What is arthrosis of the 1st degree ankle joint?
The pathology of the musculoskeletal system occupies a special place in the overall structure of the morbidity of the population. Most often affected joints. Each joint performs a certain function, participates in the movement of one or another part of the body. Many joints experience heavy loads and are most susceptible to trauma. These include the ankle joint. He connects the shin with the talus bone of the foot. Often in medical practice, a disease such as arthrosis of the 1st degree of the ankle joint is diagnosed. The cause of this ailment in most cases is trauma.
Synonyms for arthrosis are osteoarthrosis and deforming arthrosis. Osteoarthritis of the ankle is of great social importance. This is due to the fact that the disease occurs at any age and it can lead to a person's disability. In addition, arthrosis requires long-term treatment, which causes significant financial costs. Of great importance is the fact that arthrosis at a late stage severely limits a person's ability to work, which causes economic damage to the state. It is necessary to consider in more detail what the etiology, clinic and treatment of this pathology are.
Characteristics of arthrosis of the ankle
Not everyone knows the definition of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative-dystrophic process that develops in the joints, resulting from changes in the structure of the cartilaginous tissue. Arthrosis of the ankle joint can occur both in young people and in the elderly. Arthrosis of 1 degree and 2 degrees is less severe. Tens of millions of people suffer from this disease all over the world. It is interesting that the incidence of arthrosis of the ankle sharply increases with age. There are also some sex differences in the level of morbidity. It is established that among the elderly women are most affected, whereas at a young age, men suffer.
Osteoarthritis is a group of diseases that have different causes, but a similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. Almost always, osteoarthritis provokes deformation of bone tissue. The pathogenesis of an ankle is quite simple. With a high load, the state of the cartilaginous tissue is disturbed. In a healthy person, the cartilaginous plate possesses great elasticity and is quickly restored upon deformation. With osteoarthritis, the cartilage loses strength, becomes dry and rough.
Deformation occurs due to the growth of bone tissue. Then an inflammation of the joint capsule takes place, fluid begins to accumulate. In addition, the food of the cartilaginous tissue worsens, because the composition of the synovial fluid changes. This disease with time can progress, with arthrosis of the ankle joint of the first stage can pass into the second, then into the third.
Etiology of the disease
Osteoarthrosis of the ankle joint can develop for various reasons. Depending on the etiology, the primary and secondary forms of pathology are distinguished. If the etiologic factor is not established, then we are talking about primary arthrosis. Most often in medical practice, there is a secondary form of the disease. In this situation, the main etiological factors are:
- traumatic ankle injury;
- pathology of metabolism;
- endocrine diseases;
- other diseases of the musculoskeletal system;
- physical illness.
Often, an ankle is affected due to tuberculosis of bones, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus. In this case, arthrosis is one of the manifestations of the disease or its complication. It is necessary to know that the cause of the disease can be congenital pathology of the joint( dysplasia).This disease is characterized by a violation of biomechanics, which is the starting mechanism for the development of osteoarthritis.
Arthrosis of the ankle is very often formed against the background of the inflammatory process. This occurs when there is an autoimmune or infectious pathology. In the latter case, an important role is played by various microorganisms( streptococci, staphylococci).In some cases, the cause of pathology of the ankle joint is syphilis, tick-borne encephalitis, gonorrhea. Osteoarthritis of the ankle is formed not without the participation of predisposing factors. These include overweight, elderly age, genetic factors, the type of professional activity, sports activity.
Clinical manifestations at 1st degree of arthrosis
The defeat of the ankle joint occurs in several stages. The first is the easiest and does not bring much discomfort to the sick person. Arthrosis of stage 1 is characterized by the fact that the function of the synovial membrane is impaired. At this stage, the biochemical composition of the synovial fluid that changes the cartilage tissue can change. In the future, this affects the metabolic processes and the state of cartilage. With a high load, the ankle function may be impaired. This causes pain and can lead to an inflammation of the ankle joint. If the third stage has distinct X-ray changes in the affected area, then at stage 1 they are absent or not pronounced strongly.
