Cancer of the hip joint

Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of the Five Major Hip Diseases

Basic Hip Disease:

  1. Osteoarthritis.

  2. Arthritis.

  3. Congenital anomalies( hip dysplasia and hip dislocation).

  4. Oncology.

  5. Legg-Calvet-Perthes disease.

Each disease has its own characteristic symptoms: arthritis can occur and flow sharply, with severe pain and signs of inflammation;arthrosis - start imperceptibly and slowly destroy the joint.

But all the pathologies of the hip joint( abbreviated TBS) are very serious, and they can not be started in any case: late diagnosis leads to a lack of adequate treatment, which can result in chronic pain and loss of joint function until disability. With the timely start of therapy, it is possible to prevent joint death and eliminate or significantly reduce painful symptoms.

Methods of treatment depending on the pathology, too, are significantly different. Examples:

  • with coxarthrosis - make exercise therapy, adjust lifestyle, take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs);
  • for rheumatoid arthritis - take antirheumatic drugs, NSAIDs and hormones,
  • for dysplasia of TBS - do gymnastics and fixing bandages in the early stages and operations on the later stages.

For diagnostics( which illnesses you have, who will treat it) and treatment, first consult a therapist or an orthopedic traumatologist. The doctor, having examined you, if necessary, will refer to another narrow specialist - arthrologist, rheumatologist, endocrinologist, surgeon - everything will depend on what disease is suspected.

Below we will tell you about the types of diseases of TBS, their main manifestations and methods of treatment. Diseases in the article are arranged in order of decreasing frequency of their occurrence.

1. Hip arthrosis

Osteoarthritis of the hip( or coxarthrosis) is the most common disease of TBS.

Left - healthy hip joint, right - coxarthrosis

Causes Symptoms Treatment

Usually, the disease develops in people over 30 years old due to wear and destruction of cartilage, which subsequently leads to damage to bone surfaces.

Other causes - obesity, trauma, previously suffered arthritis.

The first signs are barely noticeable: passing blunt pains in the hip joint after prolonged loads, crunching at movements.

Over time, the pathological changes increase, the pain intensifies, there is a restriction of function( lameness in walking, difficulty flexion-extension, withdrawal-bringing the legs).

With massive destruction of cartilage and involvement of bone surfaces in this process, the joint irreversibly loses its function - disability occurs.

Treatment of arthrosis should be started as early as possible, referring to an arthrologist or orthopedist. It is obligatory to perform non-medicamentous measures( daily gymnastics, physiotherapy, to limit heavy loads), take NSAIDs and chondroprotectors( drugs restoring the cartilage structure).

Early onset of treatment, following recommendations, stops the progression of the disease and eliminates most of the symptoms. In the later stages, the ability to move can only be restored by the endoprosthetics of TBS.

2. Arthritis TBS

Arthritis is a common name for a heterogeneous group of diseases united by a single sign - the presence of inflammation in the joint. Arthritis can be:

  1. rheumatoid,

  2. reactive,

  3. called specific infection,

  4. psoriatic,

  5. arthritic.

Reactive arthritis

possible symptoms accompanying reactive arthritis

Possible symptoms accompanying reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis is a disease of the immune-inflammatory nature that occurs during or immediately after an infection. Arthritis itself is one of the symptoms of this very infection.

Causes Symptoms Treatment of

Reactive arthritis often occurs in young adults and in children.

The development of the disease is usually provoked by intestinal infections( yersiniosis, salmonellosis, dysentery) and urogenital( chlamydia).It is possible to provoke arthritis with viruses( against influenza, ARVI), streptococci, ureaplasmas, mycoplasmas and other microorganisms.

Symptoms of reactive arthritis in the hip joint occur most often 1-3 weeks after infection, or even during infection.

In case of a disease, there is a rise in body temperature, pain in the TBS, swelling and redness around it, tenderness when walking and kicking. Often there are changes in the skin and mucous membranes( small ulcers in the oral cavity, dense dry skin on the palms and soles - keratoderma).

In some cases, reactive arthritis of the hip joint proceeds like Reiter's syndrome - with a triad of symptoms:

  1. inflammation( arthritis);

  2. urethritis - inflammation of the urethra with cuts and burning in the genital area, especially during urination;

  3. conjunctivitis - inflammation of the eye and eyelids, which is manifested by reddening of the inner surface of the eyelids, lacrimation, sensation of sand in the eyes, photophobia( in the bright light, there are rezi and burning sensation in the eyes).

