Diagnosis, symptoms, causes of development of 1, 2, 3 degrees of kyphosis

Kyphosis of the third degree is a formidable disease, which in most cases requires surgical intervention. It is characterized by increased physiological bending in the thoracic spine with an angle of curvature of more than 60 degrees( estimated from the roentgenogram in the lateral projection).

kyphosis - strengthening of the physiological bending of the thoracic spine

Types of thoracic kyphosis

Physiological curvature in the thoracic spine does not exceed an angle of 30 degrees. Its purpose is to prevent the infringement of the nerve roots leaving the thoracic part of the spinal cord, while walking and exercising.

With an external examination of the back, normal kyphosis is almost invisible to the eye. If a person has a hump in the upper part of the back, on the face is the kyphosis of the thoracic region.

There are 4 degrees of pathology:

  1. 1 degree - on the roentgenogram the angle of curvature is determined at 30-40 degrees( definition according to the Cobb method);
  2. 2 degree - angle of 40-50 degrees;
  3. 3 degree - angle of 50-70 degrees;
  4. 4 degree - an angle of more than 70 degrees.

Evaluation of the x-ray image of the degree of kyphosis using the Cobb method involves making tangent lines to the vertebral end plates( the lower and upper parts of the vertebral body) at the levels of the upper and lower concavities. From these lines perpendiculars are drawn inwards. At the intersection, an angle is formed, which is measured with a protractor. It also reflects the magnitude of kyphosis.

determination of the degree( of the cure) of kyphosis by the Cobb method
The above classification is most often used by orthopedists, traumatologists, vertebrologists and radiologists, but there is one more common gradation of the degrees of pathology:
  • Hyperkifosis - the angle of curvature exceeds 50 degrees;
  • Normokifoz - the angle of concavity is in the range of 15 to 50 degrees;
  • Hypokyphosis - angle up to 15 degrees.

For a causal factor, the concavity in the thoracic region is divided into:

  • Congenital;
  • Purchased.

Congenital hypo- and hyperkiphosis is formed due to anomalies in the development of the vertebrae. The non-growth of processes and arches leads to disruption of the anatomical structure of the spinal column. The angle of physiological concavity is violated, which causes the compression syndrome( infringement of the nerve roots) over time.

Acquired violation of the magnitude of the kyphotic arch arises for the following reasons:

  • Rachitic - insufficient intake of vitamin D from the food in the child causes the pathological development of the spine;
  • Infectious - tuberculosis and bacterial inflammation of vertebral bodies leads to their deformation;
  • Static - age changes in vertebral segments, muscular system and bone apparatus;
  • Total - is caused by serious diseases of the entire spine. For example, Bekhterev's disease leads to the deposition of calcium salts in the ligamentous apparatus, which disrupts the mobility of the vertebral axis.

Kyphosis of the third degree often occurs against the background of several causes, so conservative methods are ineffective in treating pathology.

According to the degree of flow, the pathology is classified into 2 forms:

  1. Slowly progressive - within a year the convexity angle does not increase more than 7 degrees;
  2. Rapidly progressive - the angle of the kyphosis increases over a year more than 7 degrees.

Depending on the location of the apex of the arc, the following types of disease are distinguished:

  • Chest-thoracic - apex at the level of the lower cervical( C5-C7) and upper thoracic vertebrae( Th1-Th2);
  • Upper thoracic - apex of the arc in the interval between Th3-Th6;
  • Mittens - the upper part of the convexity is localized between Th7-Th9;
  • Lower thoracic - level Th10-Th11;
  • Lumbosacral - localization of Th12-L1;
  • Lumbar - the top of the kyphosis is located at the level of L2-L5.
photo of a man with kyphosis of 3 degrees

Causes of pathological abnormalities

Excessive concavity in the thoracic spine is in most cases caused by weakening of the muscular corset of the back and the pathology of the osteoarticular system.

Against the backdrop of insufficient physical activity, shortages in the diet of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, proteins, vitamins and trace elements in children, it is difficult to count on the physiological formation of the vertebral axis. Practically till 20 years there is a transformation of a cartilaginous tissue of vertebra or vertebrae in a bone. In the future, the growth of the spinal column stops.

Features of modern ecology and non-observance of "spinal hygiene" leads to the fact that kyphosis of 1 degree is found today in almost every 2 children. Hygiene of the spine requires constant monitoring of the correctness of posture, observance of the principles of sitting on a chair, behind the school desk, daily dosed physical exertion.

