Symptoms and treatment of pathological kyphosis of the spine
Treatment of kyphosis by folk methods can be carried out only in combination with medical methods. Gymnastic exercises and wearing orthopedic corsets for this pathology is the basis of therapy, but it needs to be done competently.
The person has 2 physiological kyphosis( the Greek "kyphosis" is a "hump").The term "treat kyphosis", which is often used with excessive bulge in the thoracic spine, is devoid of common sense.
Excessive convexity in medicine is called "hyperkifosis", and its flattening is called "hypokyphosis".Here, just hypo- and hyperkypophysis needs to be eliminated in order to prevent formidable complications( back pain, displacement of internal organs).
Kyphosis is a physiological bulge in the thoracic spine with a bending angle of no more than 30 degrees. It is designed to reduce damping loads during physical activity of a person in order to prevent infringement of nerve roots.
General principles of treatment in adults
Treatment of kyphosis of the spine takes into account the severity of the pathology, the rate of its course and the presence of complications.
There are 4 degrees of the disease:
- Kyphosis of the 1st degree is characterized by a convexity angle from 30 to 40 degrees;
- Kyphosis 2 degrees - angle from 40 to 50 degrees;
- Kyphosis of 3rd degree is accompanied by excessive concavity in the thoracic region with an angle of 50 to 70 degrees;
- Kyphosis 4 degrees - the amount of curvature exceeds 70 degrees.
Depending on the degree of progression of the pathology, the following forms are distinguished:
- With slow progression - concavity intensifies no more than 7 degrees during the year;
- With a rapid current - for a year the angle of curvature of the thoracic kyphosis increases by more than 7 degrees.
The types of diseases with neurological manifestations are especially complicated in treatment:
- E - with the absence of neurologic symptoms;
- D - physical mobility is limited only slightly;
- C - there is no functional mobility, but a person can move;
- B - no movement, but the sensitivity is preserved;
- A - complete loss of physical activity and sensitivity of the limbs.
Kyphosis with neurological manifestations of types A, B, C at home is not treated. It requires the hospitalization of adults in neurological hospitals and the setting up of disability groups after rehabilitation.
General principles of treatment of strengthened convexity in the thoracic department:
- Therapeutic exercises for strengthening of skeletal musculature;
- Massage and manual therapy for the restoration of blood supply and elimination of vertebral dislocations;
- Physiotherapy methods for general strengthening of the body and elimination of inflammatory changes in tissues;
- Drug therapy to eliminate pain syndrome and get rid of secondary symptoms of the disease;
- Operative restoration of the correct physiological axis of the spinal column.
Exercises required for correcting the spine
Treating kyphosis with gymnastic exercises should be conducted under the supervision of a qualified instructor. It is important to choose the right list of therapeutic exercises to strengthen weak muscles, but not to provoke the pathological hypertonicity of spasmodic skeletal muscles.
List of activities that a person with a kyphosis at home should perform:
- Perform gymnastic exercises;
- Monitor posture;
- It's right to sit at the table or on the couch.
Specialists of rehabilitation centers recommend special exercises for relaxation of the muscles of the upper back:
- Exercise 1. Lying on your stomach, lean against the floor with the palms of your hands and tilt your head back. Raise the chest up, lock the position for 5 seconds and return to the starting position;
- Exercise 2. Lying on your stomach, put a gymnastic stick on your back. Grasp her hands and tilt her head back. In doing so, try to bend the spine in the middle part. Return to the starting position;
- Exercise 3. In the standing position, place your feet shoulder width apart. Take the gymnastic stick back and, without effort, touch it with the shoulder blades. On inhalation, squat down, straighten your arms up and tilt your head back. Return to the starting position. The number of repetitions is 8-10;
- Exercise 4. Straighten your back in a standing position. Lower your shoulders down, squeeze your spine. Then pull the shoulders up, and behind them the spine. Try to touch the ears;
- Exercise 5. In the standing position, pull your hands forward, as if wrapping a large object. At the same time, make sure that the shoulder blades disperse into the sides, and the back bends. Fix the position for 5 seconds, and then take your hands to the sides, bending your back, and throwing back your head.
The above exercises are better combined with a visit to the pool, massage and manual therapies.
Physicians prescribe physiotherapeutic procedures( electrostimulation of muscles, acupuncture, thermal procedures, electrophoresis) between the courses of therapeutic gymnastics.
Treatment of kyphosis at home can be done with an orientation to the above exercises.
Effective treatment of kyphosis is impossible if a person does not constantly control posture. It is especially important for children in the period of rapid growth of the vertebrae.
You can monitor your child's posture at home with special tests that should be performed every 2 weeks. To do this:
- Stand with your back to the vertical wall. At the same time, make sure that the shoulder belt, waist, buttocks and heels of the feet tightly touch the surface. With a correct posture, there is a gap between the loin and the wall, which is approximately equal to the width of the human palm.
There are some specific features of posture at different ages:
- Posture of the preschooler: the shoulders are symmetrical, the stomach is somewhat bulging forward, the lordosis is just starting to form in the lumbar region;
- Posture of a schoolboy: the bulging of the abdomen decreases, all the bends of the spinal column are traced, the front part of the abdominal wall is located in front;
- Posture of a girl and a young man: shoulders are lowered, the shoulder blades are pressed to the back, the abdomen is flat, the physiological curves are well pronounced, the thoracic kyphosis is emphasized.
