyanocobalamin) is synthesized by microorganisms. It is necessary for the proper functioning of organs and systems.
If necessary, the doctor prescribes intramuscular injections of vitamins 1 ml once a day. The course of treatment lasts up to 1 month.
Gymnastics for osteochondrosis of the second degree
Gymnastics for osteochondrosis
Before assigning gymnastic exercises, the doctor achieves the calming of the symptoms of the disease. When morbidity subsides, the doctor prescribes a course of exercise therapy. Self-medication can not be prescribed, as this can lead to undesirable consequences.
In case of osteochondrosis of any department, charging begins with equalizing the posture. For this, they approach the wall, touch it with heels, buttocks, shoulder blades and the back of the head. Then take 2 steps forward, keeping the posture.
Exercises for cervical osteochondrosis affect the muscles of the neck, arms and shoulders. For the lumbar - on the muscles of the legs and back. For the thoracic - on the muscles of the chest. After doing exercise, you should take a warm shower, which will allow the muscles to relax and not delay lactic acid.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 2nd degree
Osteochondrosis is the emergence and development of dangerous pathologies, which at the initial stage cause destructive changes within individual discs. If the disease progresses, then the vertebrae itself and the surrounding thin tissues, nerves and blood vessels are damaged. Below we will consider the specifics of why there is an osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 2nd degree.
As the statistics show, as a place of its localization, osteochondrosis is able to choose any of the spine departments, however, most often problems arise precisely in the neck area. The situation with him is aggravated by the fact that patients, as a rule, ignore the first symptoms, and this allows the disease to firmly establish itself and move to the second degree of development. The transition to a new phase is usually accompanied by a strongly pronounced pain syndrome, the patient feels the stiffness of the joints, numbness of some areas and so on.
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The main phases of development of osteochondrosis
In total, doctors observe four main degrees of development of cervical osteochondrosis. At the first stage, the symptoms are almost absent and the mess of impending problems can be a weak pain in the neck. It can be easily eliminated with the help of usual painkillers, so the patients do not attach much importance to it. If at this initial stage to consult a doctor, he can see the onset of osteochondrosis through locally overstrained muscles, which try to prevent the consequences of degenerative degenerative consequences.(On the topic: osteochondrosis of the 1st degree of the cervical department).
The transition to the second phase usually takes place against a background of discogenic radiculitis. This term hides the process of convergence of vertebrae due to loss of intervertebral discs of its natural cushioning properties. Since the distance between the individual vertebrae is significantly reduced, the nerve endings and blood vessels passing between them are simply squeezed, beginning to signal the occurrence of disturbing changes. At this stage, a permanent pain syndrome develops, which is no longer in a hurry to pass after taking analgesics. And the pain is not necessarily manifested in the place of injury. In addition, there is a strong sense of stiffness, lethargy and a decline in habitual performance.
If the patient still delays the trip to the doctor, then the osteochondrosis of the cervical region begins to progress sharply, as a result of which a small deformation of the discs flows into the formation of the hernia of the cervical region. All this occurs against the background of the intensification of various symptoms, since the patient does not influence the causes of the disease, continuing in most cases to use pain medications as panacea. Thus, against this background, the disease enters the phase 3 without hindrance.
Usually, pain at the third degree of osteochondrosis is already so strong that it can not be ignored and the patient consults a doctor. But, still, in some cases, the symptoms are not very pronounced, and many patients manage not to attach much importance to the growing pain syndrome, which leads to the transition of the osteochondrosis of the cervical region into the final 4th phase.
At the 4th stage, the destroyed parts of the spine are filled with fibrous tissue, and the symptoms become extremely dangerous, as the disease disrupts the natural blood flow, through which individual regions of the brain receive everything necessary for their normal functioning. As a consequence, vision and hearing deteriorate, "ringing" in the ears, frequent dizziness, loss of coordination, especially with a sharp rise, and the like.
Specificity of the cervical department of
Before considering the characteristics of osteochondrosis, which has passed to the 2nd degree of its development, it is necessary to become acquainted with the specifics of the structure and functioning of the cervical spine.
- The cervical region is one of the most mobile zones of the human body, but at the same time, it is itself connected to another, almost completely immobile part of the spine - with the thoracic.
