Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 3rd degree

Osteochondrosis of 3rd degree of cervical department of

Doctors confidently state that recently such a disease as osteochondrosis of the spine is becoming more common. Probably, in any modern person at the examination it is possible to reveal this or that stage of the disease. In most cases, an insidious disease affects the lower back and cervical vertebrae. There are several stages of development of this disease, each of which is characterized by symptoms and treatment. And if the symptoms of osteochondrosis are barely noticeable at the first stage, then osteochondrosis of the third degree of the cervical region becomes very noticeable, and often in such cases it can not do without surgical intervention.

Stages of osteochondrosis

The spine of a person undergoes a tremendous load, it carries the entire body weight, and such loads sooner or later cause the tissues to change, deform the intervertebral discs, and infringe the muscles, ligaments and vessels. Such processes in the body are accompanied by strong pain sensations. In order to diagnose osteochondrosis in time and start treatment, it is necessary to know what are the degrees of this disease, how they manifest themselves and what methods of treatment exist at each of the stages. The stages of the disease:
  • The first degree of the disease is characterized by the compaction of the intervertebral disc. In this case, the hook-shaped processes increase. Such manifestations of osteochondrosis are treated with pain medication, then swelling is removed. With this therapy, the spine is straightened, which allows you to remove the load from the discs. The patient is prescribed non-steroidal and antihistamines.
  • In the second stage of osteochondrosis, an unstable condition of the spine itself is noted. There is a narrowing of the intervertebral openings and the spinal canal, the height of intervertebral discs decreases. At the expressed second stage of an osteochondrosis as treatment appoint manualnuju therapy. To relieve the pain, prescribe antihistamines, ointments and calcium. In addition, physiotherapeutic procedures aimed at stretching the spine with fixation of the vertebrae will be helpful. Massage is also prescribed.
  • Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree spine is considered to be the most difficult, as there are serious changes in the intervertebral discs. Usually, the patient significantly narrows the vertebral canal and intervertebral foramen. The result of these changes usually becomes a hernia. Cope with it can only be through surgical intervention. Before making a decision about surgery, the patient is prescribed the same treatment as in the second stage, and if the symptoms do not abate after two weeks of such treatment, then they resort to operating a hernia.
  • Fourth degree of osteochondrosis is usually not considered a separate stage of the disease, as it flows smoothly from the third and is a recovery stage in the fight against this disease. At this stage, treatment is only conservative.

The severity of osteochondrosis in each individual case can be judged only by a specialist based on the results of the X-ray. Therefore, do not try to diagnose yourself this disease yourself and prescribe yourself a cure. When there are unpleasant sensations in the spine, you need to see a doctor.

Intervertebral hernia

If the patient is diagnosed with osteochondrosis of stage 3, then in the spine there are processes of destruction in the fibrous ring of the vertebrae and the nucleus is displaced. As a result, an intervertebral hernia is formed. The spine of a healthy person consists of elastic discs located between the vertebrae. The discs are quite strong. In the case of eating disorders or lack of physical activity, parts of the vertebrae lose their elasticity and are destroyed. This is the development of the third stage of osteochondrosis.

In addition, with thinning of the spinal tissues, intervertebral discs become more mobile. This invariably causes disks to move. So, for example, cervical dystrophic disorder of articular cartilage of the third degree is often accompanied by a dislocation of the vertebrae of the neck.

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Osteochondrosis of 3 degrees: clinical picture and features of

Osteochondrosis is a progressive degeneration of spinal elements. This progressive process is divided into a state( when changes are seen on an X-ray) and a disease( neurological symptoms and pain are added to the x-ray evidence).

Degrees of osteochondrosis

Osteochondrosis of the 1st degree. Characteristic features:

  • lumbago;
  • acute piercing pain in the lumbar region, which appears after a sharp rise in weights and after loads.

Treatment includes massages;the use of anti-inflammatory nonsteroid and vasocutaneous drugs;anti-edematous therapy and physiotherapy.

Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree. Characteristic signs of chronic form:

  • permanent pain;
  • appears mobility of the motor segment of the spine, which was damaged in the first stage;
  • begins the defeat of the vessels of the spinal cord;
  • arterial hypotension.

What to do in case of osteochondrosis of 2 degrees? As a rule, the treatment is the same as for osteochondrosis of 1 degree. Additionally, they include manual therapy, special gymnastics, etc.

Osteochondrosis of 3 degrees. The second stage passes into the third when a hernia appears. The patient feels severe pain in the area of ​​damage. To drugs that treat 1 st and 2 nd degree are connected prednisolone hormones, also use physiotherapy, manual therapy, special gymnastics. In some cases, resort to surgery.