Symptoms of violation of posture and kyphosis in adults can rarely be cured. Most often, doctors can only prevent pain for a while. If from childhood in the home to monitor the correctness of the formation of the spinal column, it is possible to prevent formidable complications of pathology, including hyper-kyphosis.
Rules for maintaining the spine are normal
The vertebral column is a complex structure. With its pathological changes, there are abnormalities in the functioning of many tissues( nervous, bone, and skeletal), which complicates the treatment of the disease.
It is easier to prevent complications than to cure them, but you should follow the rules of using the spine:
- You need to sit with your back straight, then the physiological curves of the spine will be formed correctly, and pathological symptoms will appear rarely. When sitting on a chair, press firmly against your back. Keep your shoulders at the same level, the head upright, and the shoulder blades are brought together.
- Seat chair select one that will be shorter than the hip. Its height should allow the legs to freely settle on the floor.
- Even if you sit perfectly, you still need to get up every 40 minutes to remove static loads from the muscles.
In the presence of pain syndrome, you can take anti-inflammatory drugs( ibuprofen, nise, nimesulide) and chondroprotectors( alflutope, teraflex, structum).You can take these drugs with kyphosis 1 degree, but they are not devoid of side effects.
Thus, to cure kyphosis in adults and children under the supervision of specialists can be at home, permanently and even in rehabilitation centers. In any case - this is a long and complex process, requiring qualified medical supervision.
Treatment of kyphosis at home
All this can lead to vertebral fractures in the thoracic region, as well as to further progression of the disease.
Treatment of kyphosis at home
There are several types of kyphosis that are classified according to the cause of the illness.
- Pathological kyphosis - a consequence of any defects still in the intrauterine stage of development. Often accompanied by other disorders of the genitourinary system or the hip joint. It is treated exclusively surgically.
- Secondary form of the disease develops in the pathology of connective tissues, while internal organs are often inflamed. It appears after radiation therapy or oncogenic diseases.
- The stoop of may be caused by weakness of the back muscles or posture disorders. Sometimes it happens for a purely psychological reason: for example, too high people are constantly slouching to "become lower."Spines in this case are not deformed, and a person can straighten up at any moment. This form of the disease is treated by special exercises.
- With paralytic kyphosis , there is a pronounced progression of curvature due to cerebral palsy or poliomyelitis. Often, the disease is treated with the same physical exercises, but with severe pain, surgical intervention is required.
- The Shayerman-Mau syndrome has not yet been fully investigated, therefore, scientists have not yet agreed on the reasons for its occurrence. Nevertheless, the disease is expressed in the form of deformed cervical vertebrae, which acquire a wedge shape. Very often the spine deforms by ¾. Mostly boys suffer from this ailment.
- The postoperative form of kyphosis may be caused by complications after surgery. Eliminated by re-conducting the operation.
- With , post-traumatic kyphosis develops as a result of a trauma to the chest or lower back. There is a rapid progression of the disease, which is often accompanied by various complications, including neurological ones. It is treated exclusively surgically.
- The cause of of degenerative kyphosis may be osteoporosis or osteochondrosis. Vertebrae are deformed, settle, ligaments weak. The cause may also be a previous injury, especially in women of retirement age. Treatment is carried out mainly by conservative methods.
Kyphosis - treatment at home
The chosen method of treating kyphosis will depend only on how much the vertebral column is deformed and what are the concomitant diseases. If the disease is at an early stage, then you need to perform special exercises, combining them with manual therapy. The more severe cases require only surgical treatment, while the methods described by us will, so to speak, be secondary.
You can be cured at home, if you perform a number of special procedures aimed at strengthening the muscles and correcting the posture. The most effective method is an orthopedic corset.
Please note! The course of treatment of kyphosis often takes a very long time.
How to determine the correctness of posture?
It's very simple. Lean against the wall, press against it. If the posture is all right, but you will be in contact with the wall with the shoulder blades, head and fifth point. If you have kyphosis, then the head, being tilted forward, can not touch the wall.
If you are an adult, then because your spine is already fully formed, you can not cure the disease with the help of a corset. But! You will be able to prevent further bending of the posture .With regard to children, their posture is quite easy to fix with such a corset. At once we will make a reservation, that orthopedic corsets happen:
- curative ;
- prophylactic .
Even by name you can guess the purpose of each of them, so we will not dwell on this. Let's consider only some recommendations concerning wearing a corset.
- If the curvature is strong enough, wear a corset at least twenty hours a day, removing it only in front of the shower and sleeping.
- If you, as a child, are still growing, then in the treatment of a doctor in charge is mandatory. Moreover, the procedure must be constantly adjusted, since the muscular conditions( let's call them so) will change constantly. For example, in about three months, you may need a special breast latch.
- First time to wear a corset will be extremely inconvenient, you have to get used to it. On the first day, wear it for only an hour, the next day - two hours, and so on in increasing order.
