Longitudinal and transverse platypodia and its treatment
Flattening is a deformation of the arch of the foot, viz. Lowering of the arch. As a result of this deformation, the foot almost completely loses its damping properties, which leads to a number of unpleasant consequences and complications. In this article, we will try to understand as much as possible what is a flatfoot - treatment, symptoms, causes and complications.
In a healthy state, the human foot has two distinct arches - transverse( located under the bases of the fingers) and longitudinal( located along the foot).These arches fulfill the most important function - they enable the person to maintain balance and absorb shock during walking. It is clear that the foot itself, and specifically these arches of the foot are under serious load, because they weigh on the weight of the human body. And if the ligaments and muscles of the feet stop working normally and for some reason weaken, the shape of the foot begins to change - the arches of the feet decrease, it gradually becomes flat, as a result of which the main function of the foot - the spring one - is lost.
Healthy feet - a healthy body
If the foot ceases to absorb the load, this function will be forced to perform other joints( ankle, knee and hip), while "getting" and the spine. But they cope with such a function not too well, because they are not designed for this. In addition, such a peculiar load leads to an accelerated "wear" of the joints.
This is why flat feet are often the cause of pain in the legs and back of the , although at first glance the person simply does not see such a connection. So it is worth remembering that it is as a result of the development of flat feet that pain can appear in the feet, hips, knees and lower back, rapid fatigue when walking. In this case, the pain appears at a time when the body can no longer provide normal movement, and is forced to "redistribute the load."As a result, joints of the legs and hip joint suffer, posture disorders or problems with intervertebral discs may occur. The final result of the effects of flat feet on the body can be the development of scoliosis and arthrosis, often the development of varicose veins.
Another interesting fact is that quite often this disease occurs in people with "sedentary" work, and not only in the category of workers who are forced to spend the whole day on their feet. This is due to the fact that the muscles and ligaments weaken without load( too large loads can also lead to flatfoot development), so it is very important to maintain a certain motor activity.
Many young people are wondering whether they are taking to the army with flat feet. On our site there is already an article that can answer this question.
The causes of flatfoot
The reasons for the development of flatfoot can be quite a lot, we will try to list the most "popular" ones:
- bad or unsuccessfully matched shoes. It means shoes with a high heel or platform, narrow shoes, etc.;
- increase in body weight, which can occur for various reasons( pregnancy, obesity, etc.);
- hereditary predisposition. In this case, we are talking about defects in the development of the muscles, ligaments and bones of the foot;
- various injuries( trauma of the foot, fracture of the calcaneus or ankle, cracks or severe cartilage bruises, damage to the muscles and ligaments of the foot);
- diseases( for example, rickets, as a result of which the bones weaken and become soft, so they can easily deform, and the complication of poliomyelitis can arise - the leg and foot muscles paralysis);
- sedentary work and sedentary lifestyle. In this case, the muscles and ligaments of the foot become weaker, since they do not receive the necessary loads;
- excess load - running and jumping sports, standing work.
There are quite a few reasons, as you can see.
The human foot has two main arches, so it is quite logical that there are two types of flatfoot - longitudinal and transverse flat feet. Accordingly, with a decrease in the arch, the foot may increase in width or length. There is also a combined flatfoot, in this case we are talking about the simultaneous flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. This situation is also called longitudinal-transverse flatfoot.
Both basic types of flatfoot are quite common, but the most common is the transverse one.
Also, when classifying by species, the acquired and the congenital are often divided. Congenital flat feet are rare, it is the result of malformations of the fetus. Treatment of flat feet in this case begins with the first days of the child's life.
Types of flatfoot
But with the acquired flatfoot the situation is somewhat more complicated - it can appear at any age and can be of several types:
- is ricky;
- is paralytic;
- is traumatic.
Traumatic - occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the ankle and foot, or with severe damage to ligaments and soft muscle tissue that strengthens the arch of the foot.
Paralytic - occurs as a result of poliomyelitis, or because of paralysis of the tibial muscles and foot muscles.
Rickets - occurs as a result of rickets. This disease disrupts the normal formation of foot bones, they do not have the necessary characteristics in this case and can quickly deform.
But the most common form is static flatfoot. Approximately 80% of all cases are related to this species. Causes in this case may be overweight, uncomfortable shoes, prolonged excessive stress on the feet, weak muscles and ligaments of the foot, etc.
Degrees of disease
There are 3 degrees of development of this disease.
Longitudinal flatfoot is less common, but with this disease the change in the shape of the foot is gradual and almost invisible to the patient.
- Longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the legs. This degree is very poorly expressed, the patient can only experience discomfort when pressing on the foot or while dressing the shoes. In some cases, swelling may appear in the evening.
- Longitudinal flatfoot of the 2nd degree is already manifested by constant pains, which can be quite intense and spread to the region of the shins and ankles. With this degree of disease, the gait is already losing its smoothness, walking becomes heavier.
- Platypodia of the third degree is manifested by persistent severe pains that cover not only the foot, but also the lower leg, and in some cases even low back pains appear. Deformation of the foot with this degree of disease is already pronounced and very noticeable, often there are swelling in the joints of the foot. Walking to a person at this stage of the disease is difficult, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to move around.
Do you happen to have such symptoms?
It is worth paying attention to the appearance of such symptoms:
- shoes trampled on the inside;
Flat feet have every third person in our country
- very quickly get tired feet while standing or walking;
- appears pain in the foot after physical exertion;
- at the end of the day feels pain and fatigue in the legs, there is a feeling of heaviness, puffiness;
- swelling in the ankles;
- walking on heels becomes very hard;
- leg increases in size, resulting in buying shoes for size larger.
Many of these symptoms correspond not only to flat feet, but also varicose veins, so that when they occur, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Symptoms of longitudinal flatfoot
- fatigue in the legs, with pressure on the middle of the foot or sole appears pain, by the evening the back of the foot swells;
- persistent and severe pain both in the feet themselves, and in the region of the shins and ankles, it becomes difficult to find comfortable shoes;
- together with pain in the feet begins to appear pain in the lower back, outwardly becomes invisible longitudinal arch;the foot swells, the ankle joint is inactive, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to walk.
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot
- disappear the transverse arch of the foot, as a result of which the deformation of the fingers develops;
- there appear pain and skin pigmentation in the forefoot;
- appears hammer-shaped fingers.
What should be the treatment?
First of all, it should be noted that the treatment of transverse and longitudinal flat feet is in principle the same in terms of measures applied. In addition, it must be remembered that if an adult is treated, there will still be no complete recovery, only certain improvements are possible. But the children are fully recovered because the child's leg is just being formed and correction is possible.
