Arthrosis of the knee joint: treatment and preventionArthrosis of the knee joint( gonarthrosis) is a disease that over time causes irreversible changes in the cartilage, leading to its gradual destruction due to circulatory disorders and the occurrence of degenerative processes in the joint. Timely medical treatment, physiotherapy, massage and gymnastics can slow the development of gonarthrosis.
How the knee joint works and its function
To understand how and what to treat gonarthrosis, it is necessary to remember a few basic features of knee functioning. This joint is formed by articular surfaces of the femoral and tibia, which are covered with hyaline cartilage. To ensure the congruence of the surfaces in the joint, the medial and lateral menisci are provided. In addition, the knee is strengthened by ligaments( some of them pass into the joint cavity) and the periarthric bag.
Inside the knee is a synovial fluid that provides lubrication of the joint, feeding the cartilage surface and preventing friction of the joint surfaces from each other. The peculiarities of the structure of the joint are such that only 2 kinds of movements are performed in it: extension and bending of the knee, and also, if the leg is bent in the knee, rotation around the axis. The knee joint is one of the largest joints of the body, and it is on it that the main load is when the person is standing. It increases significantly when lifting weights, excessive body weight, jumping and running.
Causes of arthrosis
There is a primary and secondary gonarthrosis. The primary form of this disease develops due to anomalies of the femoral or tibia, ligaments or surfaces of the joint. In this case, the knee experiences strong overloads, which provoke the destruction of the cartilage.
Secondary form is caused by injuries and knee diseases. Its main causes are:
- injuries of the knee of a traumatic nature - ruptures of ligaments, sprains, fractures of bones, etc.;
- removal of the meniscus - increased wear of the hyaline cartilage;
- excessive load on the joint in athletes and people engaged in certain types of professional activities or are overweight.
- inflammatory diseases of the knee joint - arthritis. Long-term arthritis also leads to a disruption of cartilage nutrition and may eventually be complicated by arthrosis;
- metabolic diseases that lead to the deposition of salt in the joint;
- disease of the nervous system or blood vessels, resulting in impaired innervation and nutrition of the knee joint.
Depending on the cause, arthrosis can develop on one or both knees. One-sided process most often occurs due to injuries, operations, and bilateral - with excessive body weight.
What happens in the joint with gonarthrosis?
Disturbance of blood circulation of the joint due to spasm of blood vessels or other causes leads to disruption of microcirculation and hypoxia of the cartilaginous tissue, which is accompanied by the gradual death of cartilage elements and its destruction. If the degenerative process affects the synovial membrane, then it begins to produce only a small amount of intra-articular fluid, there is a "dryness of the knee".The particles of the destroyed cartilage in the joint cause reactive inflammation of other cartilage elements and promote the release of liposomal enzymes, which further dissolve and destroy the intraarticular surfaces.
Symptoms of gonarthrosis
- Initial stage. From time to time a person is worried about knee pain, especially if you need to climb or go down the stairs, get up after sleeping off the bed. It has been observed for several years.
- The second stage. Pain sensations and crunching occur when any movement is made. On the roentgenogram, signs of beginning degeneration of articular surfaces are revealed. The volume of movements in the joint is somewhat reduced.
- Third stage. The pain does not pass even at rest, the joints can no longer bend or unbend until the end, resulting in a change in the gait: it becomes "in the garbage".O- or X-shaped deformation of the knee joints is observed.
Which doctor treats gonarthrosis?
This depends on the stage of the disease and the intensity of the pain syndrome. For example, a patient can be referred to an orthopedic traumatologist, a rheumatologist, and in more mild cases of arthrosis - even to a therapist or family doctor. In any situation, the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint at all stages of the disease should be complex and selected individually.
How to treat arthrosis of the knee?
The exact amount of treatment depends on the stage and severity of gonarthrosis. In any case, its goal is to achieve a stable and long-lasting remission, and in the early stages and completely cure it, eliminating the effects of the causes that caused it( for example, normalizing body weight).
The main goals of treating knee arthrosis:
- eliminate pain;
- provide cartilage nutrients by slowing or completely stopping its destruction;
- increase the amount of movement in the joint.