Osteochondrosis of the 4th degree. This is the reconstructive stage after the removal of the hernia or its independent resorption. Nevertheless, the vascular system continues to suffer and spondylolisthesis remains, so conservative treatment is necessary.

Osteochondrosis of 3 degrees: clinical picture and physiological features of

. In the third stage, fragmentation of the fibrous ring occurs, its complete destruction. Gaps and cracks appear in the ring. Soon, destruction leads to a deterioration in the fixation of the vertebrae. As a result, their mobility increases and various displacements occur: osteochondrosis is accompanied by a slight dislocation of the cervical vertebrae, in the lumbar region - by displacement of the lumbar vertebrae.

The clinical picture of osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree is quite extensive. This is due to the different localization of the violation. So, the common symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis are the following:

  • intense drilling or dull pain in the deep parts of the neck, which is strengthened after physical exertion or unnatural position of the head;
  • aching pain in the cervical region, passing into the forearm or the depth of the shoulder.

For chest osteochondrosis of the third degree, several other symptoms are characteristic:

  • intercostal neuralgia, aggravated by coughing, laughing, inhaling, torso movements;
  • pain in the back and abdomen.

Consequences of osteochondrosis of the thoracic region - diseases of the lungs, stomach, heart and other organs. But the violation of the spine in the chest area can also simply "simulate" other diseases( for example, pain in the heart with osteochondrosis).

How to distinguish between intercostal neuralgia from a heart attack?

With intercostal neuralgia, the pain is acute, stitching, puncture( you can accurately show the finger of its localization).A heart attack is accompanied by a dull, diffuse and pressing pain.

Osteochondrosis of the lumbar region of the third degree has the following clinical picture:

  • localization in the back of severe pain giving off to the buttock or leg;
  • functional disorders of the genitourinary system;
  • numbness of the legs, a decrease in muscle strength and loss of sensitivity in this area( as a result of disc herniation, the nerve is infringed, which causes pain and numbness).

Treatment of osteochondrosis of 3 degree

Treatment is appointed by a specialist. Treatment of cervical osteochondrosis includes restorative and strengthening procedures. It can be physiotherapy, manual therapy, reflexotherapy in combination with taking medications. For complex treatment, gymnastics for backs with osteochondrosis( usually in warm water) and massage is used. The task is to reduce pathological impulses to the shoulder girdle from the cervical region and vice versa, to activate blood circulation in the area of ​​the lesion.

Treatment of osteochondrosis of the thoracic and lumbar region depends on the degree of damage. In some cases, surgery is used.

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Osteochondrosis 1, 2 and 3 degrees: causes, symptoms, treatment

First degree

The initial stage is characterized by the following features:

  1. Clinically, osteochondrosis 1 degree is manifested as lumbago - a sharp pain of a piercing character that occurs after a sharp lifting of heavy objects or high physical exertion. The pain is so acute that some patients compare it to the sensation of passing current through the spine.
  2. If you find the first symptoms of osteochondrosis, immediately consult a doctor! Consequences may be irreversible

    Morphologically there is a sudden rupture of the capsule of the intervertebral disc during a high load on the spine. Traumatic damage to the capsule leads to irritation of nerves and the appearance of pain.

  3. At the first degree of osteochondrosis, a pronounced muscle tension is observed( lumbar lordosis is smoothed).This leads to a redistribution of the load and to an even greater compression of the intervertebral disc. There is his edema, which only intensifies the painful sensations.
  4. With the localization of the disease in the cervical region, there is cervicalgia - cervical pain during movement and palpation of muscles. During an exacerbation, cervico-cranialgia is often a concern - a marked intense headache near the occipital region. There may be an ear noise, dizziness, floating flies before your eyes and even a toothache.

Treatment of

Treatment of the first degree is aimed at healing the rupture of the capsule. It is necessary to carry out qualitative analgesia with tableted medicines or injections of Analgin, Promedol or Novocain. Removal of edema is achieved by daily intravenous injection of a solution of Lasix and sodium chloride for five days.

You do not have to go to the gym to keep fit. On any playground you can find a horizontal bar that will replace the professional projectile

. As an aid to the development of osteochondrosis, it is very useful to stretch the spine along the axis. To do this, just once a day hang for several minutes on the bar. As a result, the load from the cervical, thoracic and lumbar discs is well relieved.