Treatment of flatfoot in adults
Since the full recovery of an adult with this disease is impossible, the treatment is designed primarily to stop the progression of the disease, and then create the necessary conditions for adjusting the foot. That is why is very important to diagnose the disease as early as possible .
Since the preferred method of treatment of the disease in the early stages of its development is conservative therapy, the treatment involves relieving pain and improving the condition of the muscles and ligaments of the foot, thereby stopping the development of the disease.
The video, which you can see below, shows one of the methods for diagnosing and treating flatfoot:
For the removal of pain, medications are usually used in combination with physiotherapy procedures.
The basis of the same treatment is therapeutic gymnastics. at flatfoot is determined by the orthopedic physician , and the exercises are selected for a specific patient, taking into account the form and extent of the disease.
A good therapeutic effect with flat feet gives a foot massage, including a hydromassage. Thanks to such procedures, blood circulation is normalized and the muscle tone of the shin and feet is increased.
At the initial stage, a good effect gives the use of special orthopedic insoles, which again are made individually.
But, unfortunately, the above procedures will have a serious effect only in the early stages of the disease. With strong deformations of the foot, which occur in the late stages of the development of the disease, there is only one method of treatment - surgery.
Treatment of flat feet in children
Most often, children develop longitudinal flat feet, and it is successfully treated fully without surgery, since the bones, muscles and ligaments of the child are quite susceptible to conservative methods of treatment.
If you have to deal with a congenital type, then it begins to be treated from the first days of the child's life, for which special langets and bandages are used. But this type of disease is rare.
In most cases, the causes of flatfoot are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as fragile bones. That is why the treatment has a toning effect - mainly therapeutic exercise and massage. Also, contrast baths for feet are often helpful. It is also necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes, and you should take care of the child's gait very carefully.
The most important factor in the treatment of this disease in children is time - the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the greater the chances of complete recovery of children. For the same reason, it is important to prevent flat feet in childhood.
Symptoms and treatment of transverse flatfoot
The human foot consists of many small bones, joints, ligaments and tendons connected together.
Incorrect wearing of shoes, excessive weight, a variety of injuries and many other reasons can disrupt the fragile balance of the system that the foot represents. Because of the , the breaches in the ligament, the joint or the location of the bones, the anatomical arches of the foot begin to flatten.
Over time, flattening may progress, and may remain at a certain stage continuously. And in that, and in that case it gives an occasion to diagnose a flat foot.
The classifies several types of this disease:
- The transverse flatfoot , in which the foot "sprawls" in width, develops bone-cartilaginous growth. Instead of giving a load to the arch support, the foot is flattened and expands an additional support in the form of a joint, popularly known as a "bone".The risk group for this type of disease is women and men aged 35 to 55, especially those who are overweight.
- Longitudinal flat feet, on the contrary, manifests itself in the extension of the foot in length and is most often observed at a young age - 16-25 years.
- With the combined flatfoot , both types of deformations are simultaneously observed, but all of them lead to a flattening of the arch of the foot. The combined variant of the disease is observed most often.
Usually a predisposition to flat feet is inherited, but there are also types of acquired flat feet, to which there was no inclination.
- Static - formed due to standing work, hypodynamia, excess weight, increased loads on the foot, endocrine diseases.
- Paralytic - arose after the paralysis of limbs and the dysfunction of the muscles that hold the arch of the foot.
- Traumatic - physical changes due to trauma.
- Ricky - acquired, developed due to a lack of vitamin D.
According to the degree of development, weak, initial, and progressive flat feet.
Consider transverse platypodia, one of the most common types of disease, closer.What can cause inflammation of the joints of the foot. How to not miss the right time to see a doctor read in our article.
A useful addition to the treatment of arthrosis - orthopedic knee pads for arthrosis will help reduce pain and accelerate recovery. How to choose and correctly carry the device read here.
Why is the foot flattening?
There are several reasons for transverse flatfoot.
- Genetic predisposition. As already mentioned, most often flat feet manifests as a congenital disease. It arises from the inherent weakness of the muscles of the arched arch, which is also called the "aristocratic foot".If a person leads a healthy lifestyle, eats properly, receives moderate physical activity, wears good shoes, then this type of flatfoot does not progress and practically does not cause trouble.
- Disturbances in the muscular and ligamentous apparatus of the foot. In a healthy person, the phalanges of the toes should run parallel to each other. But, as a rule, the slightest and inconspicuous disruption in the development of muscles or ligaments leads to the formation of a fan-shaped arrangement of phalanges. Over time, the phalanges "creep" in the sides, and because of this, a transverse flatfoot arises.
- Overweight. The arch of the foot, as well as its muscular and ligamentous apparatus in general, is designed to work only with a certain weight. If it goes beyond the norm, the load on the foot increases, it flattenes.
- The same situation is observed in people with normal weight, but having an excess load on the foot due to the type of activity. So, the work of a lecturer, teacher, factory worker and many other professions are considered "standing", that is, a man spends most of his days on his feet. Excessive loads disrupt the balance of the foot, the acquired flat feet develop, which is considered an occupational disease.
- Traumas of the foot are one of the most common factors in the development of flat feet in men. Fractures of the foot bones, dislocations, stretching of the muscles and ligaments, violation of the integrity of the calcaneus bone lead to disruption of the foot apparatus and progressive flat feet.
- Walking on heels, wearing uncomfortable shoes with an unsuitable shoe and other violations of foot hygiene - almost one of the most common causes of the development of acquired flat feet. When walking on heels, for example, the entire weight of the body is transferred to the front of the foot. Instead of spreading evenly over the entire support, it presses and eventually deforms bones that are not ready for such loads. It is because of the heels, and also because of the transfer of the hereditary predisposition to flat feet along the female line, that the ratio of women and men suffering from this disease is eight to two, respectively.
Symptoms that indicate the development of the pathology
The development of flatfoot is easy to recognize. The most common symptoms that accompany transverse flat feet:
- Constant pain and the emergence of a strong sense of fatigue in the feet, which is especially pronounced by the end of the day.
- Burning and cramps in the shin area of , usually not associated with uncomfortable position, hypothermia and other external factors.
- Deformation of the foot and change in the location of the phalanges of the fingers.
- The appearance of a kind of cone at the base of the thumb( usually called a "bone").
- With progressive flat feet - violation of posture, pain in knees and pelvic joints, discomfort in back.
- With the development of the disease, deforms the entire front part of the foot .
How to diagnose a diseaseYou can diagnose platypodia when examined by an orthopedic physician or traumatologist, which will reveal the type of disorder and the degree of flatfoot progression.
Based on the results of the examination, the doctor can prescribe various methods of treatment.
In the picture, a foot check for longitudinal and transverse flatfoot
disease Treatment of transverse flatfoot in adults should be complex.
Conservative methods of include:
- Reduces the load on the foot, up to its immobilization in especially severe cases.
