Osteochondrosis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 degrees - a description of all stages and species
Osteochondrosis is a degenerative-dystrophic disease affecting the intervertebral disks and causing their destruction with further progression and the appearance of neurological complications( disc protrusion, intervertebral hernia,etc.).
Much more often pain syndrome causes spondylarthrosis( arthrosis of the joints of the spine, for example, facet, uncovertebral), spondylolisthesis( displacement of the vertebrae relative to each other) and nonspecific pain in the back. Therefore, most often in everyday life, osteochondrosis is understood as a set of different types of degenerative changes in the spinal column, includingjoints of the spine and ligaments.
How to recognize osteochondrosis
In patients with osteochondrosis and other degenerative diseases of the spinal column, the following complaints are most often found:
- feeling of fatigue and discomfort in the spine( in the initial stages);
- paroxysmal pain in the neck, back and extremities in the form of "lumbago";
- limitation of mobility and volume of movements in the spine, depending on the affected department;
- pain in the heart, simulating an attack of angina pectoris;
- weakness in muscles, their atrophy or the appearance of spasms or cramps;
- impaired sensation in the arms and legs( decrease or increase), paresthesia( numbness, "goose bumps", tingling sensations);
- headache, dizziness due to impaired blood flow to the brain;
- swelling of the extremities, stiffness in their joints;
- dysuric and sexual disorders( decreased potency, impaired urination);
- shingles along the ribs;
- sleep disorder, decreased appetite.
When examined by a neurologist, the symptoms of prolapse or weakening of reflexes( depending on the level of lesion and the presence of compression) can be added to the clinic, the muscle strength in a particular muscle / muscle group decreases.
In the modern medical literature there are many classifications of osteochondrosis depending on various signs: localization, stage of lesion, clinical manifestations.
Species on the localization of pathology
Given the area of the lesion, local and widespread osteochondrosis is isolated. The local is localized within one anatomical and physiological area, the prevalent covering more than two areas.
Local process happens:
Classification of disk degeneration
There are 4 stages( degrees) according to Osna, 1971( currently not used to assess the clinical picture and the formulation of the diagnosis):
- Osteochondrosis of the 1st degree - the stage of the shift of the nucleus pulposus within the discus intervertebralis, is characterized by asymptomatic course. In certain cases, symptoms of discalgia( pain sensations in the region of the disc) associated with involvement of the nerve fibers surrounding the vertebra in the pathological process and reflected pains corresponding to the localization of the affected spinal nerves( limbs, internal organs) may occur. Treatment does not require.
- Osteochondrosis of the second degree - the stage of vertebral dystopia - is characterized by the appearance of cracks in the discus intervertebralis, the weakening of the fibrous ring and the lesion of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The main symptoms are constant fatigue, discomfort in the spine, protrusion of the discs, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, subluxations of the vertebrae. It lends itself well to conservative treatment( chondroprotectors, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, vascular and other groups of drugs).
- Osteochondrosis of the third degree - the stage of complete rupture of the intervertebral disc - is determined by the appearance of severe irreversible vertebrologic complications( intervertebral hernia, infringement of nerve roots, deformation of the spine).The main method of treatment is surgical intervention.
- Osteochondrosis of the 4th degree - the stage of progression of degenerative processes - is characterized by the spread of destruction to structures surrounding the vertebra: vessels( microangiopathies, vascular thrombosis), spinal cord( myelitis, dura mater), ligamentous apparatus( destruction of the interosseous and yellow ligaments);formed ankylosis of the spinal column.
Stages of unstable osteochondrosis( characterized by the emergence of destabilization of the spinal column):
- Discogenic - only discus intervertebralis is involved in the pathological process.
- Discoartrogenic - dystrophic changes affect intervertebral joints and ligaments.
- Discoartroosteogenic - the process progresses, which is accompanied by the defeat of bone structures and the development of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.
