Longitudinal and transverse platypodia: symptoms and treatment, photo. Flat-footedness - what is it?
The foot is one of the main links of the body's support. Its area is about 1% of the entire surface of the body. However, it is the main load that is equal to the mass of the human body. The foot performs several functions: cushioning, supporting, balancing. Under the influence of certain factors, its arch is deformed, a disease such as flat feet develops. As a result, the sole loses its damping features, which is accompanied by unpleasant complications.
Flat-footed - what is it?
The human foot consists of 26 bones. They are interconnected by joints and ligaments, the movement of which is controlled by tendons and muscles. In a healthy person, the foot has 2 arches: transverse and longitudinal. They are located in the base of the fingers and the inner edge of the sole. When walking, a person does not fully rely on the foot. As a rule, three points are involved: the calcaneus, the region of the base of the little finger and the thumb. If the ligaments and muscles of the foot are weakened, its shape begins to change. It gradually becomes flat. When walking, a person has to rely on the soleplate on the surface. As a result, the damping properties deteriorate, flat feet develop. A photo of a leg deformation is presented in this article.
Vaults function as springs or levers, providing comfortable movement with minimal consequences for the body. Damage to this link entails a disruption to the operation of the whole system. The organism, as is known, is a single whole. Any changes in the operation of one system necessarily affect the functioning of the other. Flattening can lead to damage to the femoral and knee joints, deformation of the spine. If the stop does not cope with its functions, they go to the structures above. The spine, knee and hip joints are not adapted to such a load, so they quickly fail.
Classification of the disease
The foot has two arches. Therefore, it is quite justified to isolate the forms of the disease - longitudinal and transverse flatfoot. Symptoms and treatment of each are discussed below. There is also a mixed( combined) variant of the disease.
Classification of the disease by type also provides for the allocation of acquired and congenital flat feet. The first case is extremely rare and is the result of abnormal fetal development. Acquired flat feet can occur at any age. It, in turn, is subdivided into several subspecies:
- is static( arises from a decrease in muscle tone);
- is ricky( as a result of deficiency of vitamin D in the body, the muscular apparatus is weakened);
- paralytic( develops against the background of the transferred poliomyelitis);
- is traumatic( occurs as a result of injuries and fractures of bones).
Symptoms of flatfoot
What signs need to be paid attention to prevent flat feet in time? Symptoms of this disease appear gradually. The very first sign of it is severe pain in the legs at the end of a day's work. By the evening the soles and shins swell, cramps appear. It becomes difficult for women to walk on their heels. Because of the increase in foot from the old shoes, you have to give up and buy a new one, but a larger one. Gradually, the pain syndrome spreads higher, passes to the knee and hip joints. Such signs are characterized not only by flat feet. Symptoms of a similar nature are observed with varicose veins. But treatment for this disease requires a completely different.
To calm yourself, you can conduct a simple test at home. For this, place the soles of your feet with a coloring agent( for example, greenery or iodine).Then leave a print on the sheet of paper so that the load on the foot is uniform. After this, draw a line parallel to the plantar notch from the heel to the fingers. Place the perpendicular in the deepest part to the outer edge of the foot. If the print of the bottleneck of the sole occupies not less than half of the perpendicular to the first line, you have a flat foot. A photo of the example scheme is presented below.
Causes of the pathological process
Flattening is a serious disease characterized by deformities of the foot. In ordinary life, no one pays attention to this defect. Know the features of the disease is in order to take timely measures to correct it. Causes of ailment can be both external and internal. Given the rhythm of modern life and a disparaging attitude towards one's own wardrobe, sometimes flat feet have a mixed aetiology. Even everyone's favorite sneakers can trigger deformation of the foot. Why? The sole of the sneakers is equipped with excellent shock absorption. They take on all the load, fixing the heel. As a result, muscles relax, all conditions are created for the development of such a problem as flat feet. What is a flatfoot, how it arises, is now clear.
Returning to the internal causes of the disease, it is worth noting a number of provoking factors. First of all, this is the presence of concomitant ailments. Rheumatoid arthritis is among them. It affects not only the cartilage, but also the ligaments that are responsible for supporting the foot. Injuries and mechanical injuries to the foot also contribute to the development of a foot defect.
The impact of external factors is easily prevented if you take care of your own health and carefully approach the choice of shoes. Exogenous causes of flatfoot include the following:
- excessive physical load;
- insufficient activity due to work;
- hormonal disorders, pregnancy;
- wrong shoes.
With this form of the disease, the length of the foot increases due to the lowering of the longitudinal arch. As a result, the sole completely touches the floor. In the role of the main sign of deformation is the narrowing of the gap between the inner edge of the foot and the surface of the floor itself. In patients with this diagnosis, clubfoot develops over time.
