Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis 1,2,3 Degrees
Knee joint gonarthrosis is a fairly common disease, the leader of all arthrosis. His active study of physicians of different countries began over a century ago, which causes significant progress in the fight against the disease. At the household level, this pathology is stubbornly called the deposition of salts, although the process of calcification does not play a primary role. The disease is dangerous in its development and can lead to a restriction of mobility and disability.
Knee joint gonarthrosis requires long-term treatment, which is not always able to help without prompt intervention. In order not to appear on the surgical table, it is very important to detect pathological changes in time and start treatment at an early stage. Like most joint diseases, this type of osteoarthritis is easier to prevent, taking preventive measures, than to treat after debilitating pain.
What happens with this disease?
Gonarthrosis, or osteoarthritis of the knee, is degenerative-dystrophic joint damage caused by degeneration of the cartilage, until its complete destruction, and leading to deformation of the joint;while less pronounced inflammatory reactions are secondary phenomena and are also generated by degeneration processes.
The onset of pathology is usually associated with structural changes in cartilage tissue at the molecular level, including as a result of circulatory disorders in small vessels. Then the hyaline cartilage is involved in the process, which becomes turbid, decreases in thickness, is stratified and covered with multidirectional microscopic cracks. The pathological process is completed by the complete destruction of small and large cartilage, and at the same time bone articulation is exposed.
The body instinctively reacts to the disappearance of cartilage by bone growth in the peripheral zones, which is expressed in the growth of osteophytes. As a result of abnormal changes, the joint is deformed, the lower limb is bent. Such a result ensured the name of destructive pathology - deforming arthrosis.
Disturbances in gonarthrosis
The development of the disease proceeds with the growth of the following pathological disorders in the joint:
- Disturbance of the metabolic process in the cartilaginous tissue: a constant supply of cartilage occurs due to the liberation and absorption of the lubricant during the movement of the joint, but the disease leads to a change in the osmotic pressure and infringement of the makeup;at sites of the raised pressure there is a thinning of a cartilage.
- Structural changes of collagen fibers: the softening of the patellar cartilage starts, the depreciation function of the cartilage and the metabolic capacity of the chondrocytes are broken - the cartilage loses its elasticity and its instability appears.
- Distortion of articular congruence: the synthesis of bone substance, leading to the growth of osteophytes, is activated. As a result, the synovial membrane is irritated, which generates an inflammatory process in it, the loss of joint mobility begins.
- The most active destructive process occurs in the inner region of the joint and in the gap between the knee and the femur.
Classification of pathology
Classification of gonarthrosis is carried out in accordance with the international system of ICD 10 by code 17.0 - 17.9.There are 2 main types of etiology: primary and secondary osteoarthrosis.
The primary( genuine) type is the development of a degenerative process on healthy cartilage that has not previously been subjected to pathological influences. The process is the result of mechanical and physiological overloads. Secondary form of the disease develops on the joint, previously subjected to pathological effects( trauma, disease), and the beginning of the process is due to a decrease in the durability of cartilage tissues to normal loads. The most common form is posttraumatic gonarthrosis.
Given the localization of lesions, one-sided and two-sided gonarthrosis is different. In turn, a one-sided view is characterized by joint damage on only one limb: right-sided and left-sided gonarthrosis. The most difficult and dangerous is the two-sided type, when the knee joints of both legs are subjected to destruction. The main reason for the appearance of this form is the age factor.
Causes and stages of the disease
In order to start a degenerative-dystrophic process of destruction of cartilage tissue, provoking factors are needed.
There are following causes of the disease:
- metabolic disorder, especially hormonal imbalance;
- circulatory disturbance and capillary fragility;
- excessive body weight;
- knee injury( fracture, cracked bone, ruptured ligament or meniscus);
- inflammatory diseases( rheumatism, arthritis);
- frequent and prolonged physical overload( especially among athletes - gymnasts, football players, athletes, tennis players);
- disorders of the endocrine system;
- genetic abnormalities of the structure of tissues;
- hereditary predisposition, violation of body statics;
- age factor.
