Characteristics, features of arthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree
Arthrosis of the knee joint( gonarthrosis) refers to chronic diseases of degenerative-dystrophic type, i.e., which lead to tissue destruction. In this case, the cartilage surfaces of bones are subjected to destruction, the functions of which are to reduce the friction between the bones. Gonarthrosis is one of the most common forms of arthrosis. This is due to the fact that the knee joint is subjected to heavy loads, as it must provide the movement of the foot and maintain the body weight.
About this disease in general, we already spoke on the site:
In this article - a detailed description of the 3rd degree of ailment.
Three degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint. Click on the picture to enlarge
Features of arthrosis of the knee joint of the 3rd stage
In the course of the development of the disease, the hyaline cartilage covering the bones and serving as a shock absorber during movements becomes thinner, cloudy, and then exfoliates and cracks. The stages or degrees of gonarthrosis are only four. For grade 3 gonarthrosis is characterized by an almost complete disappearance of the cartilage, because of which the bone is exposed, the synovial membrane of the joint becomes inflamed. The bone, which has lost protection, experiences excessive friction and is injured.
The body, trying to replace the cartilage, gives the command to thicken the joint capsule and "grows" on the bone surface osteophytes. These spike-like bone formations, which impede movement, contribute to the development of complete immobilization of the joint( contracture).
In the third stage of arthrosis, there is also a significant decrease in the distance between the joint bones - these changes are clearly visible on the X-ray.
In complex cases, when motor activity is reduced to a minimum, there is a risk of complete joint fusion.
A severe disability of the patient often causes his disability.
Grade 3 Arthrosis Knee arthrosis is diagnosed primarily in people over the age of 40, women are sick twice as often as men. The first two stages of the disease are considered reversible and treated( or their development stops).The trouble is that gonarthrosis can last for a long time almost without symptoms, until the moment when the disease can already be called neglected.
Disease can provoke:
- age and hereditary factors;
- diseases of the osteoarticular system( most often arthritis);
- metabolic disorders;
- endocrine pathologies( diabetes, thyroid disease);
- microtrauma and knee injury;
- persistent increased load on the skeleton( including those caused by obesity).
The main reason for the development of gonarthrosis is grade 3 - a disdainful attitude towards the treatment of the disease in its initial stage. Restoring significantly deformed joints is a very difficult task, sometimes requiring surgical intervention.
Also to the development of the third degree of knee arthrosis can lead to attempts to cure the disease at home. The use of folk remedies is acceptable and welcome, but they must complement, not replace, the basic methods of treatment.
Characteristic symptoms of
In gonarthrosis grade 3, all symptoms of early stages( stiffness and pain in the knee area, crunch during movement) are amplified, and new ones are added. The pain becomes very strong, sometimes unbearable, and persists in a state of rest. Patients are often forced to stay in bed, but even then they do not always manage to find a relatively painless leg position.
The next most important symptom of the 3rd degree of arthrosis is a significant limitation of joint mobility, caused by its deformation. The patient with difficulty bends his leg even to a 90 degree angle and can not fully unbend it. This limits the possibility of normal walking. Sometimes blockade of the knee joint develops, when the diseased leg can not be bent or unbent.
In connection with joint deformities in arthrosis, the legs often acquire an X or O-shape, which causes abnormalities in the gait.
Left - X-shaped form of legs, right -
norm Characteristic signs of grade 3 gonarthrosis also include:
- congestion in the joint bag of effusion - synovial fluid( synovitis),
- reduction of interarticular cleft,
- replacement of cartilage cells with connective tissue( sclerosis of the subterranean zone),
- salt deposition on the joint surface.
Treatment of grade 3 gonarthrosis
The methods of therapy of gonarthrosis of the third degree have similarities and differences with the methods of treatment of other degrees of the disease. As in the early stages, apply:
- load reduction,
- taking painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs,
Effective at 1 and 2 degrees of arthrosis, intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections, chondroprotectors designed to restore cartilage tissues, with 3 degrees of disease bring only temporary relief.
In the third stage of gonarthrosis, when the articular cartilage is almost destroyed, and the bones underwent significant changes, conservative treatment is not enough - in this case, they resort to surgical intervention. Operative treatment of gonarthrosis includes several technologies, the most common of them are two:
The operation to remove osteophytes and deformed bone elements. Such operations are low-traumatic and are performed with the help of an arthroscope - a tool that can be manipulated through several holes.
Endoprosthetics - replacing the destroyed knee joint with an implant.
Operations of arthrodesis( joint fixation with bony bone surfaces) and arthrolysis( removal of bone adhesions and thickened synovial membranes with a view to increasing the volume of movements in the joint) are much less often performed.