Three degrees of longitudinal flattening are distinguished:
- At the first stage of the disease development, there is no visible deformation. Discomfort in the legs appears after prolonged exertion. When pressing, pain occurs.
- The second degree is characterized by a change in the arch of the foot. Painful discomfort intensifies and spreads to the ankles and legs. Muscles gradually lose their elasticity.
- The third degree of the disease is marked by pronounced deformation of the foot. Painful sensations in the legs do not pass even by evening. There is discomfort in the lower back, decreased ability to work. A person with the diagnosis "longitudinal flatfoot of the third degree" is difficult to walk in ordinary shoes.
With this form of the disease, the length of the foot decreases, the thumb is deflected, and the middle finger is deformed. It takes on a hammerlike appearance. At the base of the first finger appears a small seal in the form of a cone.
There are three degrees of transverse form of flatfoot. Their differences are due to the angle of the deviation of the big toe.
- The first degree is a slightly outlined transverse flatfoot. Symptoms of the disease manifest themselves as it progresses. The deviation of the thumb does not exceed 20 degrees. After exercise, painful discomfort appears. On the foot there are clearly visible papillae in the area of 2-4 fingers.
- At the second degree, the deflection angle is already 35 degrees. With a load, a burning sensation occurs in the area of the sole, the pods increase in size.
- The third degree of ailment is characterized by constant pain. The deflection angle exceeds 35 degrees. Some patients develop bursitis. This disease, accompanied by inflammation of the periarticular bag.
Separately consider mixed flat feet. What is the longitudinal and transverse platypodia, we have already considered, and this pathology is accompanied by the symptomatology, which is typical for both species. The manifestation of features of a mixed form differs in a greater degree of their expression.
What is the difference between flat feet in children?
The leg of a child under five years old is a fragile structure that is in the formation stage. Therefore, the parents are given a great responsibility. They must prevent the disease, recognize it in time and begin treatment.
Children rarely talk about health problems. If they try to hint, the parents do not pay attention to them. Children lead an active lifestyle, are in constant motion, which is usually accompanied by fatigue. But there are certain points that parents should pay attention to:
- flattening of the arches of the feet;
- unevenly worn shoes;
- complaints of a child to leg pain after moving games.
If the child's gait has changed, it has become less moving, it is necessary to consult an orthopedic doctor. An experienced specialist can recognize flat feet at an early stage. Symptoms and treatment of this disease in children practically do not differ from those in adults. Its unique feature is the reversibility of the pathological process. Gradual maturation of the child is accompanied by a natural release from the disease. The foot is formed up to 13 years. During this period it is necessary to focus on physical activity( running, walking).As a result, the muscles will begin to develop harmoniously, and the foot will acquire the right outlines.
Flattening in adults and children can be determined on the basis of clinical symptoms of the disease. To assess the degree of the pathological process requires a serious examination of the patient. It includes several items. This:
- Plantography allows you to determine the severity of the pathological process with the help of prints. For this, a solution of methylene blue is applied to the feet. Then make prints on a blank sheet of paper. The plantography gives approximate data on the state of the arches.
- Friedland's method of submetry makes it possible to estimate the percentage of height of the foot to its length.
- The clinical method is based on the construction of a special triangle. Its base is equal to the distance from the metatarsal head to the heel of the heel. The vertex of the triangle is located in the center. The first leg extends to the highest point of the calcaneus, the second - to the head of the metatarsus. Normally, the height of the arch should not exceed 60 cm.
- The X-ray method is also based on the construction of a triangle, but in this case the vertex angle is measured. This parameter should not exceed 130 degrees.
Based on the results of the examination, an orthopedic doctor can confirm the diagnosis and give advice on treatment.
With flat feet take in the army? This issue worries many young men who have reached adulthood. If the deceased is diagnosed with a deformation of a foot of 1 or 2 degrees, he is subject to service in the ranks of the armed forces. In the longitudinal or transverse flatfoot of the third degree, the youth is freed from the army. He is issued a military ticket with the mark "limited to go."
Principles of treatment
Many people do not pay attention to flat feet, ignore the first symptoms. In fact, this is a fairly serious and rapidly developing pathology, which practically does not lend itself to therapy. Completely cure it can only be in childhood, when the foot is not yet formed to the end. In adults, therapy is aimed at slowing the development of the disease and preventing complications. Treatment of the pathological process is complex. The patient is strengthened by the muscles, eliminates the pain syndrome, stops the progressive longitudinal / transverse flatfoot. Symptoms and treatment of these types of disease are practically the same. Now we will dwell in more detail on modern methods of therapy.