Degrees of destruction of intervertebral discs by Sachs, 1987( currently reclassified):
0 - no changes detected;
1 - destruction of 1/3 annular plates of a fibrous ring;
2 - only the outer fibers of the disc retain their integrity, preventing the formation of hernias;
3 - complete destruction of discus intervertebralis and rupture of longitudinal ligament, marked clinical symptomatology.
At present, the X-ray classification of Zeker is often used to determine the stage and extent of osteochondrosis:
- The first stage is characterized by minor changes in lordosis in one or more segments.
- The second stage is established when on the roentgenogram the smoothness of lordosis + thickening of the disc, moderately expressed exostoses in front or behind, deformation of the hook-shaped processes is determined.
- The third stage is characterized by the appearance on the background of previous changes in the narrowing of the intervertebral foramen.
- The fourth stage( degree) is established with a significant narrowing of the intervertebral openings and the spinal canal.
Clinical classification of osteochondrosis manifestations used by neurologists:
- Cervical spine:
- reflex manifestations( cervicalgia, cervicocranygia, cervicobrachialgia with myotonic, vascular circulatory and neurodegenerative symptoms);
- radicular syndromes( compression lesion S1-S8, characterized by paralysis of the upper limb);
- is a radicular-vascular manifestation.
- Thoracic spine:
- reflex manifestations;
- radicular syndromes( compression of intercostal nerves Th1-12).
- Lumbosacral spine:
- reflex manifestations( lumbago, lumbalgia, lumboschialgia with myotonic, vascular circulatory and neurodegenerative symptoms);
- radicular syndromes( compression lesion L1-5, S1-5);
- is a radicular-vascular manifestation.
The main methods for diagnosing pathology are ray methods( radiography, computed tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging.
Stages of osteochondrosis with contrast computed tomography:
- The contrast introduced into the pulpous core does not penetrate its boundaries.
- Contrast substance spreads to the inner third of the fibrous ring.
- The contrast agent extends to two-thirds of the fibrous ring.
- Contrast substance penetrates up to the outer plates of annulus fibrosus, which are well innervated;it is at this stage of the disease that the first symptoms appear.
- Contrast spreads around the circumference of the disc to 30º.
- Contrast substance is outside the disk and penetrates into the epidural space.
Degrees of osteochondrosis with magnetic resonance imaging:
M0 - pulpous nucleus not damaged, normal shape.
M1 - local decrease in luminescence and destruction of the gelatinous nucleus, cicatrical changes in the disc.
M2 - complete cessation of luminescence of the gelatinous nucleus.
How and how much to fight with osteochondrosis
|Medication( usually 2-3 weeks)|
|Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs|| Reduce pain, swelling of tissues, relieve inflammation, improve blood supply. A particular feature of this group is a wide choice of forms of drugs: |
for external use - ointments, creams, gels, aerosols, patches - Voltaren, Diclofenac, Diclac, Diklovit, Diklogen, Dorosan, Orthofen, Nyz, Nurofen, Ketonal;
• for oral administration - tablets, capsules, powder - Movalis, Nurofen, Nyz, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Ketonal, Dexalgin, Aertal and others;
• for injection - Dexalgin, Ketanov, Diklak, Ketorol, Diclofenac, Ketonal, Movalis, Revmoxicam
|Muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants|| Relieve painful spasm of muscle tissue, prevent the development of seizures. |
The muscle relaxants are: "Sirdalud", "Tizalud", "Tizanil", "Midokalm", "Tolperizon", "Lyrics", "Algerika", "Pregabalin"
|Antidote preparations||"Furosemide", "Torasemide"from the body, reduce swelling of the inflamed muscles and nerves, thereby relieving pain|
|Neurotropic substances|| Complex preparations of B group vitamins restore the myelinated nerve membrane, improve the blood supply of nerve fibers. |
The main drugs: Neurorubin, Milgamma, Vitaxam, Vitagamma, Kombilipen, Neurobion, Neuromultivit
|Chondroprotectors|| They promote the restoration of cartilaginous tissue, prevent further destruction of the interchondral tissue. They have chondroitin and glucosamine in their composition. |
Chondroprotectors usually recommend: Teraflex, Arthra, Glucosamine Maximum, Artradol, Dona, Mukosat, Chondroxide, etc.