In order to reduce a painful attack, to eliminate reactive inflammation and relieve exacerbation, hormonal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( injections, tablets, ointments) - diclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen or NSAIDs of the new generation( movalis, xsefokam) are used.
Chondroprotectors( chondrotic, dona, mucosate) help normalize cartilage nutrition and prevent its further destruction. However, they do not relieve the pain, so patients are not always sure that they help. In fact, these drugs are included in the basic therapy of joint diseases, because they create a fertile soil for the restoration of cartilage and its protection against new injuries. In addition, substitutes for intra-articular fluid and stabilizers for lysosomal membranes are used. If necessary, blockade of the joint can be performed. To improve blood circulation with arthrosis, tablets are prescribed or injections of no-shpy and other antispasmodics.
Physiotherapy and therapeutic gymnastics
On the effectiveness of physical therapy and exercise therapy without exacerbation - this is the best medicine for arthrosis. Physiotherapeutic procedures usually use:
- laser therapy;
- electrophoresis of medicinal solutions;
- impulsive currents;
- paraffin and mud treatment.
At home, it can be warming compresses, knee self-massage or contrasting baths, which also improve blood circulation. LFK provides for the performance of exercises that are performed with a minimum load on the joint. For example, swimming, aqua aerobics, an exercise bike, and also isometric exercises, performed mainly in a lying or sitting position.
X-ray therapy and surgical treatment
X-ray therapy is prescribed for advanced cases of gonarthrosis, severe pain syndrome and ineffectiveness of other treatment methods. If the joint is completely destroyed and can not perform its functions, replace it with an endoprosthesis.
In order to prevent exacerbation and further destruction of cartilage, the following is needed:
- diet, which helps to normalize body weight and contains all the microelements, vitamins and nutrients necessary for cartilage;
- physical activity. When gonarthrosis can not overload the knee, so running, jumping, long standing on your knees should be replaced by an exercise bike or riding a bicycle, swimming or aqua aerobics. You should also perform a set of exercise exercises on a daily basis, which the doctor will recommend;
- comfortable shoes. In this case, the studs or simply high unstable heels will also contribute to the progression of gonarthrosis, therefore it is desirable to refuse this type of footwear.
Arthrosis of the knee joint in the initial stage: causes of the disease, treatment
When walking or running, our knee joints undergo constant stress and strain, which often causes pain. The most common topic of contacting health professionals is pain in the knees. The standard diagnosis after a physical examination is the initial stage of arthrosis of the knee joint. How to determine the cause of the pain and what should be done to eliminate it?
Unfortunately, it is impossible to answer absolutely unambiguously to these questions, which concern almost all. Problems of the knee joint are so diverse, and the reasons for their appearance are so many that hurry with hasty conclusions should not be.
The most common of these causes, the consequence of which is such a pathology as the initial stage of arthrosis, we will today talk. In addition to this, we explain its symptoms, as well as prevention and treatment.
The main reason for the appearance of arthrosis of the knee joint
There is another medical term, which denotes such a joint lesion without an inflammatory process - it is gonarthrosis. It is gonarthrosis that can later lead to deformation and destruction of cartilage of joints, which leads to pain syndrome and limits its mobility.
The cause of arthrosis of the knee joint, or gonarthrosis, can be divided into such 2 stages:
- is the original, that is, one that has arisen from the already existing pathology of the joint;
- secondary, that is, one that has already arisen because of acquired injuries or infections.
Let's stop at the 1st stage. This form of the original pathology is quite common and can be manifested from a very early age. It is caused not by the natural formation of the superficial tissue of the joints or the human ligament apparatus. It is quite natural that when walking, the degenerative joint is disproportionately loaded, this causes painful sensations and destructive consequences.
Stage 2 contains all the injuries and mechanical effects of varying severity of the damage caused to the health. These can be bruises, fractures, sprains and dislocations of the knee joint. Possible consequences of surgical intervention, which invariably leads to the destruction of the integrity of the knee. High degree of sports loads, not corresponding to the proportions of the body, excessive completeness - all these are factors that provoke the initial stages of knee arthrosis.