Classification of medicines in the treatment of osteochondrosis is as follows:

  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Ibuprofen, Voltaren, Metindol, Indomethacin);
  • antihistamines( Suprastin);

Also during the period of treatment is mandatory bed rest for 3 weeks and physiotherapy treatment, for example, UHF.

Degree 2

Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree develops if treatment of the first period of the disease has not been performed or was not effective enough. The characteristic signs of the second degree of osteochondrosis are:

  • Self-massage during the day will help relax muscles and relieve pain!

    permanent pain of the affected spine;

  • there is a narrowing of the intervertebral openings;
  • , this period is often accompanied by arterial hypotension;
  • there is abnormal mobility of the motor segment of the spine( this should not be);
  • capsule becomes thinned and folded, which leads to even greater mobility of the false joint;
  • because of the instability of the spine develop a different kind of scoliosis;
  • in case of lesion of the thoracic region may occur a syndrome of a small pectoral muscle - the appearance of pain when trying to get your hands behind your head;
  • is gradually affected by the vessels of the spinal cord.

The second period of the disease can last several years, with alternating episodes of exacerbations and remission. When the thoracic and cervical region is affected, in severe cases, the symptom of the falling head develops, when the person after long fixation of the head in one position is forced to hold it with his hands to relieve the pain.

Treatment

Treatment of the 2nd stage of osteochondrosis should be carried out together with manual therapy. Conduct a course of massage with blockade of the damaged area( for example, thoracic department).Good traction helps with fixation of the vertebrae with the help of waist corsets, the collar of Shantz. Daily gymnastics is useful.

Degree III

Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree is characterized by fragmentation of the fibrous ring and its complete destruction. Fibrous ring during this period can crack and tear. All this significantly worsens the fixation of the vertebrae. Due to the increase in their mobility, different displacements occur. Disease of the cervicothoracic spine is accompanied by a slight dislocation of the vertebrae. Poor treatment of this period can lead to the development of a herniated disc, and a neglected process can cause disability.

Treatment of a hernia requires surgical intervention. Do not bring the disease to such a stage when it is impossible to achieve recovery with the usual means.

The classification of the clinical manifestations of this stage is very extensive. Cervical localization is characterized by intense sharp or blunt pains that increase after physical exertion. Also often there are pains of the back of the neck with irradiation in the forearm and shoulder. The thoracic region is characterized by pains of varying severity near the abdomen and back, intercostal neuralgia, especially pronounced during coughing or laughing. Also, the third degree of osteochondrosis of the thoracic region can be manifested by pain in the heart, dyskinesia of bile ducts and signs of pancreatitis.

Treatment of

Treatment should be prescribed strictly by a doctor, at grade 3 it is aimed at improving the patient's condition. Actively used hormonal drugs prednisolone. During this period, surgical treatment is indicated.

The above classification of degrees of osteochondrosis is applicable throughout the world, as the most simple and understandable. It shows that osteochondrosis is a serious ailment. Therefore, in order to prevent the progression of the disease, try to seriously approach the prevention of osteochondrosis.

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Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine: symptoms, causes, 1, 2, 3, 4 degrees and treatment( + folk remedies)

Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine is a pathological condition in which degenerative changes in bone and cartilaginous tissue occur.

Dystrophy of the intervertebral discs can develop after 30 years of , and at the age of 40-45 years, their sinking and compacting are observed.

In the spinal column there are 7 cervical vertebrae, consisting of the body, processes and bone arch;in the center of the vertebra is a hole in which the spinal cord is located. Individual elements of the spine are interconnected by intervertebral discs formed by the nucleus, fibrous ring and interlayer - hyaline plate( cartilage).

Cervical vertebrae, having the smallest thickness of the discs, fit tightly to each other;muscles in the neck are developed rather poorly, as a result of which, under regular loads, dislocation of the discs may occur, in which vessels and nerve trunks are squeezed.

Causes of cervical osteochondrosis

With age, the core of the intervertebral disc loses its moisture reserves, and also becomes less elastic. Since the metabolism after 50 years is significantly slowed down, the processes of regeneration in disks with a weak blood supply cease.

At a young age, the main role in the onset of osteochondrosis in the cervical part is played by physical inactivity - passive lifestyle , lack of properly organized physical activity.

Factors contributing to impaired blood circulation in the cervical vertebra and intervertebral space are:

  • long driving;
  • work at the computer, prolonged sitting in any position;
  • regular lifting of weights;
  • working conditions, suggesting sharp movements, turns of the neck;
  • violation of posture;
  • disc displacement due to sports training;
  • excess weight, resulting in a high load on the intervertebral discs and disruption of the cervico-thoracic spine;
  • alcohol abuse, smoking, malnutrition( due to detrimental effects on metabolic processes);
  • stress;
  • neck hypothermia( for example, in the absence of a scarf in the cold period);
  • sleep on high or too soft cushions;
  • heredity( spinal column disease in a family history).