|Novokainovaya blockade||Introduction of local anesthetic Novokain 0.5%( 5-10 ml) to the near-vertebral or epidural space for pain relief|
|For patients with significant intervertebral hernia, doctors recommend the following operations:|| • Discectomy( removal of the damaged intervertebral disc); |
• microdiscectomy laser and ablative, chemonucleolysis;
|Non-pharmacological treatment methods( lasts up to six months)|
|Discharge of the spine||During the exacerbation, the patient is often recommended bed rest: lie on a hard surface, under the head - an orthopedic pillow. This is important in the presence of a disc hernia against the background of degenerative changes. In the absence of compression syndrome, maintaining normal physical activity( keyword - normal, normal, moderate) contributes to a faster recovery|
|Physiotherapeutic procedures|| The procedures include: |
• UFD in erythemal doses;
• Novocaine, hydrocortisone, lidase electrophoresis;
• diadynamic currents;
• cryotherapy of reflexogenic zones;
|Manual therapy||Manual therapy consists of flexing and extension of the spine, tilting, short-term application of force in different directions|
|Massage||Patients during the recovery or remission period are recommended to undergo 10-15 sessions of classical gentle massage|
|LFK||Complex of specially selected physicalexercises that help restore normal muscle tone, eliminate contractures|
- Kornilov N.V.- Traumatology and orthopedics.
- Orthopedics. National leadership Mironov SP, Kotelnikov GP, 2008.
- Traumatology and orthopedics. Kavalersky G.M.
- Epifanov VA- Osteocondritis of the spine.
- Shvets V.V.- Lumbar osteochondrosis.
- Altunbaev RA- "Osteochondrosis" or "Radiculitis"?(experience of approach to the terminological dilemma).
Osteochondrosis of 2nd degree and its treatment
Throughout its stages of development, osteochondrosis leads to various neurological complications. At the initial stage of the disease, painful sensations are limited to the area of the affected intervertebral disc and are expressed only in its degeneration. The duration of the initial period of the disease can last several years, without causing any special discomfort to a person. Aching pain can only occur when the spine is stressed.
Mechanism of development of osteochondrosis of 2nd degree
If prevention is started in a timely manner, the development of the disease can be stopped. Otherwise, the height of intervertebral discs decreases. Muscles and ligaments that connect the adjacent vertebrae, sag. This leads to instability of the vertebrae relative to each other. Develops osteochondrosis of 2 degrees. At this stage, displacement of the vertebrae may occur. The effect of physical exertion only increases the displacement of the vertebrae.
Clinically, this is manifested by irritation of the nerve roots in the affected segment and pain syndrome. This condition can last for several years, accompanied by exacerbations and remissions. During the exacerbation pains not only in the spine, but also in the internal organs, there is a violation of patency of the bile ducts and urinary tract. Pain feels the patient feels throughout the nerve.
In case of osteochondrosis of the second degree, the body tries to compensate for the inadequate redistribution of the load on the intervertebral discs. On the edges of the vertebrae begin to form outgrowths, increasing the area of their contact. As a result, the lumen of the intervertebral foramen narrows even more, squeezing the nerve roots and blood vessels more strongly.
When the cervical region is affected, the patient may have a falling head syndrome, in which prolonged fixation of the head in one position causes severe pain. This forces the patient to hold his head with his hands to reduce pain. Prolonged compression of the nerve roots and vessels in the cervical region leads to a disruption of the blood supply to the brain.
In the case of osteochondrosis of the lumbar region of the 2nd degree, the instability of the vertebrae leads to the patient having to fix the lower back to reduce the pain that can be given to the pelvic organs, buttocks, legs.
Treatment of neurological disorders of osteochondrosis of 2nd degree includes:You can also read:
The main causes of osteochondrosis of the spine
1. Reducing the load on intervertebral disks, as well as reducing the mobility of the affected department.
2. Thermal procedures. In neurological disorders, a certain role is played by irritation of the nerve root. Therefore, heat is not always effective in an acute period. On the contrary, such a procedure can increase the swelling of the tissues and the increase in pain.