Reactive arthritis is treated by arthrologists, surgeons or orthopedists in conjunction with infectious disease specialists or therapists.

The choice of medications depends on the pathogen that provoked the inflammation: with urogenital infections, antibiotics are prescribed with a long course( doxycycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin), with intestinal infections, antibiotics are not used. Always apply NSAIDs( diclofenac, nimesil, movalis), with severe current the doctor connects hormones( prednisolone).

In case of long-lasting symptoms, stronger drugs are prescribed: sulfasalazine, azathioprine, methotrexate.

Usually, reactive arthritis responds well to treatment, after 3-5 months recovery occurs. Only in 10% of patients the ailment passes into a chronic form with periodic occurrence of pain.

In any case, the destruction of the joint does not occur, its function is not violated.

Septic( infectious) arthritis

septic arthritis Causes Symptoms Treatment

Septic arthritis occurs when a pathogen is injected with blood flow in severe infections( pyelonephritis, pneumonia, peritonitis) or from the outside( with contamination of injuries and injuries to the skin and soft tissues near the joint).

Among septic arthritis, the gonococcal is isolated, which develops against the background of infection with the gonococcus.

Septic arthritis is characterized by signs of acute inflammation - pain in the TBS, redness and swelling of the skin around it, fever up to 39 ° C and higher, a sharp disruption of the function of the joint( inability to stand and walk, to move in the hip).

Septic arthritis is severe and requires immediate medical attention: without treatment, the infection can spread and even lead to death. With timely full-fledged treatment, the disease manages to restore and restore the function of the joint.

Treatment is performed by surgeons in the hospital with mandatory use of large doses of antibiotics intramuscularly, intravenously or inside the joint. Simultaneously, a puncture of the articular cavity is performed to remove accumulated pus. If necessary, carry out the operation with the removal of dead cartilage pieces.

Rheumatoid arthritis

rheumatoid arthritis

For rheumatoid arthritis, there is atypical localization in the hip joint, but this still occurs. More often both joints are affected simultaneously, and other groups of joints( fingers, knees, elbows, etc.) can also be affected.

characteristic changes in the affected joints of the hand with rheumatoid arthritis Causes Symptoms Treatment

Unknown.

  • Pain in the joint region;
  • morning stiffness - in the morning the movements are most difficult, during the day the function can be normal;
  • common manifestations - fever, loss of appetite, weight loss;
  • appearance of rheumatoid nodules - small painless seals in the skin near the elbows, forearms, on the shins and elsewhere.

Diagnostic and treats rheumatoid arthritis by a rheumatologist.

Drug therapy complex: the appointment of courses of anti-rheumatic drugs( penicillamine, methotrexate, azathioprine, deligil), NSAIDs with long courses( voltaren, nimesulide, ibuprofen), short courses of hormones( prednisolone, dexamethasone).

It is impossible to cure rheumatoid arthritis, but when performing medical appointments the development of the disease stops, the painful symptoms almost completely stop, it is possible to preserve the integrity of the joint and its function for a long time.

Psoriatic arthritis

joints, most commonly affected by psoriatic arthritis Causes Symptoms Treatment

Psoriatic arthritis develops on the background of psoriasis - a skin disease with characteristic symptoms( it's dry reddish patches on the skin).

Hip joint is rarely affected.

The disease proceeds with all the classic symptoms - joint pain, swelling, redness of the skin, fever and disruption of function.

The diagnosis is fairly easy to diagnose by the symptoms of psoriasis.

Arthritis or surgeons treat this arthritis with dermatologists. Assign NSAIDs in high doses, hormones, cytotoxic drugs( methotrexate).

The outcome depends on the severity of the course of the underlying disease.

Gouty arthritis

arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint

With gout, the hip joint is not affected often.

Causes Symptoms Treatment of

Metabolic disorders in the body.

The disease begins acutely, usually at night with an attack of agonizing pain in the joint area. And it's impossible to stand on foot in the morning.

For treatment appoint a permanent diet( exclude foods rich in urate and purine bases - these are broths, smoked foods, chocolate, limit the consumption of meat) and specific drugs( NSAIDs, colchicine, allopurinol).

