Today, there are many techniques for determining flat feet and, accordingly, to take therapeutic tactics. Since ancient times, doctors have been constantly striving to determine in time the presence or absence of flat feet in children and knew that the sole has active points, on which internal organs and systems are projected.
Anatomy of this part of the foot, contrary to popular belief, includes only one, longitudinal arch, which changes over the years, which is proved by many studies, it was not difficult to determine. Due to this arch the correct posture is preserved and the entire mass of the body is correctly distributed.We recommend!
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The main thing - only to define such disease as a flatfoot in time with use of this or that technique.
And what is the essence?
The longitudinal arch is located in the child or adult person from finger to toe along the inner( or lower) surface of the foot, it is not difficult to determine it. Up to two years the baby does not have a lift( bend), because his legs do not experience heavy loads, and the body weight is relatively large. The leg of the child has a fat layer on the sole and if you look at them, they will turn out to be completely flat. As the baby begins to walk, the arch develops, the muscles and ligaments become stronger, at this stage it becomes possible to determine the pathology.
Before the child becomes an adult, transformations take place, which makes it possible to determine - during the medical examinations and during this period flatfoot can occur.
The baby's foot develops to 3-4 years and it is at this time that the doctor can suspect and determine flat feet. The importance in the prevention of flatfoot has such a circumstance as properly selected footwear. But this does not mean that if a baby's leg is formed correctly, then the adult is completely immune from the flat feet, which can give information about himself at any moment.
To suspect and identify a bad
The doctor knows how to define flat feet, which means a complete or partial absence of the arch of the foot, which can be different. All this leads to a pathology such as clubfoot, scoliosis( curvature of the spine).
Adult person will also not be sweet, after a few years or less constant companions will become osteochondrosis, arthrosis and arthritis of joints, intervertebral hernias are many other things that cause flat feet.
In connection with this, diagnose( determine) flat feet in the shortest possible time to determine its presence and to produce adequate treatment. After all, after many years it manifests itself negatively. Statistics show that if the doctor has prescribed flatfoot treatment in a timely manner( the optimal period is 5 to 6 years), health effects can be avoided.
What is needed to determine the severity of flat feet?
To begin with, your guesses about flatfoot and its severity can be confirmed and determined at home. For this it is worth using not cunning rules, and the diagnosis of flat feet, speaking in medical terms, is called plankography and it can be applied regardless of the number of years of the child or adult.
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Before contacting a specialist, it is easy and easy to determine the flat feet:
- is first prepared dye, in the role of which is applied greens or paints, as well as sheets of A4 paper. Instead of a dye, in order to determine the degree of flatfoot, a fat cream or vegetable oil is also used;
- the baby's feet, before determining whether there is flatfoot or not, are lubricated with dye or fat;
- then it is necessary to become both feet at the same time on a piece of paper, it is necessary to ensure that the load is correctly distributed;
- put the dye on the soles in a thin layer, whatever the remains of the stains, and stand no more than a few seconds, otherwise there may be a false flatfoot.
A fingerprint is evaluated by a doctor, but it's possible to do it yourself and yourself using a method such as Friedland's method. First, define such an indicator as a sub-metric index( it is denoted by the value of C), for the convenience of calculations, a specially created table will help.
Calculating the sub-metric index
The index will determine the degree of flatfoot, and to calculate it, you will need to define only two values.
The first length of the sole of the child, it can be designated as "A", it is determined from the thumb to the end of the heel, and also the height of the vault that the doctor measures from the floor to the top of the sole of the foot. The measurement is carried out according to the formula C = B * 100 / A.
Evaluation of the result
Once all the indicators are measured and calculated, determine the degree of flatfoot. Normal is considered to be the indicator from 29 to 31. The reduced indicator is characterized by the presence of an indicator from 27 to 29 and this indicates an initial stage of the disease, and treatment is better to be prescribed immediately, regardless of the number of years of the examinee.
If the result is below 25, then this characterizes the pronounced stage. In this case, only an expert will be able to understand, he will turn to the orthopedist who will determine the final diagnosis.
What else is there?
There are many more ways to determine the flat feet that will help confirm or disprove the result.
There are techniques such as the method of Bogdanov, as well as determining the disease will help banal radiography of the legs.
All of them are used as control, because the trace on the paper can be indistinct, which will lead to an erroneous diagnosis of the degree of the disease. All of them can be applied regardless of the number of years of the subject and determine the stage of the disease.