- When the posture adjustment is completed and you need to stop using the corset, then do it gradually.
Please note! This method will help only if you periodically visit a doctor for examination. If you do everything yourself, then there is a chance that you will only increase the angle of curvature.
What is the home treatment for kyphosis?
So, with the basic method of treatment figured out, now consider the aforementioned "secondary".In general, the treatment procedure at home should include three important components.
Component 1 : physical unloading. You must completely exclude all physical activities that somehow can strain the spine. Do not wear anything, do not dig, do not play sports( the last point of is required by at the end of the course of treatment).
Component 2 : sleep on a hard surface. The bed should be flat and rigid, the pillow small. If for work or study you still have to sit at the table, then try to periodically take a short break, during which you lay down on the floor and perform a couple of exercises.
The bed should be flat and rigid, the pillow - a small
Component 3 : actually, physical exercises. This is necessary to strengthen the muscles of the back, which is very important in the treatment of kyphosis, and we will dwell on this in more detail.
Exercises for kyphosis
It is also called the "gateway".Get on all fours and start to climb into the gateway - a small gap between the gate and the ground. In this case, your back will bend to the side opposite to the disease.
Tie a rubber band around your chest and, standing on your legs, pull it up with your hands, lifting it up. In doing so, you must pull the ends of the tourniquet slightly backward, arching the spine.
Exercise # 3
Sit on the floor, straighten your legs and place your hands on your shoulders. Move your arms around in a circle, directing them back, paying special attention to the tension of the muscles of the shoulder blades.
Exercise # 4
Stand on all fours, alternately raising your legs up and down. The back should sag while it's up. Lie on your back and bend your knees.
Exercise # 5Deflect the body, leaning on the feet, shoulder blades and head, so that the back and the pelvis break away from the floor for a few seconds. Then return to the starting position.
Do each exercise until you feel very tired.
Video - Exercises for kyphosis of the thoracic spine
Massage should be strictly calibrated to a specific area of the spine, so making it at home is unlikely to work. At least, do the right .
Know that the neglected kyphosis is extremely difficult to cure. If at the initial stage of the disease course will last only a month, then when the most neglected, the fourth - a few years! To prevent all this, follow some important and at the same time simple rules.
- Do exercises that strengthen the frame muscles every day. This will reduce the burden on the spine.
- The place of work / study must be, first of all, ergonomic. If at the same time you need to constantly bend, it makes sense to simply change furniture.
- If you are short-sighted, wear glasses( in extreme cases - contact lenses).
- For correct posture, you need to follow from childhood, especially if the child is tall.
For correct posture, you need to follow from childhood, especially if the child is tall
- If you spend most of your time sitting for one reason or another, then try to take a short break every 30-60 minutes, during which perform a few simple physicalexercises to support the tone, so to speak.
And remember: if you do not pay attention to kyphosis at the initial stage of the disease, then soon from the stoop this will outgrow the humpback !The last disease, if one does not know, completely changes the face of a person, deforming the chest and making breathing difficult. So be careful.
Kyphosis in adults: types, causes, diagnosis, treatment, complications
The word "kyphosis" describes the type of curve in the spine. The kyphotic curve is usually present in the thoracic spine( this is part of the spine in the chest area).The kyphotic curve looks like the letter "C".Although the thoracic spine of a person should be bent, if the curve in it is 40 to 45 degrees, this is considered abnormal( deformation of the spine).Adult kyphosis can have various symptoms and severity, from minor changes in the form of the back - severe deformity, nervous problems, chronic pain. Kyphosis is the most common in the thoracic spine, although it can also affect the cervical and lumbar spine.
There are several causes of kyphosis in adults. First, an innate cause, which means that this condition in humans - from his birth. Congenital problems of the spine affect its development. The second reason is "traumatic", which means that it is caused by trauma or damage to the spine. The third is "iatrogenic factors" - from the consequences of treatment or surgical intervention. Finally, kyphosis in adults can lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition that leads to large bone loss, resulting in the bones becoming brittle and prone to fractures. Osteoporosis is the most common cause of kyphosis in adults. Much more often it occurs in women than in men - due to the loss of estrogen during menopause and postmenopause.
Kyphosis can be effectively treated. Methods of treatment developed over time. Over time, they began to turn to surgery. Today, there are many effective treatments for correcting severe kyphotic deformities.
As mentioned above, there is some kyphosis in the thoracic spine. Kifotic deformation of the spine does mean that there are too many kyphotic curves in the spine. The thoracic spine consists of 12 vertebrae of the spine. The "normal" curve in the thoracic spine is a curve from 20 to 40 degrees in the entire thoracic spine. The number of "normal" curves varies.
In order to understand the symptoms and choose the treatment, the patient should begin with some basics of understanding the general anatomy of the spine, get to know the different parts that make up the spine and work together.
Different types of kyphosis and the causes of its development
There are many types of kyphosis adults. The main types and causes of kyphosis:
- Postural kyphosis. Postural kyphosis, or "round back", is the result of poor posture. This is most common among adolescents and young people, as they often slouch when they stand and sit, causing the curve of their spine to be forward.