Drugs combined with physiotherapy help to eliminate pain syndrome. Patients are prescribed systemic analgesics( Ibuprofen, Aspirin), as well as ointments for topical application( Dolgit, Voltaren).
The basis of therapy is therapeutic gymnastics. The complex of exercises is selected by the orthopedist taking into account the stage of the disease and the age of the patient. A good therapeutic effect gives a foot massage. Regular procedures help to normalize blood circulation, increase muscle tone. Unfortunately, all listed methods of treatment are effective only at the initial stage of the disease. With strong deformities of the foot, only one option helps - surgery.
Treatment of this disease in children requires a different approach. Most often in small patients diagnosed longitudinal flat feet( that such deformation can not be ignored, should be known to all parents).Pathology is perfectly treatable when it is detected in time. The bones, ligaments and muscles of the child are susceptible to conservative therapy. A positive therapeutic effect is provided by exercise therapy and massage. If a child has a congenital flat foot, it is treated from the very first days of life. To do this, use special bandages and langets.
What is the danger of flat feet?
The human body works as a whole. Between all organs there are not only anatomical, but also functional connections. With flatfoot there is a displacement of the center of gravity. To maintain balance, a person must constantly deviate in the opposite direction. With time, deformation increases, and the back is markedly rounded. Violation of posture and flat feet have similar causes of development. It is the weakness of connective tissue, muscles, and obesity. In a healthy person, the arch of the foot acts as a shock absorber. With flatfoot, it is lost. As a result, the increased load on the spine and knees. This leads to an even more severe curvature of posture, scoliosis.
Deformity of the foot can provoke the development of other specific complications, among which:
- ingrowing of nails;
- bending of fingers;
- heel spurs;
- dystrophic changes in the legs;
- club foot.
Children with this diagnosis are also disturbed by foot shock absorption. As a result, the vibration of the body during movement is transmitted to the lower leg and the spine. Constant irritation of joints leads to inflammation, arthrosis develops. The effect of flat feet on the spine is reflected in its curvature. The child is constantly tormented by pains in the legs and head, his ability to work and progress in school is declining.
Prevention of disease in children and adults
To prevent the development of flat feet, periodic prophylaxis should be performed. First and foremost, doctors recommend paying attention to shoes. Today, in almost every shop, you can buy special orthopedic shoes and insole. The assortment of similar children's products amazes with the variety. Do not forget that shoes and insoles can not correct the deformation of the foot. They only prevent its development.
To strengthen the muscles it is useful to make contrasting baths. It is necessary to dip your legs alternately in basins with cold and hot water. In addition, the strengthening of muscles contributes to the regular intake of vitamins in kind( A, E, C, D) and trace elements( such include copper, selenium, calcium).
Prevention of flat feet in children can begin with increased physical activity. It is useful to engage in martial arts, skiing and horse riding. In summer you can walk barefoot on mown grass, pebbles. Such daily walks have a positive effect on the motor skills of the small muscles of the foot.
There are 2 main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically and conservatively.
Conservative treatment of flatfoot includes -
foot massage, foot baths, electrophoresis, curative gymnastics, wearing orthopedic shoes, special insoles, etc. and is prescribed in the first and second stages of flatfoot development. In some cases, conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, and therefore require surgical treatment.
Also surgical treatment is required for the treatment of the third stage of flatfoot. There are several types of operations with flat feet, but the main goal of surgical treatment is shortening of ligaments, correction of the arches of the foot and elimination of the effects of flat feet( for example, deviation of the first toe of the foot).
Flat feet in children.
All children are born with imaginary flat feet, which is explained by the abundance of subcutaneous fat in the foot. A peculiarity of imaginary childish flat feet is that as children grow older, they naturally get rid of flat feet: with the development of walking and running, muscles develop and the child's foot takes on the usual outlines. The full formation of the arches of the foot is completed by 3 years. In this regard, a flat foot in children under three years can not be attributed to a true flat foot.
In childhood there is congenital and acquired flat feet. The cause of congenital flat feet are the developmental defects of the foot in the intrauterine period.
Acquired flat feet in children is usually due to the following factors:
- Overweight child
- Wearing substandard shoes( too soft or too hard sole, rubber shoes, too high heel or missing)
- Rickets and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in a child
- Incorrectly fractured fracture
- Prolonged bed rest with severe diseases
- During puberty, hormonal changes cause a prolonged muscle spasm and can lead to flatfoot
- Excessive joint mobility
- Lifting weights( for example, when worn on the hands of younger siblings)
- Reinforced ballet classes
What consequences resulting flat in a child?