X-ray helps to determine whether there is flatfoot or not, and will help to put the final point in what degree of disease, even after many years. Often an imprint on the sheet will give an idea of some degree of flatfoot, and the index indicates a norm, then an expert orthopedist will help determine the norm or put the final point in the question of flatfoot.
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As a child, my legs were checked so much, I was told about flat feet. Now I've grown up, my leg is almost flat, and they tell me it's all right. Maybe I just really have a leg like that? Not necessarily flat feet.Answer
u know to me in my childhood my mother drenched my feet with water and put it on a piece of paper and on the prints determined the flat foot
How to determine the flat feet of adults and children?
Flattening is the deformation of the feet, resulting from a decrease in the longitudinal or transverse arch. With the development of the disease, the foot completely loses its spring and depreciation functions. Because of this, the load, which should be compensated by the feet, passes to the back, to the knee and hip joints. But, none of these joints is designed for such a load( especially knee and ankle joints), which results in various injuries and injuries. This is why people with a flat-footed third degree are not allowed to serve in the army. High loads invariably lead to joint destruction and, in some cases, to disability.
Why does flatfoot occur?
- Low-quality or uncomfortable shoes most often causes the development of this disease. In the risk zone are women, mostly wearing high heels or wedge shoes. Shoes with narrowed ends can also have an adverse effect on the foot, in particular on the longitudinal arch.
- The sedentary lifestyle is similarly the cause of the pathology of the feet. With prolonged sitting, the muscles of the feet become weaker and weaker, which ultimately leads to a decrease in the arch.
- The disease can develop on the background of pregnancy, as the body weight of a woman at this period of life greatly increases, while the size of the legs and the load permissible on them remain the same. The same is true of fat people, in their case, excessive stress is constantly on their feet, eventually leading to deformation of the foot.
- Some people have a hereditary predisposition to the disease, which is directly related to a variety of congenital defects in ligaments and muscles.
- A variety of injuries also sometimes lead to deformation of the lower limbs. It can be a variety of fractures, cracks, bruises and the like.
- Less often the disease develops on the background of another disease, in particular poliomyelitis or rickets.
Symptoms of the disease
With the development of flat feet, symptoms are quite pronounced. This is the pain that appears after prolonged physical exertion, and excessive excessive fatigue in ordinary walking( the same applies to standing work), and swelling of the ankles. In the presence of a similar defect in the lower extremities, the footwear is erased much faster, especially at the heel. Women with such pathologies are not able to constantly wear high-heeled shoes, as walking in them causes them great torment. At later stages of the disease, at the end of the day, a sensation of "heavy legs" appears, it seems that they are filled with metal. With ordinary walking, pain occurs not only in the legs, but also in the lower back, knee joints( in rare cases, patients have a headache).A person with the last stage of the disease constantly feels that his foot has increased in size, in connection with which he has to buy shoes for one, and even two sizes larger.
What are the types of disease?
Absolutely all kinds of ailment are subdivided into longitudinal and transverse flatfoot. Often, people suffer from the transverse deformation of the feet. In addition, both types of the disease can be congenital and acquired. In the first case, it is a child's ailment, which is beginning to be treated from the very first days of the baby's life, it is extremely rare. Often, flat feet is acquired and can affect people of all ages and genders.
How to define a flatfoot?
In the late stages of detection of the disease is not difficult, even on a visual inspection you can see a distinct flattening of the foot. In all other cases, the most effective method of detecting foot defects is an X-ray examination, it can be taken at any polyclinic or hospital in the city. Based on X-ray images, the doctor can establish an accurate diagnosis, determine the stage of the disease and prescribe an effective treatment.
How to determine flat feet at home?
If there is no time to visit a polyclinic or a hospital, then it is possible to detect the disease in the home. To do this, you must prepare in advance a blank album of paper and any dye( this can be an ordinary children's paint "Watercolor" or "Gouache", as well as a weak green solution).Before determining the flat feet of a child, you need to apply the dye evenly over the entire area of the foot, but the main thing is not to overdo it. The feet should not drain paint, so these excesses can affect the test result. On a piece of paper you have to become both feet at once, to get up from the sheet you need to be very careful not to smudge the prints.
Determination of flat feet for footprints
Normally, in the middle of the foot there must be a notch, the smaller this notch, the greater the likelihood of a person having a disease. In the complete absence of a notch, one can speak of the presence of the last stage of the disease - the third. There are other methods for determining the pathology of the lower extremities. In particular, we are talking about Friedland's sub-metric method.