- The cervical region is the uppermost part of the spine, consisting of 7 vertebrae. At the same time, 8 connecting segments enter into it, of which the extreme 8th is formed at the point of attachment of the spine to the occiput.
- Each of the vertebrae has its own unique structure from the point of view of anatomy, which is clearly seen from the axiom and the atlas - the 2 nd first vertebrae.
- The most important highways pass through the neck area, there are also large arteries, esophagus, and trachea.
Cervical osteochondrosis of 2 degrees, quickly and easily flows into the third stage, as the disease usually goes against a background of complex causes that enhance it. To such negative factors include:
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine: symptoms, causes, 1, 2, 3, 4 degrees and treatment( + folk remedies)
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine is a pathological state in which degenerative changes occurbone and cartilaginous tissue.
Dystrophy of the intervertebral discs can develop after 30 years of , while at the age of 40-45 years, they shrink and compact.
In the spinal column there are 7 cervical vertebrae, consisting of the body, processes and bone arch;in the center of the vertebra is a hole in which the spinal cord is located. Individual elements of the spine are interconnected by intervertebral discs formed by the nucleus, fibrous ring and interlayer - hyaline plate( cartilage).
Cervical vertebrae, having the smallest thickness of the discs, fit tightly to each other;muscles in the neck are developed rather poorly, as a result of which, under regular loads, dislocation of the discs may occur, in which vessels and nerve trunks are squeezed.
Causes of cervical osteochondrosis
With age, the core of the intervertebral disc loses its moisture reserves, and becomes less elastic. Since the metabolism after 50 years is significantly slowed down, the processes of regeneration in disks with a weak blood supply cease.At a young age, the main role in the development of osteochondrosis in the cervical part is played by inactivity - passive lifestyle , the lack of properly organized physical activity.
Factors contributing to impaired blood circulation in the cervical vertebrae and the intervertebral space are:
- long driving driving;
- work at the computer, prolonged sitting in any position;
- regular lifting of weights;
- working conditions, suggesting sharp movements, turns of the neck;
- violation of posture;
- displacement of the disk as a result of sports training;
- excess weight, resulting in a high load on the intervertebral discs and disruption of the cervico-thoracic spine;
- alcohol abuse, smoking, malnutrition( due to harmful effects on metabolic processes);
- neck supercooling( for example, in the absence of a scarf in the cold period);
- sleep on high or too soft cushions;
- heredity( spinal column disease in a family history).
Types of the disease
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine can exist as an independent disease( cervical discarthrosis), and also be one of the components of the generalized joint and spine lesion( polyosteoarthrosis).A variety of cervical osteochondrosis is the disco - the penetration of the intervertebral disc into the vertebral canal.
If osteochondrosis is diagnosed in all parts of the spine( cervical, thoracic, lumbar), there is a polysegmentary osteochondrosis. Isolated juvenile( oval) osteochondrosis of the cervical spine - spine disease, which develops in adolescents due to metabolic disorders or sports injuries.
Symptoms and signs of cervical osteochondrosis
As a result of the development of the disease, there is a radicular syndrome: the symptoms of osteochondrosis depend on which vertebrae, its processes( roots) and nerve endings undergo degenerative changes.If the vertebrae, which are located closer to the junction with the skull, , there is a decrease in the sensitivity of and pain in the occiput and crown.
Intervertebral osteochondrosis of 3rd and 4th vertebra leads to numbness of the tongue, problems with speech. Affected lower segments of the cervical region can cause pain in the collarbone, shoulders, as well as discomfort in the heart. Often the pain radiates to the scapula, arm;loss of sensitivity of these areas of the body can also be a consequence of cervical osteochondrosis.
Violation of the functioning of the lower vertebra of the neck results in numbness in the little fingers, as well as in the arms in the elbows.
General symptoms of osteochondrosis of the neck may include:
- dizziness, migraine-like headaches( acute), and dull, pressing pains in the neck( cervicalgia), which can intensify when the head moves;
- lumbago( severe pain spreading to the back or hand);
- burning in the back, heart;
- stiffness of the neck, hands( especially the brushes);
- decreased mobility and numbness of the neck in the mornings;
- sensation of pulsation in the nape;
- temporary darkness in the eyes, noise in the ear canal, sometimes - fainting;
- thickening of the skin in the spine due to proliferation of connective tissue.