Children with flat feet are disturbed by an important function of the foot - depreciation. As a result, the vibration of the body during walking and running is transmitted to the shin, hip joints, spine, etc. Prolonged irritation of the joints leads to their inflammation-arthrosis. The effect of flat feet on the spine is the development of curvature of the spine, or scoliosis in children. Such symptoms of flat feet, such as leg pain, fatigue, headaches lead to reduced school performance.
How to determine whether there is a flatfoot in the child?
You can determine the presence of flat feet in your child's orthopedist, but at home you can conduct a simple test for the presence of flat feet in the child.
To carry out the test( planography), it is necessary to lubricate the sole of the baby's foot with vegetable oil and put it on a clean sheet of paper.
The result is a footprint of the child, on which you can determine the state of the arch of the foot. Normally, the cut on the foot is 2/3 of its width.
With flat feet, there is either no or a small notch. If you notice a change after this test, you should show your child an orthopedic doctor.
How to choose the right shoes for a child?
To properly form the arches of the foot in a child, you need to buy quality shoes. The child's shoes must have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less), and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.
Treatment of flat feet.
The main goal of flatfoot treatment is to eliminate pain in the foot, strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and restore the functions of the foot. There are two main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically( surgery) and conservative way.
Among the conservative methods of flatfoot treatment is allocated therapeutic gymnastics, massage, foot baths, physiotherapy, wearing the right orthopedic footwear or insoles.
Treatment of flat feet in a child at the earliest stage of the disease, with the inconsistency of the ligaments of the foot is reduced to the appointment of rest, the temporary cessation of sports. We recommend warm foot baths and massage. An effective method of treatment at an early stage of flatfoot development is the foot bath, the bottom of which is packed with river pebbles. The child is offered to roll stones in the water with his feet.
For the prevention and treatment of flat feet in children, the following set of exercises can be applied:
- Skate on the floor with the feet of a rolling pin or a small ball.
- A napkin is placed on the floor, which is suggested to be crushed with the help of a foot.
- The child is offered to collect his toes and move from place to place the objects scattered on the floor.
- Circular movements with feet out and inside.
- Standing on socks, reduce and spread the heels, without taking your fingers off the floor.
- Grasp the ball with both stops and lift it, keeping it between the stops.
- Alternately walk on toes, on the heels, on the outer edges of the feet.
- Rolling from heel to toe.
- Walk on the ribbed surface( massage mat, sand, pebbles).
- Walking on a log, climbing a rope.
Get rid of flatfoot, and prevent it from appearing in your child's help a simple, but very effective set of exercises. It is important not to be lazy and engage in as often as possible. Everything is in your hands!
Treatment of flatfoot at home
Treatment of flat feet primarily involves strengthening those muscles that support the arch of the foot. For this, there are various options that you can use at home:
1) Strengthening the body .
A natural foot contact with the ground provides massage for a variety of active points located on the surface of the foot. As a result, not only the muscles of the foot are strengthened, but the whole organism as a whole.
It is especially useful to walk barefoot on sand or pebbles, on uneven ground( hillocks), and also on logs.
Swimming also refers to this kind of strengthening of the foot muscles, especially the use of the crochet style. Rowing with a foot, which is actively used in this form of swimming, also helps to strengthen the muscles of the foot.
2) Physical training ,
However, it should be remembered that in severe clinical manifestations of the disease( such as pain and swelling), some physical exercises cause an unbearable strain on the feet.
In such a case it is necessary to avoid such sports exercises as running skates, skiing. Light exercises, in any case, will be useful, since they help strengthen the body.
3) Gymnastics .
In addition to sports, it is necessary to accustom yourself to the daily implementation of a set of exercises, and they need to perform not one but at least 2-3 times a day. We present you a list of such exercises, they must be done barefoot, each 8-12 times.
- Starting position - sitting with straight legs .It is necessary to stroke the lower extremity of the left foot with the inner edge of the right foot. Then do the same, but changing the legs: the inner edge of the left foot strokes the lower leg of the right leg.
- Starting position - sitting on the chair :
- bend the toes of the feet
Flat feet. Causes of flatfoot. Types of flatfoot. Symptoms of
flatfoot The flat foot is the omission of the of the foot, caused by muscle weakness, leading to abnormalities that can cause excessive pressure on the foot, change its shape( deformation), and ultimately lead to pain.
The structure of the foot
To understand the causes of flatfoot , consider the structure of the foot .
Did you know that outsole foot contains more nerves than even a face? Thousands of nerves are our sensors on the soles of the feet, which make it possible to feel even a small grain of sand that got into the shoes.
The human foot consists of almost 30 bones, 30 joints, 60 muscles, more than 100 ligaments and more than 200 vessels. All this is assembled in a very complex interconnected construction.