Arthrosis of the joint of the 2nd degree differs in that gradually the cartilage begins to deteriorate. In the process, bone tissue is involved. This contributes to the formation of osteophytes. They are marginal bony outgrowths. At 2 degrees of the disease muscles often suffer. Their trophy is broken. If there is a 2 degree disease is very difficult to stop. Almost always the second stage of ankle arthrosis passes into the third. For 3 degrees, deformation of bone tissue, shortening of the ligamentous apparatus is characteristic. All this leads to impaired motor activity. At grade 3 chronic pain syndrome is observed.
Diagnosis of osteoarthritis includes three main components: anamnesis of the disease and life of the patient, the results of external examination and data of instrumental research. The presence of a second degree of disease indicates the need for drug therapy. Anamnesis of the disease is of great importance for setting the right diagnosis. Complaints of the patient with osteoarthritis may include morning stiffness, pain syndrome, restriction of movement. All this is typical for osteoarthritis of the ankle joint of the 2nd degree or the third degree.
At 1 stage of the patient can not bother. The final diagnosis is made on the basis of X-ray examination of the affected area. It is able to detect narrowing of the joint gap, deformation, subluxations, the presence of osteophytes. All these signs can be determined at 2 or 3 stages of the disease. It must be remembered that when the first symptoms of the disease appear, you need to see a doctor. It is known that osteoarthritis tends to progress. In the absence of adequate therapy, the first degree can go to the second, and then to the third. The outcome of osteoarthritis is the destruction of the ankle joint and the formation of ankylosis( immobility).All this testifies that medical measures should be conducted as soon as possible.
Treatment of osteoarthritis at the first stage is carried out by conservative methods. At 2 and 3 stages often resort to an operative measure. To avoid the progression of pathology and ankylosis, endoprosthetics are performed. This is the most effective method of treatment.
At the first stage, treatment includes diet compliance, maintenance of motor activity at a normal level, therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy, and massage.
In some cases, laser therapy and saturation of the affected area with oxygen( oxygen therapy) are used.
For normalization of metabolic processes in bone and cartilage tissues, it is necessary to monitor food. It is known that various microelements, in particular, phosphorus and calcium, are involved in the construction of bone tissue. Patients are encouraged to eat foods rich in these trace elements( milk, dairy products, fish).
As for exercise therapy, it is advisable to conduct it only after the disappearance of signs of inflammation. Before this the ankle should be at rest. The complex of exercises is selected individually for each patient. In addition, the motor load increases. The thing is that if there is a pain syndrome, the sick person starts to move less, hypodynamia occurs. This leads to weakness of muscles and ligaments.
To strengthen the ankle and normalize metabolic processes in the cartilage and bone tissues, medications are prescribed. At 1 and 2 stages of the disease chondroprotectors are used. They can be applied inside or inserted into the cavity of the ankle joint. Along with them, drugs that are derivatives of hyaluronic acid are used. The latter is part of the synovial fluid. In the presence of pain syndrome, painkillers from the NSAID group are used. If the synovitis has developed, then the administration of corticosteroids is indicated.
Thus, osteoarthritis of the ankle at the first stage may not manifest itself in any way. Very often, patients seek help at the height of the illness. The main goal of treatment in this situation is to prevent the progression of pathology and formation of ankylosis. If you contact a doctor in time, you can avoid serious complications.
Osteoarthrosis of the ankle
Osteoarthrosis of the ankle is a chronic disease that affects all the elements of the joint, especially bone and cartilaginous tissue. A lot of people are facing the disease, in most cases it is inextricably linked with arthritis. Most often with complaints of pain in the ankle, patients who have crossed the boundary in 50 years.
Stages of development of ankle joint osteoarthrosis
Doctors distinguish several stages of the development of the disease:
Osteoarthrosis of the ankle of the first degree. Such a diagnosis the patient can hear at the very beginning of the development of the disease. This period is not characterized by significant damage to the cartilaginous tissue. The joint looks as usual, no visible changes have occurred. But the pathological process has already been launched and it is expressed in the fact that cells of cartilage do not receive nutrients, they cease to be renewed and eventually die off. Next, adjacent tissues and cells begin to suffer. Despite the painful feelings, people are in no hurry for medical help.
