Features of gout in women
The basis of gout development is the excessive accumulation of uric acid with the development of the corresponding symptomatology - arthritic gout, specific granulomas( tofusov).Traditionally it was believed that gout is a male disease. Yes, men are sick several times more than women. However, more recently, gout is diagnosed in women more and more often. Than it is caused?
Before answering the question, it is necessary to find out what causes the "masculinity" of gout, and why this ill-health is bypassed by women for some time. Probably, all business in hormones. Indeed, female sex hormones, estrogens, contribute to the excretion of urate - salts of uric acid. However, in the menopausal period, in postmenopause, the production of estrogen by the ovaries ceases.
And if to study the incidence of gout of different age categories, it is easy to see that in women gout develops mainly in 60 years and older. And the cases of this pathology in a younger, reproductive and childbearing age are extremely rare. In developed countries with a high standard of living, the proportion of elderly women is relatively high. Accordingly, the number of representatives of the fair sex, suffering from gout, is high.
Cardiovascular diseases play a significant role in the development of gout in women, in particular, hypertension, the incidence of which is steadily increasing. Already in itself, this pathology, ultimately leading to kidney damage, adversely affects the exchange of uric acid. In addition, some drugs used to reduce blood pressure, aggravate the course of gout. These drugs include beta-adrenoblockers and diuretics of the hypothiazide group. One or even several of these tablets are unlikely to significantly affect the pathological process. However, the systematic use of these drugs for gout is highly undesirable.
In addition to antihypertensive and diuretics for gout, it is undesirable to use acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives. A craze for analgesic drugs containing salicylates can also provoke gout in some women. There are other reasons for the development of gout in women. This increase in the consumption of meat and meat products by the female members - smoked products, sausages, canned meat and semi-finished products in combination with strong tea, coffee, chocolate and cakes. All these products increase the level of uric acid in the body.
In addition, systematic overeating leads to obesity and is fraught with the development of diabetes. These diseases are frequent companions of gout and its complications in both men and women. Recently, the frequency of infectious and inflammatory diseases has increased in women, leading to a change in the hormonal background with a decrease in the level of estrogens. Dyshormonal disorders, along with other predisposing factors( heredity, hypertension, overeating) may well lead to the development of gout even in relatively young women.
The clinical manifestations of gout in men and women are similar in general outlines. First of all, it is gouty arthritis and tofusi - subcutaneous nodules containing salts of uric acid. However, the symptoms of gout in women have their own characteristics.
- First, even in the climacteric period, this disease in the female is relatively benign, with no serious complications from the joints and kidneys. Apparently, the hormonal features are affected.
- Sometimes the clinical picture of gouty arthritis is so worn out that it makes it difficult to diagnose this disease. Classical gouty arthritis begins acutely, at night, with pronounced inflammatory changes, pain and movement disorders in the affected joint. In women, in most cases, these symptoms are poorly expressed.
- There are features in terms of localization of arthritis. In most cases, gouty arthritis affects the first metatarsophalangeal foot joint. This is a kind of visiting card for gout. As for women, they often have gouty arthritis with atypical localization in the ankle joint. Often, the female gout proceeds in the form of polyarthritis of small joints of the hands.
- The probability of developing nephrolithiasis( kidney stones) and chronic renal failure in women is significantly lower than that of men. A characteristic feature of "female" gout is its combination with other metabolic and cardiovascular disorders - obesity, diabetes, hypertension.
- Attention is drawn to the appearance of patients suffering from gout. This is a rough voice, masculine features, hirsutism, developed musculature. In these cases, probably, all the same affects hormonal imbalance.
Treatment ofWe recommend that: Causes of osteoporosis in women
Treatment of gout in women, as in men, involves lowering the level of uric acid and eliminating gouty arthritis. Reduction of the urate content can be achieved by preventing their entry into the body, suppressing their formation and increasing the excretion of the kidneys.
Restrictions on urate intake can be achieved with the help of an appropriate diet. In the diet should sharply limit the content of animals and even vegetable proteins. In this regard, it is undesirable to take large amounts of meat, fish, sausages, liver, brains, mushrooms, soy, peas and other legumes. A small amount of low-fat meat is completely acceptable, but only in a boiled form. It is unambiguous to impose taboos on alcohol, strong tea and coffee, cakes and cakes with fat cream, salt, spices. The main emphasis in nutrition should be done on fresh, and, if possible, raw vegetables and fruits. Food should be divided - about 5 times a day in small portions. Food should be consumed with water - at least 2 liters per day.
To achieve a slowdown in the synthesis and acceleration of elimination( excretion) of urates by the kidneys, it is possible with the help of medicinal agents. Some of them( Allopurinol) interfere with the formation of uric acid in the body. Others( Urodan, Urolesan, Etamid, Sulfinpyrazon) promote the excretion of urate by the kidneys. The main drug group for the treatment of gouty arthritis is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).However, it should not be forgotten that the most famous representatives of this group, salicylates, are contraindicated in gout. The main NSAIDs for the treatment of gouty arthritis are Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Diclofenac.
Once the exacerbation of arthritis has passed, you can engage in physical therapy and health gymnastics under the supervision of relevant specialists. An obstacle for some contact physical procedures( electrophoresis, amplipulse, phonophoresis) may be the presence of tophi in the area of the affected joint. Opened tofusy can be treated with antiseptics, but do not open them yourself. And, of course, we should pay attention to the full-value treatment of accompanying gout diseases.
Gout( gouty arthritis): what it is, symptoms and treatment
Gout( gouty arthritis) is a disease in which an excess of urate salts( urates) accumulates in the body.
This disease manifests itself in that from time to time the patient has acute attacks of gouty arthritis.
In addition, near the joints are formed special nodules - tofus.
Who most often develops the disease?
Gout is predominantly a male disease: in the stronger sex it is more common than in women.
gout attack: salt crystals injure tissues
On average, one woman who suffers from gout is from 3 to 7 men, who are affected by this disease.
Mostly elderly and elderly people are ill: most often gout manifests in men after the age of 40-45 years, and in women - after 55-60 years.
This is due to the fact that female sex hormones( estrogens) have a positive effect on the exchange of uric acid in the body. When the climacterium content of estrogen decreases dramatically, then the likelihood of becoming ill with gout is significantly higher.
In addition, it is considered that there is a hereditary predisposition to arthritic arthritis: if one of your relatives had a gout, chances are that it will arise from you( especially if you are a man) is much higher, and you arein the risk group for the development of this disease.