Postural kyphosis is often accompanied by hyperlordosis( deformity in the lumbar spine with an anterior convexity that occurs most often as a result of trauma, spine disease or habitual posture disorder) of the lower backbone. The lumbar spine, of course, has a "lordosis" of "C" -shaped form. Hyperlordosis means that the lumbar spine compensates for excessive chest kyphosis along a curved line in the opposite direction.
Postural kyphosis is corrected in a prone position on a flat surface, or when the spine is hyperextended. On the X-ray, there will be no anomaly in the vertebrae, as structural damage or deformation does not cause kyphosis. In fact, postural kyphosis is fairly easily corrected with the establishment of proper posture and the patient's training to sit and stand properly. Treatment should not include restorative drugs or exercises. However, strengthening the back muscles can help with proper posture.
- Shyerman kyphosis. In the case of Scheuermann's kyphosis, the chest curve, as a rule, ranges from 45 to 75 degrees. There will also be vertebral wedging of more than five degrees from three or more vertebrae that are next to each other. The vertebrae in these cases have a triangular appearance, so that they become a wedge together, and the normal space between the vertebrae is shortened.
With Scheuermann's disease at the end of the affected( wedge-shaped) vertebrae there is also the presence of Schmorl's nodules. These are nodes of small herniated intervertebral disks( cushions between each vertebra) in the end plates of the vertebrae. A disc hernia occurs when the outer fibers of the disc( rings) are damaged, and the soft inner material from the gelatinous pulpous core breaks out of its normal space. There is also a thickening of the anterior longitudinal ligament. The tightness of this ligament can lead to deformation of the spine. Ligaments connect the bones together, including the bones of the dorsal vertebrae.
The cause of Shoyerman's kyphosis has not been discovered, but there are many possible theories about its development. Radiologist Shoyerman suggested that the problem is due to the process of "aseptic necrosis" of the cartilage of the ring of the vertebral body. This means that the cartilage of the vertebral ring is broken due to the lack of the necessary blood supply in it. It is believed that this interrupts the growth of bones in the development process, which leads to sphenoid vertebrae. And, as most researchers believe, this process damages the growth of the area of the vertebrae. Abnormal growth, which follows this, causes excessive kyphosis. For example, with a rapid burst of adolescent growth, there may be a vertebral disorder, which then leads to abnormal bone growth. Many specialists on the spine also suspect that problems with the mechanics of the spine( its device and functioning) play a role in the occurrence of Shyerman kyphosis. Others suggest that mild osteoporosis may contribute to deformity of the bones. Musculoskeletal disorders are considered as a possible cause. A high genetic predisposition to this disease means that it "works" in families.
- Congenital kyphosis. Congenital kyphosis refers to a hereditary anomaly of the development of the spine. This means that a person is born with some kind of defect - such as incomplete formation of the spine, which can lead to a seriously abnormal kyphosis. Also the most common kyphosis is non-traumatic, with non-infectious paraplegia( paralysis of the lower part of the body).
There is a large( 20-30%) association of congenital kyphosis with congenital anomalies of the urinary system of the body. If this type of kyphosis is suspected, the doctor may suggest that the patient needs a TTI( type of X-ray that examines the kidneys) and also needs a myelogram or MRI.Myelogram and MRI are performed to make sure that the spine departments are working normally.
Usually severe congenital malformation of kyphosis is treated by surgery. If necessary, early surgical intervention usually gives the best results and can prevent the progression of the curve. The type of surgical procedure will depend on the nature of the anomalies. Conservative( non-surgical) planned treatment is less successful in correcting this type of kyphosis. If non-surgical treatment is chosen, there is an urgent need for observation and careful medical supervision to prevent serious problems in the future.
- kyphosis of paralytic disorder. Conditions that cause paralysis can lead to kyphosis. Kyphosis is a secondary result of paralysis. Paralysis can be caused by: poliomyelitis, spinal muscular atrophy( impairment leading to paralysis) and cerebral palsy( paralysis can be caused by trauma at birth or developmental defects in the brain).The development of kyphosis in these cases occurs gradually, and not suddenly.
- Posttraumatic kyphosis. Spine injury can lead to progressive kyphosis and nervous problems in the spine. When there is an injury from a fracture of the spine in the thoracic or lumbar spine, in 90% of cases this results in some degree of kyphosis. Treatment for posttraumatic kyphosis may include fixation or surgery. The choice will depend on the severity of the condition.
- Postoperative kyphosis. Kyphosis can develop after an operation on the spine, during which other problems are corrected. This usually occurs when the surgical suture does not heal, as expected. For example, a spondylodease can not heal. An unstable fusion can lead to the collapse of the spine and kyphosis. The ligaments of the spine can not heal enough to support the vertebrae and allow the spine to form a kyphotic curve. These conditions may require a second operation to try to solve the problem.
- Degenerative kyphosis. There are also cases of kyphosis, which is caused by degeneration or deterioration of the lumbar( lower) part of the spine. Over time, the degenerative process can lead to the disintegration of the intervertebral disc, the change in the shape of the vertebrae and the weakening of the ligaments that support the spine. This can lead to the gradual development of kyphosis for many years. After that, kyphosis begins to form even worse, as the imbalance of forces constantly increases wear.