Degrees of development of osteochondrosis
Disease in its development passes several stages of , during which the spine undergoes pathological changes:
- First degree of ( initial or preclinical stage of osteochondrosis).There is a partial loss of moisture and elasticity of the nucleus of the intervertebral disc, its compaction. Pain and discomfort, as a rule, absent. You can notice the rapid fatigue of the neck muscles after prolonged exertion.
- Second degree ( increase of changes).There is a decrease in the height of the disc, small cracks can appear on the surface of the hyaline plates. Pain in the cervical spine becomes pronounced, intensifying after a long time in sitting position, especially with the head down.
- Third degree ( running stage).The vertebral canal narrows, the hyaline plates are largely worn out. The nature of pain - aching, burning, prolonged. Often at this stage, the intervertebral hernia begins to form.
- Fourth degree ( compensatory or recovery stage).There is an expansion of bone osteophytes, and vertebrae can grow together, as a result of which the neck loses mobility.
What could be the consequences?
Dystrophic processes with accompanying outgrowths of bone osteophytes cause a decrease in the lumen of the intervertebral canal, as well as irritation and response tension of the neck muscles. In the event that osteophytes reach the vertebral artery, there is a disturbance of cerebral circulation. Next, the nerves of the cervical region are compressed, which is often caused by the movement of the disc in the lateral direction. With a decrease in the elasticity and volume of the disc cartilage, a protrusion can develop-protrusion of the plate in the direction of the spinal canal, and also a hernia-the outflow of the intervertebral disc directly into the canal.
Consequences of development of cervical osteochondrosis can become serious enough for persons over 50 years of , especially if there are concomitant diseases( hypertension, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia).
In addition to complications from the circulatory system, osteochondrosis can lead to myelopathy ( disruption of the functioning of the spinal cord), hypothalamic syndrome, neurocirculatory dystonia, decreased visual acuity and hearing, impaired swallowing reflex, neurasthenia, loss of consciousness, paresis, paralysis.
The diagnosis is based on the characteristic signs of the disease, as well as the patient's complaints. The x-ray examination of the spine in different projections or MRI diagnostics is mandatory.
When cerebral syndromes perform a brain examination( REG, duplex vessels), and also recommend a consultation of a neurologist.
First aid for exacerbation ofIn case of attack of acute pain it is necessary to take anesthetic agent ( aspirin, paracetamol, baralgin).
If such drugs do not have the desired effect, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ketonal, ketoprofen, nise, and ibuklin) can be used. To prevent detrimental effects on the stomach and intestines, it is recommended to take these medications after meals, and persons suffering from stomach diseases should drink 1 capsule of omeprazole 30 minutes before taking the medication.
In addition, you can apply to the neck area any ointment or cream with NSAIDs. A positive effect is also provided by heating ointments, which are rubbed into the skin of the neck around the spine. It is forbidden to perform sports and therapeutic gymnastics in the acute phase of osteochondrosis.
Treatment of cervical osteochondrosis
In the treatment of the disease, it is extremely important to use a set of measures to alleviate the patient's condition and, if possible, restore the lost functions of the muscles and spine. Medication for osteochondrosis may include:
- Analgesics for the removal of acute pain: selagin, analgin, but-spa with novocaine - in the form of intramuscular or intravenous injection or oral.
- corticosteroids are used for intensive pain in combination with analgesics( hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexazone).
- Novocaine and lidocaine blockades - subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of the drug at several points around the cervical vertebrae.
- In rare cases, opioid analgesics( tramadol, phenadone) are prescribed.
- Antidiarrheals are used for the marked edema of the affected area( lasix, indapamide).
- NSAIDs in order to reduce inflammatory phenomena( voltaren, xsefokam, dolac, orthophene, arthrosilen, movalis, tselebrex, nise) with a course of 5-10 injections or in the form of tablets( up to 15 days).
- Muscle relaxants( sirdalud, miolastan) to improve muscle tone and relieve their spasm.
- Drugs for improving blood circulation and vasodilators( eufillin, trental, curantil, actovegin, theonikol) - intramuscularly or intravenously drip.
- Chondoprotectors for the restoration of hyaline cartilage( arthra, rumalon, alflutope).They are used outside the acute phase of the disease.