In adults, kyphosis of the 2nd degree is a consequence of degenerative-dystrophic changes in the vertebral column and muscular system. Lack of intake of nutrients, violation of peripheral blood supply and excessive physical stress leads to an increase in the severity of the thoracic concavity of the spine with the formation of stoop and spine.

Saddle - the minimum degree of excessive convexity in the thoracic spine. The vertebral hump is characterized by the presence of a pronounced apex of the kyphotic curvature of the thoracic region posteriorly.

In older people, the cause of increased lumbar concavity and thoracic bulge often becomes a consequence of joint disease of the lower extremities( arthrosis) and dislocation of the head of the femur.

Depending on the time of onset, the disease is divided into:

  1. Infant - kyphosis 1 degree is detected before the age of 1 year. It is not fixed, so it disappears when the baby is placed on the stomach;
  2. Baby - found in school-age children;
  3. Juvenile and adolescent - often develops against the backdrop of Sheyerman-Mau disease;
  4. Adult - observed against the background of injuries or degenerative-dystrophic changes of the spinal column.

Scheierman-Mau disease is the curvature of the spine that appears in adolescents( 11-15 years old) and is characterized by the presence of more than 3 wedge-shaped vertebrae.

In adolescents, the degree of kyphosis progresses more rapidly than in adults, which is associated with the accelerated growth of the spinal column at a young age.

photo and roentgenogram of kyphosis 2 degrees

Symptoms depending on the severity of

The most common symptoms of abnormal kyphosis:

  • Pain syndrome in the upper back;
  • Numbness in the extremities( 2 and 3 degree of pathology);
  • Weakness of the hands.

This symptomatology is associated with infringement of the nerve roots, but with kyphosis of the 1st degree they may not be observed.

Danger presents and complications of pathology:

  • Disturbance of breathing;
  • Instability of the cardiovascular system;
  • Pathology of the process of digestion of food.

Such symptoms appear due to impaired mobility and chest displacement.

The main complaints of people with this pathology are associated with the pain syndrome in the inter-shoulder area and back pain. True, the pathological convexity of the 1st degree is asymptomatic.

At the 2nd or 3rd degree of the pathology neurologic manifestations can be observed:

  • Early - painful syndrome in the chest;
  • Late - severe pain and numbness in the hands. Occurs with the development of osteochondrosis or Forestier's disease.

Forestier disease is a lesion of the thoracic spine with an increase in the bulge of the spine in the thoracic region and a pronounced concavity in the lumbar region, as well as a lesion in the joints of the cervical region.

The severity of the neurological manifestations of the disease is divided into the following degrees:

  • A - total loss of sensitivity and movements;
  • B - sensitivity is retained in case of loss of mobility;
  • C - Motion saved, but no functional activity;
  • D - fully retained mobility;
  • E - no neurologic symptoms.

Kyphosis 1 degree is not characterized by clinical symptoms, but it is important to identify the disease at this stage in order to successfully cure it.

Main differences and symptoms of physiological and pathological kyphosis

Physiological kyphosis is normal in the thoracic and sacral parts of the spine. This curvature is characterized by the convexity of the axis of the vertebral column posteriorly with an angle that does not exceed 40 degrees. This condition is visually manifested by a slight protrusion in the thoracic region of the back. Normally, it disappears when a person leans forward.

Pathological kyphosis is observed when the bulge back has an angle of more than 40 degrees. Pathology causes a diverse clinical picture, caused by the infringement of nerve fibers and the displacement of internal organs. Kifoticheskaya arc in the disease persists when a person leans forward.

Physiological kyphosis

Why the spine needs physiological contortions

Convexity of the thoracic spine with a curvature angle of less than 40 degrees is necessary to reduce the shock load on the trunk during walking, jumping and lifting weights.

Physiologically correct bends of the spine

Physiologically correct bends of the spine

If the vertebral column were perfectly straight, at any physical load, the pressure would have to be on intervertebral discs. They are located between the vertebrae and create opportunities for the safe exit of nerves from the spinal cord. Passing in intervertebral crevices, nerve fibers innervate internal organs, ensuring their normal functioning. If the distance between the vertebrae decreases, there is compression of the spinal nerves.

The spinal column in the S-shaped position, acting like a spring, is able to evenly distribute pressure to all departments, a small pelvis and lower limbs. Thus, damage to its anatomical structures is prevented.