In addition, factors such as overweight, as well as alcohol abuse, also increase the risk of developing this disease.
In general, in the world, according to statistics, 2-3% of the population suffers from gouty arthritis( data for the USA), but for men after 40-50 years this indicator grows to 5-6%.In Russia, the incidence of gout is about 0.1-0.2%.
Why does this disease occur
how does the gout originate( schema)
Because gouty arthritis is a metabolic disease, then it arises in people who have either increased the intake of substances containing purines, or their excretion due to whichit's a disease.
Which products contain many purines? This is primarily meat and by-products( not for nothing, gout is also called "meat-eating disease"), as well as legumes, tea, cocoa, some fish, and especially alcohol, including beer and red wine.
People who have a lot of such foods in their diet have a high risk of getting gouty arthritis.
And when the removal of purines from the body can be difficult? Most often - because of concomitant kidney diseases, as a result of which renal filtration is reduced, and therefore - the body retains more uric acid salts than necessary, and it begins to be deposited in various tissues - both in the joint region and in the renal themselvestubules.
In addition, an additional risk factor for developing gout is arterial hypertension, as well as taking certain serious medicines for serious illnesses.
Symptoms of gout
The main and main sign of gout is an acute attack of gouty arthritis, which is also called a gout attack.
Inflammation of the big toe - the main sign of gout
Often such an attack is observed after a plentiful meal with alcohol. Suddenly, more often in the evening or at night, acute pains appear in one of the joints.
Most often, with an attack of gouty arthritis, for some reason, the big toe is affected, but it can be another joint - for example the knee or elbow.
The joint starts to ache badly - so it can even be painful to touch the affected area( for good reason "gout" is literally translated from ancient Greek as a "trap for the leg").The joint swells, the skin around it due to swelling acquires a purple-red hue, and the skin temperature in this area rises.
This condition( attack), if left untreated, can last up to several days and longer. But usually the patient and his relatives quite quickly turn to doctors who, with the help of medicines for gout, more or less successfully relieve the attack.
The heavier the course of gout, the more likely these seizures may occur. Conversely, if all the conditions are met to ensure that uric acid and its products do not accumulate in the body, then attacks of the disease can be avoided altogether.
Tofusi with gout
tofuys( photo) with gout
If the attack of gout with joint inflammation and pains in it can be considered acute manifestations of this disease, tofusi is a sign of a chronic disease.
Because gout accumulates an excessive amount of uric acid salts in the body, it is clear that these salts should be deposited somewhere. They also are postponed - in the field of various joints( at some point causing a gouty attack), in the skin in the region of the elbows, heels, and also in the area of the cartilage of the auricles.
Collecting in these places, crystalline salts gradually turn into small nodules of white color, which can be felt in the area of small joints on the hands and feet. These nodules are called tofusi in case of arthritis arthritis.
No special damage to the body by tofus is directly applied - it only signals to the person himself, as well as his doctor, that there is an excess of salts of uric acid in the body - which means that you need to pay attention and take the necessary measures. But we will talk about this in the treatment and prevention of gout.
We offer to watch an interesting video about what is gout and gouty arthritis, and how dangerous this disease is:
disease Treatment of gout can be conditionally divided into two tasks:
- cupping( interruption) of an acute attack;
- normalization of metabolism in the body, that is, treatment and prevention of the disease outside seizures.
Treatment of an acute attack of gout( acute gouty arthritis)
the first attack of gouty arthritis is best treated in the hospital
. As often the first manifestation of gout, unfortunately, usually becomes a developed gouty attack, its treatment is usually carried out in a hospital - in the rheumatology department of the hospital.
This is necessary not so much to cure this attack, but how to conduct a full-fledged examination and make the correct diagnosis. After acute arthritis of the joint can be with a variety of diseases - infectious or reactive arthritis, as well as with other ailments.
After the diagnosis of "gouty arthritis" is set, there is usually no need for repeated hospitalizations.
So, what medicines do doctors use to take a gout?
1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
NSAIDs, including all known diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and other drugs. These drugs are good at both pain relief and effective reduction of inflammation in the affected joint. They are prescribed in certain dosages according to the scheme, and anti-inflammatory drugs are an important component of the complex treatment of a gouty attack.
Note: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not treat gout really: they are needed in order to reduce the severity of its symptoms - pain and inflammation in the joints. Do not try to treat gouty arthritis yourself with NSAIDs, consult a doctor!
treatment of this disease should be prescribed only by the doctor
Colchicine is a medicine that can reduce inflammation in an acute gout and restore the function of a sick joint.
This drug is prescribed according to a special scheme and is taken every few hours for 1-1.5 days - until the severity of the attack goes to zero or when it becomes clear that you need to use another medicine.
In those cases when colchicine did not have a therapeutic effect( as sometimes happens), the doctor prescribes hormonal drugs that suppress inflammation - glucocorticoids. This group of drugs includes such drugs as methylprednisolone and betamethasone. They are usually administered topically as injections into the joint area.
Using these or other drugs, doctors manage to defeat a gouty attack already within one and a half to two days from the beginning. But, as you know, treating an acute attack of gout is only part of the therapy.
Another interesting and useful video about this disease is the fragment of the transfer "Live Healthily" with Elena Malysheva:
Treatment of the disease outside of attacks
Since this form of arthritis is a metabolic disease and arises from the increase in the amount of urate in the body,will be aimed at reducing the content of these substances in the body.
For this, during the interictal period, the doctor prescribes medications to the patient that reduce the formation of uric acid salts( eg, allopurinol) in the body, as well as drugs that increase the excretion of these substances from the body.
Diet for gout
In fact, it is difficult to name any other disease, in the treatment of which so important is proper nutrition.
therapeutic diet is an important element of recovery
Even if you after the first attack of arthritis received this disappointing diagnosis, then, following the right diet and taking medications, after a while you will be able to refuse medication only due to the fact that you will comply with the rules of therapeutic nutrition. And it, unfortunately, is not so simple, considering what foods can not be eaten with this disease.
So, on the anti-gouty diet, it is necessary to exclude red meat and products from it, meat by-products( kidneys, liver, heart), fatty fish, legumes, sharp and salty cheeses, as well as alcoholic beverages( this concerns cognac,beer, champagne and sweet dessert wines).Learn more about what you can, and what you can not eat with this disease, you can read in the article Therapeutic diet for gout.