Other causes of kyphosis
Different types of systemic diseases can cause kyphosis, which will develop over time. These are infections in the spine, cancer or tumors that are associated with the spine and various types of systemic arthritis. This type of kyphosis is caused by changes in the spine from inflammation of the tissue in the area surrounding the thoracic spine. Kyphosis can also develop in people who have been treated for malignant( cancerous) childhood illness by irradiation of the axial skeleton.
Symptoms of kyphosis in adults
Symptoms of kyphosis can range from mere ugliness to pain, which adversely affects lung and heart function. Kyphosis can be painful and painful. If the degree of the curve is large, it can begin to exert pressure on the spinal cord and cause problems due to compression of the nerves of the spinal cord. This can cause weakness in the lower limbs. Finally, if the kyphosis is in the thoracic spine, the curve can impede breathing and also affect the function of the heart.
If kyphosis is suspected in adults, the diagnosis should be made before the necessary treatment plan.
- History of the disease. In order to correctly diagnose and exclude other possible conditions, the first step will be to take the history of kyphosis. The doctor may ask about the following:
- Family history. Some types of kyphosis tend to progress in families, so that it can have a genetic cause. The doctor will want to know if anyone in the family has the same problems.- Date of appearance. When did the patient first notice changes in the back condition?- Measurements of the curve. Progress. If the X-rays have shone through the patient's backbone in the past, the doctor will want to make sure that the curve gets worse. This can be measured by comparing the new x-rays with the old ones, measuring the size of the curve or measuring the changes in height.- The presence or absence of pain. Not all pains are due to kyphosis. However, if there is pain, the doctor should know where that which gives or enhances pain, whether there are radicular pain that radiates the spine. This usually results from irritation of the nerves when they leave the spine.- Dysfunction of the intestine or bladder. The doctor will ask if the patient has trouble urinating or defecating? This is extremely important, because it can indicate the presence of serious nerve damage.- Motor function. Were there any changes in the muscles? This can be the result of pressure on the nerves or spinal cord.- Previous experience of surgery. If the patient had any spinal surgery, could they have caused kyphosis due to weakened muscles or other problems? In order to assess the patient's condition properly, it is important that the doctor is aware of any surgery on the patient's backbone in the past.
- Physical Exam. The spine specialist will perform a physical examination, during which he will try to understand how the curve in his back affects the patient. This means that he will try to get a "mental picture" of how the spine is twisted, to consider the back and its motor functions. The doctor will look at the patient's flexibility in certain directions. Finally, nerves will be tested: sensations, reflexes and muscle strength of the patient.
- Additional tests of .As a rule, after examination, X-rays are ordered, which allows the doctor to see the structure of the spine and to measure the curve. During the X-ray, the patient is invited to occupy certain poses - standing or lying on the table, until the whole spine is photographed. For kyphosis, the following images can be seen:
- Front view. This is the x-ray of the entire spine, taken from the front.- Side view. This is the x-ray of the whole spine, taken from the side.- Lateral bending. This is the patient's x-ray, bent to the side.
Depending on the results of the patient's history, physical examination and X-rays, as well as other tests indicative of specific aspects of the spine, may be prescribed. The most common tests are: MRI - for viewing nerves and spinal cord, tomography - to get a better idea of the vertebral bone, as well as special tests of nerves - to determine if nerves are irritated or clamped.
Treatment of kyphosis in adults
Adult kyphosis has various treatment options. Whenever possible, the first option for treating adult kyphosis is always conservative. Surgery of the spine is always the most extreme method of treatment, due to risks. Conservative treatment, which is usually recommended, includes: medicines, physical exercises and some types of braces to support the spine.
If osteoporosis is present, then its treatment may also slow the progression of degenerative kyphosis. This can be achieved in several ways. To date, the recommendations will be: increased calcium and vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy and exercise with exercise.
Using a dorsal staple can give some relief from pain. However, in adults, it does not straighten the spine. Once a person has reached the maturity of the skeleton, the mount is used to relieve pain, and not to prevent disease. If there is a difference in the length of the legs( or if the scoliosis causes the patient to walk a little crookedly), then special shoe inserts called "orthopedic insoles" or simply comfortable shoes can reduce back pain.
- Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy and exercise are an important part of the treatment of adult kyphosis. A well-designed exercise program can also provide relief from pain in many patients. The physiotherapist will develop appropriate training for each specific case. It is very important that the patient adhere to the plan. Gymnastics is useful in correcting posture and strengthening the muscles of the spine. It also helps maintain flexibility and improve the range of movements of the spine. Corsets or special staples are a treatment option for structural kyphosis, such as Scheuermann's disease. The types of brackets that will be used depend on the nature of the curvature of the spine.,
- training the correct body mechanics to maintain a vertical posture that counteracts the complication of kyphosis;- regular and not sharp exercises( for example, swimming);- maintaining a high level of activity;- Daily stretching exercises.
- Drug therapy. Pharmacological treatment is better for patients suffering from pain, while paying attention to other symptoms and symptoms associated with kyphosis. Typically, pain medications such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen and naproxen are prescribed. Preparations for the treatment of osteoporosis are designed to prevent fractures of the spine, which can contribute to or worsen kyphosis. However, no treatment can directly cure or slow down kyphosis, but can certainly help in alleviating the symptoms and provide relative comfort to the patient.