- Wearing individually selected orthopedic shoes .In difficult cases, this can be a special footwear, fixing not only the foot, but also the shin. Orthopedic insoles and helium inserts are used at the initial stage of flatfoot. All of them should be appointed by a doctor and selected individually.
- Weight loss measures for , if it was determined to be excessive.
- General strengthening exercises of for the treatment of transverse flat feet, included in the course of therapeutic physical training.
- Medications( analgesics) are prescribed with progressive flat feet and the presence of arthrosis or bursitis.
- Physiotherapy and massage , aimed at relieving pain, relaxing the muscles of the foot.
- To relieve tension, prevent cramps, reduce pain, also uses refreshing foot baths, cool compresses, ointments based on mint and menthol.
Non-conservative, folk treatment of of transverse flatfoot is mainly aimed at alleviating the pain that occurs during the load of feet during flatfoot.
These include ice compresses, foot baths based on mint, lemon balm, thyme, marigold, chamomile, linden and lavender.Folk remedies in the treatment of transverse flatfoot can not be an independent method of treating the disease. And they are used only for the relief of pain syndrome.
If conservative methods of treatment do not show a result, irreversible changes occur in the foot, the patient suffers severe pain, then is prescribed surgical intervention. As a result of surgery, deformities of the forefoot are treated surgically. A number of modern techniques allow to do this without the subsequent application of gypsum - thus, the rehabilitation period is reduced.
Surgical treatment of transverse flatfoot has a significant disadvantage - the need for complete cessation of loads on the foot during preparation and rehabilitation, but the problem is solved radically - the flat foot does not progress and does not cause regular concern, as in the case of conservative treatment.
To never have problems with the flatfoot , you should pay attention to the convenience of shoes, do not wear high heels, maintain your weight in the norm. People of "standing" professions need to rest more often, change their positions during the performance of duties.
Like most other diseases, flatfoot is easier to prevent than cure.
Video: Transverse platypodia and bones on the legs
Longitudinal flat feet.
The relevance of the problem of flat feet in humans is great in connection with the prevalence of the disease. When flat feet suffer the whole body, and first of all the joints of the lower extremities, the spine and the brain. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the prevention and treatment of flatfoot.
Physiotherapy, foot, shin and back massage, as well as orthopedic insoles and orthopedic shoes are the obligatory methods of flatfoot treatment. The foot stop is a deformation of the foot with a decrease in the depth of its arches, which significantly reduces the damping of the organism during walking, running, jumping, standing.
Flattening is longitudinal, transverse and mixed. Let's see what their differences are.
Compaction of the transverse arch of the foot. The foot looks broad, there are visible gaps between the toes, which normally should not be. In this case, the veins and nerve endings of the feet suffer, since they are squeezed when walking or standing. The veins on the feet may be dilated, which is associated with a violation of venous outflow due to compression of the veins from the sole side by a flat foot. Excess weight, heavy weights and standing work create an additional negative impact on the feet.
Exercises for transverse flatfoot : apply all possible movements of the foot except for the dilution of the fingers( withdrawal from the midline passing through the third finger).
Degrees of longitudinal flatfoot.
Longitudinal flat feet.
Compaction of the longitudinal arch of the foot: the foot is narrow, the walking is predominantly on the inside of the feet, the shoes are "slipped" inward, the heels wear out from the inner sides of the feet. Exercises for longitudinal flatfoot : apply all possible foot movements except for pronation of the feet( you can not put a foot on the inner arch).
Mixed flat feet.
Combination of transverse and longitudinal flat feet.
Pay attention to these stops, similar to tortillas!
The spring function is lost. The organism, protecting the brain from shaking during walking, running and jumping, compensates for the kyphosis of the thoracic spine. The deep bend in the thoracic region, and then the lordosis of the lumbar region, compensate for the effect of the spring to increase the depreciation of the brain. There stoop, and then kyphosis scoliosis. This is one of the complications of flatfoot.
There are complaints of pain and fatigue in the feet and in the lower legs, in the lower back, headache, general fatigue. Soreness when pressing on the middle of the sole. Mudiness of the skin of the soles above the heads of metatarsal bones. There is deformation of the fingers. Cramps in the legs at night. Working capacity is reduced.
In the , the complex of exercises with flat-footed for a mixed type does not include exercises with the dilution of the fingers to the sides and the setting of the feet on the inner arch.
Causes of flatfoot.
- Weakness of the musculoskeletal apparatus of the feet, hypodynamia.
- Long-term static loads( work as a cook, seller, hairdresser, etc.)
- Overweight, obesity, work as a loader.
- Wearing flat flat shoes without heel( longitudinal flat feet).Or, on the contrary, wearing shoes with too high a heel( transverse platypodia, valgus deformation of the feet - "bones")
- Injuries and fractures of the foot bones.
- Some nervous diseases.
Foot massage with flatfoot.
The reason for contacting an orthopedic doctor is the inside-worn shoes, maybe fast fatigue when walking, pain and fatigue in the legs, back, headache.
For physiotherapy exercises with flatfoot you will need a rug, chair, foot massagers( simple, without automatic vibration), smooth stones of medium size, a wooden block with a height of 10-15 cm. It is advisable to have a Swedish wall.
Doctor Bubnovsky talks about problems with his legs: massage, stretching, exercises, hardening.
Complex of exercises for longitudinal-transverse flat feet.| |Therapeutic exercise
Self-massage of feet and shins.
I recommend using the cream "Malavtilin".
Warm up your hands, rubbing your palms against each other. Massage is performed along the course of venous blood flow from the limb( from the foot to the knee joint).
First, massage the posterior surface of the shin.
( stroking, grinding, kneading).
And a front massage - the lateral( lateral) surface of the shin.
( stroking, grinding, kneading).
Flat feet: symptoms and treatment, longitudinal, transverse 1, 2, 3 degrees, orthopedic insole with flat feet |Orthopedics
Flattening is the deformation of the foot and its arch. In the overwhelming majority of cases, this acquired disease, which develops due to prolonged "standing" work, when wearing shoes with heels or with a narrow toe, when weight is set, when the bones and muscles of the foot begin to "press" an increasing number of kilograms. Among women, flat feet are found 3 times more often than men. The photos below show how the foot is deformed. Flattening leads to the development of other diseases, so it is important to conduct timely prevention and follow all the recommendations of the doctor if you are diagnosed with this.
Fotostop photos and types
If the flat feet are clearly expressed, it is noticeable even visually when examining the foot.
Doctors speak of such symptoms of flatfoot:
- pain in the foot;
- frequent cramps of the fingers and the muscles of the foot;
- shoes wear out more strongly from the inside;
- the foot in the area of the fingers becomes wider, so you have to change your shoes;
- "buzz" in the legs after a long walk.