The severity of gonarthrosis is determined by the type of lesions and complications.
It is subdivided into 3 stages and, accordingly, 4 stages of development:
- 1 stage( 1 degree): the initial phase, characterized by a slight narrowing of the joint gap, visible on the radiograph. There is a feeling of discomfort in the joint, fatigue by the evening, a slight limitation of joint mobility.
- 2 stage( 2 degree): on the roentgenogram there is a significant narrowing of the gap and the appearance of osteophytes, bone growths. There is the appearance of pain syndrome with strengthening with prolonged standing or walking, a crunch in the joint, complicated flexion and extension of the leg in the knee, the angle of extension of the leg is limited, the appearance of signs of atrophy of the quadriceps femoris.
- 3rd stage( 3rd degree): joint deformity with foot axis disturbance, articular instability. There is a sharp increase in pain, even at rest, edema, local temperature, impaired mobility of the joint.
- Stage 3 at 4 degrees of severity: severe joint deformity, complete disappearance of cartilage, impaired mobility of the limb, pain is permanent.
At the initial stage, the symptoms of gonarthrosis are manifested by a feeling of tightening the muscle under the knee and a slight pain after a long hike. In the mornings or after a long sitting, it takes time to "puff up" the joint and eliminate discomfort in the knee. The development of pathology leads to the appearance of a pain syndrome under the knee. When walking, there is a crunch in the joint. Further progression of the disease limits the mobility of the joint, there are problems with squatting and extension of the legs, lame appears. Pain is getting stronger and longer.
Visual inspection of the joint in the initial stages does not reveal any changes. Gradually, the joint deformity becomes noticeable, and then the curvature of the shin. If you put your hand to the knee, then when flexing your legs you can distinguish a distinct crunch. Palpation indicates the presence of a painful patch on the inside of the knee joint.
Signs of gonarthrosis are greatly enhanced if the disease is complicated by synovitis( inflammation of the inner shell).In this case, already at the first stage swelling of the joint is noticeable due to liquid. At further stages, it fills even the popliteal fossa in the posterior articular region( Baker's cyst).Pain syndrome is greatly enhanced.
The primary diagnosis is established by examination, palpation of the joint, changing the direction of the bones, the angulation of the mobility of the joint. Laboratory tests are conducted on general blood and urine tests: determination of ESR, fibrinogen, urea and other biochemical parameters. The ultrasound of the knee joint is performed. The most informative are X-ray studies and magnetic resonance imaging. Only after that the doctor treats the disease.
Tactics and methods of therapy
The question how to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint, the doctor decides, taking into account the stage and severity of the disease.
In general, treatment is carried out in a complex manner, but usually includes the following steps:
- Elimination of the inflammatory reaction: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed - Diclofenac, Olfen, Diclac, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Ketaprofen, Meloxicam, Nimesulide;at a complicated stage, injections with the introduction of hormones - drugs "Hydrocortisone", "Kenalog", "Diprospan";To stop degenerative processes, antifoam agents are prescribed - Counterline, Ovomin, Gordoks.
- Anabolic and anti-catabolic effect, restoration of cartilaginous tissue: chondroprotectors - Structum, DONA, Rumalon, Alflutol, Mukosat.
- Normalization of blood circulation, warming and soothing effect: ointments, gels, creams - Finalgon, Fastum gel, Nikofleks, Apizarthron, Feloran.
- Improvement of blood circulation, strengthening of vascular tissues: vasodilating drugs - Cavinton, Trental, Actovegin, Uppsit, Ascorutin.
- Reduction of muscle tension: antispasmodics - "No-shpa", "Midokalm", "Tizalud".
- Restoration of synovial fluid: substitutes - "Otrovysk", "Hyalual", "Fermatron".
Complicated forms of the disease are treated with additional methods, such as: oxygen therapy( introduction of oxygen);introduction of stem cells;laser therapy;the introduction of the protein preparation "Ortokin" on the basis of blood serum.