Types of the disease

Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine can exist as an independent disease( cervical discarthrosis), and also be one of the components of generalized joint and spine lesions( polyosteoarthrosis).

A variety of cervical osteochondrosis is the disco - the penetration of the intervertebral disc into the vertebral canal.

In case of diagnosed osteochondrosis in all parts of the spine( cervical, thoracic, lumbar), there is a polysegmentary osteochondrosis. Isolated juvenile( oval) osteochondrosis of the cervical spine - spine disease, which develops in adolescents due to metabolic disorders or sports injuries.

Symptoms and signs of cervical osteochondrosis

As a result of the development of the disease, there is a radicular syndrome: the symptoms of osteochondrosis depend on which vertebra, its processes( roots) and nerve endings undergo degenerative changes.

When the vertebrae, located closer to the junction with the skull, , there is a decrease in the sensitivity of and pain in the occiput and crown.

Intervertebral osteochondrosis of 3rd and 4th vertebra leads to numbness of the tongue, problems with speech. Affected lower segments of the cervical region can cause pain in the collarbone, shoulders, as well as discomfort in the heart. Often the pain radiates to the scapula, arm;loss of sensitivity of these areas of the body can also be a consequence of cervical osteochondrosis.

Violation of the functioning of the lower vertebra of the neck results in numbness in the little fingers, as well as in the arms in the elbows.

Common symptoms of neck osteochondrosis may include:

  • dizziness, migraine headache( acute), and dull, pressing pains in the neck( cervicalgia), which can intensify when the head moves;
  • lumbago( severe pain extending to the back or hand);
  • burning in the back, heart;
  • stiffness of the neck, hands( especially the brushes);
  • decreased mobility and numbness of the neck in the mornings;
  • sensation of pulsation in the nape;
  • temporary darkness in the eyes, noise in the ear canal, sometimes - fainting;
  • thickening of the skin in the region of the spine due to proliferation of connective tissue.

Degrees of development of osteochondrosis

The disease in its development of undergoes several stages of , during which the spine undergoes pathological changes:

  1. First degree of ( initial or preclinical osteochondrosis stage).There is a partial loss of moisture and elasticity of the nucleus of the intervertebral disc, its compaction. Pain and discomfort, as a rule, absent. You can notice the rapid fatigue of the neck muscles after prolonged exertion.
  2. The second degree is ( incremental change).There is a decrease in the height of the disc, small cracks can appear on the surface of the hyaline plates. Pain in the cervical spine becomes pronounced, intensifying after a long time in sitting position, especially with the head down.
  3. Third degree ( running stage).The vertebral canal narrows, the hyaline plates are largely worn out. The nature of pain - aching, burning, prolonged. Often at this stage, the intervertebral hernia begins to form.
  4. Fourth degree ( compensatory or recovery stage).There is an expansion of bone osteophytes, and vertebrae can grow together, as a result of which the neck loses mobility.

What could be the consequences?

Dystrophic processes with accompanying outgrowths of bone osteophytes cause a decrease in the lumen of the intervertebral canal, as well as irritation and response tension of the neck muscles. In the event that osteophytes reach the vertebral artery, there is a disturbance of cerebral circulation. Next, the nerves of the cervical region are compressed, which is often caused by the movement of the disc in the lateral direction. With a decrease in the elasticity and volume of the disc cartilage, a protrusion may develop-protrusion of the plate in the direction of the spinal canal, as well as a hernia-the outflow of the intervertebral disc directly into the canal.

Consequences of development of cervical osteochondrosis can become serious enough for persons over 50 years of , especially if there are concomitant diseases( hypertension, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia).

In addition to complications from the circulatory system, osteochondrosis can lead to myelopathy ( disruption of the functioning of the spinal cord), hypothalamic syndrome, neurocirculatory dystonia, decreased visual acuity and hearing, impaired swallowing reflex, neurasthenia, loss of consciousness, paresis, paralysis.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis is based on the characteristic signs of the disease, as well as the patient's complaints. The x-ray examination of the spine in different projections or MRI diagnostics is mandatory.

When cerebral syndromes perform a brain examination( REG, duplex vessels), and also recommend a consultation of a neurologist.