In the period of stihanija pains dry heat, applications, warm baths with a coniferous extract allow to receive good therapeutic effect.
3. Medical massage and acupuncture. Not earlier than the second day after exacerbation massage reduces reflex muscle spasm. A good analgesic and desensitizing effect is provided by acupuncture. However, this method has contraindications. Therefore, in each individual case only the doctor prescribes acupuncture.
4. Manual therapy. The essence of the manual procedure for osteochondrosis of the 2d degree is that with the help of special manual techniques the tension in muscles and ligaments is eliminated, the blood flow, lymphatic flow improves, the posture is corrected. Restoration or compensation of impaired functions of the spine normalizes the activity of the functional systems of the body.
5. Nutrition for osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree should include sufficient protein intake. It is necessary to limit the consumption of fats and carbohydrates.
It is noteworthy that garlic and onions contain compounds that can influence metabolism, normalizing connective tissue structures of the spine.
6. Medical therapy. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, chondroprotectors and vitamins eliminates inflammation in the nerve roots and normalizes metabolic processes in the intervertebral discs.
7. Physical therapy. The goal of gymnastic exercises for osteochondrosis of 2 degrees is to strengthen the muscular corset and stretch the spine.
Therapy in the treatment of the disease should be comprehensive and include all of the above points.
Only in this case it is possible to achieve the disappearance of neurological disorders and the onset of a prolonged remission.
Do they take the 2nd degree with the osteochondrosis?
The army may not be called upon if the patient finds signs of limited deforming spondylosis and subarachnoid osteosclerosis in the examination. In addition, the medical documents should be recorded repeated calls to the doctor with complaints of pain during exercise.
Radiographic examination of the spine should confirm the following pathological changes:
- Violation of the static function of the spine
- Violation of the dynamic function
- Decrease in the height of intervertebral disks
- Displacement of vertebral bodies.
The army is unavoidable if osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree passes asymptomatically.
Osteochondrosis 1, 2 and 3 degrees: causes, symptoms, treatment
The initial stage is characterized by the following features:
- Clinically, osteochondrosis 1 degree is manifested as lumbago - acute pain piercing character that occurs after a sharp rise in heavyobjects or high physical activity. The pain is so acute that some patients compare it to the sensation of passing current through the spine.
If you find the first symptoms of osteochondrosis, immediately consult a doctor! Consequences may be irreversible
Morphologically there is a sudden rupture of the capsule of the intervertebral disc during a high load on the spine. Traumatic damage to the capsule leads to irritation of nerves and the appearance of pain.
- At the first degree of osteochondrosis, a pronounced muscle tension is observed( lumbar lordosis is smoothed).This leads to a redistribution of the load and to an even greater compression of the intervertebral disc. There is his edema, which only intensifies the painful sensations.
- With the localization of the disease in the cervical region, cervicalgia arises - cervical pain during movement and palpation of muscles. During an exacerbation, cervico-cranialgia is often a concern - a marked intense headache near the occipital region. There may be an ear noise, dizziness, floating flies before your eyes and even a toothache.
Treatment of the first degree is aimed at healing the rupture of the capsule. It is necessary to carry out qualitative analgesia with tableted medicines or injections of Analgin, Promedol or Novocain. Removal of edema is achieved by daily intravenous injection of a solution of Lasix and sodium chloride for five days.
You do not have to go to the gym to keep fit. On any playground you can find a horizontal bar that will replace the professional projectile
. As an aid to the development of osteochondrosis, it is very useful to stretch the spine along the axis. To do this, just once a day hang for several minutes on the bar. As a result, the load from the cervical, thoracic and lumbar discs is well relieved.
Classification of medicines in the treatment of osteochondrosis is as follows:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Ibuprofen, Voltaren, Metindol, Indomethacin);
- antihistamines( Suprastin);
Also during the period of treatment is mandatory bed rest for 3 weeks and physiotherapy treatment, for example, UHF.
Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree develops if the treatment of the first period of the disease has not been performed or was not effective enough. The characteristic features of the second degree of osteochondrosis are:
Self-massage during the day will help relax the muscles and relieve pain!
permanent pain of the affected spine;
- there is a narrowing of the intervertebral openings;
- this period is often accompanied by arterial hypotension;
- there is abnormal mobility of the motor segment of the spine( this should not be);
- capsule becomes thinned and folded, which leads to even greater mobility of the false joint;
- because of the instability of the spine develop a different kind of scoliosis;
- in case of lesion of the thoracic region may occur a syndrome of a small pectoral muscle - the appearance of pain when trying to get your hands behind your head;
- is gradually affected by the vessels of the spinal cord.
The second period of the disease can last several years, with alternating episodes of exacerbations and remission. When the thoracic and cervical region is affected in severe cases, the symptom of a falling head develops when a person, after a long fixation of the head in one position, is forced to hold it with his hands to relieve pain.
Treatment of the 2nd stage of osteochondrosis should be carried out together with manual therapy. Conduct a course of massage with blockade of the damaged area( for example, thoracic department).Good traction helps with fixation of the vertebrae with the help of waist corsets, the collar of Shantz. Daily gymnastics is useful.
Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree is characterized by fragmentation of the fibrous ring and its complete destruction. Fibrous ring during this period can crack and tear. All this significantly worsens the fixation of the vertebrae. Due to the increase in their mobility, different displacements occur. Disease of the cervicothoracic spine is accompanied by a slight dislocation of the vertebrae. Poor treatment of this period can lead to the development of a herniated disc, and a neglected process can cause disability.
Treatment of a hernia requires surgical intervention. Do not bring the disease to such a stage when it is impossible to achieve recovery with the usual means.
The classification of the clinical manifestations of this stage is very extensive. Cervical localization is characterized by intense sharp or blunt pain, which intensifies after physical exertion. Also often there are pains of the back of the neck with irradiation in the forearm and shoulder. The thoracic region is characterized by pains of varying severity near the abdomen and back, intercostal neuralgia, especially pronounced during coughing or laughing. Also, the third degree of osteochondrosis of the thoracic region can be manifested by pain in the heart, dyskinesia of bile ducts and signs of pancreatitis.
Treatment should be prescribed strictly by a doctor, at grade 3 it is aimed at improving the patient's condition. Actively used hormonal drugs prednisolone. During this period, surgical treatment is indicated.
The above classification of degrees of osteochondrosis is applicable throughout the world, as the most simple and understandable. It shows that osteochondrosis is a serious ailment. Therefore, in order to prevent the progression of the disease, try to seriously approach the prevention of osteochondrosis.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis 1, 2, 3 degrees
Statistics say that osteochondrosis is inherent in more than 90% of people on the planet, it is simple for all, it can manifest itself in different ways. People who are engaged in manual labor, most often suffer from a loin, office workers have a cervical department, and in some cases, heart pain and esophagus can be caused by osteochondrosis of the thoracic region. In any case, it is necessary to treat the disease immediately, as the disease can be transferred to the next stage, which entails serious complications.
First-degree manifestations of
The first degree is usually manifested by sharp pains with strong physical exertion or with prolonged stay in one position. Such lumbago pass quickly enough, but if you work with lifting weights, the pain does not arise in the muscles, namely in the spine, this may indicate progression of the disease, and you need to take care of your health. Treatment of the first degree is quite simple and does not involve the taking of serious medications. And help to cope with the disease therapeutic exercise, swimming and massage.
Characteristic symptoms of the second degree
If the first degree is characterized by the compaction of the intervertebral disc, the second degree entails instability of the spine and an increased narrowing of the opening between the vertebrae. The pain becomes frequent and aching, and sometimes painful attacks can last several days, and only strong ointments and anti-inflammatory drugs can remove them. Treatment of the second degree already includes the administration of calcium preparations, as well as antihistamines.