Despite the fact that gout is accompanied by a painful attack of arthritis, remember that this disease with timely access to a doctor is successfully treated, and not only medicamental, but also folk remedies.
Therefore, if you find symptoms of gout listed in this article, do not suffer pain, consult a doctor, and very soon mobility and health will return to your joints again!
Often during an attack heart palpitations, sweating increases, the temperature rises and chills appear. So the period of an acute attack proceeds.
In the chronic form of the disease, urate crystals are combined into granules and the disease passes into gouty polyarthritis. Often there is a parallel development of kidney disease.
Symptoms of chronic gout:
- A joint crunch( one or more).
- Restriction of movements in the joint.
- Inflammation in the joint( redness of the skin around it).
- Increased body temperature near inflammation or the entire body.
Pain in gout
The onset of mild pain in the joint is the main symptom that characterizes the onset of gout. Tumor, heat on the skin of the affected joint are the main factors that accompany pain. The heat can be localized in the surrounding tissues. All the symptoms accompanying pain, occurs within an hour. The usual painkiller, like aspirin, will not help relieve the pain in such attacks.
With a gout at night, there is an attack of pain in the affected joint, by the morning the pain is weakening, but not the end of the disease.
Gout in men on their feet
Gout is characterized by a chronic form that can not be cured until complete relief from disease. In men, the observation of the disease begins after 40 years, first there are attacks of pain of a very rare periodicity, but over time, seizures occur more and more often. The first period can be characterized by a year of calm or more, but then the frequency of seizures may be less than a month.
Joints in the course of the disease can be destroyed, and the destroyed places will begin to fill with salts, it is because of this that the build-ups appear.
Severe inflammation begins as a response of leukocytes to the appearance of a large number of salts that are perceived by the body, like aggression and an aggressive body.
Gout in women
In women, gout begins to develop in adulthood and old age, after 55 years, which is caused by the end of menopause, when the body reduces the production of estrogens, female hormones. The manifestation of the disease is similar to that of men.
Actions in case of acute attack
Compliance with the recommendations does not guarantee the rapid cessation of the attack or its painlessness. But in many ways the recommendations will help reduce the pain.
- Bed rest should be observed. Sick foot is best placed on the pillow.
- If the pain is unbearable, then you can put an ice compress. After 15 minutes of compress from the ice, it is better to replace it with a compress with warm ointments, such as Vishnevsky.
- In food, it is better to give preference to vegetable broths and cereals in milk. You need to drink plenty of water or oatmeal.
- Painkillers will not help, it is better to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments. If there were any funds prescribed by a doctor, then their reception is better to continue. As a rule, the treatment of gout with medicines provides for medication.
Preventing exacerbations of gout
Gout, as a rule, occurs in places of injury. Therefore, such joints should be treated very carefully. It is necessary to stop wearing uncomfortable and narrow shoes. As one of the main activities can be identified - timely detection of elevated urate levels in the blood, but mainly for the prevention of food is used.
The diet should include the following products:
Gout on legs: symptoms in women and men
Gout without symptoms
This is how you can characterize the initial stage of gouty arthritis. The only sign of the onset of the pathological process is the asymptomatic serum urate concentration, which is usually diagnosed only in a laboratory examination. The disease is a borderline condition characterized by an elevated uric acid index. In this case, the kidney function remains normal and there are no visible signs of gout on the legs.
Serum urate concentration increases sharply in men in the puberrant period and remains so throughout the life cycle. In women, biochemical abnormalities also increase during the maturation period, but do not reach their maximum value. Their increase is noted only after menopause.
Drug therapy in this case is rarely recommended, as there is a risk of getting side effects.
In addition, taking medications with long-term use will not be cheap. Therefore, the paramount task of treatment for the patient is to improve the methods of prevention and a complete change in the principles of nutrition.to table of contents ↑
Acute form of
Gout arthritis attack can cause different situations. The expressed painful syndrome in men and women often appears after traumas or too high physical exertion. Also, inflammation on the legs occurs after diet changes, sauna visits, hypothermia, emotional stress and alcohol consumption.
Acute form is characterized by the following symptoms:
- attack begins at night;
- pain syndrome can be felt in the ankle, fingers, heel or calf muscle;
- redness and slight swelling of the affected area;
- the nature of the pain tends to gradually increase, while burning can also be felt;
- chills and weakness;
- local temperature increase.
The onset of the inflammatory process at the first attack affects usually one joint on the legs. In 50% of cases - this is the first metatarsophalangeal connection. The duration of the attack in men and women averages a few days. In individual patients, it can last up to several weeks. After passing through the acute phase, all the symptoms appear and disappear, and the joint acquires the usual outlines.
It is advisable to treat the first exacerbation of gouty arthritis in a hospital. This will help the patient not so much cure the disease, how much to make a full examination and make an accurate diagnosis.to table of contents ↑
Chronic form of
The next stage in the development of gout on the legs is the transition to a chronic form after the first attack. The acute phase of the disease in men and women may be absent long enough. But most of the time the next attack occurs about a year later and then the frequency of exacerbations increases, and the intervals between them become smaller each time. As a result of the increased severity of the pain syndrome, crystalline deposits( tofusi) become visible on the fingers and feet.
In chronic form the joints remain swollen, all movements become more restricted, loads accompanied by a characteristic crunch and pain. Absence of treatment causes joint deformity, which can subsequently lead to disability.to table of contents ↑
Tofuses for gout
Gouty nodes are dense formations that resemble small tumors. The main factors contributing to their formation in men and women is an increased index of uric acid in the body. Tofus or small crystals are most often located on connective tissue and appear only after five years from the onset of disease progression. But when taking certain medicines, they can occur earlier. Regardless of the site of localization, gout nodules form on the shells of the ears, elbows, fingers and legs.
The appearance of tophi signals the transition of gout into a chronic form. Gouty nodes have clearly defined edges and dense composition. Their surface is covered with a rough skin, on which hyperkeratosis may develop in some cases.
When the tofus is located at a shallow depth, its contents are well visible through the skin. Progression of gout provokes an increased growth of nodules, which can spontaneously open, giving out a creamy mass or crumbs of yellow-white color. Fistulas can be formed at this site, gradually passing and periodically opening ulcers.to the table of contents ↑
Treatment of gout
Treatment therapy should first of all be aimed at the removal of the inflammatory process, the relief of pain and the resorption of tofus. The benefit of modern drugs can quickly cope with this. Nevertheless, patients with gout on their legs should not relax. Experts believe that the treatment should be based not only on the intake of medications, but also on changing the principles of nutrition and the exclusion of certain foods from their diets.
