Symptoms of flatfoot in adults

Longitudinal and transverse platypodia and its treatment

Flattening is a deformation of the arch of the foot, viz. Lowering of the arch. As a result of this deformation, the foot almost completely loses its damping properties, which leads to a number of unpleasant consequences and complications. In this article, we will try to understand as much as possible what is a flatfoot - treatment, symptoms, causes and complications.

General information

In a healthy state, the human foot has two distinct arches - transverse( located under the bases of the fingers) and longitudinal( located along the foot).These arches fulfill the most important function - they enable the person to maintain balance and absorb shock during walking. It is clear that the foot itself, and specifically these arches of the foot are under serious load, because they weigh on the weight of the human body. And if the ligaments and muscles of the feet stop working normally and for some reason weaken, the shape of the foot begins to change - the arches of the feet decrease, it gradually becomes flat, as a result of which the main function of the foot - the spring one - is lost.

Healthy feet - a healthy body

If the foot ceases to absorb the load, then this function will be forced to perform other joints( ankle, knee and hip), and "get" and the spine. But they cope with such a function not too well, because they are not designed for this. In addition, such a peculiar load leads to an accelerated "wear" of the joints.

This is why flat feet are often the cause of pain in the legs and back of the , although at first glance the person simply does not see such a connection. So it is worth remembering that it is as a result of the development of flat feet that pain can appear in the feet, hips, knees and lower back, rapid fatigue when walking. In this case, the pain appears at a time when the body can no longer provide normal movement, and is forced to "redistribute the load."As a result, joints of the legs and hip joint suffer, posture disorders or problems with intervertebral discs may occur. The final result of the effects of flat feet on the body can be the development of scoliosis and arthrosis, often the development of varicose veins.

Another interesting fact is that quite often this disease occurs in people with "sedentary" work, and not only in the category of workers who are forced to spend the whole day on their feet. This is due to the fact that the muscles and ligaments weaken without load( too large loads can also lead to flatfoot development), so it is very important to maintain a certain motor activity.

Many young people are wondering whether they are taking to the army with flat feet. On our site there is already an article that can answer this question.

The causes of flatfoot

The reasons for the development of flatfoot can be quite a lot, we will try to list the most "popular" ones:

  • bad or unsuccessfully matched shoes. It means shoes with a high heel or platform, narrow shoes, etc.;
  • increase in body weight, which can occur for various reasons( pregnancy, obesity, etc.);
  • hereditary predisposition. In this case, we are talking about defects in the development of the muscles, ligaments and bones of the foot;
  • various injuries( trauma of the foot, fracture of the calcaneus or ankle, cracks or severe cartilage bruises, damage to the muscles and ligaments of the foot);
  • diseases( for example, rickets, as a result of which the bones weaken and become soft, so they can easily deform, and the complication of poliomyelitis can arise - the leg and foot muscles paralysis);
  • sedentary work and sedentary lifestyle. In this case, the muscles and ligaments of the foot become weaker, since they do not receive the necessary loads;
  • excess load - running and jumping sports, standing work.

There are quite a few reasons, as you can see.

Platypus types

The human foot has two main arches, so it is quite logical that there are two types of flatfoot - longitudinal and transverse flat feet. Accordingly, with a decrease in the arch, the foot may increase in width or length. There is also a combined flatfoot, in this case we are talking about the simultaneous flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. This situation is also called longitudinal-transverse flatfoot.

Both basic types of flatfoot are quite common, but the most common is the transverse one.

Also, when classifying by species, the acquired and the congenital are often divided. Congenital flat feet are rare, it is the result of malformations of the fetus. Treatment of flat feet in this case begins with the first days of the child's life.

Types of flatfoot

But with the acquired flatfoot the situation is somewhat more complicated - it can appear at any age and can be of several types:

  • static;
  • is ricky;
  • is paralytic;
  • is traumatic.

Traumatic - occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the ankle and foot, or with severe damage to ligaments and soft muscle tissue that strengthens the arch of the foot.

Paralytic - occurs as a result of poliomyelitis, or because of paralysis of the tibial muscles and foot muscles.

Rickets - occurs as a result of rickets. This disease disrupts the normal formation of foot bones, they do not have the necessary characteristics in this case and can quickly deform.

But the most common form is static flatfoot. Approximately 80% of all cases are related to this species. Causes in this case may be overweight, uncomfortable shoes, prolonged excessive stress on the feet, weak muscles and ligaments of the foot, etc.

Degrees of disease

There are 3 degrees of development of this disease.

Longitudinal flatfoot is less common, but with this disease the change in the shape of the foot is gradual and almost invisible to the patient.

  1. Longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the legs. This degree is very poorly expressed, the patient can only experience discomfort when pressing on the foot or while dressing the shoes. In some cases, swelling may appear in the evening.
  2. Longitudinal flatfoot of the 2nd degree is already manifested by constant pains, which can be quite intense and spread to the region of the shins and ankles. With this degree of disease, the gait is already losing its smoothness, walking becomes heavier.
  3. Platypodia of the third degree is manifested by persistent severe pains that cover not only the foot, but also the lower leg, and in some cases even low back pains appear. Deformation of the foot with this degree of disease is already pronounced and very noticeable, often there are swelling in the joints of the foot. Walking to a person at this stage of the disease is difficult, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to move around.