An additional factor in the correct distribution of the damping load on the human body is the muscular corset of the back. It supports the vertebral axis in the correct position and prevents its displacement with tilts, bends and extension. Hypertension of the muscles is most often the primary factor, leading first to a violation of posture, and then to an increase in thoracic concavity to the posterior.

Symptoms of abnormal thoracic curvature

Pathological kyphosis is accompanied by several symptoms that are divided into groups:

  • Thoracic syndromes;
  • Dorsalgia;
  • Dorsago;
  • Sciatic lumbar syndromes.

Vertebral thoracic syndromes occur with lesions of the thoracic intervertebral discs against the background of excessive convexity of the spine posteriorly. They can be divided into 2 modifications:

  1. Cheyno-thoracic;
  2. Lumbar-thoracic.

Intervertebral disk prolapse in the upper thoracic region is accompanied by increased myofixation( muscle tension) of the shoulder girdle and upper limbs. When the lower thoracic region is affected, myofixation occurs in the abdominal, iliacus and iliac-rib muscles.

With kyphosis of 4 degrees, there is a common muscle strain, which affects the gluteus, pelvic and even respiratory muscles. Against this background, there is shortness of breath, a violation of the synchronicity of the contractions of the heart( arrhythmia, tachycardia).

Dorsalgia is accompanied by a marked pain syndrome in the area of ​​the spinal column. Begins pathology with minor pain, which is increasing for 2-3 weeks. If at this time to probe the vertebral axis along the spinous processes, it will be very painful.

Dorsalgia for clinical symptoms can be divided into:

  • Upper - localized in the region of 1-6 vertebrae( Th1-Th6);
  • Lower - 7-12 intervertebral discs of the thoracic region are affected( Th7-Th12).

Thoracic cavity( dorsago) is accompanied by severe, sharp and sharp pains in the affected vertebral column. The pain syndrome begins in this case suddenly. Usually its initial manifestations are observed while walking. The period of exacerbation of the disease lasts about 2 weeks. Against the backdrop of severe pain, a pronounced muscular tension is observed, which makes it difficult to bend and unbend the back.

Migrating lumbar syndromes with abnormal strengthening of thoracic protuberance arise from the loss of the discs of the first lumbar vertebrae( L1-L2) or infringement of the spinal nerves.

Rupture of physiological and pathological kyphosis

Physiological and pathological kyphosis

How to treat abnormal kyphosis

To correct pathological kyphosis, orthopedists-traumatologists start with determining the degree of curvature and revealing the symptoms of the disease. At the first degree of bulge enhancement( 45-55 degrees) therapeutic gymnastics is appointed, which is able to return the spinal column to the correct position with careful and regular implementation of the doctor's recommendations.

Curvature of the 2nd degree requires prescription of medicinal drugs. At the same time, a set of measures is carried out to eliminate pathological curvature:

  • Medical gymnastics;
  • Physiotherapy;
  • Extension of the spine;
  • Sanatorium treatment.

Wearing orthopedic corsets is usually prescribed at the 3rd degree of the disease, when the angle of curvature exceeds 70 degrees( it is determined from the image of the thoracic part in the lateral projection).In this situation, rigid models of corsets are appointed, which will actively "press" on the area of ​​curvature in order to return it to a physiological position. Products are selected individually by an orthopedist or a vertebrologist!

With the 4-degree curvature, a surgical operation is most often required to modify the shape of the vertebrae and restore the normal position of the spine axis with the help of special metal retainers.

Thus, physiological and pathological kyphosis are the opposite concepts, which should not be confused. The second state in medicine is more often called "hyperkifosis", which more accurately reflects the essence of the pathology, characterized by increased concavity in the posterior thoracic spine.

  1. Osteoporosis


For the detection of kyphosis test is carried out. To do this, it is necessary to bend forward. In a healthy person, when tilted, the curvature is smoothed out. In a patient with kyphosis, an even stronger bulge appears.

The next stage is the X-ray study. On the x-ray, the spine is seen in more detail and the doctor can determine the angle of curvature. Finally, the lungs are examined to assess the damage.

Correction of pathological kyphosis

The first step on the way to a beautiful back is a doctor's visit. Self-treatment of kyphosis is unacceptable. The doctor first of all will determine the degree of development of the disease. This is the basis for determining further treatment.

The first stage of kyphosis damage is an increase in convexity to 45 - 55 degrees. Her treatment is the simplest and fastest. Most often enough therapeutic gymnastics, which can be performed at home. Its regular repetition guarantees the correction of the spinal column.

