Characteristics and important features of arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree
Arthrosis of the knee joint( or gonarthrosis) is a degenerative-dystrophic disease in which the cartilaginous and bony tissues of the articular structures are damaged. There are 3 degrees of severity of pathology, but most often patients seek medical help precisely with gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree. Sometimes, only from the second stage of the disease patients are seriously treated and begin treatment, and the earliest symptoms of the disease are often ignored.
In the first stage of gonarthrosis, changes in the cartilage are not very pronounced and often are reversible. In 2 stages of the disease, there is a significant destruction of the cartilaginous tissue, a decrease in the amount of intraarticular fluid, the formation of a large number of osteophytes( bone growths).X-ray images reveal a pronounced narrowing of the intra-articular fissure, a violation of the joint structure, and a tightening of the bone tissue.
Three degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint. Click on photo to enlarge
Causes of gonarthrosis development
Arthrosis of the knee arises mainly due to mechanical damage to the joint structures, metabolic and circulatory disorders in the cartilage tissues, obesity.
The main causes of the progression of the disease and its transition to the second degree - ignoring the initial symptoms and lack of timely therapy, continued exposure to negative factors ( trauma, circulatory disorders, etc.).
Characteristic symptoms of
Above( in the introduction) pathological changes in arthrosis of the knee of the 2nd degree lead to the fact that painful sensations appear not only at the moment of movement, but also during rest or sleep. And in such a situation, patients rarely postpone the visit to the doctor.
Characteristic symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint of 2nd degree:
- Morning stiffness, not passing a long time, at which it becomes difficult to bend or unbend the leg in the knee;
- night tingling or pain in the calf muscles;
- strong aching pain, arising at the slightest burden on the aching leg, for example, while walking the stairs, and also appearing even at rest;
- swelling or swelling in the articular region( these are signs not only of arthritis, but also of acute arthrosis);
- at the 2nd degree of the disease there is a slight crunch in the knee, which at 3 degrees becomes already audible to other people;
- aches in the affected area during hypothermia.
If the patient ignores the above symptoms, then over time, arthrosis goes to the third stage, in which not only the gait changes greatly, but a walking stick or crutches will be needed.
Methods of treatment
Therapy of arthrosis of the 2nd degree has its own peculiarities. At this stage it is too late to apply traditional medicine, which is a good help at 1 degree - the main emphasis should be on conservative methods. Surgical intervention is rarely used, and in 3 stages of gonarthrosis without it can not do without.
The main goal of drug therapy in the 2nd stage of the disease is to reduce the pain attack. To do this, prescribe:
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( eg, ketoprofen or ibuprofen);
various pain relievers( tramadol);
ointments and gels( fast-gel, voltaren-gel, menovazine, gevkamen, espol).
Chondroprotectors are more effective at an early stage of arthrosis of the knee, but also at 2 degrees they also contribute to the restoration of cartilaginous tissue, as if "building" anew the articular cartilage. These drugs may contain glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate and other substances that make up the cartilaginous tissue. In general, drugs are used in tablets, less often in the form of intramuscular injections. Sometimes injections of chondroprotectors with hyaluronic acid( what is it? *) Inside the knee joint are prescribed.
* Hyaluronic acid is the main component of the synovial fluid.
Physiotherapy and exercise therapy
It is recommended that all patients are treated daily for therapeutic gymnastics. The LFK instructor will select an individual load and a set of simple exercises that will help strengthen muscles and ligaments.
In the treatment of gonarthrosis apply:
warm hydrogen sulphide baths.
Recommendations for a lifestyle
As with the first and second degree of disease, patients should not lift weights, stay in one place for a long time, or walk a lot, rely on a diseased knee - in general, avoid excessive loading of the affected leg. Patients with excess weight should get rid of extra pounds.
It is rare for gonarthrosis of grade 2, there is a need for surgical intervention. If such a need arises - during the surgical manipulation the joint is washed, osteophytes( bone growths) and destroyed parts of the cartilaginous tissue are removed from it. The operation of this kind is moderately traumatic, but thanks to it the functions of the knee joint are restored for 2-4 years.