- Drugs to reduce the excitability of the vestibular apparatus in order to eliminate dizziness( betaserk).
- Vegetative means for softening tissue necrosis areas in the intervertebral disk and as stimulators of blood circulation( karipazim, aloe extract).
- Sedatives and tranquilizers with the aim of alleviating neurological disorders and anxiety of the patient( valerian, motherwort, Relanium).
- Group B vitamins in the form of injections, as well as vitamins P, E, A, ascorbic acid.
- External treatment: compresses or applications with dimexide solution with novocaine or hydrocortisone, ointments with NSAIDs, creams with lidocaine, snake or bee venom, pepper plaster, phonophoresis with ointment chondroxide.
Non-drug treatment is prescribed at any stage of cervical osteochondrosis and can consist of:
- Wearing the collar of Shantz.
- exercise therapy. The complex of activities is selected depending on the patient's condition, as well as the stage of the disease development.
- Spinal cord trauma( hardware stretching). Performed to increase the space between the vertebrae, as well as relieve pain.
- Manual therapy. Correction of spine diseases by manual method.
- Massage. Influence on the sick zone with the help of pressure, stroking, pressure, which improves local blood circulation.
- Acupuncture. Removing inflammation and reducing pain with needle sticks.
- Physiotherapeutic methods - magneto- and laser therapy, UHF.Applied additionally with medicamental methods.
When develops, it is necessary to change the lifestyle of , to abandon bad habits, and also to perform daily physical exercises that favorably affect tissues in the spine.
Strict restrictions in the diet for osteochondrosis is not provided.The general rule of is to consume less salt, smoked foods and spicy food. It is necessary to fully provide the cartilage tissue with substances capable of restoring its synthesis( cold meat from meat and fish broths, dishes with the addition of gelatin).Instead of white bread it is recommended to eat bran or gray. About a third of the diet is made up of proteins( fish, meat, milk, legumes, eggs, seafood).
Vegetables and fruits are consumed daily by , especially often - cabbage, greens, carrots, citrus fruits, apples. Also in the menu include seeds, nuts, dried fruits.
Basic exercises for the muscles and spine of the cervical department( performed for 6-7 repetitions):
- neck extension up( 2-3 minutes);
- light head inclines to the right and left;
- slow deep turns in both directions;
- head turns with a chin down to the neck;
- press the palm onto the forehead, trying to resist the efforts of the muscles of the neck;repeat the same way by clicking on the whiskey one by one.
Self-massage The movements of the hand are directed from the top down, that is, from the back to the back and shoulders. The massage is performed while sitting, while the neck is in a strictly vertical position. Sufficient will perform smooth direct or circular movements on the skin of the outer side of the neck and shoulders, while lubricating it with massage oil or a warming cream, for 5-7 minutes a day.
Treatment with folk methods
Traditional medicine methods are widely used for the treatment of osteochondrosis of the neck, with the most effective combination with traditional ones:
- To remove the edema and inflammation, the following composition is used: mix mustard powder( 100 g) with 100 ml.kerosene and 200 grams of salt. After thorough mixing, apply the product on the skin in the area of the spine, and after 15 minutes, rinse.
- A mask of blue clay and salt will help to create a thermal effect and reduce pain. Equal proportions of both components slightly dilute with water, then abundantly lubricate the neck and wrap with a film and a warm cloth. After 2 hours you can wash off the mask with warm water.
- For the massage, you can use fresh honey instead of cream. Having well stretched the area of shoulders and neck, then the patient area is wrapped with a towel and allowed to stand for 1 hour, after which it is washed off.
- To rub in the area of severe pain, you can tastes like this: dandelion flowers( 50 pieces) pour vodka( 0,5 l.), Insist 1 month.
- Well relieve swelling and inflammation, and also help improve the local circulation of compresses from aloe juice( 70 ml.), Vodka( 200 ml.) And 120 g. Honey. After mixing the product, you can leave it on your neck and shoulders under the tape for the whole night.
- In summer, for the treatment of osteochondrosis, you can use this recipe: the horseradish leaves are kneaded slightly in the hands and then tied to the neck by cutting the tissue. Keep on the body you need so much, so much can tolerate the skin, but not less than an hour.