Osteoarthrosis of the second degree ankle. Such a diagnosis is made when the manifestations of the disease become pronounced. The pain starts to torment the person regularly, they can not stop at all. The joint is deformed and increases in size. X-ray study shows that irreversible proliferation of bone tissue occurred far beyond the joint. Most people at this stage turn to the doctor for advice.
Ankle osteoarthritis deforming. A similar diagnosis can be heard in the event that there are changes visible to the naked eye. Strongly affected cartilage, articular bags and ligaments, which eventually led to deformation of the ankle.
Causes of ankle joint osteoarthrosis
There are several reasons that lead to osteoarthritis of the ankle:
Traumatic joint damage.
Congenital disorders of the joint tissues.
The presence of a different source of inflammation, for example, arthrosis, leading to a secondary disease.
Poisoning, hypothermia, frequent viral infections. Excess weight.
Lack of nutrients, metabolic disorders.
Diseases associated with impaired hormone production.
Symptoms of ankle arthritis
Depending on the stage of the disease, the symptoms can vary, aggravated with time:
Pain, which gradually becomes stronger. Initially, it can appear only when walking or running, also during sports, and in a quiet state it decreases or disappears altogether. As the disease progresses, even at night the pain does not recede, it becomes aching and does not allow the person to fully rest. For the second stage of development of osteoarthritis is characterized by the so-called starting pain, which occurs in the morning, after a night's sleep, when a person rises to the foot.
Stiffness of movement, limitation of mobility of joints.
Clamping the limb in one position.
Redness of the ankle, its swelling, there may be an increase in temperature in the area of inflammation. These symptoms are characteristic of the acute stage of the disease.
Joint deformity, which is aggravated by the proliferation of bone tissue.
The inability to step on the foot is the most vivid symptom, which says that the disease has reached its apogee.
Related: Ankle pain
Treatment of ankle joint osteoarthrosis
Modern medicine offers to people suffering from osteoarthritis of the ankle the following methods of therapeutic effect:
A variety of treated complexes, which include: the appointment of electrophoresis with various medications, treatment with leeches, mud,as well as magnetic therapy.
Visit to the massage room. Such a procedure will help to increase the flow of useful substances to the affected tissues, venous blood from the affected area will flow out, thereby swelling will be removed, and the pathological process will slow down.
A complex of exercises designed to stretch the muscles, improving their elasticity so that they better support the aching joint.
Chondoprotectors, which contribute to the fact that the cartilaginous tissue begins to recover, the process of its wear is slowed down.
Reducing painful sensations. To this end, you can take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as analgin and paracetamol. Some creams besides healing and stimulating properties have the ability to anesthetize damaged areas.
Reduces the load on the ankle joint. In particular, this applies to those people who are overweight. They need to establish nutrition and normalize body weight. Otherwise, any procedures will be useless. Refusal to lift weights and from exercising overly active sports.
Reception of vitamin and mineral complexes.
Discarding bad habits.
To improve the movement of the joints will help injections of Fermatron and Duralan.
Use of comfortable shoes, with special cushioning insole.
Surgical intervention, which is used in the most neglected cases.
On the topic: List of modern medicines and joint preparations
It should be understood that folk methods of treatment are auxiliary procedures that are more conducive to the removal of puffiness and reduce pain symptoms, so do not take them as a panacea for the disease. They are most effective when the pathological process has not yet reached the second stage.
The following compresses can be used at home:
The crushed, water-soaked rice must be mixed with vaseline and applied in the form of gruel for the night rest.
You can prepare a therapeutic cream based on St. John's wort, hops and lanolin. Apply to damaged areas in the evening, before going to bed.
Inside it is recommended to take tincture on boiling water of a cowberry leaf. Drink 3 teaspoons before each meal.
Related topics: Other effective home remedies
Author of article: Kaplan Alexander Sergeevich, Trauma Physician, orthopedist
Features of the symptomatology and treatment of deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint 1, 2, 3 degrees
Deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint of the 2nd degree, treatmentwhich is carried out by different methods, a very unpleasant disease, it can change the joint and completely deprive the ability to move. Most often it affects people after 45-50 years, but overweight can bring it closer at any age.