By the way, excessive weight not only provokes the disease, but also creates an unfavorable background that promotes the formation in the knees of excessive pressure on the articular cartilage and completely destroys the metabolism.
In this case, fluid accumulates in the articular cavities of the knee, which leads to additional complications, which also occur in the stage of arthrosis. Add here any surgery on the legs or diseases, accompanied by protracted spasms of vessels or leg muscles - deformation is inevitable!
Usually, due to traumatic effects on the knees or hip joint, unilateral gonarthrosis develops. If this is an effect of excess weight, then - two-sided.
The main signs of knee arthrosis
This process does not happen instantly. Usually a person for a long time at first feels a slight discomfort in the knee joint area and only after years these feelings develop into severe pain. People over 40 years, suffering from excess weight and having additional complications in the form of varicose veins, are subject to the initial stage of arthrosis of the knee joint much earlier.
Let's look at the traditional sequence of stages of this disease:
- Prolonged or initial. The usual period is from one year to several years. From time to time there are not too sharp pains in times of stress on the knee.
- Second or critical stage. There is already a noticeable characteristic accompanying the crunch of any sharp motion of the knee joint. The volume of his motor activity decreases and the knee increase is visually determined, which indicates its deformation and possible accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity.
- The last stage of arthrosis of the knee joint, respectively, will be characterized by acute pain in the knee joint, even at rest. By this time the stage of arthrosis passes into a chronic, the person reacts painfully to any weather phenomena, and his gait acquires a specific "duck" course, "waddling".In this case the patient's legs are bent in this stage.
In the case of arthrosis of the knee due to the injury, all these listed stages begin to pass even faster.
Prevention and treatment of the initial stage of arthrosis of the knee
It is necessary to take into account that absolutely all medical measures will completely depend on the degree of knee injury. At the same time, it is possible to achieve the effectiveness of treatment only if the cause of arthrosis is eliminated. If this process is at an early stage of formation, then a complete cure is possible! With a chronically neglected process, initially only a more or less prolonged rest period of the diseased organ can be achieved.
To restore deformed cartilage, strengthen ligaments and increase motor activity in the joint, it is necessary to undergo complex therapy. This includes not only medicines, but also manual massage, physiotherapy and, if necessary, surgical intervention.
The selection of medicines should in no case be independent, as self-medication of such a complex disease is fraught with serious consequences. The main thrust of drug treatment is the elimination of pain, localization of the inflammatory process and neutralization of the stage of arthrosis. For this purpose, special preparations may be prescribed for insertion into the cavity of the knee joint. It is not excluded and the appointment of hormonal drugs.
For the active circulation of blood in the area of the lesion, agents are used to relieve vasospasms and relax the muscles. Additionally, preparations for vitamin make-up and restoration of cartilaginous tissue are prescribed.
In the complex of preventive measures and for the treatment of the initial stage of arthrosis of the knee necessarily include a relaxing musculature massage. With its help, an increase in the volume of movement, removal of spasm and increased blood circulation is achieved, the position of the joints and bones is adjusted, including correcting the hip bones.
If the initial stage has long been transformed into an irreversible lesion of the knee joint, then a radical correction of the deformed organ is performed, namely implantation( prosthetics). Today there exists and actively applies only 1 way to replace the broken joint - to install a metal endoprosthesis. Such implantation is by no means durable, and its cost is so high that it is not necessary to talk about the mass application of this method.
To the treatment of the initial stage of arthrosis include a complex of restorative therapy, which includes the entire spectrum of spa treatment - from physiotherapy and physiotherapy to kinesitherapy. The concept of kinesitherapy includes specially designed exercises using loads of various degrees of severity and medical simulators.
If necessary, pressure on the knee is recommended to be reduced by means of walking sticks, crutches or orthoses - the so called knee pads that soften the load when moving. A large number of simple and complex recipes of folk medicine with success is used in the treatment of any stage of arthrosis.