The foot can be divided into three parts: front, middle and back. The bones of the foot are arranged in such a way that the foot forms a kind of three-arched arch. The meaning of this is that the body weight is evenly distributed throughout the foot, which ensures comfortable walking, becauseThe arches play the role of a shock absorber springing when moving.
Types of flatfoot. Longitudinal and transverse platypodia
There are types of flatfoot , such as longitudinal flatfoot and transverse flatfoot .If in some "arch" there is a decrease caused by weakening of muscles, the rest of the load moves to other points that begin to experience excessive pressure, this leads to deformation of the foot and to a certain type of flatfoot.
Cross platypodia: symptoms, treatment, photo, preventionFlattening is a predominantly acquired disease of the musculoskeletal system, accompanied by a violation of walking mechanics, a change in the shape of the foot, which normally distinguishes between the transverse and longitudinal arches. Flattening promotes pathological changes occurring in the spine, knee and hip joints and other organs. Among several species, a transverse flatfoot is distinguished, accompanied by a flattening of the transverse arch of the foot, the characteristic feature of which is the formation of the so-called "cone" in the region of the big toe. The disease occurs mainly in women in the age range from 30 to 50 years. The appearance of flat feet directly depends on the excess excess weight, under the influence of which the foot becomes a little shorter and thicker.
Reasons forAn important structural element of the foot is its arch. Thanks to it, the foot distributes the load of the body during the movement. The lead contributes to depreciation, balances, etc. The main cause of transverse flatfoot is the disruption of the functioning of the ligament apparatus of the lower limbs, which is transmitted by inheritance. The predisposing factors of flatfoot are:
- 1) Extra kilograms of weight that increase the load on the ligament apparatus of the legs and especially the foot;
- 2) Paresis or paralysis of the muscles of the lower limbs;
- 3) Prolonged wearing of unsuitable close-fitting shoes with high heels;
- 4) Flat feet are often the result of professional activity( seller, hairdresser, etc.), when it takes a long time to stand in a standing position.
Symptoms of transverse flatfootIn many cases, transverse flatfoot begins with subtle symptoms. At first, there are no visible changes in the foot area. By the end of the working day, a slight discomfort in the leg area worries. After a while, the symptomatology increases, including a change in the shape of the feet. For each degree of transverse flatfoot, the following symptoms are typical:
- 1) At the first degree of flatfoot there is fatigue of the feet, pain in the area of the fingers. The skin on them becomes thicker. The angle of deviation of the thumb is 20 degrees( at a rate not exceeding 10 degrees);
- 2) With the second degree of flatfoot, the angle of deviation of the thumb reaches no more than 40 degrees. Physical exercise increases the feeling of pain and burning, which are noted not only in the fingers, but in the entire foot. Characteristics of the choice of shoes;
- 3) At the third stage of flatfoot symptoms of the disease are pronounced. The angle of deviation of the thumb is more than 40 degrees, which is outwardly manifested by the formation of a "cone".The shape of the foot changes noticeably. It becomes shorter and wider. Pain is noted even in rest. Corns and corns are formed. Against the background of flat feet develop joints of the legs and spine.
Diagnosis of the diseaseThe orthopedist is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of transverse flatfoot. At the initial visit, an examination is carried out, complaints of the patient are taken into account. Additional methods of research, specifying the degree of flatfoot, include:
- 1) Plantography - a method that allows you to obtain a footprint on paper. A similar method of determining flat feet can be carried out at home. For this, it is necessary to lubricate the sole with any coloring material and stand on the sheet of paper, assuming the usual position of the body. From the obtained fingerprint it is indirectly possible to judge the presence and stage of flatfoot;
- 2) X-ray examination is one of the reliable methods, allowing to assess the nature of the changes, the degree of the disease, to follow the dynamics of the pathological process. The X-ray is done in two projections in the patient's standing position;
- 3) The method of electromyography determines the condition of the calf and foot muscles due to the registration of the impulses sent from the surface by a special device;
- 4) Modern diagnostic methods include computer-hardware complexes that allow to determine with the greatest accuracy the shape, width, length, foot index, etc.
Treatment of transverse flatfootConservative treatment methods include:
- 1) Use in wearing special shoes and orthopedic insoles;
- 2) Perform special physical exercises that strengthen the ligamentous apparatus of the foot;
- 3) Therapeutic massage will improve blood circulation, eliminate swelling in the area of the feet;
- 4) Physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, phonophoresis with hydrocortisone, electrophoresis with novocaine - will temporarily reduce the senses of pain.
- 5) The medications related to the NSAID group( diclofenac, indomethacin, voltaren, etc.) help to relieve pain. They are used in the form of tablets, ointments, creams.