First aid for exacerbation of

In case of attack of acute pain it is necessary to take anesthetic agent ( aspirin, paracetamol, baralgin).

If these drugs do not have the desired effect, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ketonal, ketoprofen, nise, and ibuklin) can be used. To prevent detrimental effects on the stomach and intestines, it is recommended to take these medications after meals, and persons suffering from stomach diseases should drink 1 capsule of omeprazole 30 minutes before taking the medication.

In addition, you can apply to the neck area any ointment or cream with NSAIDs. A positive effect is also provided by heating ointments, which are rubbed into the skin of the neck around the spine. It is forbidden to perform sports and therapeutic gymnastics in the acute phase of osteochondrosis.

Treatment of cervical osteochondrosis

In the treatment of the disease, it is extremely important to use a set of measures that make it easier to relieve the patient's condition and, if possible, restore the lost functions of the muscles and spine. Medication for osteochondrosis may include:

  • Pain medications to relieve acute pain: Sedalgin, analgin, but-spawn with novocaine - as intramuscular or intravenous injections or orally.
  • Corticosteroids are used for intensive pain in combination with analgesics( hydrocortisone, prednisolone, dexazone).
  • Novocaine and lidocaine blockades - subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of the drug at several points around the cervical vertebrae.
  • In rare cases, opioid analgesics( tramadol, phenadone) are prescribed.
  • Antidiarrheals are used for the expressed edema of the affected area( lasix, indapamide).
  • NSAID with the aim of reducing inflammatory phenomena( voltaren, xsefokam, dolac, orthophene, arthrosilen, movalis, tselebrex, nise) by a course of 5-10 injections or in the form of tablets( up to 15 days).
  • Muscle relaxants( sirdalud, miolastane) to improve muscle tone and relieve their spasm.
  • Drugs for improving blood circulation and vasodilators( eufillin, trental, curantil, actovegin, theonikol) - intramuscularly or intravenously drip.
  • Hondoprotectors for the restoration of hyaline cartilage( arthra, rumalon, alflutope).They are used outside the acute phase of the disease.
  • Drugs to reduce the excitability of the vestibular apparatus in order to eliminate dizziness( betaserk).
  • Vegetable products for softening tissue necrosis areas in the intervertebral disk and as stimulants of blood circulation( karipazim, aloe extract).
  • Sedatives and tranquilizers to alleviate neurological disorders and anxiety of the patient( valerian, motherwort, Relanium).
  • Vitamins of group B in the form of injections, as well as vitamins P, E, A, ascorbic acid.
  • External treatment: compresses or applications with dimexide solution with novocaine or hydrocortisone, ointments with NSAIDs, creams with lidocaine, snake or bee venom, pepper plaster, phonophoresis with ointment chondroxide.

Non-drug treatment is prescribed at any stage of cervical osteochondrosis and can consist of:

  1. Wearing the collar of Shantz.
  2. exercise therapy. The training complex is selected depending on the patient's condition, as well as the stage of the disease development.
  3. Spinal traction( hardware stretching). Performed to increase the space between the vertebrae, as well as relieve pain.
  4. Manual therapy. Correction of diseases of the spine by the hand method.
  5. Massage. Influence on the sick zone with the help of pressure, stroking, pressure, resulting in improved local circulation.
  6. Acupuncture. Removing inflammation and reducing pain with needle stitches.
  7. Physiotherapeutic methods - magneto- and laser therapy, UHF.Applied additionally with medicamental methods.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary;most often the operation is performed with a herniated intervertebral disc.

Lifestyle

When develops, it is necessary to change the lifestyle of , to abandon bad habits, and also to perform daily exercise that favorably affects the tissues in the spine.

Food

There are no strict restrictions in the diet for osteochondrosis.

The basic rule of is to consume less salt, smoked foods and spicy food. It is necessary to fully provide the cartilage tissue with substances capable of restoring its synthesis( cold meat from meat and fish broths, dishes with the addition of gelatin).Instead of white bread it is recommended to eat bran or gray. About a third of the diet is made up of proteins( fish, meat, milk, legumes, eggs, seafood).

Vegetables and fruits are consumed daily by , especially often - cabbage, greens, carrots, citrus fruits, apples. Also in the menu include seeds, nuts, dried fruits.

Gymnastics

Basic exercises for the muscles and spine of the cervical department( performed for 6-7 repetitions):

  • neck extension up( 2-3 minutes);
  • easy head incline to the right and left;
  • slow deep turns in both directions;
  • head turns with a chin down to the neck;
  • press the palm on the forehead, trying to resist the efforts of the muscles of the neck;repeat the same way by clicking on the whiskey one by one.