The prognosis in many respects depends on how accurately the patient complies with the recommendations on nutrition and lifestyle( follows the diet, refuses alcohol, smoking, eliminates stress and hypothermia).

3. Congenital hip joint anomalies

degree of congenital hip dislocation

Degrees of congenital dislocation of the thigh

Symptoms Treatment of

Of congenital anomalies of TBS, dysplasia and dislocation of the hip are most common. All of them are manifested in early childhood, and an experienced orthopedist is able to detect these conditions already at the first preventive examination of the baby at the age of one month - due to the asymmetry of the folds on the hips and buttocks and the difficulty in raising the legs.

If the anomaly is not diagnosed on time, then up to one year the infant is noted for a lag in physical and psychomotor development: he starts to sit down late, gets up late and starts to walk late, the leg from the affected joint is shortened. Gait "duck" - with a characteristic roll over from foot to foot.

If dysplasia is detected early - it is enough to hold gymnastics, massage, then you will need to fix the legs in the "frog pose" with the help of special fixative or plaster bandages.

With late detection of dysplasia or in the presence of a hip dislocation, surgery is necessary.

4. Oncology

Causes Symptoms Treatment

Tumors can occur immediately in the joint or develop there as a metastasis in cancer of other organs.

The main symptoms are permanent painful pains in the affected area, signs of cancer intoxication( exhaustion, nausea, decreased appetite).Primary tumors in the hip joint are rare, the symptoms of the underlying disease prevail in the clinic( colon cancer, uterus).

The treatment is carried out by oncologists - they use radiation and chemotherapy, surgical interventions.

5. Legg-Calvet-Perthes disease

Perthes disease refers to osteochondropathy - a disease that occurs with non-infectious( aseptic) bone destruction( necrosis).With Perthes' disease, the head of the femur is exposed to necrosis.

Legg-Calvet-Perthes disease affects the head of the thigh Causes Symptoms Treatment of

The causes of the ailment are unknown. Usually it occurs in childhood and adolescence, the family predisposition is traced.

Initial symptoms - pain in the leg without definite localization, lameness, aggravated after prolonged or severe exercise. Gradually the head of the femur collapses, there are signs reminiscent of coxarthrosis - chronic pain in the hip joint, difficulty of function, forced fixation of the leg in a semi-bent position.

Children are treated in specialized sanatoriums. For the therapy they provide unloading of TBS( children go with supporting devices), do medical gymnastics, physiotherapy, use medicines that improve microcirculation( no-shpu, nicotinic acid), multivitamins, antiaggregants( trental, quarantil).

With full treatment for 2-4 years( sometimes longer) it is usually possible to achieve full recovery.

In some children, the function of the joint is not completely restored( the hip is limited), but this has little effect on the quality of life and does not affect the performance.

Conclusion

As you can see, the symptoms and course of diseases of the hip joint are very diverse - even doctors can not always make a correct diagnosis: an in-depth examination is required. But all diseases are serious, so do not try to self-medicate - it can result in joint destruction and disability. Of course, there are medications that can relieve pain in any condition: according to the patients' reviews, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs) give an excellent analgesic effect and well eliminate the main symptoms regardless of the cause. But relief of pain and other symptoms is only one of the tasks of treatment. Eliminate or at least slow down the development of the disease can be only with a comprehensive approach using non-medicament means( diet, gymnastics, physiotherapy) and different groups of medicines, the selection of which can be done only by a doctor.

Author: Svetlana Agrimeeva

SustavZdorov.ru

Symptoms of types of bone cancer

The human skeleton consists of a variety of bones and is a framework that is the main supporting structure. However, despite the strength of this system, the bones are also exposed to malignant tumors.

In such cases, certain symptoms of cancers of bone appear, indicating the onset of the disease.

First of all, painful sensations begin to appear in the affected bones. If at first there are no permanent pains, then gradually the condition begins to deteriorate, especially at night and under stresses. With the development of the tumor, the pains are permanent. Develops lameness, frequent fractures. Each bone of the skeleton has individual and general symptoms, manifested in various forms.