When walking a person, a huge load is experienced. If you notice that the bone has grown on the big toes, and it became painful for you to wear shoes especially in the summer, you are likely to have symptoms of transverse flatfoot. Frontal platypodia suffer most often in people aged 35 to 50 years. In this article we will talk about what is a transverse flatfoot, what are its symptoms, the causes of its appearance and possible consequences.
Why can there be a transverse flatfoot?
In most cases, the main symptoms of the disease experienced by women after 35 years of overweight. It follows that the first factor in the development of symptoms of this type of flatfoot is overweight.We recommend!
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An important factor in the emergence of the symptoms of an illness is nevertheless a heredity.
Symptoms of ailment can also occur because you wear uncomfortable shoes, improperly sewn or of poor quality. Symptoms of the disease are manifested in women because of the constant wearing of high-heeled shoes. There is a redistribution of body weight on the transverse arch of the legs, which can not constantly withstand it, so it deforms and flattenes.
If your lifestyle is inactive, the muscle tone is weak, then the feet are definitely subject to transverse flatfoot. Symptoms of transverse flatfoot arise as a result of old injuries, various ruptures of tendons, fractures, displacement of the bones of the legs, various stretches of muscles. Insufficiency of the ligamentous apparatus is, therefore, the main cause of the symptoms of transverse flatfoot.
The manifestation of the transverse arch strain, the main symptoms by which to determine the disease
You can determine the transverse flatfoot in yourself or your loved ones according to such basic symptoms:
- feet are quickly tired after walking or, conversely, if you stand in one place;
- pain in the limbs and joints in the evening, seizures;
- feet become wider, old shoes no longer fit;
- wearing shoes with high heels, experiencing pain:
- feet and ankles swell strongly;
- the sole of the shoe is heavily trampled and worn from the inside;
- is difficult to stand on tiptoe, strong pain.
External symptoms: the transverse arch of the foot becomes even flatter, the load is distributed incorrectly to all 5 bones of the bones of the metatarsus, and not to the first and fifth as correctly. Middle toes, which received an unreasonably heavy load, acquire a hammer-shaped form - a person has severe pain when walking in shoes.Read more & gt; & gt; We recommend!
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The next notable symptom is that the thumbs with a transverse flat foot strongly deviate, as if crawling on top of the second finger, the so-called "bone" is often formed at the base of the joint.
The presence of the disease can be determined by other external symptoms - the central part of the foot gets an unusual load, so the skin looks more rough, there are burrs and dry calluses, - pain occurs when walking.
If you were able to identify the above-listed symptoms of flatfoot, immediately seek help from a doctor, most likely you suffer from a transverse flatfoot.
If you notice the above-described symptoms of flatfoot, but still doubt whether this is an ailment you can perform a simple test for transverse flatfoot. Soak the soles or spread them with any fat cream, then stand on a flat surface or a clean sheet of paper. You should stand straight. If the central part is fully or almost completely imprinted on the resulting figure, then you have obvious symptoms of transverse flatfoot. Normally, only the outer part of the sole should appear.
The stages of transverse deformation of the foot
By how large the angles of curvature of the first fingers of the lower limb determine 3 stages of transverse flatfoot:
- weakly - the angle of deformation of the thumb is less than 20 degrees;
- moderately expressed - deflection angle of 20-35 degrees;
- strongly pronounced - the angle is more than 35 degrees.
Than transverse platypodia is dangerous, its consequences
If you do not pay attention to the symptoms of the disease, that there are notable pains, then this can lead to serious disturbances in the entire musculoskeletal system of a person. There are possible such consequences for a person:
- because of slowing of blood circulation in the lower extremities, the cardiovascular system works much worse;
- disturbed posture, spinal diseases progressing( osteochondrosis, hernia, various curvatures, sciatica):
- because of excessive loads on the joints, their wear and tear is accelerated;
- of pelvic disease, pelvic bones;
- nerve impulses from receptors are distorted, as a result - coordination and balance are impaired, the efficiency of movements is reduced;
- gait smoothness is disturbed, lameness appears;
- varicose veins due to blood stasis;
- plantar aponeurosis - calcaneal spur causing burning pains;
- pathological edema, ulcers, trophic disorders.
In order not to disturb the symptoms of transverse flatfoot, you did not feel unpleasant pains in the limbs, experts recommend first of all to watch the mass of your body, wear comfortable shoes with a small heel. Useful daily foot baths, massage, various gymnastic exercises, strengthening the musculoskeletal system of the body. Pay attention to the manifested symptoms of transverse flatfoot, because the earlier it is possible to begin treatment, the easier it is then to fight the consequences.