It starts with some discomfort, minor pains, which usually no one pays attention. The patient passes the disease of 1 degree, without going to the doctor on time.
Symptomatology and possible causes
For arthrosis of the second degree, serious pains in the ankle area become more characteristic, which increase with exercise and do not pass even during the night sleep.
The joint is swollen, crunches during movement, the movement is reduced, and the joint is gradually deformed.
If a person after awakening feels that the joints and muscles are chained( and crunching, clicking or creaking during movements), often tilts their legs or feels weak support on them - all this should already alert, make you think about prevention or even about starting treatment.
For arthrosis of the second degree, the doctor will see on an X-ray that the hyaline cartilage( the gel-like tissue that covers the contacting parts of the joints) is changed, and the joint slit is narrowed by 40% or more.
With age, all processes in the body slow down, including blood supply to the articular cartilage, the hyaline layer is thinned, the synovial fluid( translucent elastic mass, feeding the articular cartilage and filling the articular cavities) becomes more viscous - all this gradually destroys the cartilage, the foot becomesless mobile. This can be the result of many repeated injuries. Weight for obesity gives too much load, which the joints can not stand, this also contributes to the destruction at any age.
Accelerate the pathological processes in the joints can endocrine system diseases, varicose veins, metabolic disorders, gout, alcoholism.
The therapist faces a dual task: to relieve the patient of pain and to stop the development of degenerative processes in the joint. How is this achieved? The doctor usually prescribes medication in parallel with the physiotherapy and the apparatus.
To stop the inflammatory process, relieve pain, prescribe drugs such as ibuprofen, voltaren, movalis, tselebreks, lidocaine, ultracaine, methylprednisolone, diprospan, kenalog. To relieve the general tension and muscle spasms, sedative drugs and muscle relaxants are used, for example, midolithium, sirdalud, motherwort infusions, valerian, peony.
To slow down the process of destruction of cartilage, to resume their regeneration, recommend a structure, glucosamine sulfate, alflutope, ostenil. The external effect is also shown, usually prescribed the ointment "Chondroxide", compresses and trays. For compresses take dimeksid and medical bile, and for the bath - bischofite. The doctor, who is well versed in all these preparations, will choose for the patient what is needed, appoint a treatment scheme appropriate to the case. Need I say that the doctor's recommendations for the treatment of arthrosis should be carried out very strictly?
Physiotherapeutic and hardware treatment is aimed at solving the same problems. To avoid muscle atrophy, relieve tension, prescribe laser, magnetic therapy and ultraviolet irradiation. To get rid of inflammation and pain, apply procedures using electromagnetic fields. With the help of electrophoresis or phonophoresis, hydrocortisone, dimexide or novocaine is administered. Usually, gentle warming up is done with paraffin baths, mud baths, radon and bromine lotions.
The diagnosis is set - how to live?
Certainly - to treat. But still need to think carefully and change the lifestyle and diet, in order to slow down the development of the disease and avoid the development of the disease to the third degree.
There are folk methods that are unlikely to cure arthrosis at all, but will help relieve pain, protect against the development of concomitant diseases. If you make infusion of such herbs: marigold flowers, willow bark, birch leaves and nettles( take all the ingredients by 1 teaspoon, pour 500 ml of boiling water and insist 5 hours), take it a month a glass a day in three doses, it will helpto fight with edema and inflammation of the joints.
Quickly remove the pain helps compress of potatoes. For it, you need to grate the potatoes on a small grater and apply together with the juice to the joint, wrapping the cellophane. Another good helps ointment based on Vaseline or baby cream from the leaves of St. John's wort, hops, sweet clover.
Every day you need to do a warm-up of the joint. For this, there are a lot of exercises that develop, but do not overload the affected joint.
It is said that arthrosis leads to a correct lifestyle, it does not spare people who are addicted to smoking and alcohol. The fact is that alcohol aggravates the stagnation of blood in the tissues, the blood supply of the joints is impaired, the nutrition of their cartilages.
