Types of osteoporosis in the ICD 10
In order to order and bring together in one register the diagnoses of all diseases, there is an international classifier. ICD 10 is an international classification of diseases of the 10th revision. This classification encodes all signs and diagnoses of diseases, symptoms and their pathology. In the international classifier of diseases there are 14401 code. The system encoding allows you to track new types of diseases and put them in the general register. The code is also assigned to subclasses, which already number more than 16,000 species. Each code is presented in a separate field that systematizes and simplifies the work with the ICD 10.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality in which a decrease in bone density occurs with progressing dynamics, that is, the quantitative composition of bone substance per unit bone volume increases. At the same time, the chemical composition of bone tissue remains unchanged.
Osteoporosis is a medical problem of an international character that the entire scientific community and practitioners of different specialties and directions have to face. According to the ICD 10, osteoporosis was isolated in the XIII subclass of "Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue."
Code for the International Classification of Diseases of the 10th revision( ICD 10):
- M 80-M 85. Disease of tissue density in the bone structure of the skeleton.
- M 80. Osteoporosis with fractures of a pathological nature.
- M 81. Osteoporosis without fractures of a pathological nature.
- M 82. Osteoporosis in diseases, classification in other species.
Because of the decrease in bone density, fracture probability is increased. A large percentage of fractures occur in people after 45 years of age, which are caused by the effects of osteoporosis. This type of disease occurs more often in the female part of the population. It is assumed that this is due to hormonal changes in the female body. Throughout human life, bone tissue has the property of self-healing, this is when the tissues are renewed. The old structure is destroyed, absorbed and overgrown with a new cloth. The processes of tissue synthesis and destruction lead to a quantitative decrease in bone mass.
Types of Osteoporosis
The disease can be divided into 2 main types: primary and secondary. The first type is:
- Juvenile. The most unexplored species of science because of its low prevalence. Suffer from this disease are young children. Pathology is noted in children aged 10-13 years. There is a violation of the posture of the spine, stiffness of movements, pain syndromes in the bone structure. The treatment period can last up to several years.
- Postmenopausal( or postmenopausal) osteoporosis, which occurs as a result of decreased sexual productivity of hormones. This occurs in women after 45-50 years.
- Ideatic. With this diagnosis of the disease, fragility of the ribs is observed, aching pains in the spine of a regular nature. The main causes of the disease include increased consumption of alcohol and excessive dependence on nicotine.
- The Senial( senile).This species is the most dangerous. The disease occurs in people older than 70 years. Cases of a lethal outcome from casual fractures are frequent. The diagnosis is almost always confirmed with a fracture of the neck of the hip.
The secondary form of osteoporosis is a consequence of other diseases. The etiology of the disease is very different. The cause may be violations of the endocrine system, diabetes, inflammatory processes in the intestine.
As can be seen, all age categories are subject to the risk factor.
Preventive actions will help to avoid or reduce the risk of disease. Since early childhood and adolescence, a healthy supply of minerals is needed for a healthy bone system. A reserve of calcium in the bone system will help maintain immunity in the future. Moderate alcohol consumption and quitting increase the safety of calcium removal from the body.
Watch yourself and be always healthy!
Diagnostics, prevention, therapeutic exercises in violation of posture in children
The violation of posture in children is noticeable to the naked eye not only to a qualified trauma orthopedist, but also to parents. Bent back, asymmetric shoulder girdle, protrusion of the abdomen - classical manifestations of pathology. In approximately 30% of cases, the displacement of the vertical axis of the trunk is due to the presence of scoliosis( lateral deviation of the spinal column).
Principles for assessing the location of the spinal axis
Posture in children is formed up to 24 years due to the constant growth of the body. Against this background, any impact can provoke the curvature of the spinal column in the horizontal and frontal planes, so it is important to check the presence of curvatures of the vertical axis annually.Signs of correct posture:
- Torso verticality;
- An expanded thorax;
- Allocated shoulders;
- Close arrangement of the blades;
- Fit belly.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be based on a physical condition.