Spine kyphosis can not be called a disease, as the term itself simply means the curvature of the thoracic spine. It is present in healthy people, making up from 10 to 40 degrees. If this value exceeds 40 degrees, then they speak of a pathological or hyperkiphosis, but for brevity it is assigned simply by kyphosis. Today this article will be devoted to this state.to content ↑
Than kyphosis of the spine is dangerous
Kyphosis is the curvature of the spine, and not just the wrong posture. Progression of this disease can lead to deformation of the chest, squeezing the lungs. Over time, the normal structure of the vertebrae is broken, they are deformed. Cartilaginous intervertebral disks are destroyed, as a result of which a person begins to experience difficulties with movement, severe pains that are only aggravated even with minimal physical activity.
That is why it is necessary to understand the causes and mechanisms of the development of this disease, to pay attention in time to the appearance of the first signs and immediately begin their treatment.
This disease has many causes and mechanisms of appearance, but most often distinguish its following types:
- Congenital kyphosis .It manifests itself at an early age and is a consequence of anatomical features of the development of the spine, in particular, its thoracic region.
- Genotypic .Like the congenital, it manifests itself in children. But in this case, its cause lies in the hereditary anomalies of the structure.
- Ricky .It is a consequence of rickets, manifested in children in the first year of life. The reason is insufficiently developed ligaments and muscles, and too soft vertebrae.
- Starter .One of the variants of age-related degenerative diseases. Its cause is the weakening of muscles and ligaments, as well as the destruction of intervertebral discs.
- Mobile .This is one of the most frequent forms of kyphosis, it occurs with weak back muscles, unable to support the skeleton, and poor posture. In most cases, it develops in the adolescent period, at the time of the highest rate of growth.
- Compression .It can appear in any form due to a back injury, for example, the destruction of one or more vertebrae.
- Tubercular .In some cases, tuberculosis leads to spondylitis, the consequence of which is the destruction of the vertebrae.
- Total .Appears at an early age, due to some diseases or pathological processes, such as Bekhterev's disease. In this case, the entire spine assumes an arcuate shape.
- Postoperative .In some cases, spine stabilization operations or similar interventions can lead to the opposite effect. The reason is medical errors or non-compliance with recommendations.
- Scheerman-Mau disease .This disease manifests itself in adolescence by thinning the anterior parts of the vertebrae. As a result, the spine warps.
- Osteochondrosis .The destruction of intervertebral cartilaginous discs in some cases produces the same effect. Further learn in detail about the symptoms and treatment of osteochondrosis of the spine.
The list of causes of kyphosis of the spine clearly shows that this disease can appear at any age and has a variety of etiological factors, ranging from congenital or acquired diseases and to the wrong way of life.
Important! Once appeared, this condition will progress. Therefore, you need to consult a doctor at the first signs of curvature of the spine.
Diagnosis of kyphosis
Often with early degrees of kyphosis of the spine, patients do not notice a characteristic change in posture and rounding of the back. In most cases, the first to talk about it to them are close ones. But it is at an early stage that the disease is most effectively amenable to correction.
This is why an early and effective diagnosis, including the following items, plays an important role in its treatment:
- Inspection of .Often, a physician needs a visual examination and palpation of the spine to diagnose kyphosis. But to determine its cause and stage requires a more thorough examination.
- Fluoroscopy .This simple, inexpensive and fast method of diagnosis allows not only to determine the degree of kyphosis, but also to find possible violations of the structure of vertebrae and intervertebral discs, and therefore - to establish a possible cause. As a rule, take a few pictures: straight, sideways and straight with a deflection in the back.
- MRI, CT .These methods are used increasingly, because they allow you to study the structure of the spine and surrounding tissues, to determine possible deviations.
To date, there are quite a few medical institutions( clinics, centers, etc.) that conduct diagnostics and treatment of kyphosis. Each person can pick it up at the address, the cost of services for treatment, qualification of specialists, etc.
Speaking about the cost of admission to a doctor with kyphosis - the price varies, but the average from 1200 to 1500 rubles. Some medical institutions provide free telephone consultation or the first appointment to a specialist is free.
Depending on the results obtained, the physician can choose the most appropriate therapies.to content ↑
Treatment of vertebral kyphosis in adults and children
As with many other diseases, the earlier treatment was initiated, the higher its effectiveness. There are many methods, from the simplest and safest to the most difficult ones:
- Massage .With the help of professionally carried out massage it is possible to improve muscle tone, relieve tension, and pain, improve blood supply.
- Physiotherapy .In the treatment of kyphosis, an important role is played by methods of physiotherapy, including physiotherapy. It is important to strengthen the back muscles, which will enable them to support the spinal column more efficiently, preventing abrasion and destruction of the intervertebral discs and vertebrae themselves.
- Corset .Often when kyphosis is recommended wearing corsets, but they do not straighten the curved spine, but only support it, relieving pain and discomfort.