Symptoms of pelvic bone cancer

The initial stage of the disease manifests itself very poorly. In the pelvis and buttocks, dull pains are observed, with a slight increase in temperature for a short time. Pain during walking increases, which is typical for this disease.

When the cancer of the pelvic bones increases, the symptoms begin to manifest more prominently. Pathological processes begin to affect new organs and tissues. The pain intensifies, the tumor grows rapidly. After a while, it can protrude through the skin. As the tumor grows, compression and displacement of surrounding organs are observed. Violated the functions of nerves and blood vessels due to their clamping.

Gradually, mobility is limited, and pain becomes even worse, especially at night. Anesthetics do not give the proper effect. Pelvic tumors give early and extensive metastases that penetrate the vital organs along with the blood flow.

Symptoms of hip bone cancer

Like other types of tumors, hip cancer causes symptoms that begin with severe pain. However, the final diagnosis is established only after a long time. Gradually the pains take a deep local character, become aching and persistent. They are manifested not only in a calm state, but also during exercise. With the germination of the tumor, the pain intensifies, and the anesthetic agents no longer help.

In the place of tumor formation, a swelling that can be easily detected by touch is clearly visible. When squeezing the tumor of the sciatic nerve, pain occurs in the back and sacrum, causing radiculitis. As a result, sleep and general vital activity are disturbed. The hip becomes brittle, causing frequent fractures.

Symptoms of hand bone cancer

Tumors can be primary and secondary. Cancer of the arm bones forms the symptoms characteristic of this disease. Pain sensations are not associated with physical exertion, they are aching and manifest constantly. Insomnia comes, limbs and joints swell, their bones become fragile. Fractures can occur even with a slight fall. Concomitant symptoms are manifested in the form of abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. This is due to the ingress of calcium salts into the blood, especially when forming secondary tumors.

Symptoms of bone cancer of the spine

The clinical picture, representing the cancer of the bones of the spine, shows symptoms in the form of pain in the lower or middle part of the back. These unpleasant sensations intensify at night and in the morning. Pain gives in the hands or feet, it then intensifies, it weakens. From where the tumor was formed, its influence on the surrounding organs depends.

When you feel the suspicious areas, very often you can find a hummocky seal, which, when pressed, causes pain.

Symptoms of a nervous nature that affect the sciatic nerve are also observed. Cancer of the spine can cause weakness in the muscles and a decrease in sensitivity. Difficulty of movement, leading to frequent falls of the patient.

Symptoms of foot bone cancer

In most cases, malignant transformation affects the bones of the legs. Especially, it concerns the tubular long bones and the area of ​​the knee joints. Therefore, the leg bone cancer has symptoms, with individual characteristics for this organ.

An indispensable symptom of the disease is pain, which increases with physical exertion. The mobility of the affected organ is limited. At the site of the tumor there is swelling, protruding under the skin, gradually there may be a visible deformation of the leg.

All this is accompanied by fever, lethargy, weakness and weight loss. An accurate diagnosis is established only after X-ray examinations and a biopsy of the diseased organ.

Symptoms of ileal cancer

The ileum is one of the largest parts of the skeleton. There are only two of them, located to the right and left of the pelvic bone. This body is also susceptible to oncological diseases. Therefore, ileal cancer exhibits symptoms that are characteristic of other bone elements.

The main manifestation is permanent pain, a significant deterioration in overall well-being.

At the slightest suspicion of the disease, it is necessary to conduct a checkup to begin timely treatment. From this, in many cases, the final result and the forecast depend.

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kosti.stadiiraka.ru

Diseases of the hip joint, which are manifested by the clinic of arthritis, occur quite often. For diseases that are attributed to this group are characterized by almost identical symptoms. The first is usually pain, which is amplified by movement, that is, when there is an axial load on the lower limbs. The nature of the pain may be different, but most often there is aching and periodically stitching pain;occurs in the upper third of the thigh, sometimes transmitted to the groin. Local increase in temperature, like redness, is almost impossible to detect due to a significant layer of subcutaneous tissue on the hips. Dysfunction develops with pain and consists in limiting the movements( both flexion and extension, and rotation along the axis).

Diseases of the hip joint with the arthritis clinic

Rheumatoid arthritis

A feature of rheumatoid arthritis is the increased pain in the joints in the morning. With this pathology, arthritis often passes into a chronic stage with the development of deformation and a significant restriction of functions.