How to determine flat feet in adults: Friedland
method This method is reduced to a simple formula, as well as to several calculations and measurements. First of all, you need to determine the length of the foot in centimeters, from the thumb and to the heel. Then you need to measure the height of the foot. To do this, you need to find the scaphoid bone, it is located in the middle of the foot from the side of the thumb, and from it to the floor to measure the height. After this, multiply the height of the foot by one hundredth on the calculator and divide it all by the length of the foot. If the result varies from twenty-nine to thirty-one, then there is no cause for concern. All values that do not fall within the interval from twenty-nine to thirty-one can be considered a deviation from the norm. The smaller the value of the sub-metric index, the greater the probability of having flat feet.
What is the main danger of the disease?
Deformation of the foot can lead to dysfunction of the whole body. A person can develop an intervertebral hernia, knee arthrosis or scoliosis. In addition, we must not forget that on the inside of the sole is a huge number of different sensitive points, directly communicating with a variety of internal organs.
How to define a flatfoot?
There is an uncomplicated method for determining the presence of flatfoot. You need to take a fat cream and a piece of paper. Lubricate the sole with the cream and step on the paper. Stand steadily, leaning on the entire foot, otherwise the result may be erroneous. Now carefully consider your mark. Normally, the internal edge of the foot is notched, which in the middle occupies more than half of the foot. If this recess is not at all or it is narrow( half of the foot and less) - this indicates the presence of flat feet. There are other signs that indicate the presence of flat feet:
after the physical load of the foot aches a bit( the first stage of the disease);
by the evening the feet are tired and swollen;
pain covers the entire leg up to the knee joint( second stage of flatfoot);
in the third stage of the disease, the lower back begins to ache, and walking( in shoes) becomes torture. Pain in the legs can be combined with persistent headaches;
leg seemed to grow - you have to buy shoes for size larger;
on the old shoe heels are worn on the inside.
However, these signs may not correspond to flat feet, but to another disease - for example, vascular or endocrine, so you still need to see a doctor. Complete cure of flat feet is possible only in childhood. In adults, the development of the disease can only be slowed down. Sincerely, Julia. Clearly, you can see - A-norm;B-anomaly.
go to the honey.commission to the military registration and enlistment office: D
Coat the leg with oil( sunflower) and step on a piece of paper.
If there is no pronounced * pits * on the inside of the foot, then the flatfoot. ..
moisten the foot and put it without pressure on the paper.if the entire stop is printed, it is a flat foot.when it is notch- is not.
look at the wet footprint, should be inside a large notch( somewhere on the third width)
The most common way is to wet the foot and become a foot on the floor or on a surface where the print will be clearly visible. The foot should be imprinted, and the dimple that is on the foot - no. If the full stop is printed completely, this is a flatfoot.
explained in her own words. Excuse me, if it's not clear)
StopaHow to determine if you have a normal stop?
Method of planotography.
To obtain a planogram( foot print) at home, it is necessary:
• sit on a chair whose height is such that the angles in the hip and knee joints of the test subject are equal to 90 °;
• apply gouache or iodine to the sole surface of the foot;
• gently place your feet on a sheet of paper( Format A4), lying on the floor in front of the test;
• stand up, evenly distributing the weight on both feet, and stay in this position for a few seconds.
Determination of the degree of longitudinal flatfoot
• from the center of the heel imprint, draw a line to the interdigital space of the third and fourth fingers;
• designate the most prominent points of the inner contour of the foot in the anterior and heel areas and connect them with the tangent AK;
• to the center of the tangent to restore the perpendicular to the intersection with the first line;
• divide the resulting segment into three equal parts. The numbering starts from the inside of the print to the outer one.
I degree of flatfoot - the internal contour of the imprint falls on the first interval;
II degree of flatfoot - the internal contour of the imprint falls on the second interval;
III degree of flatfoot - the inner contour of the imprint falls on the third interval.
Determination of transverse flatfoot
• on the footprint, we find the most prominent points on the inner and outer side of the forefoot - points A and B, corresponding to the heads of the 1st and 5th metatarsal bones, and connect them together;
• through point B on the outside of the print and the most protruding point of the heel we draw a tangent to which we restore the perpendicular from the point D - the extreme rear point of the heel imprint, we obtain the point E;
• on the most protruding edge of the big( or second) finger, put the point P. DP - the length of the print.