In the last stages of gonarthrosis, the only effective method is surgical treatment. A surgical operation for prosthetics of the affected tissues is performed. Depending on the severity of the disease, the following operations are performed:
- arthrodesis( removal of the destroyed cartilage along with the joint);
- arthroscopic debridement( removal of deformed cartilage with an arthroscope);
- osteotomy( bone anchoring in a different position);
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, especially at the initial stage, is carried out in ways that do not involve medical therapy. The therapeutic sports complex allows to improve blood circulation, strengthen the musculoskeletal system, raise muscle tone, maintain joint mobility. LFK is developed by the treating orthopedist under the individual scheme.
Physiotherapy for osteoarthritis involves the use of the following methods: electrophoresis with bischofite, caripain and reinforcement with dimexide;magnetic therapy;ultrasound;microwave exposure;paraffin application;reception of radon and hydrogen sulphide baths;mud baths. Its effectiveness was proved by therapeutic massage and manual therapy, if conducted by a specialist.
Prophylaxis of the disease necessarily provides proper nutrition.
The diet for gonarthrosis excludes the use of pickles, spicy and fatty dishes. The menu recommends the inclusion of increased consumption of low-fat chill( for example, in poultry meat), jelly from natural fruits. It is useful to eat sea fish and seafood.
Loss of capacity for work and a group of disabilities are not threatened if the prevention is carried out with folk remedies. Effective use of infusion based on garlic and lemon with the addition of celery. Recommended tea from the grass of black beans. Especially useful is the grass of moccas, which should be added to various salads. And of course, the welding of beef knees and hoofs, it is better to eat hot, not hardened fat.
Knee joint gonarthrosis( arthrosis): treatment of 1 degree, 2 degrees, 3 degrees.
Along with this, the bone tissue is restructured and deformed, so-called spines or osteophytes are formed. It is they that limit the movement of the joint and cause pain.
If, in the presence of a man diagnosed with knee joint gonarthrosis, treatment should be started, this may result in the disappearance of cartilage, deformation of the joint and exposure of the underlying bone.
First-degree knee joint
The first signs are the appearance of a feeling of discomfort in the joint and periodic pains. As a rule, the disease develops gradually and pain over time is more periodic.
Especially should pay attention to the condition of the joint in the morning, after sleep. Most people complain about the morning pain( after a long period of immobility), but leaving and developing joint pain goes away.
Also a person feels discomfort when climbing and descending the stairs, becausethe weight of the body rests on one leg and the articular cartilages in the knee joint are compressed. It is worth paying attention to crunches in the joints.
Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 1st degree characterizes such features:
- fatigue limb
- moderately restricted movement in the joint
- can be heard a small crunch
In gonarthrosis of the knee joint 1 degree of pain will occur at the beginning of walking, after a prolonged load, and in rest or light load theyare absent. At this stage, the knees still retain their natural form and are practically not deformed. In the joint space, there will be some narrowing.
Knee joint gnatroz of 2nd degree
Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree already restricts in the movement of a person. At this stage, pain will accompany any movement associated with the affected knee. Especially severely affected knee will hurt after a long walk and wearing a light weight.
The pain syndrome can only be reduced after a long rest. Check the joint for flexion right now - if you can not bend your leg in your knee, serious deformations have already begun.
In the second stage, a knee crunch will be heard well, joint deformation will also be visible, the patient will begin to limp and muscle malnutrition will develop. On the x-ray, you can see the narrowing of the joint gap in comparison with the norm 2-3 times.
A pathological fluid may also accumulate in the joint. At the second degree, drug treatment becomes necessary, it is impossible to cope with the disease alone with one's folk remedies.
knee joint gonarthrosis The third degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint will further strengthen the patient's pain syndrome. The mobility of the knee joint will decrease to a minimum. Pain will bother a person even when the knee joint is at rest. Deformation of the joint bones becomes very noticeable.
It will be difficult for the patient to find a comfortable position for rest. In the case when the destruction of the joint is observed and a violation of blood circulation, the joints will twist at night and on the weather.