Light pain that occurs in the knee during exercise is often considered unworthy of attention, taking it only for temporary and minor discomfort. This error can be expensive. When you turn to the doctor on time and follow all his recommendations, you will save yourself from developing a severe form of arthrosis of the knee joint - gonarthrosis of the third degree. Take good care of your health and be healthy!
Treatment of gonarthrosis( arthrosis of the knee joint) 1, 2, 3 degreesWhat is gonarthrosis? Knee joints can rightly be called the most loaded in the human body. The process of walking, as is known, is a fall, which prevents the second leg from setting. Thus, the knee joint( more precisely, the tibia) at every step experiences a load in the form of the weight of the complete human body( except the tibia of the standing leg).
Given the prevalence of obesity, which greatly increases the load on the articular cartilage, the lifting of various weights, which also contribute to the gradual destruction of the knee joints, one can understand why the degenerative degenerative lesion of the knee joints, called deforming gonarthrosis, occurs frequently, especially in adulthood and old age. Disability is often the outcome of gonarthrosis.
Stages of gonarthrosis
Treatment of gonarthrosis should be differentiated, depending on the stage of the disease:
- in the first stage of deformation of cartilage and articular bag does not happen, there is only swelling of soft tissues;
- the second stage develops, usually after a few months. It manifests itself in the intensification of pain after minor loads and movements. It can be said that any movement hurts. To the pain has passed, you need a long rest. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is still reversible with proper and timely treatment.
- Gonarthrosis of the third degree, in addition to functional disorders, is manifested by progressive destruction of the cartilaginous tissue. The pain arises even at rest. It is at this stage that the classic aching in the knees "on the weather" begins, there is a significant restriction of movement in the knees. This disease brings considerable suffering, and leads to disability.
How to treat arthrosis of the knee joint
Treatment of all diseases, and gonarthrosis in particular, is only three types:
- etiotropic, that is, aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease;
- pathogenetic, directed to one of the links in the development of the disease;
- is symptomatic, aimed at relieving suffering.
Only all these measures in a complex can give a stable positive result. Applicable to gonarthrosis, medical treatment measures should be directed to:
- pain relief( improvement of quality of life) - NSAID group;
- improvement of trophism and restoration of the surface of articular cartilages - reparants( chondroprotectors);
- reduction of blood stagnation( ischemia) and improvement of blood circulation in the microcirculatory bed of the periarticular tissues and the joint bag - vitamins, massage, physiotherapy, local treatment;
- improvement in trophic muscles of the thigh and lower leg - exercise therapy.
In addition, with various arthrosis, treatment with folk remedies is quite effective: phytotherapy, deep warming.
The main groups of drugs used in the treatment of knee arthrosis
- NSAIDs are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Are non-hormonal. They are used to relieve acute pain. Therefore, they are used in the first place, since only after the withdrawal of the expressed pain syndrome other methods of treatment are possible. However, their administration should not be long, as it is possible to develop side effects, for example, such as NSAID-induced gastropathy.
In addition, taking pain, taking these medications does not prevent further destruction of the joints, but only improves the quality of life. Representatives of this extensive group of drugs are such as nimesil, tselebrex, movalis, orthophene, voltaren and many others.
Modern NSAIDs( eg, meloxicam) cause few side effects, and are selective, that is, they exhibit selective, more precise action.
- Preparations protecting cartilage surfaces from destruction and helping to restore it - chondroprotectors. Their main active substances are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine and hyaluronic acid( synviscus, fermatron).Simply put, these drugs contribute to the timely "lubrication" of the joint, the preservation of its biomechanical function, reducing friction and pain syndrome.
These drugs significantly help in the very beginning of the disease, as well as in the 2nd stage. If the cartilage does not already exist, then the best lubricant will be powerless to restore the function. In addition, it has been shown to be effective only in intraarticular administration of the drug, only directly into the joint cavity( Don, Hondrolon, Elbon).
All tablets( Artra, Teraflex, etc.), which are so expensive, are in fact not more effective than a cold containing approximately the same compounds. The course of treatment with chondroprotective agents is quite long.
- Local treatment in the form of ointments, creams and applications on the surface of the knees. This is an extremely widespread method of treatment at all stages of the disease. They do not so much heal as they ease the condition and refer to the means of symptomatic therapy. Most often used ointments with a warming effect, able to improve blood circulation in the joint area. There are a lot of them: Nikoflex, Dolgit, Fastum-gel, Kapsikam, Finalgon and many others.