If all the therapeutic measures taken are not successful, and arthrosis progresses( goes to stage 3) - endoprosthetics is necessary. This is an operation to replace a deformed knee joint with an artificial prosthesis made from high-tech materials, which allows you to extend the activity for another 15 years.
Arthrosis of the knee of the 2nd degree is amenable to therapy, but if you make certain efforts and systematically follow all the medical prescriptions, then it is possible to stop the progression of the disease. It is extremely important to listen to the signals that your body gives, and in time to seek qualified help from specialists.
How can I cure arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree?
Many people, feeling pain in the knee joint, amuse themselves with the thought that it's just fatigue. Time passes, and pain not only does not go away, but also does not allow to rest, makes you wake up at night and look for a comfortable position for your legs. The patient, exhausted by constant pain, notices that the gait has changed, and the joints of the knee have swelled, and the leg bends with difficulty. Is it possible to return the previous activity? How to cure arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree? First you need to contact a specialist to have a final diagnosis and an effective treatment.
Causes of development of arthrosis
Gonarthrosis( another name for arthrosis of the knee joint) is an ailment that affects the meniscus( cartilaginous lining) and bony growths appearing at the edge of the joint. It is a progressive destructive process that develops in the cartilage of the knee joint. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease. It develops due to heavy loads on the knee. The people call this disease the deposition of salts. The defeat of the joint is slow, blood circulation is disturbed first in small vessels, later the cartilage of the knee joint is affected. The first degree of arthrosis is not as palpable as the second. Therefore, patients do not consult a doctor. Female sex is susceptible to the disease twice as often as the male sex.
Experts call the cause of the disease development a mechanical factor. Degeneration of the joint develops due to microtrauma, after which the load on the joint surface increases, resulting in its destruction. The disease leads to a disruption in the metabolism that feeds cartilage tissue. These elements are unique, they are not produced any more by human organs. Specialists point to the main causes of arthrosis:
- knee injury;
- arthrosis( after Paget's disease);
- bone tumors;
- rheumatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
The diagnosis is made by the attending doctor on the basis of interview and visual examination of the knee, refined using an X-ray;if necessary, the patient undergoes ultrasound, CT, MRI.Only a comprehensive examination can show the doctor how much the joints of the patient are affected. Arthrosis of the 1st degree narrows the joint gap, affects the outer or inner parts, arthrosis of the 2nd degree affects the entire knee joint, along the edges of which there are osteophytes - bone growths.
The appearance of the disease
Is it possible to cure arthrosis and live without pain? The earlier a patient realizes that he develops arthrosis, the easier and faster the treatment will be. Do not wait for the disease from mild 1 degree to develop further, bringing more and more suffering. Symptoms to which attention should be paid:
- the appearance of pain in the knee after a resting state, during movement it weakens, but by the evening appears again;
- limitation of mobility in the joint;
- appearance of osteophytes;
- , when you move your knee, you hear a crunch;
- when hypothermia joint lomit;
- changes gait.
If at least one of the symptoms manifests itself, this is an occasion to consult a doctor. The specialists determined the following stages of development of arthrosis:
- Initial, the first degree - the presence of periodic pain, knee tumor, deformation of the joint is almost imperceptible.
- The second degree is a consequence of already fallen joints. Pain increases, becomes more intense, a crunch appears, knee flexion causes discomfort. The patient becomes dependent on weather conditions.
- The third degree is the heaviest. Severe pain becomes almost constant, even during rest, there is a change in gait, restriction of movements.
Gonarthrosis is primary and secondary( occurs due to other diseases).Primary arthrosis is a disease of age, secondary - more often due to a knee injury.
Methods for the treatment of arthrosis
Arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree should be treated in a comprehensive manner using various methods. Only in this case we can expect a result. With drug treatment, doctors prescribe an application, systemic, intra-articular therapy. Application includes the use of anti-inflammatory, warming drugs. When using systemic therapy, symptomatic and pathogenetic drugs are prescribed.
Simultaneously with taking medications, a non-drug treatment method is used. The patient will have to reduce body weight, which will significantly reduce the pressure on the joints. Apply special orthopedic devices to ease the load on the knee.