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I have flat feet since childhood, I can live with it, of course, but it's not terribly convenient. Yes, and to deny myself the pleasure of wearing shoes on heels is not a hunt. On this, I do joint exercises, I develop feet.Reply
I live with the flat feet of my childhood. Therefore, I know the pain of an ailment. I refused the heels, I do joint exercises, the foot massage - there are positive results.Answer
I do not normally feel like flat feet, except maybe during special loads - go on a hike or ride a bicycle for 150 km. In these cases, I am saved by good sport shoes( trekking boots or sneakers), but many shoes notice how I trample the inside of the insole. So yes, it is worth considering buying a pair of new sets for shoes
and I did not ignore this misfortune(like Anna and Anfisa, this problem has been with me since childhood.) Walking on my heels is hell, I can not walk 100 meters as my legs start to ache, although orthopedic insoles facilitate this torture
Flat-footedness -Reasons, symptoms and treatment MJ
Flat foot is the most common deformity of the feet. Indirectly, the foot performs the function of supporting the person, movement and damping due to the complex structure. In the normal physiological structure of the foot, there are two arches - a transverse( between the bases of the fingers) and a longitudinal( along the inner edgeFootstools function as shock absorbers and soften shaking when walking. The foot bone ligament works well when the load that falls on the foot is fully balanced. With the weakening of the muscles and ligaments that connect the 26 bones of the foot, subsidence of the arches and flattening occur, which leads to loss of the spring function. With flatfoot this function goes to the spine, knee, ankle and hip joint. These joints are not intended to perform this function and cope badly with it, and therefore quickly fail.
Causes of flatfoot formation.
There are many states that lead to flat feet, here are some of them.
- Congenital flat foot rather rare pathology occurs in 11.5% of the total number of foot diseases. The cause may be various pathologies of intrauterine development of the fetus, due to ionizing radiation, harmful habits of the mother.
- Children with rickets develop a rachitic foot, as a result of a decrease in vitamin D production, the strength of bones decreases under mechanical stress, the musculoskeletal apparatus is weakened.
- Paralytic platypodia develops after a previous polio, and the degree of flatfoot is directly related to the degree of paralysis.
- Traumatic platypodia develops with fractures of the foot bones or with improperly fused fractures.
- Static flatfoot is one of the most common types of flatfoot. The main reasons for it are reduced muscle tone, excessive fatigue due to prolonged stay on the legs.
Symptoms of flat feet.
Usually a person who spends a lot of time on his feet does not notice the development of flat feet, and the appearance of pains and unpleasant sensations in the legs and feet is associated with fatigue. There are several basic signs on which you can suspect the development of this terrible disease in yourself.
• Your legs begin to swell by the end of the day, marks of socks appear, you may experience a feeling of heaviness and cramps that may not be long and pass after the massage • You begin to notice that the length of the working day remains the same and the legs are fatigued much faster.• Shoes start to wear out much faster than before, mostly on the inside.• Periodically creates the feeling that the leg has increased in length, and because of this, you have to buy shoes for size larger.
There are several stages of foot deformation, the passage of which leads to complete clinical flat feet. The prodromal stage, the stage of alternating flat foot, the stage of development of the flat foot, the stage of flat-footed foot and the contractual flatfoot are distinguished.
The first stage of flatfoot is manifested by pain in the foot and calf muscle after a long load on the foot, of a statistical nature, a pronounced feeling of fatigue appears.
In the , the intermittent flatness stage is characterized by increased pain by the end of the day, the pain arises from overexertion of the ligamentous foot apparatus which maintains the optimal position of the foot. Increased fatigue often appears in the middle of the day, and people with flat feet have to change their activities or more often rest. The longitudinal arch of the foot at the end of the working day visually flattened, but after rest, especially in the mornings, the height of the vault is restored.
The stage of development of flat foot occurs when, due to further fatigue of the leg and foot muscles, the longitudinal arch of the foot is not restored to rest after rest. The patient quickly develops fatigue due to fatigue of the muscles. The pain becomes permanent and aching due to overstretching of the ligamentous apparatus. The height of the longitudinal arch decreases due to the elongation of the foot and the expansion of its longitudinal part. The gait changes, the amount of movement in the foot joint is limited. In this stage of the disease there are three degrees.
Diagnostic measures for flat feet.
In addition to clinical signs, there are several methods that can determine the severity of this pathology. These include planktonography, the analysis of the face line, the dodging and clinical and radiographic methods of diagnosis.
Plantography - a method that allows the determination of the expression of flat feet with the help of prints. The feet are smeared with methylene blue solution, then the footprints are made on a blank sheet of paper, working on the feet evenly with all the weight.
Friedland's method is the determination of the percentage of height of the foot and its length.