Do you happen to have such symptoms?

It is worth paying attention to the appearance of such symptoms:

  • shoes trampled on the inside;

    Flat feet have every third person in our country

  • very quickly get tired feet while standing or walking;
  • appears pain in the foot after physical exertion;
  • at the end of the day feels pain and fatigue in the legs, there is a feeling of heaviness, puffiness;
  • swelling in the ankles;
  • walking on heels becomes very hard;
  • leg increases in size, resulting in buying shoes for size larger.

Many of these symptoms correspond not only to flat feet, but also varicose veins, so that when they occur, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Symptoms of longitudinal flatfoot

  • fatigue in the legs, with pressure on the middle of the foot or sole appears pain, by the evening the back of the foot swells;
  • persistent and severe pain both in the feet themselves, and in the region of the shins and ankles, it becomes difficult to find comfortable shoes;
  • together with pain in the feet begins to appear pain in the lower back, outwardly becomes invisible longitudinal arch;the foot swells, the ankle joint is inactive, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to walk.

Symptoms of transverse flatfoot

  • disappear the transverse arch of the foot, as a result of which the deformation of the fingers develops;
  • appear pain and skin pigmentation in the forefoot;
  • appears hammer-shaped fingers.

What should be the treatment?

First of all, it should be noted that the treatment of transverse and longitudinal flat feet is in principle the same in terms of measures applied. In addition, it must be remembered that if an adult is treated, there will still be no complete recovery, only certain improvements are possible. But the children are fully recovered because the child's leg is just being formed and correction is possible.

Treatment of flatfoot in adults

Since complete recovery of an adult with such a disease is impossible, the treatment is designed primarily to stop the progression of the disease, and then create the necessary conditions for foot correction. That is why is very important to diagnose the disease as early as possible .

Since the conservative treatment is the preferred method of treatment of the disease in the early stages of its development, the treatment involves the removal of pain and the improvement of the condition of the muscles and ligaments of the foot, thus stopping the development of the disease.

The video, which you can see below, shows one of the methods of diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot:

For the removal of pain, medications are usually used in combination with physiotherapy procedures.

The basis of the same treatment is therapeutic gymnastics. at flatfoot is determined by the orthopedic physician , and the exercises are selected for a specific patient, taking into account the form and extent of the disease.

A good therapeutic effect with flat feet gives a foot massage, including a hydromassage. Thanks to such procedures, blood circulation is normalized and the muscle tone of the shin and feet is increased.

At the initial stage, a good effect gives the use of special orthopedic insoles, which again are made individually.

But, unfortunately, the above procedures will have a serious effect only in the early stages of the disease. With strong deformations of the foot, which occur in the late stages of the development of the disease, there is only one method of treatment - surgery.

Treatment of flatfoot in children

Most often, children develop longitudinal flat feet, and it is successfully treated fully without surgery, since the bones, muscles and ligaments of the child are quite susceptible to conservative methods of treatment.

If you have to deal with a congenital type, then it begins to be treated from the first days of the child's life, for which special langets and bandages are used. But this type of disease is rare.

In most cases, the causes of flatfoot are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as fragile bones. That is why the treatment has a toning effect - mainly therapeutic exercise and massage. Also, contrast baths for feet are often helpful. It is also necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes, and you should take care of the child's gait very carefully.

The most important factor in the treatment of this disease in children is time - the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the greater the chances of complete recovery of children. For the same reason, it is important to prevent flat feet in childhood.

Flat feet in adults: a photo of flatfoot and exercises in the prevention of flatfoot

Flat feet of some are perceived as a "non-serious" ailment, which is not worth paying close attention to. However, this is not so - this disease can cause a violation of posture, lead to varicose veins and even thrombophlebitis. Therefore, the prevention of flatfoot should not be ignored - and should begin at least with the abandon of uncomfortable shoes.

This seemingly "trifling" disease can turn into a terrible torture for a person( "lucky" only for some recruits: they can avoid the fulfillment of "sacred military duty" with the help of pronounced degrees of flatfoot).

Types and causes of flatfoot

Flattening is the descent, flattening of the transverse or, more rarely, longitudinal arch of the foot.

Note the photo: with flat feet the foot looks almost completely flat, without a pronounced dimple between the toe and the heel.

There are three types of flatfoot:

1. Paralytic caused by poliomyelitis or resulting from paralysis.

2. Traumatic , which occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the feet or ankles.

3. Static is the most common, usually hereditary or acquired as a result of overloads of feet.

As seen in the photo above, all types of flatfoot differ from each other in the degree of expression of the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot.

Causes of flatfoot may be a lack or excess load on the legs. This can be a person's professional activity, for example, a forced working posture standing( workers or sellers who stand all day standing on their feet), playing sports that undergo inadequate loads on their feet, wearing inefficient shoes( for example, heels on shoes, onstiff platform, high heels.).

Flat feet can form in early childhood due to rickets, and also at a later age due to pregnancy, diabetes or obesity. In adults, flat feet are more common in women than in men.

Symptoms of flat feet Feet

The main symptoms of flatfoot are fast fatigue of the legs, aching pains in the foot and ankle, puffiness, often occurring in the evening and disappearing by morning. With flatfoot, there may also be a violation of the circulation of the lower extremities.