Polyarthritis

As for rheumatoid arthritis, for this pathology multiple lesions are characteristic, that is, always in parallel with the hip joints small joints of the hands, shoulders, feet are affected.

Infectious-allergic arthritis

Infectious-allergic inflammatory process affects the hip joints rather rarely and is a consequence of immune disorders caused by a microorganism that provoked inflammation in the body( often with various angina, staphylococcal infection).The signs of pathology are poorly expressed and therefore the patient does not always notice the limited movements in the joints.

Specific arthritis

Specific infectious arthritis occurs most often against the background of syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, gonorrhea, viral and fungal infections. Symptoms are similar for classical arthritis, however it is effective in case of removal of the pathogen from the body. Tuberculosis arthritis most often from this group has the ability to change into a chronic form. Symptoms of the disease are more common in men.

Arthrosis Symptoms

Arthrosis is a process of gradual destruction and dystrophy. The cartilage is destroyed and dissolves, contributes to the appearance of friction between the bones. There is a change in shape, gradually limited mobility, and with progression - no movement.

Diseases of the hip joint with arthrosis clinic

Coxarthrosis

Symptoms of arthrosis of the hip joint( coxarthrosis) are relatively specific. This pathology is first manifested by stiffness in the joint, which is especially amplified in the morning. Characteristic are also starting pains - when a person, for example, gets up from the couch after a long sitting, he has a pain that passes after a while walking. If there is no timely and effective treatment there is a significant restriction of movement, pain increases. Disease of the hip joint sharply limits the performance. At the last stages, the joint is completely immobilized.

Perthes disease

Osteochondropathy of the head of the femur has another name - Perthes disease. The very term chondropathy means a dystrophic process in the joint and bone, which occurs for no apparent reason. This hip joint disease occurs in children aged 4 to 14 years. Signs of pathology depend on its stage. At the initial manifestations, the child marks the pain and there is lameness after a long walk, the movements in the hips are limited. After a while, lameness becomes permanent and contracture appears( fixation of the hip in the flexion position).With proper treatment of this pathology, the articulation function can fully recover after 5-7 years.

Special forms of

Special forms of pathologies include pathologies not associated with infection and trauma.

Congenital diseases

Congenital diseases arise from exposure to pathogenic factors during pregnancy or childbirth.

Hip dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is congenital or develops by the end of the first year of life of the baby. Symptoms in most cases can be detected only by a doctor. The main symptoms are the presence of additional folds and their asymmetric positioning on the inner surface of the hips and limiting the removal of the baby's hips.

Congenital dislocation of the hip

If dysplasia is treated ineffectively, a dislocation of the femur can occur. Disease of the hip joint has more vivid symptoms, which manifests itself in the expressed asymmetry of the skin folds on the buttocks, the relative shortening of the affected limb and the presence of a specific click symptom which the doctor checks. The symptom is caused by the following: the legs of the child are bent in the hip and knee joints, after which they are diluted. If the doctor feels a click, the symptom is considered positive.

Tumors

Tumors of the hip joints are rare, mainly in children. The signs are not specific for this group of pathologies, therefore, additional methods of examination play an important role here. For this group, there are 2 types of symptoms: symptomatology of the joints and the manifestation of the tumor process in the body. Typically, the pain is predominantly aching in nature and restriction of movement as in arthrosis, deformation. The manifestations of the tumor process in the body include: weight loss, general weakness, anemia and others.

Other Diseases

The last group of pathologies considers hip joint damage as a consequence of various diseases.

Allergic diseases

In allergic pathologies, the hip joints are rarely affected and in most cases, after the relief of the underlying disease, the inflammatory process in the joints is also eliminated.

Collagenosis

Collagenosis( systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, Bekhterev's disease, etc.) affects the connective tissue structure of all joints, so the manifestations are almost the same as with arthrosis.

Obesity

With obesity, there is an increased stress on the joints, which gradually causes symptoms of arthrosis of the largest joints of the lower extremities.

Leukemia

In the case of leukemia, pain in the hip joints first has a volatile character, and in the future - permanent. Often the disease causes the development of joint contractures.