In the structure of the knee joint articular cartilage is practically absent, because of the sharp sealing of articular surfaces. Pain relieves patients even when lying down. The likelihood of gait disturbance due to X or O-deformity is very high.
At this level, it is advisable to perform arthroscopic surgery of the knee to remove outgrowths and deformed elements, as well as to replace joint replacement with artificial analogues
. On the x-ray, the joint gap will be practically absent.
How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint? Treatment of gonarthrosis should be started as early as possible, as the patient's recovery process will be quite long.
The main task in the treatment is to remove the load on the joint as much as possible. Get rid of excess weight( diet and proper nutrition), do regular massage of the affected part of the joints, practice physical exercises on the recommendation of a doctor( exercises and gymnastics).
In the first stage, the treatment can be conservative and include:
Gonarthrosis of the 1st degree of the knee joint: left-sided, bilateral, deforming, treatment
The term gonarthrosis in medicine denotes degeneration of cartilage tissue of the knee joint, which leads to destructive changes in bone tissueThe heads of bones entering this joint. In this article, we consider gonarthrosis of the first degree, in which a rapid and complete restoration of damaged tissues is possible with the subsequent restoration of the physiological volume of mobility of the lower limbs. It is very important to recognize the pathology at the initial stage of development, this allows us to apply non-surgical methods of treatment.
Gonarthrosis of the first degree of the knee joint can manifest itself with minimal symptoms, which are difficult to formulate to the patient at the primary address to the doctor. Typical signs can be short-term pain, crunching and clicks during sudden movements. These symptoms intensify after a busy working day, during which increased physical stress on the knee joints appeared.
Destructive changes do not appear in any way. When the radiograph is taken, the thickness of the cartilaginous layer is seen to decrease. There may appear a decrease in the amount of synovial fluid and a decrease in its biochemical properties.
Causes of bilateral first-degree gonatrosis
As mentioned above, bilateral gonarthrosis of the 1st degree is well suited for conservative treatment, pathology can be completely stopped. With the right approach, it is possible to achieve a stable remission, the beginning of a complete regeneration of damaged tissues. But as with any other disease, an important factor of therapy is the elimination of probable causes that contributed to the destruction of cartilaginous tissue. Therefore, it is worth investigating the causes that cause gonarthrosis. They can include the following pathogenic factors:
- excess body weight, which is accompanied by a deficiency in the development of muscle mass of the femoral and gastrocnemius muscle groups;
- incorrect placement of the foot, which leads to an incorrect position of the heads of bones in the cavity of the knee joint;
- heredity and the presence of systemic connective tissue diseases;
- concomitant diseases of the hip, ankle, spine;
- trauma and predisposing working conditions;
- infection during medical manipulations.
This is not an exhaustive list of possible causes, but they are highly likely to provoke destructive processes. Therefore, they should be excluded first.
What is a bilateral deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree?
Double-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree is the most common diagnosis in case of systemic involvement of the joint tissues. In the traumatic nature of the disease, a one-sided degenerative process arises. In the initial diagnosis it is important to understand how much the cartilage tissue is weakened and whether there are reliable signs of a change in the bone structure.
Deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree differs in that, with a significant change in the depreciation properties of cartilage, there is an increased mechanical stress on the head of the bones. As a result, microscopic cracks may appear, which are filled with deposits of calcium salts. Radiographically, it can look like outgrowths, thorns, roughness. There are no external signs at the initial stage. Pain during movement can occur after severe physical exertion.
Double-sided deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree can be diagnosed already at the age of 30 years. The risk group includes persons engaged in manual labor with the primary load on the knee joints. Symptomatically, this can manifest as a slight stiffness in the morning hours after awakening. After a short walk, all the pains disappear. In the evening and at night, there may be cramps in the calf muscles, pulling pains, restless legs syndrome.
To answer the question about what is deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree, it can be very simple. This pathology, which in the absence of timely treatment can go into the pronounced destruction of the articular tissues. This inevitably leads to disability and significant difficulties in the independent movement of a person.