These can be various compresses and ointments based on natural ingredients from animal wool and medical bile to herbal dues. Predominantly, the prescription of traditional medicine is quite effective, since it is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of knee joint disease and eliminating painful sensations.
Additional prevention methods
First of all, it is a full and well-balanced diet. The diet, in addition to proteins and carbohydrates, should include the optimal content of vitamins and trace elements. It is strongly recommended to avoid bad habits and try to bring your weight back to normal.
General recommendations on nutrition for the prevention of arthrosis are as follows:
- rejection of red meat;
- rejection of products with high fat content;
- use of a cold and similar dishes that have cartilage and gelatin substance as part of their formulation;
- increase in consumption of pure spring water to 2.5 liters or more;
- complete rejection of alcohol-containing beverages and regular intake of vitamins A, D and B.
It is highly recommended to go over your wardrobe to exclude uncomfortable shoes from it, for example, one-sidedly worn or high-heeled. Follow the postures to avoid crossing or weaving the legs in a sitting position. Protect your joints from prolonged cooling and, especially, from hypothermia. Avoid stressful situations and do not get nervous over trifles.
Try to lead a healthy lifestyle, in which the body will be in good shape. In addition, it is extremely important that such a physical load, which would correspond to the condition of the knees and hip joint. It is for this reason that when exercising, before weight lifting or intensive performance of certain exercises, self-control and extra care are necessary.
The most important preventive condition after the initial stage of the disease is stated is the prevention of its further development, since if the process is started, it can lead to disability. In case of timely detection of arthrosis and preventive measures to prevent it, the probability of complete cure is high.
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree - when the disease can still be stoppedGonarthrosis is a chronic non-inflammatory disease that affects the knee joints, the consequence of which is a violation of their functions and destruction of the articular cartilage.
The mechanical factor is the main cause of the disease. After microtraumatization of the articular cartilage, its degeneration begins and the metabolism in the tissues is disturbed.
There is a multilayered hyaline cartilage between the articular surfaces, which reduces friction and improves glide. Its structure allows to withstand loads and maintain elasticity. When the disease cartilage is stratified, cracked and thinned.The progression of the disease leads to the exposure of the bone, its densification and the appearance of outgrowths( osteophytes), which causes the deformation of the joints.
Stages of the disease
Gonoarthrosis is the primary, arising initially, and secondary, developing against the background of other joint diseases.
Gonarthrosis has three degrees of severity:
- of the first degree of .This is the initial stage of the disease, which is expressed in periodic pain, which is exacerbated after physical exertion and small swelling in the knee joint area.
- of the second degree .Duration and intensity of pain increases. There is deformation of the joint, difficulty in flexion and
- of the third degree .The pain becomes quite strong and occurs not only with physical exertion, but also at rest. There is a meteorological dependence, the gait changes and the mobility of the joint is limited.
What is the peculiarity of
grade 2 gonarthrosis? By gonarthrosis is meant the defeat of cartilage and bony growths arising on the joint, xytosis of the articular tissue. Arthrosis of the knee - deg. ..
Is it possible to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree and why does the disability come
Gonarthrosis of the third degree of the knee joint is the heaviest. The disease significantly complicates the life of patients, severely limits work capacity....
Stop the disease before it's too late
Grade 1 is the most favorable for the patient, as his progress at this stage can be stopped.
The disease develops gradually and unnoticed and can last a long time.
Often the patient can not remember exactly at what point he began to feel heaviness and discomfort in the joints. Usually, this is attributed to the resulting injuries, physical activity or fatigue. But at this point the structure of the joint has already begun to change.
Then there is pain in the knee. It is not very intense, and in most cases it is also left without attention. Symptoms can completely disappear for a while, lulling the patient's vigilance.
Causes of the disease
There are many reasons for the occurrence of gonarthrosis of the first degree, but the most frequent are:
- Chronic stress.
- Disturbance of nutrition and blood supply of articular tissues, resulting in dystrophic changes.
- Overweight, in which the knee joints experience a constant load.
- Violation of the local circulation in case of varicose veins and venous stasis.
- The loads are not age appropriate. When a person over forty is trying to play sports too intensively.