Self-massage

The movements of the hand are directed from the top to the bottom, that is, from the back to the back and shoulders. The massage is performed while sitting, while the neck is in a strictly vertical position. Sufficient will perform smooth direct or circular movements on the skin of the outer side of the neck and shoulders, while lubricating it with massage oil or a warming cream, for 5-7 minutes a day.

Treatment with folk methods

Methods of traditional medicine are widely used for the treatment of osteochondrosis of the neck, with the most effective combination of them with traditional:

  1. To remove the edema and inflammation use the following composition: mix the mustard powder( 100 g) with 100 ml.kerosene and 200 grams of salt. After thorough mixing, apply the product on the skin in the area of ​​the spine, and after 15 minutes, rinse.
  2. A mask of blue clay and salt will help to create a thermal effect and reduce pain. Equal proportions of both components slightly dilute with water, then abundantly lubricate the neck and wrap with a film and a warm cloth. After 2 hours you can wash off the mask with warm water.
  3. For the massage, you can use fresh honey instead of cream. Having well stretched the area of ​​shoulders and neck, then the patient area is wrapped with a towel and allowed to stand for 1 hour, after which it is washed off.
  4. To rub in the area of ​​severe pain, you can tastes like this: dandelion flowers( 50 pieces) pour vodka( 0,5 l.), Insist 1 month.
  5. Well relieves swelling and inflammation, and also helps improve the local circulation of compresses made from aloe juice( 70 ml.), Vodka( 200 ml.) And 120 g. Honey. After mixing the product, you can leave it on your neck and shoulders under the tape for the whole night.
  6. In summer, for the treatment of osteochondrosis, you can apply this recipe: horseradish is slightly kneaded in the hands, and then tied to the neck by cutting a tissue. Keep on the body you need so much, so much can tolerate the skin, but not less than an hour.
  7. Twist in a meat grinder 2 lemons, 100 grams of garlic, then add 1.5 liters of boiling water. Take the medicine inside by 0.5 st.in a day. This method will help to cope with salt deposits, improve blood circulation and muscle condition.
  8. Brew for 20 grams of valerian roots, mother-and-stepmother leaves 0.3 liters.water, insist for a while, and then take 3 times / day for 100 ml. Anti-inflammatory and soothing effect of herbs will help to cope with pain, neuroses.
  9. To improve general condition, it is recommended daily to consume herbal infusions baldness, St. John's wort, yarrow, hawthorn and hips, infusion of mushroom chaga.

Prevention of osteochondrosis of the neck

To prevent the development of the disease it is necessary to follow simple rules:

  • Avoid supercooling of the neck , in the cold season wear scarves or clothes with warm collars. The headdress at this time is an obligatory attribute of the wardrobe.
  • Follow the posture of the spine, while in any position.
  • Sleep only on orthopedic pillows.
  • Eliminate neck and head injuries, with care to perform complex physical exercises.
  • Avoid lifting weights.
  • When working at a computer, driving an , it is necessary to perform a neck warm-up every 2 hours ;in the case of severe fatigue, you can do self-massage of the muscles of the neck and shoulders.
  • Avoid sharp turns of the head, tipping back, etc.
  • Reading is recommended only with a vertically placed head, without tilting it.

After the treatment or surgery has been completed, it is necessary to limit the movement of the neck, not to drive, wear special supporting corsets, exclude bad habits, and also follow the doctor's instructions for strengthening the cervical department( exercise therapy, gymnastics, swimming, bath, etc.).

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4 degree

What is important to know about cervical osteochondrosis

The results of recent domestic and foreign studies suggest that the growth of osteophytes that occurs with osteochondrosis is a systemic process. In other words, this phenomenon is observed in all joints of the organism to a greater or lesser extent. This can mean, at a minimum, that patients with arthrosis of the joints of the feet, for example, can feel pain in the back and neck region at any time, even if they have never been diagnosed with osteochondrosis.

Thus, the risk factor for cervical osteochondrosis is arthrosis of any other joints. Other risk factors for this condition - a sedentary lifestyle and work, a long sitting at the computer, not a rationally arranged workplace, osteochondrosis in relatives.

It should be noted that the term "osteochondrosis", in principle, exists only in Russian-language literature and is not entirely true. That is why it is difficult for patients from Russia to consult with foreign doctors, because Western science denotes osteochondropathy as the collective name for degenerative diseases of the spine, and the domestic term does not accept.