Left-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree and its distinctive features
Left-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree is not common. Usually, the predecessor of the disease is a trauma in the form of stretching of the ligamentous apparatus, dislocation of the knee joint, stroke, inflammation of the meniscus, detachment of the patella and much more. In a number of patients, pathology may occur after medical intervention for arthroscopy or an operation to restore the integrity of the meniscus.
On the right side, the pathological process arises in a similar way. It is worth noting the inflammatory component in the development of subsequent destruction. An aseptic inflammatory reaction with a compensatory purpose is possible if the physical properties and volume of the synovial fluid are disturbed.
Differential diagnosis is performed with various forms of arthritis, bursitis, traumatic lesions. It is not necessary to exclude the possibility of irradiation of the pain syndrome in the hip joint lesion.
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the 1st degree by the methods of manual therapy
For the treatment of gonarthrosis of the 1st degree, official medicine suggests using mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with chondroprotectors. Additional methods of therapy can be therapeutic exercise, massage physiotherapy. However, often the measures taken are not sufficient to stop the destructive process.
We recommend that you use manual therapy techniques in addition to traditional methods of treatment. In our clinic, effective programs have been developed that allow the restoration of knee joints to be started at the expense of hidden reserves in the human body.
For the treatment of gonarthrosis of the 1st degree, osteopathy and therapeutic massage, a course of gymnastics and reflexotherapy are widely used. For each patient an individual technique is developed that takes into account possible causes leading to this disease. In particular, the specialists of our clinic work with overweight the patient, recommend changes in the diet, develop a program to increase physical activity.
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Two-way gonarthrosis: diagnosis of the disease and its treatment
Most of us rarely pay attention to discomfort, periodic pain in the knee, writing off this for an old bruise. And in vain, this may well be the beginning of a very serious disease - gonarthrosis. This is called arthrosis of the knee joint, when the cartilage tissue undergoes changes and eventually loses mobility.
We used to think that such diseases are the destiny of the elderly. In fact, now the disease occurs at any age, although people more than 40 years old are more inclined to it. The reason is simple - changes in the cartilaginous tissue begin after knee injuries, which is very often the case with lovers of an active lifestyle. The cause may be an infection, a violation of blood supply in the presence of varicose veins, especially if there is excess weight.
Types of the disease
The disease manifests itself in different ways. For example, one leg may be affected - right-sided or left-sided, or two - then it is called bilateral gonarthrosis.
In its origin, gonarthrosis can be of two kinds:
- Primary - its victim is any healthy person. Too large, regular physical activity, age-related changes in cartilage, diseases with metabolic disorders, overweight. .. All this directly or indirectly leads to deformities. Primary gonarthrosis can be bilateral.
- Secondary gonarthrosis appears after a trauma or other disease, for example - arthritis. Bad, incomplete treatment of one disease over time leads to its manifestation.
Both primary and secondary gonarthrosis eventually leads to pathological deformation of the cartilaginous, bone tissue of the knee joints, which greatly reduces their mobility, and without adequate treatment may eventually lead to disability.
The course of the disease
This disease does not begin immediately, it has certain clearly defined periods. They are divided into 3 degrees:
- 1 degree - the knee joints can sometimes hurt after a long walk or running. Sometimes the knee can swell a little, but after rest everything passes. Although this is only the very beginning of the disease, but there is also a bilateral gonarthrosis of 1 degree, with the defeat of both legs.
- 2 degree - even with a small load a person begins to feel a strong pain. Passing a small distance or raising a small weight for him becomes torture. It becomes heard a crunch when bending the knee, extension. The diseased knee becomes more healthy, the stiffness of movements appears. Two-way gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is able to severely limit the life of a sick person.
- 3 degree - pain in the knee is almost all the time, regardless of whether a person is sitting or walking. Constant pain can prevent a person from sleeping. It is well noticeable that the joint is greatly enlarged compared to the healthy one. The deformation of the diseased knee causes a noticeable curvature of the legs. The joints at this stage are very limited in movement.
As a rule, the disease of the 1st degree goes unnoticed - it does not bother the person practically, but go to the reception because of a slight pain in the knee. .. Many people think this is just not serious, and very wrong - because it's possible to cure the disease at this stage almost completely quickly.