Physiotherapy with kyphosis

With kyphosis 2 degrees, treatment is more extensive. It includes the use of medicines, physiotherapy, massage, gymnastics and stretching exercises. The latter can not be carried out independently.

With 3 degrees of kyphosis, treatment is complemented by wearing corrective corsets. The angle of curvature is already 70 degrees. The vertebrologist selects corsets individually in this case.

For kyphosis of the 4th degree, doctors stop on surgical treatment. The operation allows you to restore the normal position of the spine, by changing the shape of the vertebrae. The spine is fixed with special metal plates. After that, the patient is like a long rehabilitation, which includes massage, therapeutic exercises and wearing a corset.

Medical gymnastics

Starting exercises from kyphosis must be done carefully and under the supervision of a specialist. To correct a backbone at adults is more difficult, than till 18 years, but persistence and responsibility will help.

To begin with, perform respiratory gymnastics. It helps to saturate the muscles with oxygen, which requires pykifose. After all, strained muscles can be traumatized.

  1. The palms rest against one another in the abdominal area and on a deep inhalation the arms are bent to the sides, raised above the head and connect the back sides of the hands. On exhalation, return your hands to their original position. Exercise is performed for 2 minutes.

The next stage is warm-up. The first three days are recommended to limit training to these two stages, if previously you did not go in for sports.

  1. Perform head inclinations in all directions 10 times. Be careful. The movements are soft and slow.
  2. Next, go to the hands. Breast kyphosis is the main area that requires warm-up. Place your hands on your shoulders and perform circular movements with your elbows. Then, in the same position, perform a circular motion with your shoulders.
  3. Connect fingers with a lock and raise your hands at shoulder level. Make turns, as much as possible looking behind the back, then separate the fingers and, when turning, take the appropriate hand behind your back.
  4. Pull your arms out in front of you and perform circular movements, like mills.

Let's move on to the main workout. It is designed to strengthen the muscles and gives the spine a correct posture.

  1. Go to the wall, put your hands and take a step back. Press your chest against the wall, bending the maximum back.
  2. Turn away from the wall, throw your hands back, leaning on it. The back should bend. Remain in this position for 30 seconds. With pronounced kyphosis this can bring pain.
  3. Lie on your stomach. Raise the trunk on your hands and throw your head back.
  4. Pull your arms along the body and lift the torso without their help. Hold up for the maximum possible time.
  5. Do the exercises for the press. They will strengthen the muscular corset, which will help get rid of kyphosis.
  6. Carry out push-ups from the floor.

Finally, at the end of the workout, you need to stretch the muscles a little. To do this, hug your shoulders and squeeze your hands. Then stretch your arms up, bend over and embrace your knees. Repeat the combination 3 times.

After this, it is advisable to take a warm shower. It will allow the muscles to relax. And drink sweet tea to restore glucose.

Treatment of kyphosis always succeeds if the patient complies with all the doctor's recommendations. Do not perform more than prescribed by the doctor or skip training and very soon you will become the owner of a beautiful posture. And there will be no trace of kyphosis.

To avoid the return of kyphosis, it is recommended to include morning exercises in your daily routine. And also every six months to undergo a weekly massage course.

Kyphosis - Is this disease dangerous?

  1. Prevention measures:


The term kyphosis is derived from the word kyphos , which in Greek means " bent, bent or curve ". Kyphosis is a disease of the of the spine, accompanied by a curvature of its upper part, which is drawn backwards. In the medical literature, this pathology is also called kyphoscoliosis .Most often, the curvature of the spine is noted in its thoracic region. Far from all cases, kyphosis is a pathological condition, and all because the well-formed spine also has physiological curves, but they are not so large. So, for example, if we look at our spine from the side, we can see that there are bends in the lumbar and cervical spurs, but in the sacral and thoracic areas they retreat. These bends are necessary for the spine to be able to withstand any loads, while retaining its mobility and flexibility. Given these facts, specialists identify physiological and pathological kyphosis. Physiological kyphosis is a normal position of the spine with a deflection back, but the pathological form of this condition is an abnormal change in the position of the spine with a deflection back along its entire length.

Degrees of disease:

1st degree( light form) - angle of curvature does not exceed 30 degrees; 2nd degree( moderate form) - angle of curvature varies from 31 to 60 degrees; 3rd degree - the angle of curvature exceeds 60 degrees. There is another classification of this pathology, namely:
  • Hypokyphosis - up to 15 degrees;
  • Normokifose - from 15 to 50 degrees;
  • Hyperkifosis or kyphotic posture - more than 50 degrees.