Doctors orthopedists distinguish the following types of foot deformities:
- Rickets flat feet, arises from a lack of vitamin D,
- is traumatic, appears as a consequence of fractures of the ankles, bones of the foot and the like,
- paralytic - the result of paralysis of limbs and foot muscles;
- longitudinal( the inner arch of the foot changes);
- transverse( deformed toenails).
Normally, the foot touches the floor with the calcaneus, thumb and little finger, so on its inner side there must be a pronounced bend - the arch of the foot. The smaller the distance between the inner side of the foot and the floor, the greater the degree of longitudinal flat foot. Podologies( a physician dealing with foot problems and flat feet) distinguish three degrees:
- there are no obvious visual signs of changes in the foot, but with prolonged walking there is fatigue and pain in the foot, swelling is possible;
- disappears the inner arch of the foot, while walking the pain extends to the ankles and lower legs;
- deformation of the foot is clearly pronounced, resulting in a change in the position of the bones in the shin and knee, so there are pains in the legs, knees, lower back, there is a headache. Normal shoes with this degree of longitudinal flat feet is not suitable.
Transverse flatfoot - symptoms and treatment
This type of flatfoot is characterized by a decrease in the length of the foot due to the divergence of the foot bones, as a result of which it is deflected towards the thumb and the middle one is significantly deformed. Often on the thumb appears "lump" - a painful thickening.
Degrees of flatfoot
Like longitudinal, transverse flatfoot has several degrees. They differ in the level of curvature of the thumb and the appearance of corns.
Flatness of 1st degree
Longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is diagnosed if the first finger deviates by an angle of less than 20 degrees. In this case fatigue occurs with prolonged walking or stress. Under 2-4 fingers appear seals - natoptyshi.
Flattening of 2nd degree
The second degree of transverse flatfoot is called moderate and is characterized by a deviation of the finger by 20-35 degrees. Usually, pain and burning in the foot area become frequent, especially for a long time to walk in shoes. The nattoids occupy a large surface.
Flatness of 3rd degree
The first toe of the foot deviates by 35-50 degrees, which looks like a dislocation. The pain is permanent, on the foot of the foot, more and more. Often the third degree is accompanied by the development of bursitis - inflammation of the periarticular bag.
If the finger deviates more than 50 degrees, diagnose a 4 degree.
To determine flat feet in a domestic environment, you can apply a solution of the colorant to the feet, and then stand on sheets of blank paper the way you normally stand. If the inner bend is poorly expressed or the imprint differs from those listed below, it is worthwhile to see a doctor. This method of diagnosis is called planktography. The doctor will measure the angle between the two lines, one of which is drawn from the middle of the heel to the thumb, and the second from the same point to the second interdigital space. The final diagnosis is made based on X-ray images of the foot, performed in different positions.
In addition to longitudinal and transverse, there is a mixed flat foot, combining the characteristics of the first two.
Is the army taking a flat foot?
This question excites both draftees suffering from this ailment and their parents. Indeed, at 3-4 degrees of flatfoot walking causes painful sensations, and ordinary shoes are not suitable for the patient.
So, if the draftee is diagnosed with flat feet of 1 or 2 degrees, he is subject to service in the ranks of the armed forces. If it is longitudinal flatfoot 3 or transverse 3-4 grades( there is pain syndrome, finger contracture, arthrosis of joints and other serious deviations from the norm), then the boy or man is released from the call. However, he is given a military ticket and he is credited to the reserve with the record "limited to go."
With a flat-footed second degree, the recruit is given a B-3 fitness category, usually a non-combat service: a cook, a janitor, a builder.
Flattening in children treatment of
Infants have imaginary flat feet due to subcutaneous fat in the foot. When the baby begins to walk, the muscles develop and the foot eventually assumes the correct outlines. Only by the age of three does the formation of the foot end. It is very important that the baby at the time wear the right shoes: with a rounded toe, firm back, on the heel to 1cm, inside is desirable insole insoles, which helps to form the arch of the foot. Categorically, you can not walk barefoot on a firm, level surface.
If during the intrauterine development the developmental defects of the foot were observed, the baby may have a congenital flat foot.
Children can also develop acquired flat feet. Its causes:
Classification of transversely longitudinal flatfoot
Separate congenital and acquired flat feet. Fortunately, congenital, both transverse and longitudinal, is extremely rare, associated with rare malformations of the fetus, accompanies other types of malformations. Diagnostics of this condition is done by neonatologists, treatment begins with the first days of life in the hospital.
Further, throughout life, whether longitudinal, transverse flatfoot or their combination, it is necessary to use various orthopedic systems, insoles. Most often the child expects disability from an early age. On the question: is flatfoot inherited, the scientists have no clear answer yet.
With regard to the acquired transverse-longitudinal flat feet, it can appear at any age.
For the etiologic cause of the appearance of the disease, several types are distinguished:
- Post-traumatic transverse longitudinal variant of flatfoot, in which the anatomy of the transverse and longitudinal arches, the mechanics of the interaction of the foot structures between each other, change as a result of fracture of bones or considerable damage to the ligamentous apparatus and muscles. Rarely affects children due to the good regenerative capabilities of the body.
- The static case of longitudinal-transverse flatfoot is most common in adulthood. Is the result of excessive loads for many years in conjunction with the irrational wearing of shoes of poor quality. Most often it affects people who, on the basis of professional activity, spend more than 6 hours a day on their feet and do not use orthopedic insoles. And, if the work on the feet is associated with constant movement, the risks are significantly less than those of people who spend most of their time standing up.
- Paralytic longitudinal-transverse flatfoot develops as a result of paralysis of the muscles of the legs. Causes of paralysis: neurological pathology( diseases of the peripheral nervous system), trophic disorders against the background of diseases of the veins of the lower extremities, poliomyelitis. Even in uncomplicated cases orthopedic systems, special insoles are required for permanent wearing.
- In the metabolic longitudinal-transverse variant of flatfoot against the background of a long deficit in the intake of various food components or their assimilation, the formation of bones in childhood is irregular( for example, due to rickets, gastrointestinal diseases accompanied by impaired intestinal absorption in children).Such a leg is unable to cope with normal loads and is even more deformed over the years.
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There is no specific clinic for mixed flat feet. The patient is disturbed by a number of sensations, characteristic of longitudinal and transverse flatfoot, which occur in other conditions. If the health problem develops in childhood, then the child and do not hear any complaints at all. You can list:
- Aching feet pain with prolonged exercise.
- There is a rapid fatigue of the legs, a feeling of heaviness in the legs, a desire to "stretch" the legs. In children, poor walking tolerance. For many years this will be the only complaint.
- In the evening swelling of the legs, while swelling never spreads above the ankle.