Flat-footed enough easy to recognize. To do this, just smear the foot with oil or cream, and then leave it imprinted on a sheet of white paper lying on a flat surface. Usually, with flatfoot, at least half of the width of the original part of the foot is imprinted, since the foot does not have the proper size of the notch.

Understand that you have flat feet, you can, and found a quick wear on the inside of the soles of your shoes.

But most accurately the degree of flatfoot is established clinically-roentgenologically in conditions of physiological load of the examined foot at the patient's position standing on a specially made stand. This technique allows you to assess the entire condition of the musculoskeletal, ligamentous and articular apparatus.

How and what to treat the platypodia

Before treating flat feet, you need to determine the causes of its occurrence. To remove the pain caused by walking or other loads on the feet, you can use ointments such as viprosal, finalgon, diclofenac, etc. Also, in the group of drugs, than you can treat flat feet, the usual analgesics.

For correcting the natural form of the foot, use corrective insoles( arch supports).

In case of severe, neglected cases, it is necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes( usually shoes with lacing, solid sole and lateral support of the foot).

It is recommended to take regular courses of massage.

It is advisable to practice swimming.

In the evenings( and if necessary, then still in the afternoon) make hot baths with sea salt.

And, perhaps, the main thing here is physical therapy.

Complex of exercises with flat feet Feet

1. To perform the first exercise with flatfoot, take the initial position sitting on a chair. Knees and heels are connected, the right foot is strongly unbent. You should bring the anterior section of the left foot under the soleplate of the right, and then repeat this exercise by changing your legs.

2. Stroke the left shin with the inner edge and plantar surface of the right foot. Then repeat the exercise, also changing your legs.

3. To bend and unbend the toes of the feet. This exercise should be repeated 10-15 times.

4. Set feet on shoulder width with heels to the floor. Then start rotating the feet in different directions, changing the direction of rotation. Then do the same, already standing, holding on to the back of the chair. Run this 10 times.

5. At both stops, grab and lift the ball.

6. Grasp and lift the pencil several times with your toes.

7. Starting position: sitting on a chair, then standing on the floor( feet shoulder-width apart).Unfold the feet on one straight line, first the heel to the heel, and then the toe to the toe. You can hold your hand by the back of the chair. Perform this exercise 10 times.

8. Expand the feet to the outside, and then - to the inner side. Perform 10 times.

9. Also in the complex exercises with flat feet is the following: standing on your toes and holding the feet in parallel, go to the outer edge of the foot, and then return to the starting position.

10. Sitting on a chair and then on the floor, climb to his feet, leaning on the outer arch of the feet. When lifting from the floor, you can help yourself with your hands. Perform 10 times.

11. Starting position: standing. To rise on socks and on the heels: a) by placing the feet on one line with their toes inward, b) placing the feet on one line with their toes outwards.

12. Starting position: standing. Make a right foot forward, then turn around 180 °, changing your leg. Do this exercise 10-12 times.

13. Standing on your toes, shifting from one foot to the other. Do this exercise 10 times.

14. Sitting on a chair, raise one and the other leg one at a time, as high as possible. The leg should be straight. Perform 10 times.

15. Standing, make 30-50 steps on the heels, on the toes, on the inner ribs of the feet, and then - already on the outer ribs stop.

16. Final exercise: walking from heel to toe in standing position. It is recommended to do 30-50 steps with each foot.

Flatness: types, symptoms, flatfoot treatment in adults in St. Petersburg

Group of diseases: Spine diseases

Flattening is a disease that makes the arch of the foot flat. Because of this stop almost completely loses damping properties. A person's legs hurt after a long walk. Women suffer from the disease 4 times more often than men. In neglected condition, flat feet lead to arthritis, arthrosis, causes pain in the back and calves, curvature of the spine. We remove pain in the legs for 1-2 visits to the clinic. Strengthen the ligaments and muscles of the foot. The primary reception of the doctor is free.

. How does the flatfoot

develop? The human foot is unique: it springs through its design. The foot has two arches: a transverse one - it is between the bases of the fingers, and a longitudinal one, which extends along the inner edge of the foot. The arches of the foot support the system of ligaments and muscles. No animal, not even a kangaroo, has a springy foot.

A healthy foot helps a person maintain balance and reduces shaking when walking. If the musculoskeletal mechanism of the foot weakens, the foot becomes flat and does not absorb the load. So there is a flatfoot.

Symptoms of platypodia

The disease develops gradually and often unnoticeable to humans. At first, he feels a slight pain in his legs and feet. The legs are more tired after walking or standing. By the end of the working day, the legs swell, a feeling of heaviness appears. After a rest or massage, the symptoms go away.

With flat feet, shoes wear out more quickly, especially on the inside. The leg increases in length or width, you have to buy shoes for size larger. It is difficult for women to walk on their heels.

How to define a flat-foot

If you suspect a flat foot, spread a foot of oil or cream. Stand on a sheet of white paper and examine the imprint. On the sheet should be printed less than half the width of the foot. If the track is much wider or the foot is imprinted completely, you have a flat foot.