In the event that the synovitis has joined, that is, there is inflammation and effusion, it is impossible to warm. This can increase swelling of the inflammatory fluid in the joint cavity. In the event that there is effusion, it is possible to use intraarticular injections of hormonal preparations of long-term action( Kenalog, Diprospan) and their analogues.
Dimexid, penetrating through the skin, and bischofite have a good therapeutic( analgesic and anti-inflammatory) effect. Bishofit is an "oil brine" that accompanies the emergence of oil while drilling wells. It warms well and anesthetizes, if applied in applications and compresses.
- Of great importance are non-medicinal methods: therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy, massage. Special exercises, especially in the pool, with reduced load, have a beneficial effect on the restoration of articular cartilage. Using the cane also reduces the load on the affected joint.
- Also an important component of complex therapy for gonarthrosis is a diet. Food should not be monotonous, it is necessary to exclude refined meat byproducts that can cause urine acid diathesis and the attachment of microcrystalline arthritis, which worsen the course of gonarthrosis.
Genuine scourge of the twenty-first century is gonarthrosis of the knee joint. If several years ago only elderly people were at risk, now the disease does not spare the youth.
In most cases, gonarthrosis develops on the background of injuries sustained by athletes in training and competition.
Knee joint destruction occurs gradually: first, against a background of mechanical damage, microtraumatic cartilage arises, then the process of its degeneration occurs.
This disease is characterized by a change in the tissue of the cartilage of metabolism, the essence of which is that the saturation of the cartilage with chondroitin sulfate is markedly reduced.
The causes of progression of gonarthrosis are:
- arthrosis, formed against the background of Paget's disease;
- bone tumors of benign or malignant nature;
- fractures of the knee bones;
- ankylosing spondylitis( arthritis, affecting the joints of the sacrum and spine);
- rheumatoid arthritis.
Modern physicians distinguish 3 degrees( or stages) of gonarthrosis.
Unfortunately, this stage of gonarthrosis is often ignored by most people. Pain syndrome occurs only after a load, and the deformation of the knee joint to notice with the naked eye is almost impossible.
Symptoms of the disease become more specific. Thus, the duration and intensity of painful sensations localized in the joint increases, and often a characteristic crunch is formed during flexion.
Gonarthrosis, developed to 3 degrees, is characterized by quite strong painful sensations, arising both during movement and when a person is standing or sitting. In addition, the affected joint "reacts" to the weather change. Mobility of the knee joint is limited, there are changes in the gait( lameness).
Medicine is known for two types of disease: primary( idiopathic) and secondary.
The disease occurs and develops due to intensive loads of the knee joint. The risk group includes middle-aged and elderly women, as well as athletes and people suffering from obesity.
The pathological process extends both to one joint and to both. When there is a simultaneous destruction of both joints, doctors diagnose bilateral gonarthrosis.
The provoking factors of gonarthrosis secondary are:
Schematic comparison of a healthy knee joint and affected with arthrosis.
Most doctors prefer tablets, injections, ointments. But we need to understand that drugs only muffle the symptoms of the affected joint, but do not lead a real fight with the causes of arthrosis. In addition, they have a very negative effect on other organs and systems of the patient. The most famous drugs for the removal of inflammation and pain symptoms are recognized - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These include Ketoprofen, Diclofenac, Naproxen, Indomecin, Ibuprofen and other medications. With exacerbation of arthrosis of the knee joint, steroid( hormonal) agents are used. These medications are treated as a course of injections( from 5 to 10), as the volume of the drug administered is strictly dosed.
Most often for intraarticular injections, glucocorticosteroids and corticosteroids are used.
With 3 degrees of knee arthrosis, chondroprotectors are rarely prescribed. Benefits from them will be no, since the hyaline layer of cartilage has already undergone considerable destruction. There is often nothing to restore. Expensive tablets at this stage will be ineffective.
To reduce pain in the knee, therapeutic ointments and creams are prescribed. Arthrosis and coxarthrosis they will not heal, but the patient's well-being will improve. If there are no edema from synovitis, then you can use warming ointments: Menovazine, Gevkamen, Espol and other similar drugs. Treatment of the inflamed knee joint is carried out with the help of Fastum-gel, Voltaren-gel, Dolgit and other non-steroid ointments.
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For many centuries our ancestors used folk remedies to treat various joint diseases. All of them are tested by time and practice. Here are a few recipes.
- Raspirka from turpentine and apple cider vinegar. Composition and proportions: one yolk of a chicken egg, a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar and a teaspoon of turpentine. Mix all ingredients thoroughly.
Application. Rub into a sore knee before going to bed. Be sure to warm a shawl or woolen scarf. Leave it overnight. In the morning rinse with warm water and soap.