- Twist in a meat grinder 2 lemons, 100 grams of garlic, then add 1.5 liters of boiling water. Take the medicine inside by 0.5 st.in a day. This method will help to cope with salt deposits, improve blood circulation and muscle condition.
- Brew for 20 grams of valerian roots, leaves of mother-and-stepmother 0.3 liters.water, insist for a while, and then take 3 times / day for 100 ml. Anti-inflammatory and soothing effect of herbs will help to cope with pain, neuroses.
- To improve the overall condition, it is recommended daily to consume herbal infestations of balm, St. John's wort, yarrow, hawthorn and hips, infusion of Chaga mushroom.
Prevention of osteochondrosis of the neck
To prevent the development of the disease , it is necessary to follow simple rules:
- Avoid supercooling of the neck , in the cold season wear scarves or clothes with warm collars. The headdress at this time is an obligatory attribute of the wardrobe.
- Follow the posture of the spine, while in any position.
- Sleep only on orthopedic pillows.
- Eliminate neck and head injuries, with care to perform complex physical exercises.
- Avoid lifting weights.
- When working behind a computer, driving an , it is necessary to perform a neck warm-up every 2 hours ;in the case of severe fatigue, you can do self-massage of the muscles of the neck and shoulders.
- Avoid sharp turns of the head, tipping back, etc.
- Reading is recommended only with a vertically positioned head, without tilting it.
After the treatment or surgery has been completed, it is necessary to restrict the movements of the neck, not to drive, wear special supporting corsets, exclude bad habits, and also comply with the prescription of the doctor concerning the strengthening of the cervical department( exercise therapy, gymnastics, swimming, bath, etc.).
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine - the degree of development of
What is osteochondrosis, many know. Some even experienced the symptoms of this unpleasant disease, which not only causes pain and discomfort, but also helps deform intervertebral discs, reducing the height of the bundle. Cervical osteochondrosis passes through four stages of development, each of which manifests itself in its own way.A new look at the treatmentAs the former "hard worker" was able to get rid of arthritis and osteochondrosis for a month. .. Read more. ..
Stages of osteochondrosis
The clinical picture of osteochondrosis of the cervical region is so diverse that it is not immediately possible to guess the presence of the disease. Usually, when the cervical region of the patient is affected, constant headaches, nervous tension, and sensitivity disturbance begin to disturb him. Very often the patient himself attributes such a state to nervous excitability and delays the visit to the doctor. In fact, everything is much worse. Osteochondrosis is an insidious disease requiring vigilance and timely treatment already at the first stage of its development.
The first stage of osteochondrosis
Any osteochondrosis, as a rule, manifests the same. At the very beginning of its development, minor cracks form on the fibrous ring of the vertebral discs. This occurs under the influence of factors such as: sedentary and sedentary lifestyle, improper diet, excessive strain on the spine.
As a result of serious disturbances in metabolic processes, the complex structure of biopolymer compounds is destroyed, which constitute the pulp nucleus. With such destruction, the nucleus loses water, begins to dry up and decrease in size, becomes less durable, as a result of which it ceases to cope with the loads. Practice shows that the first stage of osteochondrosis of the cervical spine is usually asymptomatic. The patient practically does not feel pain, sometimes he can feel stiffness during sudden movements and therefore does not consider it necessary to consult a doctor for appropriate treatment. This omission can subsequently lead to more disastrous results. And at the first stage, the treatment is based only on a massage course without taking medications( analgesics and non-steroid medications that relieve pain, tension in the muscles and joint tissues and inflammation).
Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 1st degree in case of untimely treatment passes to the second degree.
Second stage of osteochondrosis
Cervical osteochondrosis in the second stage of the disease is characterized by damage to the fibrous ring of the disc. Due to uneven and excessive load on the damaged spine, small cracks and tears develop on the back and side surfaces of the disc. As a result of this damage, the fibrous ring becomes thinner, and the core is squeezed into the tears formed inside it, further widening them. The disk increases and begins to protrude beyond the edges of the cervical vertebrae. The protrusion of the disc forms. From this point on, the patient feels pain, initially not much worried about him, but eventually assuming a permanent character.
Pain is characterized by the infringement of the roots of the cervical spinal nerves and occurs every time the patient makes turns and head inclinations. In this case, such manifestations as: general weakness, decreased efficiency, numbness of some part of the face and even hands may occur. The patient is afraid of making unnecessary movement, as a result of which the stiffness of movements envelops him.