Causes of the disease:

  • surgical interventions on the spine;
  • intrauterine growth disorders;
  • paralysis( relaxation of ) of the back muscles due to cerebral palsy( of infantile cerebral palsy - a disease accompanied by damage to the muscular or motor activity of ) or poliomyelitis( infectious disease, in which the gray matter of the spinal cord is affected by poliovirus, i.e., human enterovirus );
  • infectious pathology, trauma and tumor of the spine;
  • osteochondrosis( pathology characterized by damage to cartilage surfaces of bones inside the joints );
  • incorrect posture;
  • pain in the neck and back;
  • urinary and fecal incontinence;
  • decreased strength and sensitivity in the legs;
  • stoop or hunchback.
  • is a degenerative kyphosis;
  • secondary kyphosis.
1. Postural kyphosis is the result of incorrect posture. This state is also referred to as " rounded back ".Most often it is observed in adolescence and is characterized by stooping in a sitting and standing position. Almost always this ailment proceeds along with hyperlordosis ( excessive bending forward ) in the lumbar spine. This bend can be adjusted. To do this, you need to lie more often on a flat solid surface, and also hang on the bar. It is very important to learn and sit properly, and also to stand. To correct the posture will help and special exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back. 2. Congenital kyphosis is a pronounced defect in the formation of the spine, which has been observed since birth. This condition often causes the development of paralysis of the lower extremities. Approximately 20-30% of cases in patients with various disorders of the urinary system. To get rid of such violations is possible with the help of surgical interventions. The operation is also necessary to stop the further development of this pathology. 3. Post-traumatic kyphosis occurs as a result of spinal injuries, in which the spinal cord roots are squeezed. It is almost impossible to get rid of this illness without surgical intervention. 4. The disease of Sheyerman-Mau is characterized by changes in the shape of the vertebrae in the middle of the spinal column. In this case, thinning of the anterior part of the bodies of certain vertebrae is observed. Since the altered vertebrae become more acute, this results in the inclination of the thoracic region forward. Until now, scientists can not establish the exact causes of this disease. 5. Degenerative kyphosis is the result of degenerative changes that occur in the spine and cause intervertebral disc subsidence, loosening of ligaments, and deformation of vertebral bodies. This form of this disease is inherent in all the time to progress. 6. Secondary kyphosis occurs when there is any systemic pathology of connective tissue. These diseases are pathologies, accompanied by a systemic type of inflammation of various organs and systems. Their list can be entered as scleroderma( lesion accompanied by compaction of skin ) and rheumatoid arthritis( lesion of small joints ), and Liebman-Sax disease ( vascular injury of microcirculatory bed ).Often, this ailment occurs due to cancer, as well as against the background of radiation therapy( method of treatment using ionizing radiation ).

Kyphosis in children:

There are congenital and acquired kyphosis in children. The congenital form arises from congenital disorders of the formation of the spine or from the underdevelopment of the intervertebral discs. The acquired form can be the result of both rickets( bone formation disorders due to lack of vitamin D ), as well as trauma, childhood leukemia( blood cancer ) or surgical interventions. By the location of the curvature, the thoracic and lumbar forms of this ailment are distinguished. The thoracic form is characterized by involvement of the thoracic vertebrae in the pathological process from 4 to 10. In the lumbar form, 11 and 12 thoracic vertebrae, as well as 1 and 2 lumbar vertebrae, are affected. Depending on the age, kyphosis can be:
  • infant;
  • adolescent;
  • youthful.
Infant kyphosis occurs as a complication of rickets. The curvature in this case is like an arc, which is observed at the level of 1-3 lumbar vertebrae. As for the infant kyphosis, it can be expressed as a muscular as well as a bone form. In the first case, the face is a general weakness of the muscles, which is the result of a weak physical development of the child or suffered severe pathologies. But in the second case, various damages to the body of the vertebrae are attributed to all.

Diagnostic methods:

To identify this pathological condition, you should first of all get a doctor's consultation. The specialist will record the medical history and conduct a physical examination( general ), including: 1. Neurological test: , although the neurologic changes are rare in this case, the specialist must in any case assess the changes in sensitivitythe patient; 2. Tilt test forward: when the patient is tilted forward, the doctor can view the spine from the side. In this position, any curvature of the upper back becomes more noticeable. 3. Pulmonary function test: , if necessary, a respiration process is under way, which makes it possible to assess the existing respiratory problems that have arisen against the background of this disease.