Alternative therapies for grade II
As for the treatment procedures, the most commonly prescribed are manual therapy, physiotherapy, massage and spinal traction. It is also worth thinking about alternative drugs, but their use should be discussed with the doctor. It can be:
• yoga - several hundred postures are known to help with diseases of the spine and joints, but they must be performed under the supervision of a specialist;
• medical leeches - providing reflex action, improve blood circulation and relieve swelling;
• Kuznetsov's applicator - strengthens metabolic processes;
• visit to the bath - improves blood flow and relieves muscle tension, besides it is a good relaxation, contributing to the normalization of emotional state;
• foot massage - zones are activated, which has a positive effect on the treatment of the spine;
• Lithotherapy - treatment with stones and minerals, such as jade, quartz, jasper, albite, etc.;
• Hydrotherapy - hardening, Charcot's douche, turpentine bath or herbal decoctions, etc.
Danger of the third degree
Incorrect treatment of I and II degrees of osteochondrosis entails the transition to the third degree, which is characterized by serious disorders of the spine, in particular, the narrowing of the intervertebral foramen and the spinal canal. The next stage of degeneration of the spine will be a hernia. To prevent its appearance is quite difficult, and in the case of the third degree, surgical intervention is already used, since here neither prednisolone preparations, nor LFK, nor alternative methods will help.
Osteochondrosis of the 1st degree is found almost in every inhabitant of the planet, and the reason for this, strangely enough, is civilization. To the emergence of the cervical, thoracic or lumbar part of the lead ordinary, at first glance, everyday things. Symptoms of osteochondrosis can be found practically in every person, it is another matter that in the initial stage they are expressed implicitly, therefore they are often simply not paid attention.
Symptoms of the disease are present in almost every person, but in the initial stage they are implicitly expressed
Clinical differences in the manifestation forms of
The stages of osteochondrosis of various parts of the spine appear in stages, and each of them corresponds to certain symptoms. The strength of their expression is also diverse, and if osteochondrosis of the 1st degree is characterized only by minor discomfort in the neck, lumbar or thoracic region, then osteochondrosis to the third degree already brings its owner serious problems.
Depending on the symptoms, the following stages of osteochondrosis are distinguished by the severity of the damage to the spinal tissues:
- Before the clinical manifestation of
There is a loss of water in the intervertebral discs, their turgor decreases, the elasticity and elasticity becomes worse. If at this stage it is possible to detect pathology, begin to treat, reduce the load, then the height of the disk will remain normal.
- Discogenic sciatica
A portion of the intervertebral disc in the lumbar, cervical or thoracic region becomes inflamed. Against the background of fluid loss, microcracks appear on the fibrous ring. The first symptoms of pathology appear, which give the person a very decent discomfort.
Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree is characterized by a violation of the integrity of the fibrous ring, which implies the formation of hernial protrusions, compression of vessels and nerve endings.
- Scarring, scar formation in the intervertebral discs
The last stage of osteochondrosis is the most difficult, almost impossible to treat. It is only possible to stop symptoms with strong medications. As a result of the fact that the intervertebral disc is destroyed almost completely, the vertebrae approach each other as much as possible and deform them.
Degrees of osteochondrosis allow the doctor to understand what treatment should be prescribed to the patient at that particular time. Pathological processes in general lead to the following symptoms:
- Soreness and discomfort in the neck, thoracic or lumbar spine.
- Disturbance of motor function.
- From the second stage of degenerative disorders of the spine( cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine), symptoms of internal disorders are observed.
- Low sensitivity in the localization of osteochondrosis.
- A change in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.
In most cases, osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree manifests itself as a pain. It is this circumstance that compels a person to consult a doctor, and with proper and timely treatment all symptomatology is limited to just one symptom. If the patient begins to engage in self-treatment, and most often not to treat osteochondrosis, but its consequences, the disease progresses and gradually reaches stage 4, when it is impossible to stop the complete destruction of bone-cartilaginous structures.