To improve the mobility of the knee, one can practice therapeutic gymnastics under the supervision of a physician. The whole complex of exercises is performed by patients sitting or lying down to avoid pain due to the load on the affected joint. Gymnastics will improve the nutrition of the joint elements. It is recommended to be engaged in swimming: water is extremely useful, it perfectly treats, helps to relieve the load from joints. To improve blood supply to the hip and knee joints, the patient can be recommended self-massage of the leg, thigh, knee joint.
If the disease is started and conventional methods of treatment do not provide relief, a micro-operation is necessary. With some preservation of joint functions( more often it is arthrosis of 2 degrees) it is disinfected, all the destroyed particles are carefully extracted, then osteophytes are removed. Using the operation, you can restore or improve the motor function of the knee for a fairly long time. In more serious conditions, more complex operations are performed. Most often, the results are encouraging: the joint resumes its functions for several years. The launched form of arthrosis is treated with endoprosthetics of the knee joint. A person returns to normal activity.
A patient with arthrosis often searches for a response about treatment on various sites. Often finds miraculous disks, folk recipes. No matter how tempting the proposal may seem, treatment with non-traditional, folk methods should be supervised and with the permission of the attending physician. During the treatment of grade 2 arthrosis, the patient will benefit from:
- Eating lemon with peel.
- The use of cabbage leaves, smeared with honey, as a compress on the knee at night, is applied in the morning fresh and remains for a whole day on the affected joint. The procedure is repeated for a month.
- Drink three times a day a drink consisting of 2 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar, diluted in 200 g of water.
- To reduce pain in the joint, rub it with heated vegetable oil for at least 5 days.
Rid of pain can an ordinary burdock. In the people it is often used to treat various diseases.6-7 leaves are washed, wiped dry and stacked with a velvety part down. On a pile of mug put a container with hot boiled water. With a warm vegetable oil, wipe the sore spot and apply the prepared burdock sheets. Top covered with cellophane tape, wrapped with a woolen warm cloth. Use for this procedure and dried mug. In this case, it will have to be soaked in hot water.
Applying treatment in the complex, you can cure arthrosis of the knee joint of 2 degrees and get rid of the pain. To ensure that the patient's condition does not deteriorate, the treating doctor should observe the treatment.
Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint of 2nd degree
Pathologies of the musculoskeletal system are present today quite often, and one of them is arthrosis of the knee joint. This disease, in which there is a gradual destruction of cartilage, deformation of bone tissue and pathological processes in nearby tissues. Often diagnosed deforming arthrosis of the knee joint 2 degrees, tk. At the initial stage of the disease, her symptoms are ignored by many patients. Let us consider in more detail how to treat arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree.
How to cure arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree?
Typical signs of arthrosis of the knee joint of the second degree are: painful sensations of considerable severity, appearing even at low loads, stiffness in the joint, crunching, severe puffiness. If you do not start treatment at this stage, the disease is rapidly gaining momentum, and in the future can only help surgical intervention with the replacement of the joint with an artificial prosthesis.
Conservative therapy for this degree of knee joint damage includes the following:
- The administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce pain and inflammation( drugs in the form of tablets, topical preparations, intra-articular injections).
- Chondroprotectors, which promote the restoration of cartilaginous tissue;
- Preparations based on hyaluronic acid to improve lubrication of the inner surface of the joint.
- Therapeutic physical training and massage for strengthening muscles and ligaments, normalization of metabolic processes in the knee.
- Physiotherapeutic procedures for pain relief, elimination of inflammation and improvement of motor abilities( magneto- and laser therapy, ultrasound, electrophoresis, mud applications, therapeutic baths, etc.).
Patients are forbidden to lift weights, make long hiking trips, long stand in one place. It is recommended to wear comfortable nedavlyaschuyu shoes( better orthopedic), in some cases - use an orthopedic cane to reduce the burden on the patient's leg.
Nutrition for arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree
One of the main aspects of the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree, especially with excessive body weight, is the observance of a rational diet. Instead of fatty and high-calorie foods, one should eat more fresh fruits, vegetables, and dairy dishes.
You must unsubscribe from:
- smoked products;
- pickles, fried foods;
It is desirable to eat small portions, slowly, thoroughly chewing food.