Laboratory-instrumental survey methods:

1. Magnetic resonance imaging is a method of investigation using the physical phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance: it makes it possible to track any structural and pathological changes in the spine, and also to evaluate the physicochemical processes of the nerve roots and the entire spinal cord; 2. Computed tomography is a method of investigation using X-rays. Computer tomography is necessary to clarify the pathological changes in bone structures.

Methods of therapy:

  • conservative method: medicamentous treatment, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy, wearing corsets;
  • operational method.

Therapeutic physical training:

It is an integral part of therapy, because it helps to strengthen the muscles of the back, and, consequently, to prevent the formation of regular fractures. Therapeutic physical training also helps to correct the posture and minimize the intensity of the manifestation of pain. To perform special exercises you will need a wand for gymnastics and a horizontal bar. Warm-up: We remove hands back, while passing the stick between the body and elbows. Align the shoulders until the posture becomes straight. In this position, we walk for 5 to 10 minutes.

Complex of exercises:

Exercise №1 - we level the shoulders, perform the torso torsions to the parallel with the floor. Slopes should be performed precisely - no movements with a pelvis or head. Exercise repeat 10 - 30 times for 2 - 3 accounts. Exercise # 2 - we cling to the hand, whose shoulder is below, behind the bar and calmly hang until we feel the first signs of pain. During this exercise, it is impossible to swing in any way. Exercise # 3 - Do the slopes towards the "high shoulder".During the exercise, the press and buttocks should be tightened, but the body is left straight. No jerks. We perform 10 - 40 slopes, with each of which the stick should reach the middle of the shank.


If the kyphotic curvature is accompanied by pain, then the patient is prescribed special medication designed to eliminate or reduce pain. At first, weaker pharmaceuticals such as acetaminophen are used. With severe pain, it can not do without non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which not only relieve pain, but also reduce the inflammatory process. All these medicines are recommended to be used constantly.

Manual Therapy:

Manual therapy involves the use of hands on this or that problem part of the spine. With kyphosis, such procedures can be performed at intervals of 1 to 3 days. Regular medical manipulations are not possible, since the muscles and ligaments of the patient need time to become stronger in the achieved position. Quite often after such procedures patients complain of pain in the place of the massage. This is normal. It is pain that signals the beginning of the work of a certain group of muscles. The basis of this method of therapy is the dosed mechanical load on certain parts of the motor apparatus. This method of treatment helps to restore muscle tone, get rid of severe pain, improve posture.

Wearing corsets:

Corsets in this case are necessary to prevent further progression of the disease. In addition, their wearing makes it possible to avoid the development of pain during movements. The corset ensures the correct position of both the shoulders, and the back, as well as the chin. Since there are a lot of types of corsets, their selection for each particular patient is the doctor's responsibility. The specialist sets and the duration of the socks. Some patients have to wear a corset for more than 20 hours a day.

Folk treatment:

Exercise with a rolling pin: we lay down on the back, then we put a rolling pin underneath it. We roll our backs on the rolling pin from the coccyx to the neck. Exercise "walking on the shoulder blades": we lay down on the back and begin to move on the shoulder blades back and forth.

Operative method of treatment:

Operative interventions for kyphosis usually consist of two stages. Initially, the surgeon eliminates the defect, and then stabilizes the spine with special screws and connecting rods. All parts designed for stabilization( hardening ) of the spine are made of extra strong non-magnetic materials such as titanium. All these materials are safe, since they are not peculiar to cause a response of the body. Indications for the operation:
  • pronounced pain syndrome, which can not be disposed of with the help of medicines;
  • cosmetic indications.
The main tasks of such an operation:
  • elimination of an existing defect;
  • reduction of compression of nerve roots and spinal cord;
  • protection of neural structures from their further damage;
  • stabilization of the damage process;
  • splice pathological sites together.

Kyphosis - how dangerous is it?

Kyphosis is classified as a category of dangerous diseases. The thing is that this pathology is peculiar to provoke a very rapid aging of the spine. As a result, patients begin to worry about very strong pain in the back, because of which they can not move normally. Deprecated( spring ) properties of the spine are also lost, resulting in intervertebral hernias. This disease causes disruption and cerebral circulation. Often against its background, there are a variety of neurological symptoms, as well as violations of the respiration process.