Local clinical symptoms of
For each department of the spine, there is a characteristic pattern of osteochondrosis. This allows the doctor to understand well what treatment the patient needs.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical part of the
At the very beginning, the osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 1st degree has practically nothing to do with itself. With the development of degenerative processes, in addition to changes in bone-cartilaginous structures, pathological processes in the brain develop.
Neck pain and headache may signal the development of. Symptoms:
- Dizziness, headache and loss of coordination.
- Noise( ringing) in the ears.
- Restriction of mobility, paresthesia in the upper limbs.
- Edema of the neck muscles.
- Constant nervousness, fast fatigue, weakness.
- Sensation of foreign object in the throat.
Cervicalgia in the osteochondrosis of the cervical region has a characteristic feature: the spread of pain to the shoulder girdle, the subscapular region, the heart area and the entire upper limb. Often the symptoms of osteochondrosis in the neck are confused with heart disease and begin to treat completely the wrong disease. If the load is excessive, the pain in the neck may manifest as an attack.
- Osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine
Fortunately, the thoracic spine is affected much less often than the cervical and lumbosacral spine. This is due to the minimal load on it, but there are often symptoms resembling a change in the internal organs( heart, stomach):
- Dorsalgia( pain in the middle of the back).
- Impaired sensation of the skin.
- Heart palpitations, pain in the heart.
- Shortness of breath and abdominal pain.
Seizures of radiculitis, prolonged back pains reason to check the condition of the spine
If osteochondrosis in the neck is often confused with neurasthenia or stroke, then chest osteochondrosis resembles a heart attack, angina pectoris, pneumonia or pathology of the abdominal organs. In advanced cases( at stage 3-4), the lesion extends to the abdominal wall and muscles of the chest, symptoms appear that resemble signs of cardiovascular diseases, GI tract, and in the absence of treatment, the development of these diseases is possible.
- Osteochondrosis of the lumbar region
The sacro-lumbar region takes on a load no less than the cervical, so symptoms of its defeat can be found in almost every 2-3 patients:
- Attacks of radiculitis, prolonged pain in the lower back. Paresthesia and pain in the legs.
- Motion disorder.
- Stress and spasm of the muscles of the waist.
- Disorders of the pelvic organs.
Much heavier symptoms are manifested with compression of the spinal cord, with the defeat of the nerve plexus "ponytail" in the last stages, even the atrophy of the lower limb is possible.
Principles of Disease Therapy
Each of the degrees has its own peculiarity in the treatment. At the initial stage, stop the pathological process and bring the disease to the stage of long-term remission is still possible, with phase 3-4, only symptomatic and supportive treatment is possible.
At the initial stages it is enough to take medication
Osteochondrosis 2 degrees, symptoms, treatment
- Therapeutic tactics
Every day our spine receives a colossal load. We bend, unbend, turn the trunk, lift weights, jump and do not feel painful sensations. This is due to the intervertebral discs, which, due to their elasticity, provide amortization and mobility of the spine.
Osteochondrosis is a chronic progressive disease of e, which is caused by degeneration and thinning of intervertebral discs, characterized by the formation of bone growths, arthrosis of the articular processes, the formation of disc hernias that cause compression of the spinal cord and its roots. This is one of the most common problems in vertebrology, the solution of which has not been found by doctors until now. More than 90% of the population over the age of 50 years is confronted with manifestations of this ailment. The worst thing is that young people and even children began to suffer from it. Prevalence among physically working men is higher than among women.
For ease of understanding the essence of the pathological process, the choice of the optimal tactics of the treated activities conditionally distinguish three degrees of the disease. Let's take a closer look at the clinic of osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree and the principles of its treatment.
A look from within
For a simple layman, the diagnosis of "osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree" says little. Let's try to explain. In the case of progression of degenerative processes, the presence of certain realizing factors( whiplash injury, lifting of gravity, prolonged confinement of uncomfortable posture, overcooling), the compensatory mechanisms fail: the disc loses its elasticity, decreases, the equilibrium between the pulpous nucleus and the fibrous ring that clamps it.
disc protrusion may occur, causing compression of the nerve root when exiting the intervertebral foramen. The bodies and processes of adjacent vertebrae, intervertebral joints, ligaments and muscles are involved.