On admission to the doctor usually get with gonarthrosis 2 degrees, as a rule - bilateral. The disease goes too far, causing irreversible changes in the joints, so you can not completely get rid of it - you can only move the offensive of the 3rd degree for a long time.
Diagnosis of the disease
Of course, in neglected form it is possible to visually determine the increase, deformation of the knee. But much more reliable methods of research work - radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI - magnetic resonance imaging. Any of these methods can show changes in the cartilaginous tissue, and even more so - bone growths around the joint heads.
For a complete diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe a blood test. Particularly help him analyze the rheumatoid factor. Other diagnostic methods are assigned more to clarify the individual characteristics.
Diseases of the joints - not one that can be treated independently. It is possible to be treated only under the control and on prescription of the doctor. Particularly self-medication is fraught with consequences in bilateral gonarthrosis, and even 2 degrees - you can aggravate the situation and become a complete disabled person.
The doctor correctly assesses the course of the disease, appoints the appropriate physiotherapy, treatment. Therapy is aimed at improving the blood supply to the sick leg, increasing its mobility. In addition, they can prescribe injections or tablets from a group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - to reduce the inflammatory process, anesthesia. All this is quite effective when the disease is not started.
In severe cases, when the knee function is completely broken, it is severely deformed, causes permanent pain, the doctor can decide that an operation is necessary. Methods of surgical treatment are different - from the superimposition of metal structures, to the replacement of its parts by artificial ones. In particularly difficult cases, the surgeon will replace the entire joint.
As you can see, the path from an untreated knee injury to such a serious illness as gonarthrosis is very small. So do not treat such "little things" scornfully. Any sore should be cured completely, then it does not have to receive such "surprises".
Knee joint gonarthrosis: treatment of all types of the disease
In most cases, gonarthrosis is manifested by pain in the region of the knee joints, which is why non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs) are included in the treatment of this pathology. As a rule, they are prescribed short courses, the dosage is selected individually, depending on the severity of the pain syndrome.
Also, when selecting a preparation, it matters which process: primary or secondary, bilateral or unilateral. The advantage is given to selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2( meloxicam, nimesulide, celecocosib).
In diseases of the knee joint they are used twice a day, more frequent administration is not recommended because of the possibility of side effects. In this case, a diet that reduces the irritant effect of medications on the gastrointestinal tract can be recommended. Of nonselective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, ibuprofen, has been used.
Traumatologists do not recommend indomethacin for gonarthrosis, as it increases the degeneration of cartilaginous tissue. The second group of medications, which are included in the treatment of degenerative joint damage, are chondroprotectors.
Glucosamine and chondroitin-sulfate are used. When gonarthrosis must comply with the following conditions: take these drugs need a long time, at least 2-3 months, and repeat such courses throughout the year several times with a break of 1 month.
In severe cases, with gonarthrosis with severe pain syndrome and ineffectiveness of NSAIDs, intraarticular injections are made to the knee joint area with the introduction of glucocorticoid hormones( Kenalog, diprospan).
The orthopedic physician is being manipulated, taking into account the presence of concomitant somatic diseases in the patient, since glucocorticoids can cause serious side effects. After the administration of prolonged corticosteroid hormones, the pain syndrome rapidly decreases, the edema is eliminated and the volume of movements of the knee joint is increased. Do such injections no more often than once in 2 weeks. The effect of the drug is maintained for up to 3-4 weeks.
If after such treatment fails to achieve positive dynamics, it is recommended to replace the drug with another, similar. For the treatment of articular pathology quite often use various ointments containing analgesics and chondroprotectors. In the pharmacy they are represented a great many, the correct choice of a drug will help the attending physician-traumatologist. Some ointments are used when a therapeutic massage is performed.
Non-pharmacological methods of
One of the main conditions for correct treatment of gonarthrosis is a change in the whole way of life, as this disease is very often caused by immobility and the presence of excess weight in the patient. Therefore, it is very important to ensure a balanced and nutritious diet.