Preventive measures:

All preventive measures for this disease involve the elimination of causes that can lead to the development of various forms of curvature. The rules are simple, so everyone can clearly observe them: 1. In the presence of visual impairment, glasses or contact lenses should be worn during operation; 2. The height of the chair and table should correspond to the height of the person; 3. We regularly pay attention to physical activity; 4. Do not forget about the rules of a healthy lifestyle; 5. Do not tolerate obesity; 6. All elderly people need to perform a complex of gymnastic exercises every morning; 7. We lightly illuminate the workplace by placing the light source on the left side; 8. If the child begins to stoop, shy of his height, show it to the psychologist as soon as possible; 9. If your work involves a long stay in a sitting position, do some exercise every 60 minutes. Before use, consult a specialist.

Kyphosis of the thoracic spine: photo, symptoms, treatment

The spine of a person without pathologies of development, when viewed in the sagittal plane, presents a series of curves of physiological properties. The bend in the inner side is characterized by lordosis in the cervical and lumbar spine, the kyphosis of the thoracic or sacral divisions is characterized by an outward bend. Such bends retain the mobility and flexibility of the spinal column, promote the maintenance of various loads. Normal physiological kyphosis should not exceed a 45-degree deviation. Curvature exceeding the norm refers to vertebral pathologies.

The causes of kyphosis

The development of the disease manifests itself for many reasons:
  • pathology of the intrauterine nature;
  • consequence of injuries and surgical interventions;
  • due to pathological compression fractures of the vertebrae;
  • consequence of the formation of incorrect posture or psychological stress;
  • heredity;
  • consequences of disc herniation and compression of the nerve roots;
  • neoplasm on vertebral disks;
Based on etiological signs, the disease is classified into several types.

Classification by species

The manifestation of functional kyphosis is due to the muscular weakness of the back. It looks like the usual stoop, acquired in the wrong position while working at a table or the consequence of a psychological factor, when they are shy of their growth, involuntarily slouch, trying to be lower. Often the psychological factor is expressed in girls during puberty, when they slouch, involuntarily trying to hide the growth of the breast. When the back is placed horizontally on a solid surface, kyphosis does not appear. Also disappears with an independent desire to straighten. With x-ray, no vertebral anomalies are detected. The young dorsal kyphosis or Sheyerman-Mau disease is characterized by a large degree of bending deflection( up to 75 grades).Such deformation manifests itself as a result of hernia formations in the thoracic intervertebral discs, which is the reason for the formation of several wedge-shaped vertebrae. Versions of pathology formation are numerous:
  • hypertrophy of the anterior ligament of intervertebral discs;
  • avascular necrosis of hyaline cartilage, disrupting bone growth;
  • or excessive growth of bone tissue on intervertebral sites;
  • pathological processes in muscle tissue;
  • is a consequence of osteoporosis and many other versions.
But all researchers agree in one opinion - the disease is hereditary. The congenital type of the disease is due to intrauterine pathologies. Concomitant disease can be congenital paralysis of the legs and abnormalities of the urinary tract.
  1. 1) Paralytic appearance is a consequence of cerebral palsy or poliomyelitis. Complicated by deformation of the spinal column.
  2. 2) Post-traumatic appearance is the result of injuries and fractures in the thoracic or lumbar spine.
  3. 3) Post-operative appearance of kyphosis - associated with unsuccessful stabilizing operations on the spine.
The degenerative form of the disease develops for certain reasons:
  • excessive loads;
  • is a consequence of radiation therapy.