Diseases of the nervous system

In pathology of the nervous system, trophic tissue suffers, metabolic processes slow down and arthrosis gradually develops, due to the exclusion of muscle work - contracture.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease provokes defeat of the lower extremities. After a long time after the onset of the disease, there are persistent aching pains and deformities of the hip joints.

Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of diseases that develop as a consequence of the growth of a cancerous tumor in the body. When the hip arthritis is affected, patients note aching pain both in the joints and in the muscles of the thigh. Sometimes there is deformation due to periarticular edema, which is often noted in men.

In general, for diseases from this group, the signs may be similar for both arthritis and arthrosis, but there is always a link between the exacerbation of the underlying disease and the pathology of the hip joints.

Author of article: Site expert He hurts the joint.

  • Olivia

    Thank you. Very informative article. At me the actor, I rescue from it or him an exercise stress( pool and driving on a bicycle), I observe a regimen of day and a delivery. Well, I smear ointment when an exacerbation happens. But it was already possible to achieve a long remission. Olivia, what kind of ointment? And then my mother also has arthritis, does not know what to try. The doctor generally wrote a list of ointments, said - choose.

  • Olivia

    This ointment is for external use, which includes the poison of a viper( Viprosal B).I like it because it not only anaesthetizes, it also treats the joints, which prevents the disease from developing.

bolit-sustav.ru

Malignant oucholes( cancer) of bones and joints - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF

Malignant neoplasms of bones and articular cartilage( bone cancer) - a group of malignant tumors developing from the tissues of the skeleton. They can develop either independently or as a result of degeneration of benign tumors or processes.

Primary bone tumors are rare. Often occur in young people: 28-32 years or less. More often affected are long tubular bones( limbs) and pelvic bones. More than half of the tumors are in the periarticular bone, more often near the knee joint.

Often patients are identified in 4 stages of the process, with metastases.

There are several types of tumors of the skeleton:

- bone - from bone tissue: osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma. - cartilaginous - from cartilaginous tissue: chondrosarcoma, chondroblastoma and their varieties. - tumors of fibrous tissue: fibrosarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma. - juvenile sarcomas - Ewing sarcoma.

- Genetic disorders are the most frequent causes of development of bone tumors. - Chemical factors - Traumas of limbs.

Symptoms of bone tumors.

The first symptoms that allow one to suspect a pathological process in the body are weakness, spontaneous body temperature rises, weight loss and appetite.

The most common symptom of bone tumors, found in 70% of patients, is pain. At the beginning of the pain may be weak and disappear spontaneously. Further characteristic are persistent, persistent, intensifying with time and at night pain, which is poorly removed or not removed with anesthetic drugs.

As a rule, from the moment of occurrence of the first painful sensations before the diagnosis is established, it takes from 6 to 12 months. Often carried out before the diagnosis of physiotherapy, can increase pain or reduce it only for a short time. The pain may be of different intensity, but the faster the growth of the tumor, the pain syndrome is stronger there.

In addition, it is possible to detect tumor formation in various sizes and a restriction of mobility in the joint near which the tumor appeared. At the site of the tumor, the limb is enlarged in a circle, painful, the skin above it can be swollen and thinned, hot to the touch.

Similarly, with the development of malignant tumors of the lower extremities, one of the symptoms may be lameness.

In some cases, the first symptom of bone tumors may be pathological fractures, that is, not associated with trauma or damage, but arising spontaneously, with lifting of gravity, bends, or even at rest. Fractures of the extremities are usually observed. In this case, the fracture is associated with instability of the bone structure, since during the growth of the tumor the bone loses its natural strength and the limb loses its support.

With the development of large massive tumor processes in the bones and soft tissues of the chest, it is customary in the foreign literature to call them Askin tumors. Such tumors reach large sizes and penetrate the chest, involving and germinating internal organs: the lungs, the pleura, the organs of the mediastinum. As a rule, the disease is asymptomatic and only in the late stage manifests itself with the development of complications: severe pain, respiratory failure and dyspnea, fluid accumulation in the chest cavity, body temperature rise to high figures and hemoptysis.

Many patients, even during primary treatment, may have distant metastases.

Sarcoma Young's

One of the most aggressive bone tumors is Ewing's sarcoma. The place of their occurrence can be any bone, as well as soft tissue of the limb, head and trunk.