• the value of the DP segment is multiplied by 0.16 and laid off from the point E in the straight line BE.We obtain the point C. CE = 0.16 * DP;
• from point C, we restore the perpendicular to the straight line BE.CC ¢ - mid-heel axis;
• divide the segment CC ¢ in half, we obtain the point F - the average heel point;
• cut the segment AB in half and obtain the point Z;
• connect the points F and Z, we get the conditional axis of the foot
• from the points A and B, we draw the lines AN and BR parallel to the FZ( the conventional axis of the foot)
• from the points A and B we draw the lines AP and BQ through the extreme front points of the prints 1 and5 fingers.
Normally, the angle at the first finger( angle NAP) is less than 18 °, and the angle at the fifth finger( angle QBR) is less than 12 °
photo of the foot in the source on the link
Calling the orthopedist is easiest. You can do it yourself. Stop wet and stand on a piece of paper. Plane feathering is not present, if in the field of rise - a dry space, and under the fourth-third fingers too it is dry. But this is amateur performance. Go to a specialist. And only then to the military enlistment office.
with a wet foot, for example, on the parquet and see the imprint.there must be a relatively large notch
There are several methods of testing on the flatfoot
On the print
This technique you already told Martha. I will not talk.
Although I will make a reservation that this method is inaccurate in that the trace will depend on how to smear, how to become and so on.
A ruler for the distance from the floor to the top surface of the scaphoid
A good and quick picture can be seen on the Plantoscope( a kind of stool made of thick glass, viewed from the bottom to the bottom)
An objective measurement is taken either from the x-ruler. Measure the distances between the tuberosity of the scaphoid bone and the support surface. In adult men, this distance should be at least 4 cm, in adult women - at least 3.5 cm. If the corresponding figures are below the indicated boundaries, a decrease in the longitudinal arch is noted.
Even to determine the degree of flatfoot, the formula "Sub-metric index" is used, in which( the height of the foot) is divided into( the length of the foot).more than 31 high arch 29-31 norm, 27-29 flat-footed 1st st., 25-27 flat feet of the 2 nd st., less than 25 platypodia 3rd instar
Degrees of longitudinal flatfoot measured Radiographically
I degree: angle of the arch 131- 140 degrees, height of the arch 35-25mm. There are no deformities of the foot bones.
II degree: the corner of the vault is 141-155 degrees, the height of the vault is 24-17 mm. The talus bone is shortened, its neck is not underlined. There may be phenomena of deforming arthrosis in the talon-navicular articulation or calcification of the ligamentous apparatus on the back surface of the foot.
III degree: angle of the roof 156 degrees and above, the height of the arch is less than 17 mm. A small protrusion on the plantar surface of the calcaneus becomes massive. There is also a flattening and a transverse arch, subtracting the contracture of one finger, the foot is penetrated, the heel is deflected to the outside. See Annex 3.
Degrees of transverse flatfoot:
( this is when the curvature of the thumb and grows "bones")
I degree: angle between 1 and 2 metatarsal bones 10-12 degrees, angle of deviation 1 finger 15-20 degrees.
II degree: angle between 1 and 2 metatarsal bones 13-15 degrees angle of deflection 1 finger 21-30 degrees.
III degree: angle between 1 and 2 metatarsal bones 16-20 degrees, angle of deviation 1 finger 31-40 degrees.
IV degree: the angle between 1 and 2 metatarsal bones is more than 20 degrees, the angle of deviation of 1 finger is more than 40 degrees.
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People Flattening can and should be treated!
Massage and stubborn exercises!
With flat feet, poor cushioning, constant micro-concussions of the spinal cord and brain, headaches.
how to know the degree of flatfoot
The degree of flatfoot can be determined only by a specialist - ORTHOPED.
There are three degrees of flatfoot:
1 degree - WEAK flatfoot. At this stage, flat feet is more like a cosmetic defect and is manifested by fatigue with prolonged walking, pain in the feet.
2 degree - COMBINED flat feet. Compaction of the foot is visible to the naked eye, the gait( clubfoot, heavy tread) changes, the pain increases.
3 degree - EXPRESS flatfoot. It is accompanied not only by the deformation of the foot, but by various disabilities in the work of the musculoskeletal system( arthrosis, etc.), the pain intensifies, the person can only walk in orthopedic shoes.
Sources of information( here you can read more):
1) http: //www.ploskostopiya.net/ ploskostopie-1-2-3-stepeni /
2) http: //www.freemove.ru/ articles_int / ploskostopie_stepeni.php
Merry Christmas! Good luck!)
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