- Mumiyo. Composition and proportions: in half a cup of honey add 3 grams of mummy and thoroughly mix.
Application. Hand grease any vegetable oil( so that honey does not stick to them) and gently rub the mixture into the diseased knee. This procedure should be followed several times during the day and at bedtime.
- Ointment from vegetable oil and turpentine. Composition and proportions: mix a glass of vodka, vegetable oil and turpentine. Pour the mixture into a dark glass bottle, first throwing a small piece of camphor into it. Seal the bottle, shake it and put it in a dark place.
Application: smear the drug area of the patient knee joint at night. Be sure to wrap the treated area with a woolen cloth. In the morning, rinse with oily water and soap. Repeat every night for several days.
Symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree are very painful, and the treatment is long, painful, expensive. Sometimes surgical intervention may be required. Often the patient is registered as a disability. You can not start the disease so much. Treatment should be started on time.
Recommendations of the expert
People who are overweight are at risk for arthrosis of the knee joint. And many other chronic diseases can be caused by this problem.
Degrees of progression of pathology
Gonarthrosis of 1st degree
Early signs of gonarthrosis characterized by dull pain due to heavy loads on the joint. Often minor pain sensations appear after awakening, but after a while the joint enters the habitual rhythm of work, and the pain recedes.
Pain can also appear after a long sitting or lying down, after a long walk up the stairs. Sometimes a temporary mild swelling of the joint is formed, but there is no deformation.For gonarthrosis of the first degree is characterized by the development of pain during movements and their retreat after the cessation of actions, manifested several times a day.
The initial sign of the disease becomes a crunch in the joint .Simultaneously, there is a disturbance of blood flow in the small intraosteel joints responsible for saturation of the cartilage, in connection with which its surface dries up, it loses its smoothness, and cracks form on it. Microtraumas provoke worsening of depreciation characteristics.
Grade 2 The severity of the disease is characterized by a long and more intense pain developing during walking or with a long standing in one place. The pain recedes only after a long rest and rest.
Any movements are accompanied by a crunch of the joint, which becomes even stronger and more distinct as gonarthrosis progresses. The disease is characterized by moderate limitation of mobility even with the slightest deformation of .Also there are compensatory changes in the structures of the bones - this also changes the articulation area to accommodate the load.
Part of the bone under the cartilage is compacted. In this case, the edges of the articular surfaces are covered with outgrowths - thus, the synovial membrane and the joint capsule are degenerated, the viscosity of the joint fluid increases, worsening the characteristics. Because of this, the degeneration of the cartilage itself is accelerated, it is strongly thinned to complete extinction, in connection with which, the friction between the surfaces of the joints increases.
Further one-sided or bilateral gonarthrosis of the 3rd degree develops.
Grade 3 hyperthyroidism can lead to disability.
Third degree of pathology in the knee joint is characterized by a clear manifestation of symptoms. The pain is not passing, it can chained the patient to bed, forcing a long time to choose a comfortable pose for calming down the pain.
Also manifests a pronounced violation of gait, restriction of motor activity and deformation in the joint, interfering with normal life, worsening working capacity.
Deformations severely limit limb mobility - it becomes difficult to bend the leg even at a right angle, blockage in the knee joint can begin - that is, it is impossible to flex and unbend the leg painlessly.
Bilateral gonarthrosis of the third degree significantly changes the structure of the joint in the knee, the surface of its bones is heavily compacted, the joint slit narrows, the cartilaginous tissue practically disappears completely and the number of osteophytes increases at the same time.
Methods of treatment and preservation of knee joint health
Gonarthrosis in medicine is considered to be an incurable disease, that is, the affected joint can not be returned to its original state. But to carry out treatment is necessary for the relief of intolerable pain and slowing the progression of pathology. These tasks are easier to implement with the timely start of the treatment process.For the treatment of disease it is important to familiarize yourself with the full range of therapeutic procedures, to abandon bad habits, to normalize nutrition and the very way of life.
The medicines used for symptoms of grade 2 and 3 gonarthrosis include:
- Various painkillers, including corticosteroids.
- Chondroprotectors and anti-inflammatory agents.
The listed medicines are usually applied in the form of tablets, injections for joints and muscles, and also in the form of creams, ointments and gels. They allow you to get rid of pain in a short time.
Orthopedic therapy of pathology
This treatment involves the use of a variety of support devices that reduce the load on the damaged joint. This can be hard knee pads, canes, orthopedic insoles for shoes. They should be selected in accordance with the recommendations of the doctor individually, taking into account the degree and lifestyle of a person.