Causes of flatfoot

  • increased physical stress on the legs;
  • excess weight;
  • wearing narrow uncomfortable shoes or shoes with high heels;
  • rickets, poliomyelitis, diabetes mellitus;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • pregnancy.

The elderly people are prone to flat feet because of aging and reduction of muscle strength. Stop is more often deformed in people who at work spend a lot of time standing: sellers, hairdressers, machine operators, surgeons.

Platypus types

There are transverse, longitudinal and combined flat feet.

Transverse flatfoot meets in 55 cases out of 100. The disease most often develops at the age of 35-50 years. With transverse flat feet, the transverse arch of the foot becomes flat, the foot is shorter, the first finger is deflected outward.

Longitudinal flatfoot - every third case of disease. It develops at the age of 16 to 25 years. With longitudinal flat feet, the longitudinal arch becomes flat, the foot almost touches the floor, the size of the leg increases. The greater the weight of a person, the stronger the disease.

By origin, the following types of disease are distinguished:

  • Congenital flat foot. The diagnosis can be made after 6 years.
  • Traumatic platypodia occurs due to a fracture of the ankles, calcaneus, tarsometric bones.
  • Paralytic flat foot develops due to paralysis of the plantar muscles of the foot and lower leg.
  • Static flat feet occurs in 80% of cases. It arises from the weakening of the muscles of the shin, foot, ligament apparatus and bones.

Degrees of flatfoot

There are several stages of flatfoot.

Flattening 1 degree is almost imperceptible. After exercise, fatigue occurs in the legs, the foot hurts when pressing, swelling in the evening. The gait becomes less plastic.

Flattening of the 2nd degree is accompanied by a strong permanent pain in the foot. The foot becomes spread, the vaults disappear. The pain in the leg rises to the knee joint. It is difficult for a person to walk.

Flattening of 3rd degree is the most severe stage of the disease. It is accompanied by severe pain in the feet, legs, knees. Often the loin and head hurts, the toes become hammer-shaped. A person can hardly walk a short distance, can not wear regular shoes and play sports.

Than the platypodia

is dangerous. The foot at flatfoot loses the damping property, and the shock wave spreads up the skeleton. As a result, the load on the spine and joints increases, pinching of the intervertebral discs occurs. A person's gait changes, he starts to clum. In neglected cases, the foot deforms, a "bone" appears on the big toe, the circulation of the legs is disturbed.


Flat feet are rapidly progressing, so it is important to immediately consult a doctor when there is pain in the foot. The signs of flat feet are similar to the symptoms of varicose veins. To make an accurate diagnosis, you need a comprehensive diagnosis.

The doctor of the clinic "Workshop of Health" in St. Petersburg will examine the patient's foot, check the response of arches and muscles to the load, will study the features of the gait. Our specialists use the following diagnostic methods:

All about flatfoot and its treatment - Polysmed

Flatfoot types.

There are several basic types of flatfoot, these include:

  1. Static flatfoot is the most common type of flatfoot, the development of which is associated with muscle weakness and sprain, which leads to the omission of the inner edge of the foot and the development of flat feet. The causes of muscle weakness in static flat feet include increased body weight, hereditary factors( muscle tone disorder and weak ligamentous apparatus), overload of feet, wearing poor-quality footwear( tight, rubber shoes, too high a heel or lack thereof).
  2. Congenital flat feet develops during the intrauterine period and is associated with abnormalities in the development of the musculoskeletal system.
  3. Ricky flatfoot. Rickets is a disease characterized by a decrease in vitamin D levels in the child's body and is one of the reasons for the development of flat feet in childhood.
  4. Traumatic platypodia. Trauma of the foot, including incorrectly fused fractures of the foot bones, lead to the development of flat feet.
  5. Paralytic flat feet( paralytic flat foot) can develop after a previous polio, which leads to paralysis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg.

What are the types of flatfoot?

Depending on which arch of the foot is flattened, three types of flatfoot are distinguished:

Longitudinal flatfoot

With longitudinal flat feet, the foot touches the floor with its entire surface, resulting in an increase in the length of the foot. The main symptom of longitudinal flat feet is the shortening of the distance between the inner edge of the foot and the floor surface. With longitudinal flat feet, clubfoot develops, which leads to wear of the footwear along the entire length of the sole and heel from the inside.

The degree of flatfoot depends on the degree of deformation of the foot. There are 3 degrees of flatfoot:

  1. With the first degree of flatfoot( slight longitudinal flatfoot), there is no visible deformation of the foot. Feeling of fatigue in the legs appears after physical exertion, long walking or running. When pressing in the foot area, painful sensations appear. By the evening, stops can swell, the smoothness of the gait is disturbed.
  2. The second degree of flatfoot( moderately pronounced longitudinal flatfoot) is characterized by the disappearance of the arch of the foot. Pain at 2 degrees of flatfoot is stronger, frequent, spreading from the feet to the ankles and lower legs. The muscles of the foot lose elasticity, the smoothness of the gait is disturbed.
  3. The third degree of flatfoot is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot. There is constant pain and swelling in the feet, legs, knee joints. At 3 degrees of longitudinal flat feet, pain in the lower back and painful headache. Decreased work capacity, even short walking is difficult. A man with a 3 degree of flatfoot can not walk in ordinary shoes.