Types of violation of posture in the sagittal plane:
- Saddle-flattening lordosis of the lumbosus and an increase in the kyphosis of the chest;
- Flat back - smoothing all the bends of the spinal column;
- Flat-bent back - flattening of thoracic kyphosis with normal lumbar lordosis;
- Round back - increased thoracic kyphosis throughout the thoracic region;
- Rounded back - an increase in lordosis in the lower back and kyphosis in the chest.
A scoliatic arc appears in the frontal plane. It is not a disease unlike scoliosis( lateral curvature of the spinal axis), but only as a result of the increased tone of skeletal muscles in one half of the trunk.
There are 3 degrees of curvature of the spine in children:
1 degree - the child, if desired, can assume a normal position, but in the free posture the curvature of the vertebral axis is traced;
2 degree - deformation is eliminated when hanging on the bar or the Swedish wall, and straightening the trunk;
3 degree - the curvature remains when the child is straightened and hung on the gymnastic bar.
Scoliosis - the cause of disability in children
Posture in children with the displacement of the axis of the spine in the lateral plane is called a scoliotic arch. Without performing a radiograph of the spinal column in the straight and lateral projections, it is difficult to distinguish it from true scoliosis. However, the curvature of the spine in the frontal plane at grade 3 and 4 leads to disability of children.
Scoliosis and posture disorders in children
- At the initial stage of the external curvature of the back, it is difficult to differentiate between the scoliosis and the scoliotic arch. The only sign on the roentgenogram that allows this to be done is the rotation of the vertebrae around the axis( torsion) with true scoliosis. The amount of curvature does not exceed 30%.
- The curvature of 31-60% is clearly visible when the child's back is visually inspected and appears on the 2 stages of scoliosis;
- Deformation of the spinal column up to 90% is characterized by changes in the shape of the vertebrae( they become wedge-shaped) and evidences from the 3rd stage of the pathology;
- With a curvature of more than 90% of the vertebral column( grade 4), a pronounced curvature of the vertical axis of the body appears with a disproportionate shift in the anatomical structures and internal organs.
Scoliosis is more common in girls aged 12-14 years with rapid growth and puberty. In this case, the changes are due to the fact that the musculoskeletal apparatus does not have time to adapt to the rapid growth of the bone structure.
Disturbed posture in children can be combined with a vertebral hump. When looking at the back of a child with this pathology, a large protrusion in the thoracic region is clearly distinguished. Children with a vertebral hump can not lean on the back of the chair while sitting and always complain of pain in the thoracic spine.
Treatment of asymmetry of the back at home
Correct posture in children should be formed from a very young age. How to prevent curvature of the spine in infants:
- The breast can not be put on a soft feather bed, and also put on pillows;
- When the baby turns 3 years old, it should already be shifted to the stomach;
- Do not prematurely try to teach your baby to walk;
- Do not carry children on one hand all the time;
- When walking with a child, it is better to drive it not by the hand, but by a wide tape, passed through the area of the axillary hollows;
- With 2-3 years teach children to sit properly on a chair;
- Try to teach them to sleep on a tight bed from an early age.
Parents should remember that all their previous efforts to form a correct posture in children can be crossed out by incorrect landing at the school desk or wearing a heavy backpack on one shoulder.
Medical principles of correcting the spine in a child
Wrong posture in children requires mandatory placement in the dispensary records. In this case, the orthopedist traumatologist will determine the optimal methods of correction:
- With progressive scoliosis of 3-4 degrees, which is detected in 0.6-0.7% of children, hospital treatment is required: traction, underwater massage, special exercises;
- Non-progressive scoliosis is treated in an outpatient setting until the child's growth process ends;
- In case of scoliosis of the 1st degree, correction of the pathology is performed by corrective gymnastics in the group of physiotherapy exercises;
- The displacement of the axis of the spine in the lateral plane of 2-3 degrees requires a careful approach to treatment. Such children are assigned to physical therapy classes in a medical institution or a medical and sports dispensary.