Compliance with the diet - a prerequisite for the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint
It is necessary to follow the diet, especially in patients with excess weight. Nutrition for gonarthrosis should be low-calorie and, at the same time, include a sufficient amount of protein and microelements necessary for the synthesis of cartilage elements.
The diet of a patient with a left-sided or right-sided gonarthrosis, provides low-fat varieties of meat, vegetables, sour-milk products. In this case, the food should be fractional, small portions. Exclude the following foods: flour and sweet dishes containing a large number of calories. Also, the diet prohibits alcoholic, carbonated drinks, canned food, smoked products.
What Traditional Medicine offers
Medicine has long been treating folk remedies for patients with various joint diseases, including those with bilateral gonarthrosis. You can use them both independently and in combination with traditional therapy.
One of the effective ways of treating folk remedies for knee joint diseases is the mummy, especially it is effective in case of pain syndrome. Before use, the mummy is mixed with honey( 3 g of substance and 150-200 g of honey).The mixture is applied to the joint area and light massage is done, then left overnight. From above the joint can be covered with a warm kerchief or a terry towel.
Left-sided or right-sided gonarthrosis is also treated with a burdock compress. To do this, take the leaves of a medium-sized plant( 4-5 pieces).On the leaves put a saucepan with boiling water and leave for 2-3 hours. Leaves are applied to the affected joint( you can both), top covered with a plastic wrap and then with a towel. Leave such a two-sided compress at night.
For treatment, alcoholic tincture of ficus can also be used;it is used when the massage of a diseased joint and adjacent tissues is done. For preparation take 2-3 small leaves of ficus, crush them with a blender or in a meat grinder. The resulting gruel is filled with 100 ml of alcohol or vodka. Insist 2-3 weeks.
The use of exercise therapy
Mandatory in diseases of the knee joint is treatment with the use of special physical education, since immobility refers to one of the etiological factors of the disease. Walking during the day is highly recommended. Also, a patient with right-sided or left-sided gonarthrosis is prescribed special exercises aimed at strengthening the ligament apparatus and muscle tissue.
Gymnastics must be gentle and not cause pain. It is recommended to perform exercises lying on the back, it is better to do it on the floor.
In this position, the load on the knee joints is reduced. Duration of exercise therapy at the initial stage should be 10-15 minutes, in the future you can increase the time of classes and introduce additional new exercises. Also, when performing exercise therapy, sharp and jerky movements should be avoided, they should be smooth;after classes you can have a massage.
Often recommend swimming lessons in the pool. Exercises performed in the water, contribute to an increase in the volume of movements of the knee joint and, at the same time, do not load the muscles and ligament apparatus.
Massage and manual therapy
A noticeable effect in the treatment of gonarthrosis is obtained when combined massage, manual therapy and gymnastics. The first two techniques allow to strengthen the muscles located periarticularly, and promote better fixation of the joint.
For gonarthrosis of grade 3 and severe restriction of motion,
endoprosthetics is shown. Manual therapy also helps to increase the volume of movements in the joint. Massage improves blood circulation in periarticular tissues and reduces their edema. It is best if this procedure is performed by a massage therapist. In his absence, you can perform massage yourself or ask someone to make a relative. Manual therapy should always be done by a certified specialist. Otherwise, there is a risk of serious complications.
Physiotherapy methods use magnetotherapy, thermal procedures, laser therapy. Obligatory condition: this treatment is used only not at exacerbation. Otherwise, physiotherapy can cause increased pain in the affected joint.
Surgical intervention is recommended for patients with grade 3 gonarthrosis and with severe movement limitations. The operation consists in replacing the joint with an artificial implant. The service life of such an artificial joint is 15-20 years.
Currently, low-traumatic arthroscopic techniques for the installation of the knee implant in gonarthrosis have been developed, and its physico-mechanical characteristics have been improved. Therefore, the rehabilitation period after surgery is minimal and allows the patient to quickly return to normal motor activity. During the rehabilitation period, you can also apply therapeutic exercises, massage, physiotherapy.