Transverse flatfoot

With transverse flatfoot, the length of the foot decreases as a result of the divergence of the foot bones, the deviation of the thumb from the outside and the deformation of the middle finger, which takes on a hammer shape. At the base of the thumb appears a painful osseous thickening in the form of a cone.

There are three degrees of transverse flatfoot, depending on the degree of curvature of the first toe:

  1. The first degree( slightly outlined lateral flatfoot).The angle of the deviation of the first toe is less than 20 degrees. After a long walk or standing, fatigue appears. On the foot in the area of ​​2-4 fingers appear on the skin( thickening of the skin), as well as redness and insignificant soreness in the area of ​​the first toe.
  2. At 2 degrees of flatfoot( moderately pronounced transverse flatfoot), the angle of deviation of the first toe is 20-35 degrees. When the load appears, pain and burning in the area of ​​the foot and in the first finger, especially in the shoes. Appearance spreads in the area of ​​the toes. Hemorrhages increase in size.
  3. Third degree of flatfoot( pronounced transverse flatfoot).The angle of the deviation of the first toe is more than 35 degrees. When the load is marked strong, persistent pain in the foot. The spreading of the forefoot is pronounced. On the foot in the area of ​​the fingers are formed significant burrs. The first finger is in the dislocation position, it is possible to develop bursitis( inflammation of the periarticular bag), severe deformation of 2-4 toes( hammer-shaped).

Mixed flat feet includes longitudinal and transverse flatfoot and has more pronounced symptoms.

Flattening in adults.

In adults, as a rule, static flatfoot develops( longitudinal, transverse, or combined).In men, flat feet usually develop after injuries to the ankles or fractures in the foot, as well as professional flat feet, which is associated with prolonged standing on the legs, lifting weights. Women often cause flat feet to wear high-heeled shoes. The fact is that during the wearing of high heels, the center of gravity of the body shifts, which leads to an increase in the load on the front part of the foot and the turn of the foot inside.

Diagnostics of flatfoot.

If you have any of the main symptoms of flatfoot, it is recommended that you visit an orthopedic doctor. The doctor will examine you and conduct special studies:

  1. Podometriya - measuring the height of the arch of the foot from the floor.
  2. Plantography is the study of a footprint left on paper.
  3. To determine the degree of flatfoot, the doctor will prescribe the X-ray of the foot in the lateral projection

Treatment of flat feet in adults.

There are 2 main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically and conservatively.

Conservative treatment of flat feet includes foot massage, foot baths, electrophoresis, curative gymnastics, wearing orthopedic shoes, special insoles, etc., and is prescribed in the first and second stages of flatfoot development. In some cases, conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, and therefore require surgical treatment.

Also surgical treatment is required for the treatment of the third stage of flatfoot. There are several types of operations with flat feet, but the main goal of surgical treatment is shortening of ligaments, correction of the arches of the foot and elimination of the effects of flat feet( for example, deviation of the first toe of the foot).

Flat feet in children.

All children are born with imaginary flat feet, which is explained by the abundance of subcutaneous fat in the foot. A peculiarity of imaginary childish flat feet is that as children grow older, they naturally get rid of flat feet: with the development of walking and running, muscles develop and the child's foot takes on the usual outlines. The full formation of the arches of the foot is completed by 3 years. In this regard, a flat foot in children under three years can not be attributed to a true flat foot.

In childhood there is congenital and acquired flat feet. The cause of congenital flat feet are the developmental defects of the foot in the intrauterine period.

Acquired flat feet in children is usually due to the following factors:

  1. Overweight child
  2. Wearing substandard shoes( too soft or too hard sole, rubber shoes, too high heel or missing)
  3. Rickets and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in a child
  4. Incorrectly fractured fracture
  5. Prolonged bed rest with severe diseases
  6. During puberty, hormonal changes cause a prolonged muscle spasm and can lead to flatfoot
  7. Excessive joint mobility
  8. Lifting weights( for example, when worn on the hands of younger siblings)
  9. Reinforced ballet classes

What consequences resulting flat in a child?

Children with flat feet are disturbed by an important function of the foot - depreciation. As a result, the vibration of the body during walking and running is transmitted to the shin, hip joints, spine, etc. Prolonged irritation of the joints leads to their inflammation - arthrosis. The effect of flat feet on the spine is the development of curvature of the spine, or scoliosis in children. Such symptoms of flat feet, such as leg pain, fatigue, headaches lead to reduced school performance.

How to determine whether there is a flatfoot in the child?