Gout in women: the main causes and symptoms of the diseaseThere are no voices yet. It is believed that gout is a masculine disease. But today more and more cases are known when this disease is found in women. Many people are interested in the question, but whether it is different, whether the symptoms are different, etc. To understand this, you need to get better acquainted with the disease itself, and find out the main reasons for its development. Contents:
What is gout?Gout is one of the varieties of a disease known to all, such as arthritis, which is characterized by severe pain in the joint region, as well as the deposition of uric acid in them. Most often this disease affects the toes, elbows, knees and feet. Very often you can see that a woman on her leg near the thumb grew a lump. It is this formation that is called gouty. The main reason for the development of the disease is the poor excretion of uric acid, which is the final product in the whole process of metabolism in the body. Uric acid should normally be excreted from the body with the kidneys. But it can happen that the process is broken and it starts to accumulate in the blood. But the most important problem is different. In the composition of uric acid there are salts( loss), which have the property of crystallizing and depositing in the joints, causing severe pain to the person. Also, salts can be deposited not only in the joints, but also get into the kidneys, thereby violating their activities. Women at a more mature age, namely after 45 years of age, when menopause may occur, is most susceptible to developing gout, and so you need to carefully monitor your health and eat right.
Causes of gout in womenBefore you name the main reasons for the development of gout in women, you need to discuss one feature of the female body, thanks to which up to a certain age a woman may not know what joint pain is. The female body is designed in such a way that almost all hormones respond. Under their influence( of course, they are not the most important, but still) the basic process takes place in the body. So, thanks to the hormone estrogen, which is released in sufficient numbers in female representatives, salts are better excreted from the body. That is, while estrogens are working - you can not wait for gout. But, we all know that after 50 years( and in some special cases before), a woman has a menopause, followed by a menopause, during which the female organism undergoes the strongest changes. So, it is at this age that the production of hormones ceases in the same quantity, since a "quiet" period comes and the woman can no longer bear children. That is, the main assistant, estrogen, ceases to support the removal of salts from the body, and they begin to be deposited wherever they want. Also, among other reasons why a woman can develop gout, you can refer:
- Problems with the cardiovascular system, namely hypertension, which every year gets sick more and more people
- Problems with the kidneys, which have a direct effect on the excretion of uric acid from the body. Any failure in the kidneys can lead to a delay in the work of the kidneys.
- Use of drugs that are aimed at reducing pressure
- Frequent pain medication
- Incorrect nutrition, namely excessive consumption of acute and fatty foods by a woman, smoked foods, salinity, etc.,which increase the level of harmful uric acid
- Overeating. It is this that leads to the fact that a person strongly gaining weight, which further helps to develop gout
- Sharp pain in the joints in the morning, especially after awakening
- Redness and swelling in the affected area
- Soreness of the affected area, and sometimes the pain can be so strong that a person can not touch thispart of his body, and he may need the help of another person in getting up and getting dressed.
- Restriction in joint mobility. Most of this is noticeable when the knee or elbow joint is affected
- Elevated temperature, which develops rare cases, but it can indicate that the body is undergoing the strongest inflammatory process of
- Frequent mood swings, which are most caused by painful sensations. When the pain subsides and the mood improves
- Poor appetite
- Increased blood pressure
- Because during life women developed estrogen, which excreted uric acid and did not accumulate it, as in the case of men, the symptoms of gout will be softer, that is, there are seldom possible serious cases of
- In women, all pain symptoms are not as acute as in men.
- . More gout is affected by the metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot, knees, and other small joints.
- Most often, gout accompanies such diseases as obesity, diabetes. Rarely, stones are deposited in the kidneys of
- . If you look at the appearance of women who suffer from this disease, you can see that they are dominated by masculine traits. This is due to the predominance of the male hormones
- . If you notice one of the symptoms of the disease, or simply began to suspect the onset of its development, then do not pull. It is necessary to visit a specialist who prescribes treatment.
Forms of the diseaseDespite the fact that everyone is accustomed to generalize the symptoms with one definition of "gout", there are several stages of the disease, each of which has its own peculiarities and manifestations:
- Acute. This form is most often found in patients. Sometimes it is also called classical. Usually, a person is disturbed by such sensations as sharp pain in the joint, temperature. Many patients showed a regularity that the pain intensifies after acute or fatty food was used.
- Rheumatoid. The peculiarity of this form is that the pain is not so strong and sharp, with the most bruised brush
- Malosymptomnaya. In some cases, due to the individual characteristics of the human body, the symptoms of gout may not be noticeable. So, people suffer a slight malaise, not suspecting that they have a serious problem. It is at this stage that the development of complications is possible, which is due to the late application to the specialist
- Renal. As already mentioned above, in some cases, salts are deposited in the kidneys, and so stones can form in them. Its not treatment can lead to the development of renal insufficiency
- Allergic. The rarest form. Very often it is confused with other diseases. The main feature is that the joints hurt so much, and are so hard that they become like stone
- Podostraya. Inflammation and pain attacks pass very quickly, besides they are not a shaky strong
- Priartricheskaya. The main danger of this form is that the inflammation can go to the muscles, and because of this, the person has limited mobility of the joints. If the disease does not heal, then a person generally can lose mobility in the affected joint
Gout of the metatarsophalangeal foot jointQuite often, women notice the appearance of a built-up growth near the thumb on the foot. He looks very ugly, and besides it hurts. Because of this build-up, the woman faces me with such problems as:
- Inability to walk for a long time on his heels, as the legs are very tired
- I have to choose comfortable shoes that usually do not look very nice, since the cone grows quite large and makes it difficult to select shoes
- Aesthetically, the leg looks very ugly, some women even hesitate to take off their shoes because of this problem.
- Such growths are also called valgus deformation, or common people's "cones".