Symptoms of kyphosis and stage

Few people pay attention to the seriousness of such a disease. Well, what can be dangerous in the usual stoop? Kyphosis, and its symptoms from the degree of curvature of the spine expressed:
  1. 1) Hypokyphosis with a curvature angle of up to 15 degrees.
  2. 2) Normal kyphosis with a bending angle reaching 50 degrees.
  3. 3) Hyperkifosis, when the bend exceeds 50 degrees.
The spine of a person represents a kind of highway providing a safe delivery to all human organs of nerve fibers. The kyphosis, leading to the infringement of nerve bundles and fibers, is often expressed by violations of the motor functions of the lower limbs, until complete immobility. In addition, it is possible to add the risk of developing a stroke, and even death, as a result of kyphosis clasping the blood arteries flowing from the cervical vertebrae and, consequently, disturbing the cerebral circulation. The symptoms of chest distortion are manifested depending on the degree of development of kyphosis. This is expressed by:
  • with painful spasms in the bending region;
  • numbness and weakness in the legs;
  • heart rhythm disturbance;
  • problems with breathing and digestion( in complicated cases);
  • is a violation of sexual functions.
Progression of the disease, without proper treatment passes into the stage of hunchback. The formation of the hump provokes:
  • a decrease in free chest space;
  • limited mobility of the chest;
  • difficulty breathing.
Violation of respiratory activity causes stagnation in the lungs, leading to chronic respiratory failure, pronounced blueing of the nasolabial region and endings of finger phalanges. As a rule, patients with a hump for a long time do not live. Changing the position of the heart, with kyphosis, is inevitable, and invariably leads to heart failure, and the lungs are constantly exposed to inflammatory processes. To draw up an effective treatment plan, various diagnostic methods are used to establish the correct diagnosis: physical and instrumental. The first step in diagnosing the thoracic kyphosis is historydiseases:
  • definition of genetic predisposition - an anamnesis of the disease in the family.
  • the time of manifestation of the primary signs of kyphosis bending;
  • determine the level of progression of the disease from previous pictures( if any).
  • determine the nature of the pain, if present.
  • Detection of the presence of bowel dysfunction or disorders in the urinary system
  • assessment of motor functions.
  • revealing the presence of surgical interventions on the spine in the anamnesis.
The next step is a physical exam. Determination of the effect of curvature on the patient's health:
  • determination of the motor functions of the back;
  • determination of the patient's flexibility in different directions;
  • revealing the lesions of certain nerve endings when evaluating reflexes and muscle strength.
  • uses special tests to identify irritated or clamped nerves.
Instrumental methods:
  1. 1) X-ray examination in different positions( standing or lying), front, side and lateral bending, helps to determine structural changes in the spine and to measure the angle of curvature.
  2. 2) The MRI method allows you to view changes in nerve fibers and changes in the spinal cord.
  3. 3) The CT method allows obtaining more complete information on structural bone changes.

How to treat the kyphosis of the thoracic spine?

The treatment plan is always tailored to individual needs. Consists of their conservative treatment and extreme method - surgical. Conservative treatment of kyphosis , which includes drug therapy, is aimed at reducing pain symptoms. It should be clearly recognized that no drug therapy is able to completely cure the curvature, its task is to facilitate the course of the disease. With kyphosis of the thoracic spine complicated by osteoporosis, background disease is treated, preventing various vertebral fractures. Assignment:
  • hormone therapy;
  • vitamin complex;
  • exercise complex with loads.
For relief of pain, a special dorsal fixation is used - staples. If a leg is shortened and the patient experiences pain during such a walking curve, special orthopedic shoes or orthopedic insoles are prescribed. Physiotherapeutic treatment of kyphosis is one of the important components in the treatment of kyphosis bends. Compiled by:
  1. 1) Based on training programs aimed at the correct mechanics of maintaining the vertical position of the body;
  2. 2) Recommendations for maintaining the maximum active level;
  3. 3) An individually formulated exercise plan for stretching exercises and compulsory swimming procedures.
The use of supporting corsets and staples is an invariable attribute of treatment of curvature in the case of Sheyerman-Mau disease.

Surgical treatment of kyphosis

Surgical intervention in thoracic kyphosis is applicable in the following cases:
  1. 1) When conservative methods do not produce the desired results and pain symptoms are not manageable
  2. 2) In cases of progressive kyphosis, to prevent the effects of severe forms of kyphosis.
  3. 3) In some cases, with large physical deformities caused by curvature.
Surgery for kyphosis has various methods directed:
  • to reduce the deformation of the spine;
  • retention of afferent connections, eliminating pressure on nerve endings;
  • protection against further damage.
Operation of spinal fusion - straightening of separate parts of the spine by fixing the curved section in the inner bracket, created from metal plates and screws. The low-invasive procedure is kyphoplasty. It is used to alleviate pain symptoms in the back and restore spinal injuries. A small incision injects a special solution( bone cement) into the damaged vertebra. The osteotomy method is used to correct the curvature and angular deformation by cutting the vertebral wedge.

Prevention of kyphosis

Prevention aimed at preventing the disease contains several rules:
  • fitness for the young and exercise therapy for the elderly.
  • with sedentary work recommended gymnastic exercises to maintain normal muscle tone.
  • visit to a child psychologist or explanatory work for psychological problems that cause stoop.
  • matches the size of the desk and chairs according to the height of the person.
With an early kyphosis, a specialized corset can fix the situation. The order of wearing will be determined by the attending physician according to the degree of development and symptoms of the disease.

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