Because of a violation of vasomotor innervation, there are vascular disorders or venous congestion in the form of edema, fibrosis of connective tissue membranes around the spinal roots. Vertebrogenic ischemia of the nerves occurs by compression or irritation of the nerve plexuses and the corresponding vessels in the narrowed intervertebral foramen or compensatoryly strained muscles, which, depending on the level of damage, causes the corresponding symptoms.
At 2 degrees of osteochondrosis, symptoms of irritation and prolapse are added to the muscular-tonic. Most often the changes affect the lower cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, since they are loaded most.
The main symptom for is the osteochondrosis of the cervical part of - pain. When stimulating the roots of C3-C4, the diaphragm stress increases, the liver may be lowered down, imitating angina attacks. In the case of compression of the spine C4, the pain of the zone of the forehearth, clavicle is observed, the muscles of the posterior surface of the neck are gradually atrophied. Compression of the root of C5 leads to weakness, hypotrophy of the deltoid muscle with irradiation of pain from the neck to the outer surface of the shoulder.
Compression of the root of C6 causes pain, and later hypoalgesia of the dermatome from the neck to the 1st finger of the hand, the biceps' hypotrophy, and a decrease in reflexes from it.
In the case of compression of the spine C7 , pain , paresthesia, loss of sensitivity of the zone from the neck to the II and III fingers, scapula. The triceps suffer, its weakness, atrophy is determined. The compression of the roots of C6-C7 leads to a hypotrophy of the muscles of the forearm, a hand, mostly a tenar.
Spreading of hook-shaped processes at the level of C4-C6 leads to compression of the sympathetic vertebral plexus, stenosis of the arteries of the spinal canal, blood supply to the occipital lobes, trunk, and cerebellum is disturbed. In this case, there is a syndrome of the vertebral artery: headache, noise and ringing in the ears, dizziness, double vision, morning rising blood pressure, vestibular disorders with sudden movements of the head.
Thoracic osteochondrosis of 2nd degree is manifested by pain between the shoulder blades, chest, aching or shingles. There may be a feeling of constriction in the entire upper part of the trunk. The pain increases with pressure on the pectorals, corners of the body.
The radicular symptom is manifested by soreness in the Erb points( intercostal spaces along the near-vertebral, axillary, prichrudinnoy lines).Violated the function of the abdominal muscles, organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Reflex angina may appear, a feeling of heaviness in the right upper quadrant.
When the lumbar region suffers from osteochondrosis, chronic or acute pains occur in the lower back( lumbago) with spreading to the limb( lumboschialgia).With a rootlet lesion at level S1, pain occurs when walking on toe socks, L5 - on the heels. The pain is worse when the leg is straightened. There are violations of urination, hipesthesia of the skin of the perineum.
Treatment of osteochondrosis of the 2d degree includes conservative measures aimed at combating acute radicular pain, slowing down further degeneration of the intervertebral disc. With an exacerbation, steady-state monitoring is desirable.
A good effect of in the treatment of cervical osteochondrosis gives a short-term traction with the Gleason loop in small loads in a special chair. Assign a constant wearing of a semi-rigid collar of the Shantz type. When the aggravation subsides, underwater traction with a massage is effective.
For the treatment of thoracic osteochondrosis, orthopedists use active vertical traction under water, passive horizontal traction along an inclined plane using the Glisson loop, axillary straps. Exacerbation of lumbar osteochondrosis requires strict bed rest on a hard surface. In the future, walking with crutches, dry or underwater traction, massage is appointed.
Simultaneously, analgesics, paravertebral novocain blockades, neurotropic vitamins, chondroprotectors, sedatives are shown. In the elimination of exacerbation, various types of massage, therapeutic exercise, reflexology, balneotherapy are used.
Possible introduction of biogenic stimulants such as aloe, vitreous. Rational nutrition and adequate motor regimen will prolong the youth of your spine. Be healthy!