Diagnosis of the diseaseAfter the symptoms of the manifestation of the disease were found, a person should contact a specialist who will conduct several tests and put an accurate diagnosis. First of all, the doctor will appoint:
- X-ray is the area in which pain is manifested. On the X-ray, the so-called "punch"
- Blood test will be clearly visible. A blood test is administered to determine the level of uric acid in the blood. The truth is worth noting that during the attack the indicator can be normal, since all acid goes to the joint
- Puncture joint. It is appointed in rare cases in one purpose to study the contents of the damaged joint
TreatmentNo matter how sad it may sound, but the disease can not be cured completely, but you can control its course. The most important goal will be to help the body in removing uric acid, which also triggers the development of gout. For this, the patient can be preceded by such preaparts as:
- Allopurinol, which prevents the formation and secretion of uric acid in the body
- Urodan. It helps the kidneys remove acid from the body
- Anti-inflammatory drugs, which, as the name implies, helps to remove the inflammatory process of
- Smoked meats, namely all favorite sausages, etc.
- Salinity, here mono include pickled cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, etc.
- Spicy dishes
Gout: photos, symptoms and treatment of gout in men and women
Gout is a systemic disease, which affects the entire body, a disease in which crystals of the salt of uric acid - sodium monourate are deposited in various tissues. In this case( in the presence of provoking factors) in patients with elevated levels of uric acid in the blood serum inflammation of the joints develops.
Who is the most affected with gout?
It is believed that the classic portrait of a patient with gout is a large middle-aged man, wealthy enough to regularly eat good red wine and young meat. I remember English kings and dukes, our compatriots - the emperors Peter I and Anna Ioannovna. But research convincingly proves: the incidence of gout is determined not only by the diet and well-being of patients. It is estimated that at least 3% of the adult population of the world suffer from this ailment. What is true, then the truth: men suffer from gout at times more often: one woman receiving treatment for gout, there are 7 men with this disease. The disease begins in men much earlier: at the 40-year limit, while the peak incidence of gout among women falls to the age of over 60 years. It is believed that this is due to the natural level of hormones that promote the excretion of uric acid from the body, and protect the female body from a variety of different troubles.
The main cause of gout
It has long been determined that the main cause of gout is hyperuricemia - an increase in the level of uric acid in the serum. This happens if: the
- patient has an increased body weight. As is known, the causes of obesity( leading to an increase in the level of uric acid) - is a change in the composition of food and nutrition culture, with the ubiquitous "dominance" of simple carbohydrates, sweet drinks, the predominance of sedentary lifestyles;
- concomitant diagnosis - hypertensive disease;
- the patient suffers from a disease accompanied by hyperuricemia( eg, psoriasis);
- the patient often takes alcohol;
- has a genetic predisposition to increased production of uric acid or a reduced rate of its excretion( such conditions are rare and usually occur at a young age - up to 30 years);
- , the patient "abuses" products containing a large number of compounds and precursors of salts of uric acid. Traditionally, they include, besides "red" meat( beef, veal, lamb, rabbit), also by-products( liver, kidneys, heart, tongue) and broths from them. From fish products, tuna, anchovies, trout, squid, mussels and herring fall into the "risk zone", turkey and goose from poultry. Dangerous in terms of development of gout, all kinds of smoked meat, sausages, sausage, ham, eggs, especially fried. Not at all harmless are all legumes, whole grains, mushrooms, cauliflower, spinach, asparagus, coffee, chocolate, and even, according to some authors, ice cream and pastries. Old doctors called gout - "disease of kings", "disease of abundance";
- in connection with concomitant diseases prescribed medications that have a side effect of increasing the concentration of uric acid. Determine whether the drug increases the level of uric acid, it is quite simple: just look at the instructions for the use of the drug. More often than others, hyperuricemia is caused by anticancer drugs, diuretics( diuretics) and beta-blockers( a group of drugs used to treat hypertension).If the patient receives treatment from an oncologist, then drugs aimed at reducing uric acid are usually prescribed "automatically", and the development of gout in this group of patients can be avoided. With the rest of the drugs, things are much more complicated. One of the most "popular" among domestic therapists diuretics is furosemide. This drug acts quickly and powerfully, producing a diuretic effect, in connection with which its appointment for a long period is not recommended. Nevertheless, it is not uncommon for patients to take furosemide for several months or even years, as prescribed by the therapist or, more often, voluntarily. Against the backdrop of this "treatment" gout develops with characteristic signs and possible rather serious complications.
A little more about uric acid
If the concentration of this substance in the blood exceeds the permissible limits( more than 320 μmol / l), a complex chemical reaction is triggered, and crystals begin to form from the acid, in the people they are also called "sand".It is these crystals, deposited in the joints, skin cells and other organs, and cause gout - "disease of kings".
What happens in the joint?
Pain in the joints arises not so much from the "mechanical trauma" of the crystals of the surrounding tissues as from the penetration into the joint and the production of a large number of "inflammatory substances" directly in it. That is, the cause of pain in gouty attacks is not mechanical( acute crystals), but chemical( irritants).Attracted by "inflammatory substances"( they are called mediators of inflammation), immune cells penetrate into the joint, which, on the one hand, produce even more mediators; on the other, they begin to destroy their own joint structures, accepting them for "attacking foreign agents."This is a brief description of the development of an autoimmune reaction in gouty arthritis.
Classification of gout
Currently, it is common to distinguish acute gouty arthritis, interictal period and chronic gout.
1. Acute gouty arthritis
This is the main clinical, that is, visible to the eye, the manifestation of gout. It is believed that acute gouty arthritis, or gouty - one of the most painful conditions in rheumatology. Symptoms of a gouty attack are so vivid that they were at one time the inspirers of artists to create masterpieces that survived the centuries. Pain in gouty attacks occurs at night or in the early hours, and is so strong that the patient is not able not only to move his foot, but even a slight touch of the sheet causes unbearable anguish. Without treatment, acute gouty arthritis lasts no more than 10 days, but in almost 100% of cases, patients still seek medical help. Most often, patients get to see surgeons complaining of pain similar to drilling, raspryaniyu, burning in the first( large) toe, and the classic "folk" painkillers like analgin to the patient does not help. Trying to take a warm foot bath only intensifies the suffering.
In search of an effective analgesic, both patients and surgeons are often able to make a lot of mistakes, starting with the prescription of inconceivable combinations of analgesics in huge doses, ending with the use of antibiotics and local( cutaneous) agents( gels, ointments) - ineffective, but costly. True gout in everyday practice is not so common, but many doctors have the idea that allopurinol is treated with this ailment( we will talk about this a little later).But the fact that it is absolutely impossible to prescribe allopurinol in the acute period of the disease is usually forgotten. Moreover, allopurinol is able to aggravate the course of a gouty attack, and if the patient has already taken this drug at the time of exacerbation, it should be abolished as soon as possible for the entire "painful" period.
Another common mistake in treating an acute gouty attack is the patient's refusal to eat. As is known, most often the "gouty attack" is provoked precisely by the error in the diet. In search of relief, the patient is ready to switch to "bread and water", or even starve, just to get rid of the pain. This is fundamentally wrong, and can adversely affect both the general condition of the patient, and the work of the kidneys, the heart.
Wishing to save the patient from suffering as soon as possible, physicians often prescribe physiotherapy( UHF, magnetotherapy, thermal procedures), not considering the almost total uselessness, and sometimes the harm of such tactics during the attack.
2. Inter-attack period of the disease
Gout leads to an attack on the body gradually. It is a mistake to believe that this problem is limited to joints. Urat crystals - the smallest needles - are deposited in many organs, primarily in the kidneys, forming stones, disrupting the work of these vital organs. The patient may be disturbed by renal colic, manifested by pain in the lower back, abdominal pain, vomiting, pain and rezi when urinating. Sometimes the severity of the pain is such that it requires hospitalization, or surgery to remove the stones. With insufficient treatment and accumulation of uric acid and its salts, the disease goes so far that the heart is affected, with the development of heart failure.
3. Chronic Tocus Gout
Tofuses are soft formations, tubercles, "bumps", filled with urate crystals. Most often, the tofus are located on the back( external) surface of the fingers, the auricle, elbows, knees. But tophi can be hidden, that is, located inside the body: in the region of the joints, for example. Such "depots" of crystals can not be seen without additional methods of examination - radiography and ultrasound.
Diagnosis of gout
The diagnosis of gout is based on three pillars: examination of the patient and conversation with him, laboratory and instrumental methods of research.
A classic picture of a gouty attack - painful when palpating, red sometimes to blue, hot, swollen large( first) toe. The patient may notice an increase in body temperature, chills. Almost half the time, the first gouty attack becomes the last, but in the remaining 50% of cases the course of the disease becomes chronic. With such a long process and repeated attacks, there are problems from other joints: the thumb of the second leg, the ankle, knee joints, the joints of the brushes. The polyarthritis( inflammation of many joints) develops.
It is interesting that in recent years there has been an increasing retreat from this classic, so juicy described in the literature, pictures. Increasingly, gout occurs with an initially large number of affected joints. In addition, over the past 20 years, many patients have gout from the first days of a protracted nature, the exacerbation of the disease again and again, and the pain is still intense, regardless of the number of seizures.
blood analysis general clinical ( generally found to have elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate( ESR), - a sign of inflammation and increase white blood cell count), biochemical( detected increase of uric acid and may reveal signs comorbidities - diabetes, liver disease,renal failure and others).It should be remembered that the concentration of uric acid in the blood serum, which is determined by biochemical analysis, at the time of an attack can be normal!
Study of the joint( synovial) fluid .This procedure can be quite unpleasant, but it is a result of joint puncture( puncture) doctor will be able to obtain with sufficient accuracy to answer the question "What actually happened?" Articular puncture greatly facilitates the patient's condition, since, firstly, from the jointremoves excess fluid, causing a sense of pressure from within and containing a large number of "inflammatory substances."Secondly, in the articular cavity, in the absence of contraindications, a medicinal preparation that rapidly removes signs of inflammation is introduced. The resulting liquid is collected in a test tube and sent to a laboratory for analysis and microscopy. If crystals of monoaurate of sodium of characteristic sizes and shapes are found, the diagnosis can be considered "in the pocket".
Analysis of the contents of the tofus .If there are soft formations accessible for examination and taking material( like bubbles or warts), usually a rheumatologist tries to get their contents for analysis. When viewed with the naked eye, what stands out from tofus, resembles cottage cheese remotely, and with microscopy the same crystals are found as in the synovial fluid.
Radiography .The radiologist can answer the following questions: are we dealing with a gout? If so, how far did the disease go? Is there another pathology of the joints, against which gout was played?
Ultrasound examination of joints .In the case of gout, this is a much less informative way than radiography. Currently, new methods are being developed that could help determine the presence of deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints. While the ultrasound the doctor can only determine whether or not there is arthritis, how much fluid in the joint, and if we can take it to analyze whether the joint of traumatic injuries of soft tissues, which could "mask" under the gouty attack.
What diseases can I take for gout?
What other diseases occur according to the scenario similar to gout? Especially this information will be useful to those who are accustomed to making a diagnosis, using directories or information from the Internet.
- septic( purulent) arthritis .This condition can be preceded by any cutaneous or "general" infection, trauma or microtrauma of soft tissues around the joint. Almost always septic arthritis is accompanied by an increase in body temperature. The diagnosis is refined with the help of the same articular puncture, and already by the appearance of the received fluid the doctor will make a preliminary conclusion about the diagnosis.
- pyrophosphate arthropathy ( it will be described below);
- reactive arthritis .This disease is a response to the presence of any pathogens in the body, and is treated, respectively, together - by a rheumatologist and infectious disease specialist.
- rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease of an unknown nature, affecting mainly women, unlike gout;
- osteoarthritis ( often combined with gout);
- psoriatic arthritis ( inflammation of the joints in combination with skin disease - psoriasis).
Treatment of gout
It is accepted to share non-drug( non-drug) and drug treatment.
Non-pharmacological treatment includes dietotherapy, the use of orthopedic drugs and joint relief, as well as lifestyle adjustments. Not every patient, accustomed to not limiting himself in nutrition, passive leisure, or traveling by private transport, is ready to change habits for his own health. And, nevertheless, it is extremely important to adjust the patient to the implementation of recommendations, which, in fact, are half the success.
Treatment of gout has two main areas: reducing pain during gout and reducing risk or completely preventing new attacks by reducing the deposition of urate salts. To achieve this goal, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperuricemic( that is, directed against increasing the concentration of uric acid in the blood) are used.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
The undoubted advantages of this group of drugs are that they start to act quickly, and exactly where it is required - in the inflamed joint. It is very important to remember that increasing the dose does not necessarily lead to a greater effect. The anti-inflammatory effect will remain the same, but the harm from such "tactics" will be much greater, because with the increase in the dose the probability of development and the severity of side effects increase. The most effective and safe in this group, according to international studies, is etorikoksib, he is also arkoksia.
Another plus of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is the ability to penetrate the central nervous system. What is it for? The fact is that if a person experiences pain in remote areas of the body, then the signal about this immediately enters the brain and can enhance the subjective sensation of pain, and, therefore, multiply the sufferings of the patient. Further, the "cascade" reacts to pain: heart palpitations, vasoconstriction, release of stress hormones, elevation of blood pressure. .. The use of non-steroid medications helps to reduce or prevent these effects.
This medicine is currently rarely used, although its effectiveness in gout is unquestionable. In most patients, it causes stool disorder and nausea, a sense of metallic taste in the mouth. Nevertheless, his appointment is resorted to, if for any reason the reception of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs becomes impossible. It is important that severe damage to the kidneys, heart, liver and mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract - strict contraindications to the appointment of colchicine.
The purpose of this group of drugs is a difficult and responsible decision. Preparations of steroid hormones, or steroids( prednisolone, metipred) are prescribed in cases when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not help, and colchicine is either ineffective or unavailable. In the treatment of steroids, such careful monitoring of the patient's condition is required, that the doctor often thinks ten times about what will assign these effective, but not very indifferent to the body means. Among the side effects( they are also called undesirable), the effects of such therapy are called increasing blood pressure, increasing blood glucose, a tendency to bleed, the risk of damage to small vessels of the eye, ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. .. and this is not a complete list. Recall that gout more often affects patients who are obese, who initially enter the risk group for many of the conditions listed above, multiply this by the side effects of steroids and get a pretty sad, in terms of prognosis, picture.
- Decreased uric acid level
All well-known allopurinol is used for this purpose. Sometimes patients who "put" themselves a diagnosis with the help of neighbors or the Internet, independently start taking this drug. It should be noted that the dosage is selected individually, small doses are often ineffective, while the patient does not prescribe a large dose. .. That is why the treatment with allopurinol should be carried out under medical supervision. So, allopurinol is prescribed:
- with frequent attacks( at least 1 time in 3 months);
- with an increase in the level of uric acid and concomitant damage to the joints;
- for serious abnormalities in kidney function;
- for kidney stones;
- for the deposition of uric acid crystals in soft tissues;
- in the treatment of antitumor drugs.
Diet for gout
Products that contribute to the occurrence of gout have already been mentioned. What can you eat and drink to a patient with a gout or high uric acid in the interictal period?
From the first dishes you can recommend vegetarian soups, such as borsch or vegetable or potato. Meat, as already mentioned, is strictly limited - it's a chicken or a duck. Permissible "lean" varieties of fish( cod, pollock), not more than 3 times a week, in a moderate amount( maximum 200 g per reception).Whole milk is not recommended, you should give preference to lactic acid foods( kefir, cottage cheese, fermented baked milk, young cheeses).As a side dish, boldly choose any cereal or pasta, bread is not limited( within reason, remember the danger of excess weight!).
Vegetables and fruits, except raspberries, spinach and cauliflower, are allowed all, preferably in boiled or raw form, fried - not welcome. It is allowed to take in food any nuts and dried fruits, from sweets you can treat yourself to honey, molasses, pastille, nuts. It is useful to add enough olive oil to food.
From beverages are allowed light green tea, juices, fruit drinks, compotes. Ideally, such a diet should be followed not only during an attack of gout, but also throughout the illness, while there is an increase in the level of uric acid in the blood.
Lifestyle of the patient with gout
After elimination of the pain syndrome, the doctor must ensure that the level of uric acid remains safe for the patient, and the dosage of allopurinol is correctly selected. For this purpose, the level of uric acid is regularly determined using a biochemical blood test. At the beginning of treatment it is necessary to do this every 2-4 weeks, then every 6 months. If the optimal dose of medicine is selected, the patient follows a diet, returns to physical exercises, does not face gout attacks, does not need to take painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, the dose of allopurinol can be slowly reduced under the supervision of a doctor. Practice shows that it is possible to completely abolish it quite rarely. Unfortunately, in the overwhelming majority of cases, patients who have abolished allopurinol are forced to return to it after a second gouty attack.
Almost all patients with gout survive to advanced years, suffering more from concomitant diseases than from joint pain. But it is also known that almost half develop nephrolithiasis( kidney stones), and kidney failure.
As already mentioned, gout refers to a group of diseases caused by impaired calcium metabolism in the body. The same group includes the disease associated with deposits of calcium pyrophosphate salts, or pyrophosphate arthropathy. These two diseases are so similar that they are treated as one large section - crystalline arthropathies.
This disease occurs equally often in women and men of advanced age, and among patients older than 85 years, according to research, half have this pathology. The disease occurs under the guise of osteoarthritis, gout or rheumatoid arthritis.
The development of pyrophosphate arthropathy is usually accompanied or preceded by a chronic disease( eg, diabetes, thyroid disease) or the patient has ever been injured by a joint.
When an elderly patient appeals with pain complaints more often in large joints( most often knee joints), the doctor will first prescribe radiography. If a "double line" of the joint space is found on the X-ray, the so-called phenomenon of chondrocalcinosis. In addition, the proof of the diagnosis of pyrophosphate arthropathy is the detection of special crystals when examining the joint fluid under a microscope. If the joint is inflamed, then this fluid, as in the case of gout, is obtained by puncturing the joint with a syringe. Further, it is only the laboratory. If the articular fluid for analysis can not be obtained, this can significantly complicate the diagnosis.
Treat or not treat?
Pyrophosphate arthropathy detected by accident( for example, during radiography) is not treated if there are no symptoms of inflammation of the joints. If there is arthritis( ie, swelling, redness, changes in skin temperature over the joint), and all other reasons for the appearance of these signs are excluded, excess fluid from the joint is removed with a syringe, then steroids are injected into the joint and cold applications( bandages) are applied. Further, course treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is prescribed. Short courses of steroid hormones or colchicine are rarely prescribed. And of course, the main role is played by the treatment of concomitant diseases, which caused the deposition of crystals in the joints. Important also non-medicinal methods, such as physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy, more often with the use of cold( in the absence of contraindications), wearing orthosis and others.
Gout: symptoms, development in women and in men
Stages of gout and their symptoms
As a rule, at night or early in the morning the person learns what gout is: the painful and unforeseen symptoms first appear at this time of day.
The patient experiences a piercing pain, observes redness and swelling at the site of the lesion, skin becomes red or purplish. The greatest peak of unpleasant sensations is reached in a day or two after the manifestation. Even the usual light touch to the joint causes unbearable pain.