Why are we talking about lifestyle and nutrition? If a person moves a lot, does not abuse alcohol or nicotine, does not have excess weight, eats healthy food, then he and in his old age can have healthy joints.
Dieticians knowingly speak about a balanced diet, with problems with joints, nutrition is very important. It is necessary to strictly limit the consumption of salts, sweets, animal fats and meat broths( go to fish), it is desirable to exclude preservatives and flavor enhancers( hence, there is only food prepared in your own kitchen), there are more vegetables and fruits.
Osteoarthrosis of the ankle joint - the reckoning of those who do not protect their legs
- The clinical picture of the ankle joint osteoarthrosis
The ankle joint is formed by the tibial and fibular bones of the lower leg and the talus bone of the foot. The articular surfaces of the bones are covered with hyaline cartilages and quite closely adjoin each other. The joint cavity is filled with articular fluid, which provides lubrication and nutrition of the cartilage. The joint is enclosed in a dense articular capsule and fixed with powerful ligaments. The volume of ankle movements involves flexion-extension and small deviations in the sides.
Causes of ankle joint osteoarthrosis
Ankle joint is one of the most powerful in the musculoskeletal system. When walking on it, there are loads that are seven times the weight of the body. No wonder that the joint is often damaged and this affects its health. Careless attitude to their feet, wearing shoes on a high platform, with an unstable heel, the use of poor-quality shoes, unsuitable for sports, lead to overload of joints, and awkward movements cause injuries. It is injuries, accompanied by ruptures and cracking of cartilage, most often trigger the development of deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint.
An inadequate factor affecting the health of the ankle joint is a congenital anomaly of the development of the foot, such as flat feet, clubfoot and a hollow foot, redistributing the body weight and creating a pathological load on the joint. The result is premature wear of the cartilage and the formation of arthrosis.
Metabolism and arthrosis of the ankle
Undoubtedly, one of the leading etiological factors in the development of arthrosis of the ankle joint is obesity, overweight overloads the joint, literally crushes the articular cartilage, and bypassing the initial stage of degeneration, it starts arthrosis from the 1st to the 2nd degree.
Sometimes, osteoarthritis of the ankle becomes the result of osteochondrosis of the spine. Intervertebral hernia, restraining the nerve roots in the lumbar spine, violating the innervation of the muscles of the lower limb, lead to disruption of the gait and, as a result, to ankle injury, blood circulation disorders in this area, cartilage dystrophy and arthrosis of the 1-2 degree.
Deforming osteoarthritis in general and arthrosis of the ankle, in particular, develop quite rapidly against the background of a metabolic disorder accompanying diabetes mellitus, gout, thyroid disorders and other hormonal disorders. And, of course, arthrosis of 1-2 degrees often occurs, as the continuation of an ankle joint infection and arthritis of non-infectious origin.
Clinical picture of ankle joint osteoarthrosis
Usually, the first symptoms of unpleasantness in the ankle are the morning stiffness in the joint, the reduction in stamina and the appearance of pain in it after a long walk. All these violations are transient: stiffness disappears 30-40 minutes after the beginning of the movements, the pain passes after rest. More often the patient does not even pay attention to the first signals of the body, writing off unpleasant feelings for fatigue, age or old injuries. Nevertheless, even at this stage, 1-2 degrees of arthrosis of the ankle joint can be diagnosed.
The clinic of arthrosis of an injured ankle is characterized by the absence of an asymptomatic stage. The disease immediately manifests itself in joint pain, which occurs more often with exercise, and then become completely permanent.
The formation of osteophytes, the destruction of cartilage, the appearance of its fragments in the joint cavity is accompanied by a characteristic crunching of arthrosis. Mechanical irritation of the joint bag with fragments now and then leads to synovitis, joint edema and permanent joint pain.
The proliferation of bone tissue deforming the joint leads to a restriction of movements in it and with arthrosis started, the joint completely loses its mobility.
Ankle injury already in the early stages disrupts the gait and causes lameness, in later stages the patient usually has to use a cane.