- Surgical treatment of .In severe cases, resort to surgical treatment, attaching to the vertebrae supporting and straightening them metal plates. If the operation is carried out correctly and all the recommendations for rehabilitation are met, it is possible to achieve a long and lasting effect.
Today there are many alternative therapies for kyphosis:
- Manual therapy. At her price ranges from 900 to 10,000 rubles. Depends on the region, honey.institution and qualification of a specialist. In particular, in Moscow the price is about 2000 rubles per session.
- Acupuncture( acupuncture).The cost of one session is from 200 to 2500 rubles.
- Acupressure. The cost of one session is about 500 rubles.
They should be used simultaneously with the classical, with the permission and under the supervision of a doctor.
Correct performance of exercises for the spine with kyphosis to look in the video.
Complete set of exercises for stoop or kofosis of the spine.
In mild cases, kyphosis may not cause symptoms.
The spine( vertebral column) consists of bones( vertebrae), which are connected by dense, fibrous ligaments. The spine consists of 7 cervical( cervical) vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae vertebrae( thoracic) and 5 lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae - the largest, they retain most of the body weight. The sacrum, consisting of 5 intergrown vertebrae, is located below the lumbar vertebrae. The last three small vertebrae, also fused together, form the coccyx.
The causes of kyphosis vary in the types of this disease.
Kinds of kyphosis in children and adolescents
Postural kyphosis( sedimentary kyphosis) .This form of kyphosis is mainly found in adolescents. The development of postural kyphosis usually occurs slowly. It is more typical for girls than for boys. Poor posture or stoop may cause stretching of the vertebral ligaments and formation of inappropriate spine bones( vertebrae).Postural kyphosis is often accompanied by an excessively concave bend( hyperlordosis) in the lower( lumbar) section of the spine. Hyperlordosis is a way of compensating the body for an excessively curved bend in the upper part of the spine.
Kifoz Sheyermann .Like the postural kyphosis, Sheyerman kyphosis usually develops in adolescents aged 10-15 years, while the bones are in the process of growth. This kyphosis is also called Sheyerman-Mau disease, it is twice as common in boys as in girls. In Scheuerman-Mau disease, the vertebrae are deformed in such a way that they look like x-ray images and are wedge-shaped, rather than triangular. On the affected vertebrae, the Schmorl hernia may also develop. These hernias appear as a result of pushing the cushion( disk) located between the vertebrae, into the bone in the lower and upper parts of the vertebra.
The cause of Sheyerman kyphosis is not known, but it is usually hereditary. Some patients suffering from this form of kyphosis also develop scoliosis - deformation of the spine, which causes lateral bending. Adults with whom Sheyermann-Mau's disease developed as a child may experience increasing pain with age.
Congenital kyphosis of the .Congenital malformation of the spine, which forms during the development of the fetus, causes kyphosis in some infants. A few vertebrae may form or the bones may form incorrectly. This form of kyphosis can be aggravated by the growth of the child. Kyphosis is the most common cause of paralysis of the lower body( paraplegia) after trauma and infection.
Causes in adults
Diseases that can cause curvature of the spine in adults, leading to kyphosis, include:
- Osteoporosis is a disease associated with a decrease in bone density, often leading to vertebral fractures, which causes compression of the spine and development of kyphosis;
- Degenerative arthritis of the spine .which can cause destruction of bones and discs of the spine;
- Ankylosing spondylitis( Bechterew's disease) .inflammatory arthritis, affecting the spine and nearby joints;
- Disorders from connective tissue .such as Marfan syndrome, which affect the ability of the connective tissue to keep the joints in the correct position;
- Tuberculosis and other spinal infections that can lead to joint destruction;
- Cancer or benign tumors of .which affect the bones of the spine and cause a change in their position;
- Spina Bifida is a congenital defect. That part of the spine in which it is located is not completely formed, it causes damage to the spinal cord and vertebrae;
- Conditions causing paralysis of .for example, cortical paralysis and poliomyelitis, as well as those conditions that result in reduced flexibility of the spine bones.
Risk factors for
Some groups of people have a high risk of developing kyphosis:
- Adolescent girls with abnormal posture are at increased risk of developing postural kyphosis.
- Boys aged 10-15 years are at increased risk for developing Sheyerman kyphosis.
- Elderly people with osteoporosis are at increased risk for vertebral fracture, which can lead to kyphosis.
- Patients with connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome, are also at increased risk.
When to Call a Doctor
Because kyphosis often does not show any signs and symptoms, it can go unnoticed before passing a standard physical examination or a scoliosis test at school. Some patients notice pain, curvature of the shoulders or hump in the upper back.
Contact your doctor to have your child undergo a physical examination if you notice signs of kyphosis. If you develop any signs or symptoms, take a physical examination to find out if you need further examination.
Although rare, kyphosis can lead to serious health problems, such as physical malformations, shortness of breath or damage to internal organs. You should see a doctor if you are experiencing any signs or symptoms of kyphosis.
Examination and diagnosis of
The doctor will record the medical history and perform a physical examination. Inspection may include:
Tilt test forward .The doctor will ask you to lean forward, watching your spine from the side. With kyphosis, the curvature of the upper back can become more prominent in this position. With postural kyphosis, the defects are corrected themselves when you lie on your back.