At the age of up to 20 years, these tumors most often affect long bones: femoral, humerus, tibia;in older age - flat bones of pelvis and skull, ribs, scapula, vertebrae. Most tumors are located in the lower extremities and pelvis. About 75% of tumors are located near the knee joint, less often - ulnar.

The highly aggressive nature of Ewing sarcoma causes the presence of distant metastases in 1/3 of the treated patients, many of them are treated directly due to the presence of metastatic disturbances.

Bone tumors stages:

Stage 1: tumor up to or greater than 8 cm in the largest measurement, degree of tumor aggressiveness( differentiation) 1-22 stage: tumor more than 8 cm, aggressiveness 3-4;Stage 3: a tumor complicated by a pathological fracture of the limb, stage 4: a tumor of any size, provided that there are metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs.

Bone tumors in 10-12% are able to give screenings( metastasize) to nearby lymph nodes. The following organs are most often affected by distant metastases: lungs, other bones and bone marrow, as well as organs of the abdominal cavity, lymph nodes of the mediastinum and retroperitonealspace, pleura, brain and meninges.

Diagnosis of bone tumors:

X-ray examination of the of the affected bones allows to identify the tumor, the extent of its spread to the bone and surrounding soft tissues and organs.

X-ray examination, bone cancer is indicated by the arrow

Computer or Magnetic-resonance tomography of the affected parts of the skeleton or soft tissues allows to more accurately determine the boundaries of the tumor distribution, as well as to clarify the relationship of the primary focus and surrounding soft tissues.

Computer or magnetic resonance imaging. Bone cancer is indicated by an arrow

Osteoscintigraphy is a study of a skeleton with a special radiopharmaceutical( usually technetium 99), followed by scanning the entire skeleton. The drug, administered intravenously, accumulates the affected area of ​​the bone and causes a special "glow" of this area in the pictures. This study allows to detect, in addition to the tumor itself, distant metastases in other parts of the skeleton. The biopsy of the tumor site of the tumor, usually an open biopsy is used: a piece of the tumor is taken by a small operation, while the tumor itself is not removed. In some cases, trepan biopsy is possible: taking a piece of the tumor for examination with a special needle.

Bone marrow examination : a bone marrow biopsy of the iliac bones is used.

Treatment of bone tumors.

The first place in the treatment of bone tumors is the surgical method. The volume of the operation depends on the size and location of the tumor. The entire tumor must be removed within the healthy tissues and surrounding muscles. For large tumor sizes, when a large volume of tissue or bone is required to be removed, permanent substitute metal structures are used. In some cases, when the tumor is close to large joints, it affects large vessels and nerves, when it is not possible to keep the limb, resort to the removal of the entire limb: amputation. Such operations are currently being avoided, and organ conservation and replacement operations are increasingly being used.

To other methods of standard antitumor treatment, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, bone tumors are almost insensitive.

Radiotherapy alone is not used, but is used only in combination with chemotherapy in preparation for surgery, in order to reduce the tumor in size.

Chemotherapy as an independent treatment method, also, is not applied. Use chemotherapy drugs in the preoperative period, in order to reduce the tumor in size. In such cases, large-scale clinics use local chemotherapy administration - an introduction to a nearby artery, which creates a large concentration of the drug in the tumor and reduces its toxic effect on the body.

In addition, chemotherapy is used at stage 4 of the disease, in the case of the presence of distant tumor metastases in other organs, in order to reduce their size, prolong the life of the patient. In this case, a combination of 3 or more drugs with different mechanisms of action is used.

With the aim of speedy recovery and strengthening of the operated limb, early activation of patients, therapeutic massage and gymnastics are used.

In some cases, after surgery for bone tumors, rehabilitation rehabilitation treatment is required, it can consist of the use of medical gymnastics, physical education( gymnastics), wearing support devices( bandages, elastic bandages), the use of prostheses. In all cases of postoperative restorative treatment, specialist consultation is required.

The use of self-treatment methods, decoctions of herbs and poisons is unacceptable. Tumors of the bones grow rapidly and extremely aggressively, delay in referring to a specialist can be dangerous and lead to the sad consequences of .

Complications.

Complications of bone tumors include: pathological fractures - a fracture in the tumor area, where a "weak spot" occurs.

Severe pain syndrome in the area of ​​tumor lesion.