Nevertheless, Russian medicine has accumulated a vast experience in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with changes in the normal structure of the vertebrae and intervertebral discs, no matter how these diseases are called.

In terms of the severity of symptoms, domestic vertebrology( the science of spine diseases) distinguishes four degrees.

1 degree

Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the first degree - the initial stage of the disease, occurs most often unnoticed, since neither pain nor disturbance of any functions is caused.

Occasionally, patients complain of fast-paced headaches or minor pain "inside the neck," a feeling of muscle tension in the neck and upper back.

At this stage of the disease, you need to seriously think about preventing further development of the process. If in the past there was a trauma to the cervical spine, although insignificant, it makes sense to perform magnetic resonance therapy to clarify the state of intervertebral discs and to exclude the presence of an emerging hernia.

In the absence of any structural changes, it's time to start regular exercises from the field of exercise therapy: only by increasing regular activity, mobility of the cervical region, the patient can independently stop the development of osteochondrosis.

Besides this, the course reception of chondroprotectors is shown. These medicines improve the nutrition of all the cartilaginous structures of the body, for which not only the spine but also the feet, knees, shoulders, elbows will "thank you". ..

Currently, there are many drugs and supplements under the code name "chondroprotectors" on the pharmacological market, butNot all of them have in their composition really effective substances: chondroitin and glucosamine. But any change in the diet, as well as taking calcium preparations for the course of osteochondrosis, contrary to popular belief, does not affect.

Cervical osteochondrosis of 2nd degree

At this stage, the radiculitis clinic is first detected. If the process was not stopped at the level of the first degree, then the intervertebral disc begins to shrink, its height decreases, it begins to play worse its role as a buffer between two vertebrae.

As a result, the nerve roots, leaving the spinal cord at the level of the intervertebral space, are "between the hammer and the anvil."Being in a vertical position, riding in transport, as well as head turns cause the patient a lot of pain, he is forced to take analgesics.

Suffering performance, deteriorating sleep, patients are concerned about weakness, lethargy, fatigue, "weakness".Often they seek help from ENT doctors, therapists, infectious disease specialists, and after only passing a few "circles", they find themselves in a neurologist or orthopedist.

The injured spine becomes inflamed, pain can spread along the nerve not only to the areas of the neck far from the place of the "accident", but also to the area of ​​the chest, face, upper back. There is a protective reaction of the muscles to the pain: they strain, become dense, which further increases the pressure on the nerve root. So there is a vicious circle, from which it is usually difficult to get out without seeking specialized help.

At this stage, all means are good - both medicamentous and non-medicinal. Effective is usually the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants and B vitamins, improving the nutrition of the stiffened root.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be preferred to analgesics habitual for residents of the post-Soviet space because of higher efficacy and much lower risk of side effects.

It is advisable to use acupuncture techniques to relieve pain and muscle tension. The course of massage of the neck-collar zone is shown, this will eliminate the painful muscle spasm and "release" the nerve root.

Perhaps, osteochondrosis of the second degree is the only situation when manual therapy can be recommended. One should only remember that it is relatively safe to apply to a manual therapist if two conditions are met: complete completion of the course of appointments and procedures that remove muscle spasm and high qualification of this specialist. After the pain is removed, the chondroprotectors start or continue.

Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 3rd degree

Unfortunately, in practice it is rare that all the specified recommendations are observed completely, purposefully and consistently. Usually patients are limited to taking analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sometimes supplementing it with a massage course. It is not difficult to guess that the effect of this "treatment" is temporary, and the pathological process progresses.

The intervertebral disc finally loses strength and reliability, is "pushed" into the spinal canal( posterior to the vertebral column) or anterior to the spine( a more favorable situation from the clinic's perspective and prediction).Gradually the severity of "punching"( protrusions) increases, a hernia of the disc arises.

Painful sensations can persist, intensify, weaken, change their character and localization. Other new symptoms include muscle weakness, chronic fatigue syndrome, a feeling of "swelling" or numbness in the hands, "crawling" or partial loss of skin sensitivity.

At this stage of the disease, surgeons are already sounding the alarm. If osteochondrosis has gone so far, then further progression is inevitable, and the "safety margin" of the compressed areas of the spinal cord and spinal roots is not as great as it seems to most patients.

Anesthetics and chondroprotectors in this situation are practically useless, in addition, they, like any medicine, have their own spectrum of undesirable reactions. This further aggravates the patient's condition.

Physiotherapy methods have a very modest therapeutic effect in this case, and manual therapy is contraindicated. In most cases, large herniated intervertebral discs, leading to the development of the above-described neurologic symptoms, are treated surgically.