- Over time, patients with longitudinally transverse flatfoot have pain and a feeling of heaviness in the lumbar region.
- There is a problem with the selection of a comfortable pair of casual shoes. At the same time orthopedic species improve the situation. Often already at the stage of fitting a new pair of insole improve comfort.
- Shoes quickly and unevenly trample. In children, it is poorly expressed
- With longitudinal-transverse flat feet, painful calluses on toes appear. In this case, changing shoes does not improve the situation.
- The foot gradually deforms - it lengthens and becomes wider, the size increases( it is characteristic for people over 40 years old).
- The gait is changing, becoming a little "sea" with the legs widely spread and bent in large joints. After all, to preserve stability, the knee and hip joints must assume damping functions lost in foot.
Degrees of flatfoot
Specialists distinguish 3 degrees of transverse longitudinal flatfoot:
- At the first - the clinical picture is minimal. As a rule, patients with a weak degree of transverse, longitudinal or mixed flatness do not apply for medical care on their own, but structural changes have already begun. It is at the initial stages of treatment and rehabilitation activities give the maximum effect. The child should be shown to the orthopedist prophylactically annually, the adult person - 1 time in 2-3 years.
- The second degree of transverse-longitudinal flatfoot is accompanied by severe aching pains in the legs, minor changes in the gait. At this stage, the patient accuses poor-quality shoes of his unpleasant sensations and desperately experiments in search of "his pads," using orthopedic insoles himself for several years, but still does not go to the doctor.
- And only with progressive increase of complaints, attachment of violation of posture, problems with the spine, the patient falls into the field of vision of the orthopedist with 3 degrees of transverse longitudinal flat foot. Often, specialists are sent to a specialist by neurologists, vascular surgeons, therapists, rheumatologists, to whom he treats with specific complaints.
In severe, neglected cases of longitudinal transverse flatfoot for a correct diagnosis, it is only necessary to examine an orthopedic specialist.
In the early stages, the following is additionally required:
- Plantography or podoscopy( examination on a device that allows clear images on a flat surface of footprints to analyze their geometry).
- Radiography of the feet in 2 projections with a load.
Regarding the treatment of longitudinal-transverse flat feet in a child, then everything is not straightforward. The doctor, having diagnosed, will help to choose suitable insteps, orthopedic insoles, will give recommendations on what shoes to wear daily, pick up a complex of daily gymnastics and recommend a specialist in physiotherapy for term classes. Most likely, an orthopedic doctor will recommend a consultation with a physiotherapist, with whom you can draw up an individual rehabilitation plan. But the recommendations will have to be kept for many years.
And then, as they say, every man for himself. The more accurate and regular the person will be in gymnastics, follow the recommendations for correcting the orthopedic regimen, use orthopedic insoles every day, choose the right purchases in shoe stores, the more insistently and persistently he visits the gym and physiotherapy room, the sooner the positive result is achieved and less likelydisability.
So how do you protect yourself from the negative effects of transversely longitudinal flat feet?
- First of all, one must remember that any kind of flatfoot, whether transverse, longitudinal or a combination of transverse and longitudinal, can develop at any period of life.
- The development of transverse longitudinal flatfoot may result in a change in the nature of the work, eating habits, wearing unstable shoes of poor quality, or the appearance of other diseases.
- Detection of transverse longitudinal flatfoot in the early stages of the child will lead to a complete restoration of the foot functions.
- For early diagnosis of both transverse and longitudinal species, an orthopedic specialist should be visited and undergo podoscopy.
- In childhood, a prophylactic examination should be annual, an adult should be treated once every 2-3 years.
- To prevent cross-longitudinal flatfoot, you should choose the right shoes, with a prolonged static load do warm-up about 1 time per hour.
Do not run the development of deformations. Take care of your health. After all, for today - this is the most expensive that a person has.
How I got rid of the stone on my legs in 3 weeks without surgery!
- Forgot about bulging bones on the legs
- Bending of the big toes and joints
- Cured the transverse platypodia
- Has lost the pain in the bones on the legs and their swelling
- I avoided surgery and walking around the doctors
- I was able to wear my favorite shoes
My name is Oksana Fedorova. In 2002, I received the title "Miss Universe", and after only a couple of years the bones on my legs deprived me of the opportunity to even put on shoes. As I then thought - the career is over. .. However, I managed to find a solution that turned out ridiculously simple and accessible to everyone who faced such a problem. As I did, you can read in my sensational interview to the online magazine that is on this link ( it is worthy of attention, believe me). Read the interview. ..We recommend!
For the treatment and prevention of bones on the legs( Hallux Valgus) and transverse flatfoot, our readers successfully use the technique developed by leading German orthopedic doctors. Having carefully studied this method, we decided to offer it to your attention. Read more. ..3 comments
It turns out that flat feet can be purchased at any age and even disability to get on it. You need to take care of yourself, it's sometimes not easy, but better than with illness.
I think that any exercises for the feet will be useful, only performed with accuracy, if the disease is serious.Reply
I have a flat feet since childhood, because my mother did not consider it necessary to buy the right shoes. Now, I have grown up, I am engaged in myself, therapeutic physical training. Do you think one hundred after the experience of pain, after so many tears, you can juggle? I have achievements. I'm sure that if a person does not accurately, then everything suits him. I am sincerely far from these people. Although, for them, pity for joy. I wish them better than love for themselves.
Various factors contribute to the development of flatfoot. In comparison with the initial stage of flatfoot, the second degree is characterized by the presence of a noticeable deformation of the foot, which affects the gait of the patient and the state of the higher parts of the musculoskeletal system.
1, 2, 3 and 4 degrees of flatfoot
Signs of the disease
One of the main clinical signs of flatfoot of the second degree is the presence of pain in the legs. Most often, the pain appears on the arch of the foot, ankle, sole, and on the calcaneus.
Pain sensations occur even at the first degree of flatfoot, but they are unstable and most often occur in the evening( pass after rest).For this disease of the second degree is characterized by a constant pain syndrome: the legs hurt both at rest and under physical exertion.
Unlike the first degree of flatfoot, the second degree of the disease is characterized by the appearance of pains not only on the sole, but also in higher departments. Often the muscles of the lower leg and knees ache, the muscles of the back and front surface of the thigh can ache.
Among other symptoms of the disease - heaviness in the legs, swelling of the foot. By the end of the day, as well as after physical exertion, the pain becomes pronounced. Flattening can lead to convulsions of calves. With this disease appears clubfoot, and there are difficulties in walking.
When examining the foot, you can identify the deformation of the foot. A flat arch of the foot is noticeable, and its width is enlarged. With transverse flatfoot this is noticeably stronger than with other species. Because of the transverse and longitudinal flat feet, it may be necessary to purchase shoes for a larger size, since the leg varies in size. The presence of the disease can be guessed by the state of the shoe: there is a large wear on the inside.