- Congenital weakness of the ligamentous apparatus.
- Metabolic disorders.
In half the cases, the cause of the disease is spasm of the muscles of the anterior surface of the thigh. It is found in the vast majority of people suffering from the disease.
The patient does not notice a spasm, he can feel fatigue in his legs and aching pain in the lower back. If the muscles are too long in the spasmodic state, then gradually the knees "tighten", and their movement is limited. The most common cause of this pathology is chronic stress.At home, a predisposition to a disease can be easily determined. Lying on the stomach, you need to tighten the heel to the buttock.
A healthy person will be able to do, with tension on the front of the thigh. With spasm of muscles in this place there will be very strong painful sensations that will prevent the exercise.
Symptoms of the disease in the first stage
The main symptoms of gonarthrosis:
- Severity and discomfort in the joints of , in the absence of physical activity.
- Pain .Usually appears in the morning after waking up. During the day, when the joint is being developed, it disappears. In the future such a symptom is manifested after a day's rest or prolonged sitting. Also, knees hurt during the ascent or descent of the stairs. It is caused by the fact that the whole weight of the body rests on the leg bent at the knee and the articular cartilage contracts, resting against each other. Pain worries after a long walk or playing sports, but it completely disappears after a person sits down for a rest.
- Weakness of muscles .This symptom appears quite rarely.
If you have any of the symptoms, you need to see a doctor for an examination and an X-ray study. This will determine the stage of the disease and track the dynamics of its development.
Even in the early stages of the disease, the pictures show a narrowing of the joint space or the presence of small growths on the bones.
Treatment - the sooner, the better.
Even if the patient's quality of life has not worsened, treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint of 1 degree should be started immediately.
The goal is to stop the disease and reverse the dystrophic processes of .
Although the disease can not be completely cured, its progression can be significantly slowed down. The most effective is a comprehensive method of treatment, which includes:
- Weight correction .It is usually the first stage of treatment in obese patients. While the body mass index will not go off scale, other methods will be powerless. Since even with little physical activity, the load on the knee joints is much higher than normal.
- Exercises for stretching and strengthening of muscles .With the developed muscles of the legs and the absence of spasms, the load on the knees decreases. A sparing exercise should be prescribed by a doctor. In this case, squats, jumps and runs are excluded. You can take yoga, cycling or swimming.
- Choosing the right shoe .Women suffering from the initial stage of gonarthrosis should give up shoes with a very high heel, the optimal height in this case is three to five centimeters. Flats with flat soles are also contraindicated. Those who spend a lot of time on their feet are best able to buy orthopedic shoes or insoles.
- Select knee joints that fix the joints and ligaments of the .They are used when a person has to exercise.
- Balanced power supply .Doctors recommend, as often as possible to eat a cold, a broth, cooked on bones or jelly. These products contain a large number of chondroprotectors and collagen. Useful are meat and vegetable protein foods, dairy products, nuts and fruits. From the menu you need to completely exclude fatty meat and alcoholic beverages.
- Physiotherapy, massage and therapeutic gymnastics .
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In most cases, at this stage of the disease a person does not need pain medication. If necessary, drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs based on ibuprofen, paracetamol or nimesulide are prescribed.
They can be in the form of injections, tablets, creams and gels. If the medicine has to be used for more than seven days, you should definitely consult a doctor.
For the restoration of cartilaginous tissue I use preparations from the group of chondroprotectors. Most often they include chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine, which stop the destruction of cartilaginous tissue, restore its structure and the development of joint lubrication.
Means are available in different dosage forms:
- Capsules, powders and tablets for oral administration : Teraflex, Chondroitin-Akos, Arthron Complex, Dona, Structum.
- Solutions for injections : Mukosat, Alflutop, Elbona.
- Ointments and Gels : Chondroxide, Hondrasil.
If the course is interrupted, if it is not fed, it will start to break up again. The course of treatment lasts from six to eighteen months, the dosage and form of the drug is prescribed by the attending physician.
If you do not start treating the disease in time, it will pass to subsequent stages, in which pain and stiffness in the knee joints becomes a constant companion.