Treatment of deforming knee arthrosis 1,2,3 degree
Deforming arthrosis of the knee joint is a very painful and serious disease of the lower extremities. Most often, older people face this. And this disease gives them a lot of unpleasant sensations during the movement. The process of walking becomes more and more painful. The inevitable question arises: how to treat this disease?how to stop the pain syndrome, so that the movement does not cause pain?
With this type of arthrosis, the cartilage that actively connects the joints in the knee is actively being destroyed. And this process is constantly progressing, which leads to violations in all surrounding tissues of the joint. As a result, the joint deforms, irreversible processes occur in it, other structures that are associated with it also begin to suffer. In connection with the depletion of connective cartilaginous tissues in the joint, other bone growths are formed replacing these tissues in the joint, and the amount of synovial fluid decreases. Friction of the knee bones during movement becomes painful, the spine undergoes changes in the lumbar region, irreversible changes in the muscles of the thigh and bones of the shins begin. Over time, the disease passes to the other leg.
The most common causes of deforming arthrosis are associated with various injuries of the knee joint, which were accompanied by ruptures of ligaments or the knee meniscus. Often, such knee joint disorders are found in professional sportsmen who are engaged in active sports( football, hockey, tennis, athletics, gymnastics, basketball, volleyball), in these sports there is too much strain on the joints of the lower limbs, there is a great risk of injury.
People with certain chronic diseases are at risk. Can give such complication, as deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, the following diseases:
- diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2;
People who have a sedentary lifestyle who are overweight are also at risk for the incidence of deforming arthrosis of the knee joints. In the presence of the above-described diseases or injuries, this disease may not develop until the age of 40 years. But the older the person becomes, the worse the condition of the whole organism. And bones are no exception. Therefore, various diseases of bones and joints begin to manifest themselves in the elderly.
Symptoms of deforming arthrosis
Symptoms of this type of arthrosis are associated with the characteristics of the disease itself. Connective cartilaginous tissues of the knee joint are destroyed, this is associated with a violation of blood circulation in the capsule of the joint. It is in it there is an inflammatory process that provokes swelling of the cartilages that connect the knee joints and their enlargement. Puffiness of the cartilaginous tissues promotes edema in the knee region and its deformation.
When you move or bend your knees you hear a crunch of joints, such movements are accompanied by acute pain in the area of the damaged joint, and the intensity of the pain syndrome increases with time. In the future, the pain becomes so strong that the movement is very difficult. But also in a state of rest, pains do not always pass, sometimes their intensification is noted at moments of rest. Because of puffiness and inflammation in the knee joint, the lower limb loses mobility, the movements become chained.
All these symptoms will tell you about the presence of a serious joint disease, in which you need to seek help from specialists.
Types and stages of
Gonarthrosis can be either primary or secondary. Usually, primary gonarthrosis occurs in older people as an independent disease, more often it is diagnosed in the female part of the population. This is due to the fact that the climax changes in the female body, including the hormonal background of the whole organism. People with excess weight also suffer from primary gonarthrosis. Arthritis of knee joints in acute or chronic form or knee injury with complete or partial rupture of ligaments can cause a secondary deforming arthrosis.
This type of arthrosis has three stages in the development of the disease. At 1 degree, small changes in the state of the cartilaginous tissues of the joint are characteristic. Changes in the form of joints at this stage do not occur. An inflammatory process begins in the synovial capsule, which leads to the onset of changes in the periarticular tissues. If the patient is forced to stand or walk for a long time, then when climbing or descending the stairs in the joints, painful sensations arise. However, if the patient gives rest to the lower extremities, then the feeling of pain passes. The mobility of the joint is not disturbed at this stage.
At 2 degrees of knee arthrosis, cartilage tissues begin to thin out, and in some cases completely disappear.
Walking and prolonged lying on the legs are accompanied by pain in the joints of the knees. If a person wears heavy or moves too long, unpleasant sensations appear in the lower extremities. The inflammatory process becomes more pronounced. Painful sensations can pass if a person sits down or lies down to rest, but the painful joint begins to move, as the pain returns again. This stage of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a crunch in the knee capsule when walking. The phenomenon intensifies with the further development of the disease. When bending the knee, there are sharp pains, and bend the leg in the knee completely does not work. The deformation of the joint can be seen even with the naked eye. The bones of the knee joint increase in size and become rougher.