The operation for treatment is realized only when the disease starts, when the chances of recovery are minimized .Instead of surgery, endoprosthetics are often prescribed, when the whole joint or part of it changes to an artificial joint.
An operation is required when a unilateral or bilateral gonarthrosis of 2 degrees or 3 degrees is characterized by a post traumatic nature, for example, occurs after ligament rupture, after fracture inside the knee joint.
Additional treatments for the disease
The complex of therapeutic procedures also include:
How to cure gonarthrosis: folk methods and traditional therapy
- Accompanying events
The question of how to cure gonarthrosis is asked by those who encounter this unpleasant disease. Before starting therapy, you should consult a specialist, since only a doctor can accurately determine the diagnosis and make a plan for the necessary procedures. It is important to initially establish a course of treatment for to combat knee injury so as not to harm your own health.IMPORTANT TO KNOW!A new means of restoring joints in 99% of subjects. The pain goes away 100%!Read more here - & gt;
Usually gonarthrosis affects people of advanced age, but sometimes it manifests itself in younger people. The cause of it can be a metabolic disorder and a number of other factors. Any discomfort for a long time in the area of the knee is a signal about the need for urgent treatment in the hospital.
Treatment of gonarthrosis
The knee joint affected by the disease can not be returned to a healthy state, and gonarthrosis is one of incurable diseases, but therapy with it is necessary. First, it will ease the unpleasant feelings of the patient, and secondly, will help slow the course of the disease. The course of treatment of gonarthrosis involves the rejection of bad habits, a special diet and lifestyle.
There are several approaches to fighting with such a disease as gonarthrosis. After the diagnosis, the doctor will determine the stage of the disease( allocate 1, 2 and 3 degrees) and appoint the necessary medications and procedures. Self-medication can aggravate the course of and complicate the recovery process. How and how to treat gonarthrosis, can only advise a specialist.
Traditional methods of treatment of gonarthrosis
The traditional methods of treating gonarthrosis include several: medicamentous, orthopedic and surgical. Which exactly way to fight the disease will work depends on the specific situation. Drug treatment implies the use of drugs, among which there are two groups:
- analgesics, anti-inflammatory;
- chondroprotectors( for the restoration of cartilaginous tissue).
These drugs can be used in various forms: in the form of tablets, injections, creams and gels.
For orthopedic treatment is characterized by the use of devices that can reduce the burden on the knee joint, afflicted with an ailment. If the patient, for example, bilateral gonarthrosis of 2 degrees - treatment without orthosis - special hard knee pads, suitable insoles for shoes and canes is impossible.
In case of exacerbation of the disease or access to a doctor in the late stages of gonarthrosis, surgical intervention is used. Endoprosthetics is an operation to replace a joint or its parts with artificial joints. A similar procedure can be performed in the absence of such a concomitant disease as osteoporosis.
There are many tools and methods that describe the treatment of gonarthrosis with folk remedies. The use of these recipes can complement the scheme prescribed by the doctor. It should be remembered that with this ailment it is necessary to fight under the supervision of doctors, and the properties of natural herbs and minerals help to relieve pain syndrome only.
The most effective means for internal application are herbal tea made from black beans, infusion with the addition of lemon and garlic, as well as a decoction of bones cooked on the principle of a cold. Salads and soups can be added to the lice, which normalizes metabolism. No less useful is a special infusion of this herb that alleviates the symptoms that are characteristic of joint diseases.
If a patient has left-sided or right-sided gonarthrosis, treatment with honey will greatly alleviate the symptoms. This product can be both an independent means for rubbing the patient area, and the basis for compresses. Clay compresses are no less effective. To remove inflammation in gonarthrosis will help and camphor oil, the mood of dandelion flowers, decoction from Jerusalem artichoke.
Specificity of treatment depending on the degree of
Since it is impossible to detect symptoms of the disease at an early stage, treatment of grade 1 gonarthrosis is difficult. Minor unpleasant sensations can occur sometimes in the mornings and after a long walk, the crunch of the knee joint is also characteristic. At the first symptoms it is necessary immediately to address to the doctor, after all treatment by national means gonartroz 1 degrees is inefficient.
More serious manifestations is gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree. The pain manifests itself constantly after sleep and under stress, external deformation of the knee occurs. Treatment of gonarthrosis of 2 degrees involves the use of vasodilator drugs and chondroprotectors.3 degree of ailment is characterized by constant cutting pain and immobilizes a person. Treatment of gonarthrosis of the 3rd degree is carried out in a complex manner.
In addition to drug treatment, gonarthrosis is mandatory for a number of related activities aimed at restoring and maintaining the efficiency of knee joints. The following procedures can be distinguished: