Prevention of flat feet

Flat feet. Causes of development. Prevention of flatfoot

flatfoot prevention In the process of human evolution, its foot has acquired a rather unique design. In a normal state this part of the skeleton has two arches: a transverse one( between the finger bases) and a longitudinal one( along the inner surface).Both of them perform a very important role: they help maintain balance and protect the body from shaking while walking. In other words, the vaults act as shock absorbers.

If they are flattened and get a flat shape, the shaking during walking is eliminated due to the damping properties of the spine and the joints of the legs. In connection with the fact that these elements of the skeleton are not designed to perform such tasks, they quickly fail. Thus, along with flat feet, a person acquires scoliosis and arthrosis. It should be noted that the irregular structure of arches is typical for a fairly large number of people.

It must be said that flat feet can be acquired and inherent in nature.

In the second case, the cause of pathology is congenital insufficiency of the connective tissue. At the same time, it is difficult to determine pathology before the age of five or six.

Traumatic( acquired) flat feet can develop due to injuries. As a rule, these are fractures of heel bones, ankles, tarsometric bones.

Ricket flat feet can develop as a result of a high load on the weakened segments of the foot.

A pathology of a statistical nature develops( in 81% of cases) due to muscle weakness. Of particular importance is such weakness in the foot, in the shin and ligaments.

The most common reason for the occurrence of pathology is the excessive strain on the vaults. As a rule, this happens as a result of wearing the wrong shoes.

The choice of these or other methods of therapy will depend on the degree of flatfoot. At the same time, it is impossible to get rid of this disease with conservative methods at an older age. Completely eliminate the pathology can only in childhood. This requires timely prevention of flat feet.

insole from flat feet Correct formation of the arch is possible with constant training of ligaments and muscles. The prevention of flatfoot involves various exercises aimed at strengthening the ligamentous and muscular apparatus. As a workout, walking on rocks, sand, hard grass is used. As you know, without muscle load weaken. Regular training allows them to maintain their tone.

Flat feet prevention involves choosing the right, comfortable shoe. Often the cause of flat feet in women is wearing high heels. This is due to the fact that the support in such shoes is not carried on the entire foot, but only on the heads of metatarsal bones. This, in turn, leads to deformation of the segments.

degrees of flatfoot Prevention of flatfoot at home includes simple activities. Experts advise regularly to do massage, gymnastics of feet. Relieve the tension will help the tub.

Prevention of flat feet in children is very important. The choice of comfortable shoes in this case is of paramount importance. It is necessary to know that a child should not wear shoes for someone. In the loose shoe, the load is distributed to the foot incorrectly. Shoes for the child should have a small heel, a hard back and a soft instep. As a preventive measure, the doctor can recommend special insoles from flat feet. Relieve the tension will help the tub.

Complex of exercises for the prevention of flatfoot

Complex of exercises for the prevention of flat feet

Complex of exercises for the prevention of flatfoot

Flattening - deformation of the arch of the foot. Depending on its characteristics, two types of flatfoot are distinguished: transverse and longitudinal. The reasons for the development of this deformation can be many, in particular, weakness of the muscles and ligaments of the foot, trauma, heredity.



Flat feet often appear in childhood, when it is difficult to diagnose, it becomes more or less noticeable for years to 6-7.In this case, it is important to correct the deformation in time, because after the growth of the organism stops making this will be much more difficult. And in adulthood, flat feet are fraught with a number of consequences, the main of which are:

  • valgus deformation;
  • fast fatigue of the feet;
  • difficulty in choosing shoes, etc.

Accordingly, in this case it is important not to cure flat feet, but to prevent its development. For example, you can consider a set of exercises to prevent flat feet.

A set of exercises that will help to avoid flatfoot

The first thing we'll consider are exercises that involve different types of walking. For example, walking on toes and heels is very useful. At the same time, each of the exercises must be performed in turn, giving a few minutes. Also, walking on the outside of the foot is very useful. It is necessary to try, so that during this walk your legs move in parallel.

Basic exercises with flat feet

Basic exercises with flatfoot

A very good exercise will be walking on a ribbed surface. It's not for nothing that people used to say that it's very useful to walk barefoot on the ground and sand. But, if this is not possible, you can use a special rug for this purpose. There is another option - to collect smooth river pebbles and to put them in a basin. There also pour warm water. Put the child on a chair so that he can lower his legs into the pelvis with stones and water. The kid should touch the stones with his toes, at the same time it should be done 10-15 minutes, and it can be longer.

Next it will be good if the child gets to his feet and stomp a bit on these stones. Another exercise is walking on the spot. At the same time, one should try not to tear the socks off the floor, but lift the heels as high as possible. If there is a stick or a thick cord, it will be useful to walk along it. It is also necessary to perform walking, rolling from the heel to the toe, while strongly pushing off the floor.

Walking is one of the main components of the complex of exercises created for prevention, as well as for the treatment of flatfoot. Therefore, this procedure should be given enough attention.

Walking is a must!

Hotba - definitely!

Now consider the exercises that a person should perform from a standing position. Each exercise is done 10-20 times. The first is to raise and lower the toes of the feet. The second is to do the same with the heels. Third - we accept position, standing, legs together. We breed socks aside, return them back. The heels stand still. Now we perform the same procedure, only weave the heels aside, and we try not to tear our socks off the floor.

Next, we perform the following procedure: tear the legs of one leg and the heel of the other from the floor, then change the legs. These are the exercises you need to perform, keeping to a fast pace.

Exercises using a gymnastic stick or ball

You can perform exercises with a gymnastic stick or ball. The principle of the exercise itself is the same, so we will describe it once for two subjects. It is necessary to put a foot on the ball or the mentioned gymnastic stick, start to roll the object, trying to press the foot to it as best as possible. For each leg we give a few minutes. We follow the measured breathing, choose the average pace of exercise.

It is worth noting that exercises with a ball or gymnastic stick on the effectiveness in the prevention of flatfoot or fighting with it can be put on the first place. Therefore, it is necessary to include these procedures in a set of exercises.

Complex prophylactic exercises

Complex of proctallactic exercises

This is far from all exercises that are used to prevent flat feet or to treat it. Summing up, they are all aimed at strengthening the muscles and ligaments of the foot, forming the right arch. And the effectiveness of the exercises depends on the age of the child - the smaller the child, the faster it will be to achieve the result.

Speaking about prevention, we should note that you need to select some of the most appropriate exercises, perform them regularly. In this case, the probability of flatfoot will be minimal.

Orthopedic insoles as an additional prophylaxis of flatfoot

In order to prevent more flat feet, more methods can be used. For example, orthopedic insoles. These insoles, which are made of genuine leather or synthetic material, have an anatomical shape identical to the bends of the foot. Such insoles are able to support the leg in the correct position, to prevent its spreading, especially when the muscles are heavily loaded on the legs and weak muscles, ligaments. The main thing is to choose the right insoles, to choose a quality product.

Special orthopedic insoles

Special orthopedic insoles

It is believed that it will be better to wear natural leather insole - this material is more pliable than polymers, it can take the form of a person's foot, keep it for the entire period of use of the insoles. Companies that produce this product are also different. You can buy orthopedic insoles more expensive, they are represented by foreign companies, or save, and give preference to domestic products.

It should be noted that orthopedic insoles are divided into three types: soft;semi-rigid;hard. For the prevention of flatfoot, the first option is used. With such insoles the child will feel very comfortable, will not experience uncomfortable sensations. It is recommended to wear such insoles constantly.

Additional measures to prevent flatfoot

Statistics show that congenital flat feet are very rare in children. This is only about 3% of cases. Accordingly, flat feet develops under the influence of external factors. First of all, it's uncomfortable shoes. Buy a child needs only quality shoes with a hard back. There must be a small heel around 1 cm.

If you adhere to these rules, you can minimize the risk of flat feet. Do not let the child wear other people's shoes, do not buy it in commission stores and do not take it from friends. Wearing a baby should only have new shoes.

We also classify an active lifestyle as a preventive measure. Undoubtedly, in the modern world of computer technologies the child is very difficult to distract from the monitor, but just the sedentary lifestyle is considered one of the main factors provoking the development of flat feet. This is not surprising, because in this case, the muscles and ligaments of the foot become very weak, so they can not keep the foot in the correct position under certain loads.

Comfortable shoes - the guarantee of healthy legs!

Comfortable shoes - the guarantee of healthy legs!

As a consequence, the acquired flat feet, which is provoked by a sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, you need to try to walk more( shoes should be comfortable).Walking barefoot will be very useful. In urban conditions, to realize this idea is quite difficult, but if you want to do everything you can do. After all, in this case, the main thing is the health of the child.

Video - Complex of exercises for the prevention of flatfoot

Plane prophylaxis in children

We will tell you what is a flatfoot, how to choose the right shoes for the child, and also offer you exercises to prevent flat feet in children.

What is a platypodia? According to most adults, this is an individual feature of the structure of the foot, a slight deviation from the norm, which does not require special treatment. However, flat foot often leads to a violation of posture and subsequently - to diseases of the spine.

A bit of anatomy

The human foot is a vaulted construction: the bones are joined by joints, which are strengthened by ligaments;mobility and "strength" of the foot attach to the muscles. When the baby stands on the legs, the arch of the foot is subjected to a heavy load. If the ligaments and muscles are weakened, the foot flattenes and "falls" inward, the heel turns outward, and the straight line of the shin is bent. There is an X-shaped installation of feet( "legs by ixom"), Hence the name of the diagnosis: flat-valgus stop, that is, flat foot and valgus - deformation, curvature.

Valgus deformity can occur due to hereditary predisposition, dysfunction of the central nervous and endocrine systems, the transmitted infections. To identify the pathology at an early stage will help a timely visit to the orthopedist.

Diagnosis is not a verdict!

A child's foot is formed before the age of 5, which means that the earlier the symptoms are detected, the easier it is to cure the ailment. A positive result can be achieved by following three basic rules:

• we comply with the diet regime - we ensure that the child receives the necessary vitamins and vitamins necessary for growth and development;

• wear the right shoes;

• Strengthen the muscles.

If you want to be healthy

Only foot fixing is not enough. It is necessary to strengthen the muscles. In the first year of life, special attention should be given to therapeutic massage( 2-3 courses per year), sometimes in conjunction with physiotherapy. With older children, you can perform several effective exercises.

Exercises for the prevention of flatfoot

• Sitting on a chair, the child presses and relaxes his toes, tearing off the heels and socks alternately from the floor.

• Give the child to roll the ball alternately with one or the other leg. Then ask to grab the ball with the feet, raise it above the floor and hold it slightly to the weight.

• Walking on heels, on toes, on the outer edge of the foot.

• Place a small wand on the floor, let the child roll it with its foot( photo 1).

• Place the pencil on the floor. The kid should lift it with the help of the toes and hold it for a while( photo 2).

Exercises should be tried every day, for several minutes.

Well, of course, use warm summer days for charging in the fresh air. Often walk barefoot on sand, pebbles, bumpy surface. It is very useful to give the child to walk along the trunk of a tree or a bar( just hold it by the handle!).

Shoes for the correct formation of foot

In pursuit of beauty, manufacturers of children's shoes often violate orthopedic norms. Let the shoes of our childhood not be distinguished by a special grace, but on a high boot it always had a hard heel fixing a heel, a half-centimeter heel and a tight, high instep-thickening on the inside of the foot under the arch, sometimes in combination with the rigid inner wall of the boot.

More complex orthopedic products are manufactured in specialized clinics on individual samples. Orthopedic shoes should be worn, alternating with everyday, so that the muscles receive a load, and the leg rested from the fettering motion of the pads.

For the correct formation of the foot, and also for convenience in children's shoes should be:

• hard high back( 1);

When rest, massage and other methods do not help to eliminate the pain, you can resort to medical therapy. Systemic analgesics: aspirin, flugalin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol, etc. Topical application: indomethacin ointment, Dolgit cream, voltarene gel, etc. Special treatment procedures : Novocain electrophoresis, hydropharmacy with hydrocortisone,paraffin-ozocerite applications, etc.

Exemption from the army of conscripts with flat feet( according to RF norms).

Based on the "Regulations on Military Medical Examination" No. 123, dated 25.02.2003, military service and admission to military schools and schools does not prevent people with the following disabilities:
  • I-II longitudinal flat-foot
  • Transverse flatfootI degree, in the absence of arthrosis in the joints of the foot( middle section), exostoses( bone-cartilaginous sprouting in the form of a spine) and contractures( restriction of joint mobility).
For the liberation from the army with a flatfoot, the following conditions must be met:
  • Longitudinal or transverse flatfoot II degree c presence, severe pain syndrome, deforming arthrosis of the II stage of the mid-foot joints, contracture of the fingers;
  • Longitudinal flatfoot III degree, transverse flatfoot III-IV degree
Conscripts with such types of violations fall into the category - limited to go( "B"), that is, they will only be called in wartime. They get a military ticket on their hands, and they go to the reserve.

Flatfoot prevention

  • The formation of the right gait, not to breed socks when walking - this overloads the inner edge of the foot and its ligaments.
  • With a predisposition to flatfoot to choose the right place of work( work not associated with prolonged loads on the legs).
  • Properly selected shoes, on a thick and soft sole, heel not more than 4 cm.
  • Wearing insoles for long loads.
  • In his spare time, give rest to his legs, at least 30 seconds, 3-4 times a day to stand on the outside of the feet.
  • After work it is recommended to take warm baths for feet, with their subsequent massage.
  • Walking barefoot on an uneven surface, over pebbles, along the sand, walking on the heels, the inner surface of the feet, tiptoe, moving games.
  • Maximum limit the wearing of shoes with high heels
  • Correctly dose physical exercise, avoid excessive loads
Healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, take food rich in vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium.

Why does postural flaccidity disturb the posture?

The human body works as a whole. Between bodies there are not only anatomical, but also functional interrelations. With flatfoot, the center of gravity is displaced backward. In order to maintain balance, the spine has to deviate forward. Over time, deformation increases, posture is formed - round back .The normal arch of the foot works like a shock absorber. With flatfoot this function is violated. As a result, the spine and knees have increased loads. This leads to an even more severe violation of posture, scoliosis, herniated discs. In the knee joints arthrosis can develop. Flattening and problems on the part of the spine have some common causes: weakness of connective tissue, ligaments and muscles, obesity, increased physical activity.

Which mats can I use for flatfoot? How to choose them correctly?

Special massage mats have on their surface a variety of pebbles, protrusions, "pimples".They are widely used for the prevention and treatment of flat feet. Effects of massage mats :
  • effect on reflexogenic foot points;
  • improvement of blood circulation and lymph drainage( due to this there is a decrease in edema on the legs);
  • strengthening of muscles and ligaments;
  • elimination of cramps, pain;
  • elimination of stresses, increase in general tone.
Massage mats from flat feet are prophylactic and therapeutic .Usually preventive are made of softer materials, and therapeutic ones are made of more rigid materials. One-part massage mat is a single unit. The modular consists of several parts that can be interconnected. They can be marked with "pimples" of different sizes and shapes. Materials from which massage mats are made may also be different. Most often there are rubber( usually based on natural rubber), plastic, made of foamed polymers, on a silicone base. Many models have inserts from stones, for example, river pebbles. Rugs from the Altai birch are very popular. The right choice of a massage pad with flat feet will help the advice of :
  • First of all - consult a doctor .The expert will tell you which model of the rug is best to buy in your case.
  • It is best to buy a mat in the orthopedic salon .Before you buy the product, be sure to deploy it, stand with your bare feet and try to walk. If it causes pain or severe discomfort, it is better to choose another model.
  • For a child under 3 years old, a mat made of rubber is best. Later you can buy a model on a silicone base. Adults often recommend rugs from the Altai birch.
  • Try to choose a rug on which there is not one, but several different types of relief .This will provide different types of impact on the sole. For example, in addition to the "stones" on the surface may be villi for soft massage soles.
  • Inspect the mat before buying .Make sure that all the protrusions and "pimples" are strong enough. Think about how convenient it is to wash, store the selected model.
How to use a massage mat for the prevention and treatment of flat feet? Begin with a daily walk on the rug for 3-5 minutes, gradually increase the time. Usually 5-10 minutes is enough. It is worth remembering that the massage mat can not be used as the only method of treating flatfoot - the effect will bring only its use in combination with other techniques. Who is recommended to use massage mats:
  • for children and adults diagnosed with flat feet;
  • for children, in order to prevent flat feet;
  • to people, leading a sedentary lifestyle, to those with sedentary work;
  • to women, who walk a lot in shoes with stilettos.

How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?

Orthopedic insoles can be used for preventive purposes or to combat flatfoot. Medical orthopedic insoles need to be selected together with a doctor. Usually they are made individually, according to one of three methods:
  • Computer modeling .A person stands on a special platform, which registers the pressure of various parts of the foot and transfers to the computer. An image is displayed on the monitor.
  • Manufacture of plaster casts .
  • Thermoforming . Insole is made of special material, which takes the form of a patient's foot.
  • Obtaining a print with a special bio-foam.
Orthopedic insoles are usually made of genuine leather or synthetic materials( flexible plastic, expanded polyethylene, microporous rubber).If a person has a lot of weight, more rigid materials are used: graphite, special plastics, steel. Also, the insole is made of silicone, but they are less comfortable, have a low elasticity, wear out more quickly. But due to its flexibility, silicone insoles adapt well to the relief of the sole. In the manufacture of insoles for athletes take into account increased loads and intense sweating. Orthopedic insoles for diabetics have additional protection.

How is flatfoot encoded in the ICD?

In the international classification of flatfoot diseases, two codes are assigned:
  • M21.4 - acquired flat foot;
  • Q66.5 - congenital flat foot.

What gymnastics can I perform with flatfoot?

Gymnastics with a flat foot are chosen individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot. Start classes only after you consult a doctor and find out what exercises are recommended in your case. Some exercises that can be performed with a flatfoot : In prone position : 1. With your legs slightly apart, squeeze and unclench your toes for about 2 minutes. 2. With your legs spread out, rotate the feet clockwise, then in the opposite direction. 3. Pull your foot socks over. You can perform both legs simultaneously or alternately. 4. Detach the heels from the floor, leaning their toes. 5. Bend your knees, spread them apart, simultaneously folding the soles together, so that they touch. Then "clap" your heels: dilute and reduce them, resting with your toes. 6. Place the right foot on the left ankle joint. Move the right foot along the left shin towards the knee, while trying to clasp her leg. Repeat with the left foot. In sitting position on a chair : 1. Squeeze your right hand into a fist and tightly hold it between your knees. Raise the inner parts of the feet, and the outer one is pressed harder against the floor. Repeat several times. 2. Detach the heels from the floor - at the same time with both feet, then alternately. 3. An exercise similar to the previous one, only this time you need to remove the socks from the floor. 4. Place different small items on the floor. Grab their fingers with your feet and shift from one place to another. 5. Bend your fingers while pulling your heels forward, then straighten them. The foot should "crawl" on the floor, like a caterpillar. In standing position : 1. Stand up several times on your toes. Then alternately tear off the right and left heel from the floor. 2. Stand a few times on your heels. In this case, the toes must be completely detached from the floor. 3. Perform several sit-ups and half-squats on your toes.

Is physical education given to a child given flat feet?

This question is solved individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot, other factors. With severe deformity and violation of foot function, the child can be completely released from physical culture. In other cases, it is classified in one of four groups:
  • group LFK: children who have a disease requiring an individual program of study;
  • special group: for children, for whom the load in ordinary lessons is too high, restrictions are required;
  • preparatory group: no restrictions in physical activity, but the child is exempted from the delivery of standards;
  • main group: no restrictions.

How does flatfoot differ from clubfoot?

Flat foot refers to any deformation of the foot at which the longitudinal or transverse arch falls. The reasons for this violation can be different. Clubfoot - congenital violation, the reasons for which are not yet fully established. In this case, the foot is most often turned down and inward.

What kind of sports can you practice with flatfoot?

For flatfoot, the following sports are recommended :
  • Free style swimming .It has a beneficial effect not only on the legs, but also on the spine column, the muscles of the back, helps to fight with impaired posture and other pathologies. But with flat feet, you should not get involved in swimming with a crawl, as this increases the load on the muscles of the legs.
  • Skiing .In this case, the load on the legs should be small. Intensive skiing is contraindicated.
  • Equestrian sport . Horse riding helps strengthen the muscles and tendons of the back, legs.
  • Some kinds of martial arts .Aikido, karate and kung fu do not assume an increased strain on the legs, but help strengthen the tendons and muscles.
When flatfoot is not recommended such sports as skating, dancing, weight lifting, weight training, jumping, figure skating, hockey, walking on the steppes. Specialty: Practitioner of the 2nd category

Published: 03.7.2013

Prevention of flat feet: can a child jump to a hard surface? What should be the first kids shoes and what can not be used? How to make a plottograph by yourself? Exercises to prevent flat feet.

Kids love to jump. Is it possible for a child to jump to a hard surface? How is this kind of movement associated with the state of the baby's foot? What exercises are useful for the child? How to make a plottograph by yourself? How to choose shoes?

flatfoot prevention

Summer is the time of walks. Kids love to move, and it's wonderful! But not all movements are useful and safe for them. Here the kid 2,5 years has got on a porch of an entrance and ten minutes in a row with pleasure and the ecstasy repeats the same movement - it climbs on a porch and jumps off from it on asphalt. And my mother carelessly at this time talking with her friend - the kid is busy with the business, moving, everything seems to be fine. But this is not so!

Why can not a small child jump from a height to a hard surface?

The fact is, in the first three and a half years of a child's life his foot is not yet developed and is in a state of formation. Therefore, children under three years of age should not be allowed to jump from the height( from the porch, benches, curbs) to the asphalt or the path in the park, covered with stone slabs. After all, the supporting and connecting apparatus of the foot is still weak at this tender age. Especially it is impossible for a child to make such movements continuously and for a long time!

What if the kid loves to jump from a height? After all, you can not forbid the baby to jump? Of course, there should be very few prohibitions for the child, the less - the better. Therefore, you should not forbid jumping, but give him an alternative: "You can not jump on asphalt, but on the sand you can. Let's jump on the sand! "And this" can not "should be a ban on all the time - you can not jump on the asphalt both at mom, and at grandmother, and with dad, and in the morning, and in the evening, and in the yard, and in the park. And the child then understands the demand of adults and carries it out without problems. But this should not be so - that today "Nothing, once you can jump," and the next time - "I told you how many times did not jump on the asphalt!".The demand for a toddler must be uniform and constant, then it will not make him nervous and cause moods and tears. If the kid asks why it is impossible to jump to the asphalt, then you can explain the reason to him - say that it is useful for the legs to jump on the sand, but to jump on the asphalt is bad for the legs.

Indeed, it is perfectly safe and even useful for a child to jump and jump from a small height to a soft surface - mat, sand, soft earth covered with grass. It is very useful to jump through puddles or through brooks, like frogs or as bunnies, faster and slower, higher and lower, "from hummock to hummock".These exercises the kid can perform only when the foot is ready for the load. If the stop is not ready, then the kid simply can not jump over and step instead. So, it will not harm itself. It is also useful to step over the sticks or through a rope raised above the ground by 5-15 cm, step over obstacles( arrange, for example, cubes in a row at a distance of 20 cm from each other), overcome obstacles in an alternating step, climb through the hoop, climb under the rope(height 25-30 cm).

As soon as the toddler starts walking, you can make a plottograph with your own hands and get with it reliable information about how his foot is gradually forming. I produce this planotograph in this article on the technology of a pediatrician, candidate of medical sciences, LG.Golubeva( LG Golubeva, Gymnastics and massage for the youngest - M., 2012).I very much advise all parents of small children and those who are still going to become moms of kids to purchase this book.

How to make a plottograph by yourself?

You will make a planograph with your own hands in 1 minute! Take the big embroidery hoop and tuck cotton cloth in them, and fill it with polyethylene film. That's all!

Now we learn how to use a planitograph.

  • We make mascara with water in a ratio of 1: 1.We moisten the cotton swab in the resulting mixture and moisten the mixture with a cotton layer of the plottograph.
  • We put a sheet of paper on the floor, on it we put the embroidery frame with the cotton-washed side down. On top of the cotton layer is a layer of polyethylene, on which the child stands. get a layered pie: the top of the film, under it, a damp cloth, and under the cloth a piece of paper. On this "layered pie" is a baby.
  • The footprint is obtained.

Such a procedure can be done every three months, monitoring how the baby's foot changes and how the ligament-muscle apparatus develops.

A simpler option is to put the baby with wet feet on the piece of paper after the bathroom. Or grease his legs with baby cream and put on a sheet of paper. Get a footprint.

How to evaluate the results?

On the footprint of the child , two lines must be traced - draw them:

  1. A line from the middle of the heel to point A. Point A is in the second interdigital space, i.e.between the second and third finger on the foot.
  2. A line from the middle of the heel to the base of the thumb.

If both of these lines have turned out inside the contour of the foot - then the is flat. If outside the foot print lines, the stop of the is normal.

In most children, the maturation of the foot is completed at the age of 3 years - 3 years 3 months. If the child is more than 3 years old, and the foot is flat, then this is cause for concern.

Another important point to which you need to pay attention and if necessary go to the doctor is the position of the heel. It can be identified by the toddler's shoes: if the child is trampling the inside of the sole, then this is the valgus position. If the baby is stitching the outer part of the sole, then this is the varus position. In the normal foot, the axis of the shin and heel coincides. With longitudinal flat feet, they form an angle that is open to the outside( valgus foot).

It is very important to see not the state of the foot at the moment, but its change in the dynamics of - the situation is getting better or worse. For example, flat-valgus feet - this is the natural stage of the formation of the foot in the transition of the child to the upright. And he passes himself by about a year and a half. After all, the baby stands up on the legs in a year, and walking immediately gives a load to his feet, which was not there before. Therefore, even before walking and during training, walking should be done with the baby exercises in standing and walking at the support so that the muscles and joints are strengthened.

It should be remembered that the earlier the signs of flatfoot are revealed, the less deformation, the easier the platypodia is amenable to correction. Now there are special groups in kindergartens for children with flat feet and a violation of posture, in which all assistance to these kids is free.

Plane prophylaxis in children 1-2 years.

To develop a foot, the baby should not be in shoes all the time. He needs to walk and barefoot on the grass, on pebbles, on pebbles, on sand, on a massage mat. And it's even more remarkable if a kid can run on the sand of the sea! This hardens and strengthens the foot. Remember our ancestors - kids ran in bast shoes( and bast shoes give the effect of foot massage) or barefoot on the ground and had no problems with flat feet! But constant walking barefoot is also harmful, as well as constant walking in shoes!

Now on sale is special rollers for foot massage, children's massage mats. It is very useful to walk around the mat together with the baby in the morning, roll a massage roller. The best example for a child is an adult! And the best time for such activities is the morning, when the muscles are not tired yet. This very simple gymnastics improves blood circulation and muscle tone.

It is very important that the child immediately had the the right shoes. Even when he is not walking yet, he just started to stand and take the first steps.

Requirements for children's shoes for the smallest for the prevention of flatfoot:

According to doctors, the first shoes of the baby should be:( A. Petukhov, orthopedist of the city hospital No. 19 named after TS Zatsepin - "Mom and Baby" 2004.No. 12):

Tightly fix the foot and ankle with a lace or Velcro, but never squeeze the foot or be too loose.• Have a minimum number of internal joints, so that the baby does not rub the skin around the ankles.• In their manufacture( including insoles), natural materials should be used. The backside should be high, rigid, reaching the border of the lower or middle third of the shin. This is necessary in order to avoid lateral curvature in the ankle joint.• It is better if the surface of the boots is perforated so that the legs can "breathe". The sole should be stable and non-slip, with a small( 1 - 1.5 cm) heel. In addition, it must be rigid. This prevents overexploitation in the joints of the foot and overstretch of the ligaments. And for the baby, the toddler on the leather soles is quite suitable.• In shoes for children under 2 years should not be instep , because the function of the shock absorber is the same "fat pad", otherwise it will prevent the normal formation of the arches of the foot. However, everything is very individual. Perhaps some babies will have to choose shoes without a supinator and at an older age. This issue is better discussed with the doctor.• When fitting, it is necessary to take into account that shoes with reserve, do not interfere with the child's walking - about 1.5 cm. • After a walk, pay attention to the baby's leg: if the skin is imprinted with tights or inner seams of the shoe - shoes are necessarychange ".

On sale now a lot of shoes are harmful for the development of feet of little children! How to choose children's shoes and not make a mistake? I found a very good video about how to choose the right shoes for the youngest children. But the same requirements apply to shoes and older children. In the video, you will see the children's shoes correct and wrong, harmful for the baby! I strongly advise you to look - it must be known! On examples of specific shoes you will see what kind of shoes to buy and what should be avoided! And once again we will be convinced that "not everything is gold that glitters" and is advertised.

Video. Prophylaxis of flat feet for children. How to choose shoes for a child 1-3 years?

If you are worried about the condition of the baby's foot - then you need to see a doctor - an orthopedist. But do not panic immediately. Very many familiar to me children put horrific diagnoses. But when moms turned to another polyclinic, the diagnoses of the kids were not confirmed. And it turned out that to the same child three different pediatric orthopedists diagnosed from "healthy, the age norm" to "may become disabled."Therefore, it is always best to listen to several opinions of doctors to find out the true state of affairs - unfortunately, this is so. And be sure to keep track of the dynamics - the situation becomes worse or worse.

Gymnastics for flatfoot prevention:

It is better to carry out gymnastics in "small portions" as a game 2-3 times a day for 2-3 exercises.

Variants of exercises

  • Take a narrow path( 10-15 cm) - put a strip of wallpaper, limit the track with two ropes or draw with chalk. The kid walks without leaving the track.
  • Bear. Walking on the outer edges of the feet.
  • Walking and running on sand, pebbles, hard stones, earth.
  • Put it in the basket. Grab small items with your toes. You can do sitting and standing. And in the summer you can do for a walk in the forest, grabbing twigs and bumps.
  • Put it in the basket. Invite the kid to take a handkerchief, a pencil and transfer it to the basket.
  • Big and small. The child stands on his toes - he became big. And then he squats to the full stop - he becomes small.
  • Walking on a ribbed board or on a massage mat.

Until new meetings on the "Native Path".More about the development of the child in preschool age, you can read:

Gymnastics for kids: a game complex of breathing exercises.

Development of fine motor skills: myths and the truth about finger games, how to properly hold finger exercises and finger games with preschool children, exercises for the development of fine motor skills, massage of hands and fingers for the youngest.

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