  1. Walking on a log, climbing a rope © - Using information without a hyperlink to the source is prohibited.

    Reviews about "All about flatfoot and its treatment":

    October 7, 2011 12:54 Anel well helps walk on the mop, especially on wooden Soviet, as well as walk in the position of a bearded bear, is also very good April 18, 201210:01 the searcher would like to know who is the author of this article? Who can I ask questions?who can reasonably explain why this is so, and not on another need to correct flat feet?on what are its conclusions based? May 29, 2012 12:02 Love I also have a transverse flatfoot, it's hard to walk. The feet of my feet are burning with fire, I probably will not be able to give up my legs at all. I've always worked physically, the load on my legs was huge, now I'm suffering, plus still fashionablenarrow shoes with heels. Now it is difficult to pick up shoes. I have a big problem. July 13, 2012 02:13 Natali With longitudinal flat feet, a child of 6 years old can be engaged in ballroom dancing?13 July, 2012 10:59 MedKollegia_Polismed Hello. Ballroom dancing can both improve, so to harm your child's condition. It depends on the degree of flat feet. That's why, before you give the child to the dance, be sure to consult an orthopedic doctor. August 22, 2012 08:42 Zuhra Hello. My son is 6 years old, found a plane 3-4 degrees. Now we go to the treatment to the instructor LFK, massage, SMT.Question. This diagnosis is curable? August 22, 2012 11:11 MedKollegia_Polismed Hello. When flat feet of 3-4 degrees with ineffectiveness of conservative measures( LFK, massage, etc.), an operation is prescribed. In any case, the chances of a full recovery are high.03 september, 2012 21:57 Denis Hello, I am 18 years old, flat feet 3 degrees or higher, the joints have recently started to hurt( Muscles in the knee, shin and bones), although before that I was engaged in cycling, tourism generally ledactive way of life, not paying attention as any other teenager, a flat-footed hostile, what and how do I do?tell me please, insoles ordered what else do I need to do? ?I do not want to lose interest in all my hobbies because of such "Trivia". .. Thank you in advance!12 October, 2012 18:02 Dina good evening! To the son 6j year, have diagnosed a flat-valgus feet. But I do not understand who to believe, one orthopedist scared that the transverse-longitudinal plane.and almost goes deformations.thorax, and the other is flat-valgus feet and everything is not so scary. . now I see that my daughter's legs go inside when walking, although half a year ago( in 2d) they said all the normal. What do I do not understand, here's to buy shoes, but I do not know what to take. Maybe somehow comment. . thanks! October 30, 2012 11:17 Katia Hello, my name is Catherine, today I went to see a surgeon and found out that I have a combined flat foot( transverse 2 degrees, longitudinal 2 degrees), advise what to do and what method to be treated? December 04, 2012 12:12 Sergey I'm 31 years old. When walking 4 km.the knee aches a day. What advise to do? April 18, 2015 23:03 Rimma Good evening. I'm 55 years old. I'm sick of feet on both is difficult to walk. on the left leg is a swollen ankle joint.sometimes it hurts a lot.when pressing a finger, a hole remains. I ask advice 05 May, 2015 12:56 nastya to which doctor you need in this case you need? May 06, 2015 18:47 The medical school Nastya in case of flat feet should consult an orthopedic doctor. June 27, 2015 17:17 Tatiana Up to what age can a child have a flat foot in a conservative way? June 28, 2015 08:03 Tatiana, the treatment of flat feet in a child depends on age, type of flat feet, the presence of concomitant diseases, hereditary factor, the type of conservative therapy. Of no less importance is the perseverance of ongoing activities. Conservative therapy is used not only in the treatment of flat feet in children, but also in adults. September 19, 2015 19:30 Natalia When treating longitudinal flatfoot with SMT therapy, it is necessary to arrange gaskets on the tables 12 January, 2016 09:12 Leo All this method of treating flatfoot is not effective. Existing and persistently recommended orthopedic parents orthopedic shoes, does not have a preventive function.treatment, and rehabilitation. This, in fact, is a prosthesis.which helps, relieves pain with active life, but no more. The prosthesis does not heal. And from their parents is good. The same function is carried by all kinds of orthopedic insoles. There is a completely unique domestic patented technology for the prevention and treatment of flatfoot. It has no analogues in the world. Only, our health care system is not needed. The Ministry refused to introduce it. What for? Extra worries. February 04, 2016 08:54 Xenia Leo! And what kind of technique? Where can I get acquainted with it? What does it give? I'm not asking from curiosity, but from necessity.

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  2. Skate on the floor with a foot of a rolling pin or a small ball.
  3. A napkin is placed on the floor, which is suggested to be crushed with the help of a foot.
  4. The child is offered to collect his toes and move from place to place the objects scattered on the floor.
  5. Circular movements with feet out and inside.
  6. Standing on socks, reduce and spread the heels, without taking your fingers off the floor.
  7. Grasp the ball with both stops and lift it, keeping it between the feet.
  8. Alternately walk on toes, on the heels, on the outer edges of the feet.
  9. Rolling from heel to toe.
  10. Walk on the ribbed surface( massage mat, sand, pebbles).

To determine the presence of flat feet in a child, a pediatrician can, but at home you can conduct a simple test for the presence of flat feet in the child. To carry out the test( planotography), it is necessary to lubricate the sole of the baby's foot with vegetable oil and put it on a blank sheet of paper. The result is a footprint of the child, from which you can determine the state of the arch of the foot. Normally, the cut on the foot is 2/3 of its width. With flat feet, there is not a small cutout. If you notice a change after this test, you should show your child an orthopedic doctor.

How to choose the right shoes for a child?

For the correct formation of the arches of the foot, the child must buy high-quality shoes. The child's shoes must have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less), and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.

Treatment of flat feet.

The main goal of the treatment of flatfoot is to eliminate pain in the foot, strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and restore the functions of the foot. There are two main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically( surgery) and conservative way.