4 degree of development of the osteochondrosis of the neck

A number of vertebrologists distinguish the next - the fourth - the stage at which nothing remains of the cartilaginous structure of the disc, it is completely replaced by a dense fibrous tissue reminiscent of the structure of a thick tendon.

It is believed that at this stage of osteochondrosis, a disc herniation can become inoperable due to too tight fusion of fibrous tissue with vascular and neural structures of the spine.

Thus, inattention to the slightest pains from the neck, disregard for exercise therapy, recommendations for the organization of the workplace can over time have the most negative impact on health, when even modern spinal surgery, with its advanced technologies, will be powerless to restore mobility incervical department and relieve neurologic symptoms.

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Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 2nd degree

Osteochondrosis is the emergence and development of dangerous pathologies, which at the initial stage cause destructive changes within individual discs. If the disease progresses, then the vertebrae itself and the surrounding thin tissues, nerves and blood vessels are damaged. Below we will consider the specifics of why there is an osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 2nd degree.

As the statistics show, as a place of its localization, osteochondrosis is able to choose any of the spine departments, however, most often problems arise precisely in the neck area. The situation with him is aggravated by the fact that patients, as a rule, ignore the first symptoms, and this allows the disease to firmly establish itself and move to the second degree of development. The transition to a new phase is usually accompanied by a strongly pronounced pain syndrome, the patient feels the stiffness of the joints, numbness of some areas and so on.

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The main phases of development of osteochondrosis

In total, doctors observe four main degrees of development of cervical osteochondrosis. At the first stage, the symptoms are almost absent and the mess of impending problems can be a weak pain in the neck. It can be easily eliminated with the help of usual painkillers, so the patients do not attach much importance to it. If at this initial stage to consult a doctor, he can see the onset of osteochondrosis through locally overstrained muscles, which try to prevent the consequences of degenerative degenerative consequences.(On the topic: osteochondrosis of the 1st degree of the cervical department).

The transition to the second phase usually takes place against a background of discogenic radiculitis. This term hides the process of convergence of vertebrae due to loss of intervertebral discs of its natural cushioning properties. Since the distance between the individual vertebrae is significantly reduced, the nerve endings and blood vessels passing between them are simply squeezed, beginning to signal the occurrence of disturbing changes. At this stage, a permanent pain syndrome develops, which is no longer in a hurry to pass after taking analgesics. And the pain is not necessarily manifested in the place of injury. In addition, there is a strong sense of stiffness, lethargy and a decline in habitual performance.

If the patient still delays the trip to the doctor, the osteochondrosis of the cervical region begins to progress sharply, as a result of which a small deformation of the discs flows into the formation of the hernia of the cervical region. All this occurs against the background of the intensification of various symptoms, since the patient does not influence the causes of the disease, continuing in most cases to use pain medications as panacea. Thus, against this background, the disease enters the phase 3 without hindrance.

Usually the pains at the third degree of osteochondrosis are already so strong that it can not be ignored and the patient consults a doctor. But, still, in some cases, the symptoms are not very pronounced, and many patients manage not to attach much importance to the growing pain syndrome, which leads to the transition of the osteochondrosis of the cervical region into the final 4th phase.

In the fourth stage, the destroyed parts of the spine are filled with fibrous tissue, and the symptoms become extremely dangerous, as the disease disrupts the natural blood flow, through which individual regions of the brain receive everything necessary for their normal functioning. As a consequence, vision and hearing deteriorate, "ringing" in the ears, frequent dizziness, loss of coordination, especially with a sharp rise, and the like.

Specificity of the cervical department of

Before considering the characteristics of osteochondrosis, which has passed to the 2nd degree of its development, it is necessary to become acquainted with the specific features of the structure and functioning of the cervical spine.

  1. The cervical region is one of the most mobile zones of the human body, but at the same time, it is connected to another, almost completely immobile part of the spine - with the thoracic.
  2. The cervical region is the uppermost part of the spine, consisting of 7 vertebrae. At the same time, 8 connecting segments enter into it, of which the extreme 8th is formed at the point of attachment of the spine to the occiput.
  3. Each of the vertebrae has its own unique structure in terms of anatomy, which can be clearly seen from the axis and atlas - the 2 nd first vertebrae.
  4. The most important arteries pass through the neck area, there are large arteries, esophagus, and trachea.

Etiology

Cervical osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree, quite quickly and easily flows into the third stage, as the disease usually passes against a background of complex causes that enhance it. To such negative factors include:

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