Neurological function test .Although the neurologic changes accompanying kyphosis are rare, the physician can check for their presence, paying attention to weakness, changes in sensitivity or paralysis below the kyphosis site.
Visualization of the spine .The doctor may order a radiographic examination to confirm the presence of kyphosis, to determine the degree of curvature and to detect deformity of the vertebrae, which helps determine the appearance of kyphosis. For example, the appearance of the wedge-shaped vertebrae or other characteristics seen on X-rays help to distinguish between postural kyphosis and Kheifa Sheyerman. In adults, x-rays can reveal arthritic changes in the spine, which can lead to increased pain. If the doctor suspects the presence of a tumor or infection, he can recommend conducting an MRI of the spine.
Investigation of lung function .The physician can also perform respiratory function tests to assess breathing problems caused by kyphosis.
Kyphosis can cause the following complications:
- Adolescents may develop a disruption in the proportions of the trunk due to a curved back.
- Deformation. The hump on the back can become noticeable over time.
- Back pain. In some cases, the curvature of the spine can cause pain and aggravation that aggravates pain.
- Difficulty breathing. In severe cases, kyphosis can lead to the fact that the ribs will press on the lungs, preventing breathing.
- Neurological signs and symptoms. Although in rare cases, it can be weakness or paralysis of the legs, as a result of squeezing the vertebral nerves.
Treatment of kyphosis depends on the cause of the disease and the signs and symptoms present.
Severe cases of
In these cases less aggressive treatments are used:
- Postural kyphosis .This kind of kyphosis does not progress, and the condition can improve on its own. The exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back, exercises for proper posture and sleep on a hard surface can help. Painkillers can help reduce discomfort if exercise and physiotherapy are not effective enough.
- Structural kyphosis .For kyphosis caused by spine pathology, treatment usually depends on age and sex, the severity of the symptoms and the magnitude of the bend of the spine. With Sheyerman kyphosis, only the observation of the progression of curvature may be recommended if the patient does not show symptoms. Anti-inflammatory drugs can help relieve pain. General strengthening physical exercises and physiotherapy can help alleviate the symptoms.
- Osteoporotic kyphosis .Multiple compression fractures in patients with low bone density can lead to abnormal spinal curvature. In the absence of pain or other symptoms, the treatment of kyphosis is not necessary. But the doctor can recommend the treatment of osteoporosis to prevent fractures and worsening of kyphosis.
More serious cases of
More serious cases of kyphosis require more aggressive treatment. The main methods are wearing a corset and, as an extreme case, an operation. The earlier treatment is begun in children and adolescents, the more effective it will be for curing deformity.
When to wear a corset
If a teenager is still growing and suffers from moderate or severe kyphosis, the doctor may recommend a corset. Wearing a corset can prevent further progression of the curvature and even provide some correction.
There are several varieties of corsets for children suffering from kyphosis. A doctor can help you choose the most effective corset for your child.
Those children who wear corsets usually have only some limitations and can participate in most activities. Although at first you can feel uncomfortable and even strange in the corset, it must be worn according to the prescription, so that the treatment is effective. After the process of bone growth, the child can remove the corset according to the doctor's prescription.
There are different types of corsets for the treatment of kyphosis in adults, these can be postural simulators or rigid corsets. The purpose of wearing a corset in adults is to relieve pain.
When an operation is needed
The operation on the spine carries a lot of risks, so the doctor can recommend surgery only if you or your child has the following:
- strong curvature of the spine, which can not be cured by other methods;
- continuing to progress kyphosis;
- debilitating pain, not amenable to drug treatment;
- presence of neurological disorders, for example, paralysis;
- kyphosis associated with a tumor or infection;
- surgery can be recommended to a baby with congenital kyphosis for straightening the spine.
The operation consists in implanting a metal structure( screws, hooks) into the spine, which allows to align the spine on special rods. After the operation, corsets, gypsum, etc. are not used.
The period of hospitalization for one operation is about 10 days. Such operations are also shown in scoliosis.posttraumatic and postoperative curvature of the spine. Non-operated spinal curvatures are accompanied by respiratory failure, displacement of internal organs, problems in pregnancy.
The standard classical surgery for kyphosis and scoliosis is the operation of French surgeons Cotrel and Dubusset. This method was first used in Ukraine in 1999 as far back as 1999.Now the International Center for Neurosurgery has introduced a new, more effective, modification of these operations, developed by the Korean surgeon Sook and American Lenka. The first such operations were carried out by us in December 2006.The International Center for Neurosurgery uses imported designs of American manufacture, which are considered the best in the world( CD HORIZON( M 10, M8), LEGACY -( Medtronic) USA).
Adaptation and support of
During growth, adolescents encounter physical and emotional changes in the body. Wearing a corset or having a noticeable deformation of the spine can complicate this already difficult period.
Ensure that your child has a number of attentive people, including a caring family, friends or even a professional counselor, if necessary, to whom he can seek help and advice. Synonyms of the disease: Sheyerman-Mau disease, Shoerman-Mau disease, Shoerman-Mau disease, Sheyerman-Mao disease, Shoerman-Mao disease, Shoerman's disease-Mao, hump, humpback.