In order to confirm the diagnosis, anthropometric studies of the foot parameters are performed: the angle of the arch is compared, the height is checked, and the Friedland index is checked. For this, an X-ray is also taken.
Flat foot is not a cosmetic defect, which simply affects the walking of a person and can cause pain. This is a dangerous disease that affects the condition of the musculoskeletal system and can lead to serious complications. In the normal vault, the load is evenly distributed, therefore the knees, spine and hip joints are protected. Since the stop for this disease does not perform a spring function, the load on the overlying joints increases, which leads to the development of other diseases. Patients at risk of acquiring an intervertebral hernia, osteochondrosis, etc. Due to flat feet of the second degree, arthrosis of the second degree may develop.
- Congenital pathology. Symptoms of flatfoot can be detected at an early age. It occurs in 3% of children.
- Injuries. Various injuries can lead to the development of this disease. For example, in case of damage to the ankle, calcaneus, ankle, tarsus, soft tissue injury, which are responsible for the condition of the arch.
- Ricky flatfoot. Deformity of the foot develops due to rickets - a disease in which the normal formation and development of the bone system does not occur. They remain fragile, which helps to loosen the ligaments and muscles.
- External factors. Platypodia often develops due to poor condition of ligaments and muscles, which contributes to the uneven distribution of the load. This can happen because of excess weight, the constant need to stand and exercise. Low-quality footwear plays a significant role. Flat feet are also caused by wearing shoes with a high heel or with a too narrow toe. The second degree of the disease can occur when wearing shoes with a four centimetric heel, as the transverse arch is in a stressed state, which affects the condition of the metatarsal ligament.
Flattening of the second degree in children
Probability of flat feet in children is low. Identifying the disease is difficult, as children are just beginning to walk, so an incorrect gait will not be a sign of the disease. Most often flat feet of the second degree is diagnosed already in adolescence. For the prevention of flat feet, children are prescribed to wear orthopedic shoes or orthopedic insoles( only with the appointment of a specialist).Doctors do not recommend that children should wear footwear that was in use, because at an early age the foot only begins to strengthen, the former owner of shoes can have foot disorders, so worn shoes can lead to deformity of the foot in another child.
Longitudinal flatfoot of the second degree
Longitudinal flatfoot is present in 20% of patients with this disease. Most often, the development of this type of flatfoot is affected by the poor condition of muscles and ligaments, and the wearing of improper( unsuitable) shoes. With longitudinal flat feet, both the length and width of the foot increases. The code becomes lower, the patient suffers from constant pain, they spread not only to the feet, but also to other parts of the legs.
For the second stage of longitudinal flatfoot, it is characteristic that the foot after rest wants to recover. The compaction of the foot is especially noticeable in the evening. If it ceases to restore its shape, then an irreversible deformation of the foot occurs.
In this disease, the main weight is transferred to the anterior part of the calcaneus. There is a turn of the foot inside. Without treatment at this stage, valgus deformity of the finger occurs.
Transverse flatfoot of the second degree
Disease occurs in 75% of cases. Visually, the second degree of transverse flatfoot is characterized by a change in the position of the first toe and expansion of the foot in the anterior regions. The foot becomes shorter. There is a deviation of 1 finger, 2 and 3 fingers can deform. The thumb is bent under the other fingers, the patient experiences constant pain in the region of the bone of this finger, and convulsions may also occur. Because of the increased load on the foot due to its deformation, the corns and calluses are formed. The angle of folding the first finger under the other can be 20-35 degrees. During physical exertion, there is a burning sensation and aching pain in the region of the first finger and the entire foot. The second degree of transverse flatfoot causes the growth of the head of the first metatarsal bone.
Combined flat feet of the 2nd degree includes signs of transverse and longitudinal flatfoot. Both arches of the foot are changed. The height of the vault decreases in its middle part. Since in this part there are important nerves and vessels, it is fraught with the development of diseases. The metatarsus of the metatarsal bone goes down, the first finger can be displaced. The correct functioning of the ligament apparatus of the fingers is broken, the bone is deformed, it is noticeable on the functions that the interphalangeal joints cease to perform. The step becomes difficult to turn.
The second degree of transverse-longitudinal flat foot is most common in people after 35 years, mainly in women with excess weight. Accelerates the development of flat feet wearing narrow shoes.
People who have this disease can often wonder how to cure a flat foot of the second degree. The methods of treating flatfoot are determined by an orthopedic physician. Each case requires an individual approach. If measures were not taken at the initial stages of the disease, conservative methods are used to prevent the further development of pathology. The initial stages can help physiotherapy, physiotherapy and therapeutic massage - actions that strengthen muscles. At the second stage of the disease development it is necessary to wear special insoles and orthopedic shoes that control the position of the foot. If longitudinal flatfoot was diagnosed, the use between the fingers of the inserts is appointed, in particular with longitudinal flatfoot with a thumb displacement.
The use of orthopedic insoles and liners is prescribed only for a certain time, so that the stop can not finally get used to them - it is fraught with weakening of the muscles and deterioration of the foot. Treatment involves a systematic approach.
- A therapeutic massage is prescribed to relieve the pain syndrome. It helps to normalize muscle tone, improve blood circulation.
- Therapeutic exercise is prescribed. Constant performance of exercises leads to strengthening of muscles and ligaments, they control correct distribution of load and correct incorrect gait. Exercise is advisable to perform in the morning, gradually increasing the load.
- Physiotherapy helps reduce pain syndrome. It is prescribed, with a marked violation of joint mobility and severe pain. It also improves blood circulation.
If all of the above treatment methods are ineffective and the patient complains of intolerable pain, the orthopedic doctor can decide on a surgical procedure. To such a decision it is necessary to come in the most extreme case. More than 500 types of operations have been developed. They are carried out both on soft structures, and on bones. Some operations involve the intervention of bone and tissue systems. With a successful operation, the probability of deformation of the foot is low. However, the patient must constantly work and prevent this disease.
Pediatric and longitudinal flatfoot in children and adults: symptoms and treatment
- 4.4 Treatment of
Flat foot is called deforming changes, which are characterized by a decrease in the height of the vaults, front-line puncture and pronation( inward rotation) of the posterior. In other words, this is a progressive decline in the vaults, until their complete disappearance. This deformation is accompanied by a change in the normal location of bones and a violation of their nutrition. The formation of a similar pathology affects both children( 10%) and adults( 16.4).
The encryption code for ICD-10: M.21.4.