Among the conservative methods of flatfoot treatment is allocated therapeutic gymnastics, massage, foot baths, physiotherapy, wearing the right orthopedic footwear or insoles.

Treatment of flat feet in a child at the earliest stage of the disease, with the inconsistency of the ligaments of the foot is reduced to the appointment of rest, the temporary cessation of sports. We recommend warm foot baths and massage. An effective method of treatment at an early stage of flatfoot development is the foot bath, the bottom of which is packed with river pebbles. The child is offered to roll stones in the water with his feet.

Plane prophylaxis in children.

For the prevention and treatment of flat feet in children, the following set of exercises can be applied:

Flat-foot: species, causes, signs

Imagine that we are still walking on all fours. Uncomfortable, right? But we have no problems with osteochondrosis and flat feet.

But once our distant ancestors decided to walk on two legs, and this entailed a change in the structure of the spine and foot. We will not talk about the spine, but let's talk about flatfoot .

In the process of evolution, the structure of the human foot has acquired a unique design( see figure).Normally, the foot has two arches - longitudinal( along the inner edge of the foot) and transverse( between the bases of the fingers).

Both arches of the foot are designed to maintain balance and protect the body from shaking while walking

As you can see, this structure of the foot serves as a shock absorber.

But if the vaults of the foot are flattened and flattened, the shaking during walking is forced to compensate the spine, as well as the joints of the legs. Since they are not designed for this function, they cope with it quite badly and quickly fail. As a result, a man with a flatfoot develops arthroses and scoliosis.

According to statistics, a lot of the population of the planet suffers from flat feet.

Flattening is congenital and acquired. Congenital platypodia, as a rule, arises against the background of congenital insufficiency of connective tissue. Up to 5-6 years of age it is very difficult to determine it.

Traumatic flat feet can be formed after a fracture of the ankles, calcaneus, tarsometric bones.

Ricky flatfoot develops due to the load on the weakened bones of the foot.

The development of static flatfoot( 81%) is due to weakness of the leg and foot muscles, ligament apparatus and bones.

Causes of flatfoot development

The most common cause is a lack or excess of load on the legs. This can be caused, for example, by incorrect footwear.

For the correct formation of the arch of the foot, constant training of muscles and ligaments of the foot is necessary. Walking on hard grass, stones, sand force muscles and ligaments. Without load, the muscles of the feet weaken( like any muscles without work) and do not support the foot in a raised state. As a result, flat feet occur.

In adults, more often static flat feet, which is associated with excessive strain on the legs. What is excessive load on the legs? It is overweight, a long standing on the legs, pregnancy, high-heeled walking.

Wearing fashionable high heels greatly overloads the forefoot. In shoes with high heels and with sharp noses, the woman leans not on the entire foot, but only on the heads of metatarsal bones, which leads to deformation of the foot and the development of flat feet.

A profession that involves a long stay on your feet, such as a hairdresser, a waiter, a salesman, etc., practically ensures the development of flat feet.

Approximately 3% of people get flat foot "inherited" from their parents. In many, it develops due to diseases: rickets, poliomyelitis, diabetes mellitus. There are entire populations at risk of flatfoot development.

Women suffer from flat feet four times more often than men. The risk factors include: uncomfortable shoes, a long standing on the legs, overweight, pregnancy, high-heeled walking.

Symptoms of flatfoot

To determine if you have a flatfoot or not, do the following test. Lubricate the soles of the feet with cream or water and step on the paper. It is necessary to stand steadily, leaning on the entire foot, otherwise the result may be erroneous. After this, you should carefully consider your track( see figure).Normally, at the inner edge of the foot there is a notch( there is no print here), which occupies more than half of the foot in the middle. If this recess is not at all or it is narrow( half of the foot and smaller) - hence, you have a flat foot.

There are a few other signs that flatfoot can be suspected of.

  • If after a physical exercise the foot aches a bit( the first stage of the disease);
  • In the evening, the feet become tired and swollen, the pain covers the entire leg up to the knee joint( second stage of flatfoot);

In the third stage of the disease, the lower back begins to ache, and walking( in shoes) becomes a pain.

Pain in the legs can be combined with persistent headaches;the leg as if grown - you have to buy shoes for a bigger size;The foot became wide enough to not fit into your favorite shoes;on the old shoes heels are worn on the inside.

However, these signs may not correspond to flat feet, but to another disease - for example, vascular or endocrine, so you still need to see a doctor.

Platypus types

Longitudinal flat feet

Occurs with functional overload or fatigue of the anterior and posterior tibial muscles.

The longitudinal arch of the foot loses its cushioning properties, and under the action of the long and short fibular muscles, the foot gradually turns inside.

Short flexors of the fingers, plantar aponeurosis and ligamentous apparatus of the foot are unable to support the longitudinal arch. The scaphoid bone settles and, as a result, the flattened longitudinal arch of the foot is flattened.

The risk of developing this type of flatfoot is most often affected by people with a large mass. The more weight, the greater the load on the feet, the more pronounced the longitudinal flat feet.

More often from this pathology women suffer. Longitudinal platypodia occurs most often at the age of 16-25 years.

Transverse platypodia

The development of this type of flatfoot depends on the weakness of the plantar aponeurosis in combination with the same causes as in longitudinal flatfoot.