Biomechanics of the body can be disturbed, which will lead to intervertebral hernias and arthrosis of other joints. For successful treatment, the doctor's recommendations must be fully implemented.
Prevention of the disease
In order to avoid gonarthrosis, you need to eat right and balanced, avoiding overeating.
Correctly determine the level of physical activity, and compare their age. When practicing active sports, people after the age of forty should not be equal to those who are not thirty.In the event of knee injury, immediately seek medical help.
It is necessary to choose the right shoes, and when using varicose veins, use special stockings.
Do not ignore the symptoms, because timely, conservative complex treatment can stop the disease and preserve the function of the knee joints.
Gonarthrosis of the first degree is the initial stage of a fairly serious disease, which can significantly worsen the quality of life.
For the diagnosis of the disease and the appointment of a complex of medical measures, you need to see a doctor for a rheumatologist, arthrologist or orthopedist.
Prevention and treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint: folk remedies and gymnasticsAuthor: Klimovich Elina( Average rating: 4)
Deforming osteoarthritis is easier to prevent than cure - this is an indisputable fact. A healthy lifestyle is the basis for the prevention of arthrosis of the knee joint. A complex of exercises, folk remedies, a diet and an optimistic attitude will save you from the disease, and if the problem is already there, help to stop the destruction of the joint.
Deforming osteoarthritis is easier to prevent than treat - this is an indisputable fact. Once launched, the pathological process will not stop on its own. When the destruction of the cartilage has already begun, to prevent the complete immobilization of the joint is only capable of correctly selected treatment. Traditional and folk treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint articulation, diet, intake of dietary supplements, as well as baths, mud, sea bathing - all this has a favorable effect on the condition of the knees and does not allow the disease to win.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint: gymnastics and K0
Prevention of arthrosis of the knee joint means measures to prevent the disease and prevent its exacerbations.
To prevent the development of the disease will help:
- motor activity;
- prevention and treatment of joint injuries;
- correction of "natural errors" - correction of flat feet, curvature of limbs, congenital dislocation of the hip.
Often you can hear that physical activities "wear out" the joints - this is fundamentally not true. It would be strange if arthrosis of the knee joint caused a complex of morning exercises. On the contrary, physical education, promote the mobility of joints, strengthen muscles, improve coordination of movements, prevent injuries and diseases, not worse, and even better than the popular "popular treatment".Osteoarthritis of the knee joint, more precisely its prevention in people with joint injuries, overweight, lack of physical training does not imply heavy loads, but dosed walking, cycling, swimming, special joint exercises will only benefit.
Walking is the main physical activity of a person, and it is she who should become a favorite anti-arthrosis "folk" remedy. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint limits the time of stress on the joints to 30-40 minutes, but during the day the patient should walk up to 7 km.
What exercises allows you to perform arthrosis of the knee joint? The complex of exercises should include, first of all, stretching and slow movements with increasing amplitude. In this case, it is better not to engage in amateur activities, but to get recommendations from a physician at the exercise room. Specifically designed for arthrosis of the knee joint gymnastics, including a competent set of exercises, will help increase knee mobility, will stimulate blood circulation and promote cartilage regeneration.
Nutrition for arthrosis
Overweight is a common problem for the body, but for the knee joints it is just a killer factor. Suffice it to say that an increase in body weight of only 1 kg adds 4 kg of load per knee joint. Normalization of weight helps to reduce this load and prevent gonarthrosis, gymnastics in this case is a great help.
Note that there is no special diet for arthrosis. Folk dishes such as pork ears, legs, holodtsa, that is, products containing collagen, are certainly useful, but not enough to become an apotheosis of folk therapy of arthrosis of the knee joint. In the diet of patients with arthrosis must necessarily include a complex of products - suppliers of calcium, B vitamins, C.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint folk remedies
As self-help for arthrosis of the knees, rubs, ointments, herbal compresses that improve blood circulation in the joint region are effective. Folk remedies serve as an effective distraction therapy during exacerbations, warm, help reduce pain, relax muscles, ligaments, improve joint mobility, help restore cartilage and calm down the disease.