Classification of pathology
There are different types of flatfoot depending on the origin:
- congenital - occurs infrequently( 3%);
- rachitic - develops on a background of a rickets because of loading on weak bones of the bottom extremities;
- paralytic - is the result of transferred poliomyelitis;
- traumatic - may occur after a breach of the integrity of the foot bones( tarsus, ankles, heel);
- static - is observed most often and is formed due to weakness of the ligaments and musculature of the foot.
Static is divided into 2 main types of flatfoot, depending on which arch takes part in the deformation:
- transverse flatfoot;
By combined flat feet is understood as combined flattening of both arches.
Causes of the disease
Exogenous and endogenous causes of flat foot are distinguished. External risk factors include:
- excess weight;
- multi-hour static work in standing position;
- weakening of muscle strength as a result of physiological aging processes;
- sedentary profession and lack of training;
- selection and wearing of uncomfortable shoes.
The main internal cause is the genetic predisposition of a person, expressed in the weakness of the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot.
Compaction of the transverse arch of the foot
It is the most common orthopedic pathology among adults. It accounts for 80% of all cases of foot deformities. More often observed in women of young and working age( from 30 to 50 years).
Etiology and pathogenesis of
During long walking, the degree of load in the area of the foot is changed. This leads to stretching the ligaments and reducing the tone of the short muscles of the foot. There is a discrepancy between the bones of the metatarsus and the type of "fan", the 1st finger is deflected outward, and the third is hammered( the end of the phalanx is lowered, which creates a feeling of "claw" of the finger).
This overload causes prolonged traumatization of the foot tissues and leads to disruption of its nutrition.
The thickness of the subcutaneous fat is reduced, and painful hyperkeratical formations( corns) are formed.
The clinical picture depends on the degree of flat feet and the development of secondary deforming changes in the foot. There are 3 degrees of this pathological condition. At each stage leading signs of the disease are exacerbated.
- I degree. The normal gait is maintained. The patient complains of soreness in the lower extremities and fatigue at the end of the day.
- II degree. There are persistent intense pain in the legs and feet. The gait becomes less elastic. Shoes wear much faster and mostly on the one hand.
- III degree. Intensive pain is possible not only in the lower extremities, but also in the lumbar region. The longitudinal arch disappears almost completely. The choice of suitable footwear is very difficult. The gait is very heavy, inelastic. Stop stops giving in to an active correction. The deformation is clearly pronounced.
Among the symptoms of transverse flatfoot in adults, the following symptoms come to the fore:
- Soreness on the plantar surface. In the subsequent in these places are formed napotypes. Pain can spread to the lumbar spine, which makes differential diagnosis of osteochondrosis and sciatica necessary. If the disease develops slowly, the pain syndrome may be absent or be negligible. Rapidly increasing process is characterized by intense pains of "shooting" character. Often there are convulsive muscle contractions. The cause of the pain is the tension of the soft tissues of the soles, which pull behind the branches of the plantar nerve.
- Change of gait by "stilted" type. The foot expands, and adults start to struggle to pick up their shoes.
- The formation of valgus deviation of the thumb.
If there is a suspicion of transverse flatfoot development, you should contact an orthopedic doctor who will carry out the necessary studies to diagnose( radiography, biomechanical studies, planograms) and explain how to correct the flatfoot. Many people do not think about what dangerous flat feet, and it can cause serious violations:
- reduce blood circulation in the foot until the formation of trophic ulcers;
- infringement of innervation;
- strong and irreversible deformation, which changes gait, makes it difficult to choose shoes and spoils the appearance of a person;
- development of ingrown nails, the removal of which requires surgical intervention.
Any advice on how to treat flat feet should be given by a qualified technician. There are conservative( at home) and surgical means.
Non-operative methods of correction include therapeutic physical culture, bandaging of the distal foot, stimulation of vermicular muscles, electrophoresis of phosphorus and calcium ions, massage of lower limbs. They should be conducted regardless of the degree of flat feet.
LFK with flatfoot is of paramount importance not only as a medical measure, but also as a preventive measure. Therapeutic physical training should be aimed at the solution of the following tasks:
- correction of incorrect stop installation, that is formation of physiologically conditioned arch using special projectiles and positions;
- cupping or reducing soreness;
- creating a correct idea of the position of the legs during standing and walking;
- strengthening of the muscular apparatus, which should support the arch in the correct position;
- activation of the motor state and improvement of metabolism and circulation in the lower limbs.
Performing exercise with flat feet should be for at least 2-3 years. All exercises are aimed at restoring muscle tone. Gymnastics with flat feet is done at home and includes the following techniques:
- getting up on the tips of the fingers;
- active supination of the foot( turn outward) in the sitting position;
- walking on the raised thumbs with their approach and turning the heel outward;
- walking on the outer surface of the foot with turning it inside.
Sometimes, therapy in the period of pain requires complete unloading of the legs, which implies bed rest for some time.
Of particular importance is the correct selection of shoes and the constant use of instep arresters with the laying of the transverse arch. Such products are very effective even for the prevention of flatfoot after successful conservative or surgical treatment. Shoes with high heels for permanent wearing are not recommended.
To reduce the soreness and softening of the corns that have formed due to pressure in transverse flatfoot, you can resort to folk medicine and do household baths with soap and soda solution at home.
For this it is necessary to dissolve 2 tablespoons of baking soda in two liters of warm soapy water. After thirty minutes of steaming, pumice or a special foot scraper can be used to remove hyperkeratics.
Electrostimulation has become widespread in the therapy of this disease. It is conducted by courses of 10-15 procedures and has a beneficial effect on the tibial muscles, plantar and flexor of the thumb.
With pronounced foot changes conservative treatment of transverse flatfoot is ineffective, and, of course, no folk remedies can help here. Is it possible to cure flat feet at advanced stages, if the patient suffers from a disease for more than a decade? It is possible, but in such cases it is necessary to resort to surgical intervention to correct the condition.
Compaction of the longitudinal arch
occurs in more than 20% of patients with static deformities of the foot. A similar variant of flat feet in children is observed more often than other species, but it also affects teenagers who have not been prevented. Can be diagnosed as at the age of 5 years, and in the older.
Etiology and pathogenesis
The main causes of flat feet in children and adolescents is a decrease in muscle tone and severe fatigue as a result of prolonged standing on the legs. The weakening of the muscular apparatus leads to the lowering of the inner edge of the foot, the ligaments are stretched, the heel unfolds inward.
Also with longitudinal flat feet, the shape of the ankle joint changes. Thus, during the disease, children can distinguish 3 main periods:
- The arches of the foot decrease, slightly flattening, but functional abnormalities are not detected. This is most often observed in preschool age and is a predisposing factor for deformities of the foot.
- Functional deficiency is formed, which leads to rapid fatigue and the appearance of pain in the calf muscles. Vaults are expressed, but there is a tendency to flatten them.