Symptoms of transverse flatfoot are very characteristic. This is a wide front part of the foot, projecting inward, enlarged due to bone-cartilaginous growths head of the first metatarsal bone. It is often called "bone" or "gout".The deviation of the big toe outwardly or, otherwise, the Hallucks valgus, the painful tread on the sole side, the hammer-like deformation of the second and sometimes third fingers, calluses on the fingers.

The more deformation, the more patients complain of pain, difficulty in selecting and using shoes, quick fatigue.

The transverse flatfoot, as a rule, is combined with the curvature of the first toe to the outside.

Transverse platypodia occurs most often at the age of 35-50 years.

Often both forms of flatfoot are combined. Flat feet do not die, of course, but its development leads to a number of problems, including back pain, knee and hip joints, postural disorders and other consequences that reduce the quality of life. Therefore, special attention should be paid to timely diagnosis and prevention of flatfoot.

Treatment of flatfoot

With the help of conservative treatment it is impossible to eliminate the already existing deformation of feet with flatfoot. Complete cure of flat feet is possible only in childhood. In adults, the development of the disease can only be slowed down. The correction of flatfoot has the following goals: to strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and not let the foot "fall apart" further;protect the entire body, and above all the spine, from overloads;prevent the development of complications - arthrosis of small joints of the foot, deformation of the fingers and diseases of the spine.

Treatment of flat feet includes several main directions. To relieve pain, use drugs and physiotherapy.

For correcting the natural form of the foot, use corrective insoles( arch supports).Correctly selected insoles allow not only to get rid of pain, but also regulate muscle tone by its shape.

Supinators are of different types:

  • inserts under the forefoot are used for flattening the longitudinal arch;
  • backs - allow to reduce the load on the heels and pain in them;
  • interdigital inserts allow you to spread the big and second finger on the legs, thereby preventing the progressive deviation of the thumb outward;
  • the best option is the insole with the instep under the heel and the pronator for the front section.

This insole, as it were, "twists" the foot - while the muscles are subjected to less tensile forces and, thus, are in working conditions.

The most high-quality arch supports are made to order after examination, removal of foot sizes and establishing the flattening level of the arch. The materials from which the arch supports are made have evolved: from cork, the most ancient and sufficiently effective, to synthetic( from europlastic, supralene, silicone), and also from soft foam material.

For special knee-high shoes special model insteps-semi-insole, without front part. They are suitable, by the way, for any shoes, because they also unload the front section of the foot. It is necessary, however, to make a reservation that these devices only mitigate the harm from high heels. They can not remove it. Therefore, the recommendation not to abuse such shoes remains in force.

For outdoor sandals, there are special pads that make of silicone or leather. With transverse flatfoot, pads are suitable in the form of a drop, with mixed - in the form of a letter T. They are cheaper than a normal arch supports, but it is difficult to find the exact place they need. Therefore, for frequent use, pads are not suitable.

For sports, the arch supports are fitted with a special fabric that absorbs moisture well and is easily washed. But they can only be used in shoes with an even inner surface, without a built-in arch support.

When the blood supply of the legs is broken( for example, with diabetes mellitus), the feet become especially vulnerable, and the flat feet develops by leaps and bounds. Especially for diabetics, joints without seams have been created, covered with soft material - plastazot. Diabetic insteps are designed to ensure maximum safety of footsteps. Price they have higher than traditional models.

When flatfoot is launched, special orthopedic footwear is produced in the form of shoes with lacing, solid sole and lateral support of the foot. These shoes are made to order, according to the plaster cast.

With severe deformation of the thumb, constant pain and the inability to pick up shoes, one has to resort to surgical treatment. However, artificially create a normal form of the foot and restore its functions is not always possible, and the recovery period after such operations is long enough.

For the treatment of flatfoot and its prevention, there are also massage and physiotherapy exercises.

Flatfoot prevention

Prevention can be done at home. The basic rules are as follows: it is harmful to walk in tight uncomfortable shoes, wear high heels, run a lot, stand for a long time. It is necessary to give rest to legs more often - to regularly do gymnastics of feet, massage, baths. And especially to follow your feet when you are over 40.

For the prevention of flat feet in children, you need to carefully choose shoes that will be worn by the child. The child should not wear other people's shoes. A loose shoe of foreign shoes incorrectly distributes the load on the feet. Children's shoes should be with a small heel, a hard back and soft instep - to compensate for the lack of cones and stones under your feet, it ensures the correct formation of the foot.

To properly form a foot, children need not only good shoes. Meaning and nutrition. The connective tissue in its composition is somewhat similar to bone tissue. And in exactly the same way it suffers from rickets, that is, the wrong phosphoric-calcium metabolism in the body. When there is a lack of calcium, as is known, bones become soft and deformed under the influence of weight and muscles, and the connective tissue of the foot ceases to be elastic and elastic and similarly obeys the pressure of body weight.

So, even if your baby does not have signs of rickets, do not forget about flatfoot - another consequence of calcium deficiency. So, support in the daily diet of the child a sufficient amount of rich in phosphorus and calcium products. Do not forget about a sufficient number of sunbathing or preventive intake of vitamin D in the winter.

Natalia Novitskaya

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