Complications associated with the involvement of neighboring organs: in lung lesions- development of respiratory failure, hemoptysis;with the defeat of large vessels-the development of edema of the limb or arrosive bleeding.

In addition, with a large array of tumors, infection can be associated with: persistent debilitating body temperature rises, exhaustion.

Prognosis for bone tumors.

With timely and adequate treatment( surgery to remove the entire tumor), the survival rate of patients reaches 60-70%, which depends on the stage of the tumor process and the aggressiveness of the tumor. But, it should be remembered that any malignant tumor is dangerous by the return of the disease: the development of relapse and metastases, in view of this, the patient should undergo timely preventive examinations with a specialist doctor.

No patient survives in stage 4 of the disease.

Prophylaxis of bone tumors.

As such, prevention of bone tumors does not exist, as, more often than not, their development is genetic. The success of treatment depends on the timely diagnosis of the disease: treatment to the doctor, detection and treatment of the disease.

Doctor's consultation on the topic of malignant bone tumors:

Question: What are the risks of bone tumors? Answer: Bone tumors are dangerous for rapid aggressive growth, as well as the ability to relapse after removal and give distant metastases.

Question: What is the treatment of bone tumors? The leading method of treatment of malignant, and, in some cases, benign tumors of the bones is surgical. Only surgery can give the patient a chance to recover.

Doctor oncologist Barinova N.Yu.

# 6 Helena 18.02.2016 18: 39Hello everyone, I live far from the ststolitsy our homeland, so we have memeditsina at the lowest level, I suffer for half a year from pains in the lower limbs, doctors diagnose rheumatoid arthritis, but I think that is not the correct diagnosis, whereWill address advise, even I do not know what to do or make, the status bad toshnit constantly, the head is turned, and bitter in a mouth.# 5 Vanda21.01.2016 14: 54No strength to look at these sufferings. Mom has cancer of the bone, the end of the last stage is almost over. She refused drugs, a strange reaction in the form of vomiting, the inability to go to the toilet and so on, taking into account the fact that consciousness is not unavailable. Pain is creepy, asking for death. Where is humanity.# 4Natalya15.09.2015 19: 56Day good! Soon 40 days, as a very young girl has died, unreal beauty, a straightforward word of honor, a very beautiful girl. .. what a pity, only 20 years, my God, I can not put up with anything? My son has a friend, so Katyusha was his girlfriend-3 years together, three years he fought and hoped together with her, we must go to Moscow, we go together, we need something together, we need this together. .. they reallyloved each other. ... and After all, parents took her to Israel, we all hoped that everything would be all right. .. I finished school, then I finished all my education, I saw this graduation, as everyone congratulated her, as she was all wishedmost-knew EVERYTHING!and then went to another medical treatment in Moscow, for two days she was spoken by her sister on the phone: Katyusha was hard to breathe and she started coughing, and then she calls her parents: come Katya to the intensive care unit-father and a young man rushed right away, arrived early in the morning, the doctor said that you should not show her that she is bad, on the faces calmness-the father did not immediately come in, went down to the drugstore for medicine, and when they got up-she DIED! !!!!!could not stand the heart! !!!!Tell me, is this honest?how could this happen in the hospital?because the doctors led her, because they knew what drugs, etc.-so why did not they keep everything under control? I can not put up with it, I just can not, because the child did it all, after all, everything was done and carried everywhere, but died of a cardiac arrest. ..... It's impossible to accept such a thing-how can you hope for a miracle when in a medical institution, not in the firsttime, certain symptoms began for 2 days and cough and shortness of breath. ......... STOPPED the heart, 20 years, stopped HEART! !!!!!# 3Anna 01.07.2015 16: 14Sesterka at age 18 died of Ewing's sarcoma( she studied at MedVU, dreamed of being an oncologist. . Exhausted for a year.) Neither German doctors, nor surgery, nor chemistry / irradiation saved them.right side at her. . All checked that it's only possible. No result. None passed. More than one doctor then sent to MRI.And there-on the left leg in the thigh area a tumor of 17cm! !! And, as it turned out later, lung metastasesWe were told by German doctors that there is no chance, just prolonging life. "And they licked the fake test results, so that(she, as a medical student, studied them in detail). An eerie, agonizing, terrible disease that takes away young people.

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