The clinical method of measurement consists in the construction of a triangle with a base equal to the distance from the metatarsal head I to the heel of the calcaneus. The vertex of the triangle is at the top of the inner ankle, one leg extends to the apex of the calcaneal angle, the other to the head I of the metatarsal bone. Normally, the height of the vault is 55 - 60 cm.
The X-ray method is based on the construction of a triangle on the lateral radiograph of the foot that connects the apex of the heel of the calcaneus with the head of the metatarsal bone, and the apex of the triangle falls on the lower edge of the scaphoid bone, the vertex angle should normally be 120- 130 degrees.
Determination of the degree of flatfoot by X-ray.
Flat-footedness is one of those diseases with which young people are not called to military service( service in the army).II and III degrees of the disease are an absolute contraindication for service in the armed forces. This is due to the large power loads that a man with a flatfoot can not bear. Otherwise, the pain syndrome may increase, and in the future, with the preservation of this load, go to one of many complications.
Flat feet in children.
Newborns are characterized by well-defined arches of feet, but the children's foot is filled with fatty tissue, and when viewed it seems flat. Since 3 years, there has been a significant strengthening and development of the ligamentous apparatus, due to which there is a significant increase in the height of the arch and the foot begins to acquire the appearance of the foot of an adult person. The older the child, the more pronounced the vaulted structure. Thus, the external flat feet of a child can not be taken as a true disease.
The development of flat feet in children is promoted by congenital disorders of the ligamentous apparatus, muscle weakness, obesity, endocrine diseases, improperly selected footwear. Due to its anatomical features, the definition of flat feet in children by the fingerprint method is not always informative and can give a false result.
Very often, children can not complain about leg pain or discomfort, so periodic examination by an orthopedic doctor is an integral part of the annual medical check-up. Treatment of flat feet in children is reduced to rest, temporary prohibition of exercise, massage of the plantar part and walking barefoot on uneven surfaces, it is possible to design orthopedic insoles.
Treatment of flat feet.
Treat flat feet is difficult, and it will not be possible to say with certainty after a period of time that this is a disease in the past. Completely get rid of this pathology can only be in childhood, because the ligamentous apparatus and the bone system is pliable enough. In adult patients, this disease can only be stopped with the help of special rehabilitation measures.
Parents need to remember - "the earlier the symptoms of flatfoot, the more favorable conditions for stopping the progression."
Treatment should be combined and include the removal of the pain syndrome, strengthening of the ligamentous apparatus and the muscles of the foot. To relieve the pain, you need to use anesthetic ointments with a relaxing effect and physiotherapy.
To begin treatment it is necessary with gymnastics, which can be performed daily at home. The therapeutic form of gymnastics is used to achieve correction of the arch of the foot, strengthens the muscles, trains the ligament apparatus, forms the correct type of gait. There is a large number of exercises that are selected individually and depend on age, complaints, position of the foot and its shape. All exercises and their intensity to you will be picked up by an orthopedist.
Treatment in plane deformation stage foot must be strictly differentiated, along with performing physical therapy and massage must wear insoles-instep supports, which help to relieve painful areas and correcting deficiencies in the initial stage of the disease and orthopedic shoes at II degree, and when III degree often shownsurgical treatment.
With congenital planovalgus deformation of foot of easy degree, children are treated with foot and shin massage, physiotherapy exercises. When a child begins to walk, it is necessary to make orthopedic shoes for him. With insufficiently effective treatment and late treatment, surgical treatment is indicated.
The correct choice of shoes is of great importance in the treatment of flatfoot. Beautiful shoes with high heels, of course, decorate the legs of any fashionista, but do not wear them all the time. Otherwise, after a short time you will only need to wear orthopedic shoes. When choosing footwear, pay particular attention to the flexibility and comfort of the sole, heel height( no more than 3-4 cm), it is better to avoid the shoe on the platform and overly broad or narrow.
Complications of flatfoot.
• clubfoot when walking, spinal curvature, unnatural posture. • Pain in the knees, hips, back and feet. • Degenerative changes of leg muscles and back. • The disease itself feet( deformation curvature of the fingers, blisters, spur, neuritis) • Diseases of the spine(herniated discs, low back pain), diseases of the hip and knee joints. • Ingrown nails.
Prevention of flatfoot.
To prevent the development of flat feet, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures every week. The priority that needs to be done is to choose the right footwear, exclude the wearing of shoes with high heels, the optimal height is 3 - 4 cm. Periodically conduct an examination with an orthopedic doctor, at least once a year. People who have any problems with their legs should be examined more often. It is also necessary to do gymnastics and do physical exercises for the feet. Foot baths and massage will help relax the muscles and relieve tension after a hard day. It is necessary to get rid of excess weight, as it contributes to an additional burden on the spine and legs.
Doctor therapist Zhumagaziev E.N.