Such an acute attack, it is also called classical, is often accompanied by a significant increase in temperature( up to 38 degrees and above);an insuperable weakness in the whole body. A person feels the heat, then the cold. But after 4-5 days everything passes, sometimes just as suddenly, in some cases gradually. Nevertheless, after a while the pain returns again.
The interval between the first and the subsequent seizure may sometimes reach eight months, with painful periods being short. However, over time, if you do not carry out proper treatment and prevention, everything changes: seizures become more frequent and longer. At the same time, at some point the pain becomes constant, and the gaps are absent completely.
Tofusi - a characteristic sign of gout
Gout, in contrast to other joint diseases, has its own characteristic - tofusi. These are kind of dense, solid nodules that do not cause pain.
They are formed from uric acid, which took the form of crystals, and accumulate in the periarticular tissues. Often, such yellow nodules appear near the auricles, less often - at the joints of the feet, brushes, tibiae and elbows.
As a rule, in the period of attacks tofusi soften. In some cases, with very advanced stages of gout, these peculiar nodules can erupt. And then through the formed fistula their contents are deduced, that is crystals. Usually, two to three days after the breakthrough, the wound is prolonged without consequences.
Stages of the disease
As you know, gout is a disease that is constantly progressing. In connection with this, its symptoms also change, that is, each stage of the ailment differs somewhat from the previous one. In addition to the classic attack or acute, the following stages are distinguished:
- rheumatoid gout. For her is a characteristic place of damage to the joints: as a rule, these are hands. At the same time, seizures are not as strong as in the classical and their duration varies from a few hours to a day;
- is an asymptomatic gout. The signs of this disease are indistinct, "blurred", the disease develops imperceptibly. Basically, because of the lack of a vivid clinical picture, the patient suffers a minor malaise and does not seek help, which in turn contributes to complication;
- renal gout. From the very title it is clear that this disease is directly related to a malfunction in the work of the kidneys. As a rule, such patients have already diagnosed pyelonephritis( inflammation of the kidneys).Subsequently, the disease can be complicated by the formation of stones, or at all lead to kidney failure;
- is an allergic gout. It occurs most rarely. Symptoms of such gout are often confused with polyarthritis. A distinctive feature is the rapid development of the signs of the disease, besides inflamed joints have a bright purple hue and become very hard;
- subacute gout. Unlike the classical, the pain with such a subspecies is not so severe. The joints swell more often, but the inflammation itself does not last long. The attack goes by itself, and usually much faster than acute;
- is a subarthritic gout form. In this case, unpleasant sensations appear in the tendons. There is severe pain in the joints of the legs, after a while they begin to deform. This leads to the fact that a person can not move normally. If the treatment is not performed in time, the muscles are involved in the process.
Each of the above diseases can lead to chronic gouty arthritis, which is also called "gouty status."At this stage of the disease, the articular cartilage is destroyed. And in the bones forming the joint, there are special defects - "piercers".This is a kind of cavity, which is filled with microcrystals of uric acid.
Symptoms in women and men: significant differences
Earlier, for quite a long time, gout was considered only a male disease, because they suffered mostly strong sex. Nowadays, given that the number of meat products has increased in the diet of women, gout has become more infectious to the fairer sex than a hundred years ago.
This was also facilitated by the use of certain drugs, in particular, drugs for high blood pressure. It mainly causes gout symptoms in women who are in the climacteric period. The most common signs include:
- sharp joint pain, which prevents movement;
- redness and swelling in the affected area;
- presence of attacks of acute arthritis;
- there is a general malaise, fever, there is a feeling of nervousness;
- skin peeling.
Meanwhile, gout in women is much easier than in men .Very rarely there are acute gouty attacks, tofuses and piercers in the bones are also not often observed. Signs characteristic of female gout are blurred chronic pain in the ankle and knee. The only thing that distinguishes such an ailment from arthrosis is a strong puffiness of the affected joint.
Symptoms of gout leg
If you take into account the joints of the lower extremities, then most often the gout affects the big toes. As a rule, the disease shows a sharp pain and redness in the area of the finger. Such signs are the result of inflammatory processes occurring in the joint. The symptoms appear, suggesting that the deposition of uric acid crystals began.
In addition to the fingers, extremely unpleasant sensations the patient can also experience in the knee and ankle. In addition to them, with the naked eye, reddening of the skin and swelling are visible. There is also fever and chills, replacing each other. With such a disease, the duration of an attack can range from an hour to several days.
Acute inflammatory process caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals is a pseudogout. Pseudo means false, because its symptoms are very similar to the true gout.
In both cases there is accumulation of crystals, only with gout accumulates salts of uric acid. Also, with a true disease, pain is much more acute, and the outcome is less favorable.
Pseudogout is also called pyrophosphate gout. The patients of older age groups, who often have two or three large joints, are the most susceptible to this disease. A characteristic manifestation of the disease - calcification of articular cartilage is determined by means of X-ray examination.
Causes of the disease
Depending on the causes of the onset, specialists identify three forms of the disease, which is caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate:
- hereditary predisposition;
- is an idiopathic form, that is, associated mainly with aging;
- form, resulting from metabolic disorders - decreased thyroid activity( hypothyroidism), excess iron in the body( hemochromatosis), a large amount of calcium in the blood( hypercalcemia).
The reason why calcium crystals begin to accumulate in the cartilage is not exactly established. Practically every person can have this process. Nevertheless, there are several factors that significantly increase the risk of the disease. These include:
- recent surgical intervention - operation on the joint;
- joint injury;
- the patient has renal failure, diabetes.
Symptoms of the disease
Has pseudogout symptoms very similar to other joint diseases. As a rule, at times of attacks, especially severe pain can be felt in the knee area. Also, the disease affects wrists, elbows, hands, shoulders, ankles. Symptoms manifest themselves in different ways. Most patients complain of severe pain, which is accompanied by limited movements and swelling in the joint area.
In some cases, a person experiences painful attacks of arthritis, in others - chronic pain, as well as stiffness in the joints of the limbs. Quite often, there are no symptoms at all between attacks. It happens that there are no painful sensations, although a significant deposition of calcium crystals in the joint is clearly seen on X-rays.
The numerous photos of gout symptoms are very similar to pseudo-red: redness and swelling. Therefore, only a specialist can determine the disease correctly. And, the earlier the treatment is started, the more favorable it will be. Otherwise, the ailment can lead to chronic disability.