- The muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot is decompensated and its subsequent deformation develops. During this period there is a marked flattening of the arch.
What is the danger of flatfoot for a child's body? The fact is that it provokes heavy loads on the spine, which in a few years can cause scoliosis. An increase in the load on the ankle joints due to loss of foot damping properties over time can lead to arthrosis.
Clinical picture of
The very first sign of longitudinal flat feet in a child is foot fatigue and leg tenderness. After a while, the pain increases with walking and prolonged standing. The child complains of the soreness of the foot, the medial malleolus, the sole and the back of the lower leg and thigh.
In this case, flat feet 1 degree and 2 is characterized by a greater pain syndrome than at 3. Most likely, this is due to the adaptation of the baby's soft tissues to the new conditions of the load that have arisen over several years of illness.
Sharp pain syndrome in the feet and calf muscles is most typical of flat feet of the 2nd degree.
It is important for parents to know how to determine the flat feet of a child. An indication of the formation of the disease can be the detection of the shoeing of shoes from the inside of the sole and heel. To make a diagnosis, you need to consult an orthopedist who will tell you how to get rid of flat feet in this particular case.
Diagnosis is based on the complaints of the child, the detection of characteristic symptoms inherent in flatfoot, and also from the results of these instrumental studies:
- radiography in two projections( direct and lateral) with the load;
- sub-metering - measurement of arch height, length of tops, definition of special indexes;
- subgraphs - determination of indicators of foot biomechanics;
- electromyography - a conclusion about the state of the muscular system and determination of the degree of reduction of the bioelectrical activity of each muscle.
The main role is played by flatfoot prevention and early therapy. From flat feet in children will help the following exercises:
- jumping and bouncing on the fingers;
- walking on "socks" and the outer edge of the foot;
- pulling socks with their emphasis in a static object;
- gripping small objects with your toes from the floor surface.
From flat feet help not only exercise, but also walking the child barefoot, on the sandy surface, or any uneven soil, massages, warm baths.
Gymnastics with flat feet in a child should be regular, performed during the day for 5-6 minutes several times. Exercises from longitudinal flat feet will help faster if combined with the use of orthopedic insoles or shoes. Such remedies are effective at the initial stages of the disease and with flat feet of the 2nd degree in children and adolescents.
Treatment of severe flat feet includes plaster bandages in the supination position.
The field of pain relief and gypsum removal must be worn orthopedic footwear, exercise therapy. Against the background of this therapy it is useful to do toning massage of the inner and anterior muscle group, and on the foot - the plantar group, whose function is to maintain the arch. The course of sessions should be at least 15-20 procedures.
How to cure flat feet, if gymnastics and orthopedic shoes do not give the child the proper effect for several years? Unsuccessful conservative treatment of longitudinal flat feet is an indication for the operation, which is performed by surgeons not earlier than ten years of age.
Most often, surgical treatment is recommended for flat feet of grade 3, which is not amenable to conservative therapy at home.
Parents should know that the child's longitudinal arch is formed only in the fourth year, therefore it is not always rational to apply to orthopedists before the age of 4.This only makes sense when forming a congenital flat foot. In 2-3 years the child has a physiological flat foot. In such cases, measures to prevent flat feet in pre-school children( stimulating foot massages, gymnastics with flat feet) are of great help.
In addition, up to 5-6 years of age, it is not recommended to wear shoes with firm sole, lacing and heel. Also it is necessary to avoid instep support. If parents suspect that their child has a deformity of the foot, then it is necessary to visit a specialist every year until the final formation of the arch.
Transverse platypodia is a disease that occurs mainly in older people. To characterize the disease, the term transversely spreading foot is also used. The development of this pathology is directly affected by the condition of the plantar aponeurosis. This dense connective tissue film that runs from the calcaneus to the bases of phalanges of the fingers. To correct a transversely spreading foot, modern medicine is not able. At the moment there are no methods that restore ligaments and fascia, which for a long time were subjected to stretching.
If in the process of walking or standing at least half of the body weight falls on the first metatarsal bone connecting with the thumb of the foot, this is the norm. In this case, weaker loads fall on the average metatarsal bones, and quite small ones on the fourth and fifth bones. In patients with transverse flatfoot, the load is distributed quite differently, and the second and third fingers have to bear the main burden. In this case, the first finger accounts for less than fifteen percent of body weight.
With a transversely spreader foot, there are other pathologies. The first metatarsal bone rotates about its axis and ends up higher than it should be in the norm. Smaller bones, which should be located under the first metatarsal, move to the outside of the thumb so that they can be palpated. The thumb, as well as the little finger, also deflects outwards.
- Transverse flatfoot 1 degree - the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones is ten to twelve degrees. The first degree of transverse flatfoot usually manifests itself in periodic pain in the feet, especially in the anterior part.
- Transverse Platypodia of 2nd degree is characterized by an increase in the named angle to a mark of fifteen degrees. The second degree brings pains localized under the heads of mid-metatarsal bones.
- Transverse Platypodia 3rd degree - the angle is further increased, to twenty degrees. The third degree makes itself felt by constant and severe pains under the heads of metatarsal bones, in the same place, as a rule, significant corns are formed.
Degrees of transverse flatfoot
The clinical picture of transverse flatfoot is such that it is not difficult to recognize the disease. With prolonged walking in the uncomfortable shoes of a man with a transversely spread foot, the pain in the area of the first metatarsal bone periodically disturbs. Unpleasant sensations can also appear spontaneously, mostly in the evenings. This is due to inflammation in the joint bag of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The joint swells, and the skin around it blushes.
The transversely spread foot is easy to identify when viewed: it has a very distinctive appearance. Errors in diagnostics are practically excluded. For transverse flatfoot, the nasolids are characteristic, which are located below the base of the fingers. Immediately striking and deviation of the thumb.
For the treatment of transverse flatfoot, both conservative and surgical methods are used. Conservative is used with a slight degree of transverse flatfoot and deviation of the big toe. In this case, patients must necessarily wear special orthopedic shoes, limit the length of stay in an upright position. Physiotherapeutic procedures, massage and therapeutic gymnastics are very effective.
In those cases when the transversely spreading foot is expressed in medium or high degree, there is no way to do without surgical methods of treatment. In modern medicine there are about one and a half hundred different methods, while none of them can not be called absolutely perfect.
The essence of almost all of them consists in excising fragments of metatarsal bones, which are given the correct configuration. During the postoperative period, patients are assigned the use of gypsum longi, which is applied to the leg up to the upper third of the shin.
It is necessary to wear a longet for two months. After it is removed, it is time for restorative treatment. It consists of physiotherapy procedures, massage, as well as physiotherapy. The pledge of the absence of serious consequences of transverse flatfoot is timely treatment begun. Surgical intervention completely eliminates the existing deformation.
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