And, despite the similar picture, the patient still does not consult a doctor. He independently takes drugs that relieve pain and inflammation. The disease may recede for a while, but if the situation is favorable for it( for example, a cold, exercise stress, decreased immunity, etc.) again makes itself felt. Absence of treatment leads to the fact that osteochondrosis takes the third stage.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 2nd degree requires intervention by the doctor and treatment based on the use of massage, physiotherapy exercises and medications.
Third stage of cervical osteochondrosis
At this stage, a disc herniation is formed. The fibrous ring still continues to deform and, as a result, breaks. The pelvic nucleus falls into the subglottic space, eventually forming a disk hernia. With such damage, all the tissues surrounding the disc suffer: muscles, ligaments, vessels, nerves. Osteochondrosis takes a chronic form. During this time, the bone structure of the vertebrae changes shape, becomes coarse, ribbed, acute. As for the muscles, they also undergo serious changes. They begin to contract spontaneously, limiting the mobility of both the spine as a whole and the individual vertebrae. The nerves that leave the spinal cord are jammed and perceive the impulses coming from the brain directly to the organs and tissues.
Cervical osteochondrosis in the third stage is characterized by the following signs and clinical picture: The spine as a whole is mobile, but the individual vertebrae are fragile and easily damaged. Since it is in this department of the spine that the carotid and vertebral arteries are responsible for supplying and nourishing the brain with blood, an untimely visit to the doctor can cause the patient to begin to worry about aching pains in the back of the neck and neck, which are difficult for the head to move. In addition, the following symptoms occur:
- severe or dull pain in the inferior parts of the neck, intensifying after physical exertion or wrong position of the head;
- aching pain in the occipital region, regularly turning into the area of the forearm or shoulder;
- permanent weakness in the hands.
At this stage, cervical osteochondrosis can seriously affect vision and hearing, cause severe dizziness, including nausea, as well as noise and unpleasant ringing in the ears.
That's why experts strongly recommend not to engage in self-medication and not delay treatment in the long box, but to consult a doctor. Correctly diagnosed and correctly selected treatment will allow at certain times to relieve pain and eliminate the symptoms of inflammation, as well as to get rid of osteochondrosis of the neck in a timely manner.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 3rd degree in the absence of treatment passes into the fourth( last) degree of development.
Fourth stage of the disease
The fourth degree of the disease is characterized by degenerative spine repair. At this stage, the disease lasts long enough, almost a year and even more. During this time in the deformed and damaged spine there is a change in the growth of bone tissue. To somehow reduce the load on the disk, the bone begins to expand in width, thereby increasing the area of the vertebra. Bony growths, called osteophytes, are formed. They take part in limiting the mobility of the injured segment and stopping the process of vertebral destruction at the cost of mobility. As a result of this "recovery" the damaged spine turns into a motionless bone column.
And, despite the fact that the pain starts to recede, and, in some cases, even passes, however the problem still remains, since the spinal nerves in any case remain. Now the nerves are under pressure not only from the displaced disks and vertebrae, but also from the osteophytes growing on the vertebrae.
In the absence of painful feelings, the patient mistakenly believes that the osteochondrosis has passed, and ceases to pay attention to other, no less important symptoms. Meanwhile, he does not notice how the freedom of movement is limited to turn his head, he has to turn his whole body. However, at this stage, many patients do not rush to the doctor, believing that after the pain will pass and other symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis. Nevertheless, this stage is characterized by the fact that it requires a serious and long treatment, which is based on the use of strong medications for both internal and external purposes. These are anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents for local use. In parallel with the use of medicines, therapeutic physical exercises, manual therapy are prescribed.
Only compliance with all the recommendations of the doctor, as well as the timely and strict passage of all stages of treatment will in some measure reduce the symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis. Every patient should remember that a doctor can help only in case of timely treatment and competent treatment.
And in addition to all it should be noted that the osteochondrosis of the neck, as was said above, is an insidious disease. Initially, it may not manifest itself at all or be characterized by a slight and rapidly passing pain. However, over time, the disease takes a chronic form, as a result of which a person loses the joy of life because of such factors of malaise as: limited movements, dizziness, headaches, weakness, deterioration of well-being, loss of interest in the environment.