With stoop, flat and round back, you should orient children to regular exercise( at least 3 times a week).
Before performing therapeutic exercises it is necessary to work out a posture of correct posture. Place the child near the wall and place the book on the head. It is necessary to keep its maximum time. With the help of this training, the correct posture is unconsciously fixed.
To prevent curvature of the back, you should pay attention to the following features:
- To prevent the functional shortening of the limb will help the proper selection of shoes. With congenital flat feet, you must wear special shoes;
- For sleeping the child must purchase a hard mattress;
- Strict adherence to the daily routine;
- Refusal of some bad habits: wearing a backpack, incorrect position of the trunk behind the school desk, throwing one leg to the other.
We focus our parents' attention on the fact that a frequent reason for the violation of posture in children is flat feet. Unfortunately, the wrong formation of the arch of the foot in the baby does not bother the parents. Nevertheless, when walking with a flat-footed child, the weight of the body falls on the joints and spine, the depreciation function of the latter is disturbed.
Since the flat foot in children does not initially hurt, the problem does not cause discomfort. The painful syndrome will arise only when calcium salts are deposited in the bones, and in the human body there is not enough strength to provide the function of movement.
With the passage of time, after the flatfoot, there will be varicose veins of the lower extremities due to stress on the circulatory system of the legs.
Due to the rapid development of complications, doctors are trying to treat posture disorders immediately after detection. The effectiveness of therapy directly depends on the patient's interest in the correctness, regularity and duration of the doctor's recommendations.
Strengthening the muscular corset
Exercises in case of posture violation allow to strengthen the muscular corset of the back, improve the dynamic properties of skeletal muscles and prevent further displacement of the spine.
The course of medical gymnastics should be held regularly and for a long time. The systematic implementation of the exercises should not be less than 3 times a week.
Gymnastic exercises for aligning the back, depending on the mechanism of action are classified into 2 types:
Static exercises are designed to strengthen the "slow" muscle groups. These fibers are more often in a tonic state and very slowly relax. When the spine axis is curved, the "slow" muscles on one side of the trunk are in a spasmodic state. To prevent it, static exercises are prescribed.
Training of dynamic skeletal muscles is aimed at increasing its elasticity. In this case, "fast" muscle fibers are strengthened. They are able to quickly contract and relax. Activated by active physical movements.
Gymnastic exercises on the characteristics of the impact on the muscles can be divided into 3 varieties:
Symmetrical exercises affect symmetrical muscle groups on both sides of the trunk. Asymmetric - aimed at strengthening individual muscle fibers. Combined variants include both of the above groups.
Let's give an approximate list of exercises that are used to correct deformity of the spine in children:
- Carry straight legs in a standing position. At the same time, on each account try to reach the toe of the foot with the palm of your hand;
- If you perform daily exercise "bike", you can quickly strengthen the abdominal press. It involves simulating riding a bicycle, sitting on a chair;
- Raise your legs to a height of 40 cm above the floor and change the height of the lower extremities constantly. Thus one leg should move upwards, and another downwards;
- Pull your legs straight, and place your arms along the trunk. In this position, lift the legs and fix them for 30 seconds at an angle of 30 degrees;
- If the previous exercise is easy, you can apply its complicated version: raise your legs at an angle of 45 degrees;
- Lie down on your back and perform a "scissors" about 30 times( alternately start one leg after another in the raised position);
- Lying up and down your legs 10-15 times;
- Sitting on a chair, fasten the legs under the support( it can be a chair).Put your hands behind your head. Slowly unbend and lower;
- Hang on the crossbar. Raise your legs straight up to the right angle. The number of repetitions is 10-15 for 10 seconds;
- Pull your knees to your stomach in a supine position. The number of repetitions is according to the state of health.
The above exercises for children can be performed by parents. They are convenient because they do not require long repetitions and strengthen the muscular corset of the back.
In conclusion, I would like to recall that there are no such drugs that would make the muscles strong, and the ligaments elastic. Only therapeutic exercises can lead to a royal posture.
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