There is no doubt about the benefits of therapeutic muds, baths, sea bathing, massage, walking in the fresh air. In addition to directly affecting the joints, they help to relieve tension, tune in to recovery, which is very important for any disease, including deforming arthrosis. To this end, the patient is assigned:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).By suppressing the activity of inflammatory enzymes, such drugs help to remove soreness and swelling of the joints. They can be used either inside( in the form of injections, tablets, capsules), and externally( in the form of ointments, creams, gels and patches).Because of the toxic effect on the gastrointestinal tract, the administration of any NSAID is recommended to be limited to 2-3 weeks.
Restoration of mobility and inhibition of dystrophic changes
Drugs that improve microcirculation and metabolism in tissues. Stimulation of blood flow improves the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the joint tissues, contributing to the active course of recovery processes in them. For treatment, both intramuscular injections and oral medications are used. The duration of the treatment course is determined individually.
Chondroprotectors. The main task of these drugs is to restore the destroyed cartilaginous tissues and stop the destruction of the joints. Medicinal forms of chondroprotectors are represented by injections, tablets and various external agents( gels, ointments, creams).The effect of the use of protective drugs develops slowly, so the course of treatment is always long - at least 3 months. Although Western medicine does not use hondoprotectors to such an extent, because of their studies, there is no significant effect on their use.
Glucocorticoids. They are used in the form of intraarticular injections with ineffectiveness of other therapies. Hormonal drugs quickly eliminate the symptoms of pain and inflammation, but they themselves have a destructive effect on cartilage, so they are not prescribed more than once a year and only in critical situations.
Nutrition for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint
The doctor rheumatologist-arthrologist Evdokimenko about arthrosis of the knee joint( theses from the video):
- recently the number of patients with knees became more than other joints;
- recently appeared atypical manifestations of diseases of the knees;
- is the cause of knee disease in the diet. Absolutely all modern products from the supermarket are filled with preservatives, especially smoked meat and sausages. Preservatives hold water( do not let the products dry up) due to the fact that they contain salts. These salts also accumulate in the knees;
- knee arthosis is treated more easily than arthrosis of the hip joint, just because it is treated with a diet. On the diet with gonarthrosis, you can learn from the video.
Surgical treatment is resorted to if neither medication nor physical therapy does not bring the patient noticeable relief. The following types of interventions are practiced:
Arthroscopy .This is the so-called "small" surgical operation, in which the surgeon conducts all manipulation through micro-punctures in the joint. During the procedure, fragments of cartilage, protein clumps and bony growths from the articular cavity are removed, which provoke inflammation. In the end, the joint is washed abundantly with saline solution. Absolute indications for arthroscopy are: damage to the cartilage, articular membranes, ligaments, tears of the meniscus. At the 3 stages of arthrosis, when most of the joint is already destroyed, this procedure is ineffective.
Periarticular osteotomy of the of the tibia and femur. During the operation, the doctor restores the natural axis of the lower limb, the displacement of which occurs due to deformation of the knee joint. This reduces the load on the affected knee and eliminates pain.
Endoprosthetics .Implies replacement of the damaged joint with an implant. The prosthesis can be complete or partial. The operation is indicated at stage 3 of arthrosis or persistent pain syndrome, which is not removed by drugs. The procedure is carried out under general anesthesia. The rehabilitation period takes an average of 2 months.
Prevention of disease
To reduce the risk of gonarthrosis, doctors advise patients:
- To lead an active lifestyle. For normal operation, the knee joints should receive a sufficient amount of nutrients that are supplied to them with blood. Motor activity can increase the intensity of blood supply.
- Avoid high stress on the joints. Do not lift weights. During physical work, you need to take breaks every 2 hours.
- Watch the weight. Excess body weight creates an additional burden on the legs. In the elderly, take food supplements based on chondroprotectors. Such drugs "nourish" cartilaginous tissue.
- Wear comfortable shoes. Every step is pressure on the joints. Comfortable footwear, performing a shock-absorbing function, reduces the load on the cartilage and prevents their premature wear.