At 3 degrees of the disease there is almost complete disappearance of the cartilaginous tissue on the walls of the knee joints. Painful sensations are more intense, even with complete rest of the injured limb they do not subside. The knee can not move fully, the bones are even more deformed, the muscles in the thigh and the lower leg are also undergoing changes. Arrange the diseased leg so that you do not feel pain, almost fails. The blood flow in the diseased extremities deteriorates sharply, the joints begin to "twist", the consequence of this is a change in their shape. Such changes in the bones of the joints change the person's walk. And over time, any movement( even within the apartment) becomes extremely difficult, which leads to almost complete immobilization of the patient.
Treatment of DOS
In order to stop attacks of pain and inflammatory symptoms, non-hormonal drugs with anti-inflammatory effect( such as diclofenac, ketoprofen, etc.) are prescribed. But such drugs do not treat the disease itself, but only relieve unpleasant symptoms with deforming arthritis. If these drugs are used for too long, the cartilage tissue is dehydrated, and the joints are more quickly destroyed.
In the first stage of arthrosis, drugs containing chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are used. These substances contribute to the restoration of cartilage tissue. When these medicines are used, the symptoms disappear, the amount of joint fluid increases, and the cartilage begins to recover. There may be prescribed such types of procedures as manual therapy or various physiotherapy procedures. They are effective only at the first stages of this type of arthrosis. Patient joints should be developed with the help of special exercises. The course of exercise therapy allows to improve the process of blood circulation in the joints, develops and serves to strengthen the muscles of the entire joint.
To remove pain and the effects of inflammation in the knee, ointments and gels( fast-gel or menovazine) are prescribed, as well as injections of corticosteroids. These procedures do not treat the disease, but only reduce discomfort in damaged areas. If the knee is severely deformed, then the treatment may not bring the desired result.
Treatment with folk methods
Treatment with folk remedies allows to reduce pains in the damaged joint, to remove swelling in the knees. Any treatment with folk remedies should be done only after consulting a doctor.
Dandelion can help in the treatment and removal of pain in deforming arthrosis. It is recommended to chew fresh leaves and dandelion flowers slowly until they are completely chopped. And infusion of dandelions on triple cologne is recommended to rub into a diseased knee before going to bed.
The root of horseradish reduces or completely relieves pain in the deformed joints. It is necessary to grind the roots of this plant in a blender and put in a water bath. When the crushed roots are thoroughly decocted, they can be applied evenly on a dense tissue and applied overnight in the form of a compress to a sore spot. Such compresses can be applied to damaged joints constantly.
Diet and Nutrition
There are a number of limitations in this type of disease, which refers to the consumption of certain foods and seasonings. It is not recommended to salt food and use spicy seasonings, as they contribute to increased appetite and increased thirst.
In addition, from the diet it is necessary to exclude fatty, smoked, salted and sour products. You can not eat pork and lamb, fatty fish( herring, etc.), meat of ducks and geese. Any products rich in carbohydrates allow you to appear in the body of an extra kilogram, so white bread, sweet pastry or confectionery should be removed from the patient's table. Under strict prohibition of alcohol and other bad habits.
Such patients recommend broths cooked on bones( only beef), as well as chillies and any luncheon dishes. The proteins contained in the products help to restore bone and cartilage tissues.
You need to eat a variety of dairy products, rich in calcium and phosphorus.
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree: treatment with medicines and folk remedies
Degenerative and dystrophic joint disease is called gonarthrosis. Today, this ailment is the leader in the group of various lesions of articulations in humans. The symptomatology of the disease, according to statistics, occurs in 15-20% of the total population. In this case, it is most often in women who are diagnosed with gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree. Treatment of the disease is difficult. Because the disease is incurable.
Main causes of
In gonarthrosis, degenerative processes of cartilage occur that cover the intraarticular surface of each bone. Uncomfortable sensations in this disease arise precisely because of this.
At first, blood circulation in all small vessels is disturbed. The nutrition of the joint worsens. After a fairly long so-called starvation, the cartilage is thinned, and later completely destroyed.
Partial exposure of bones creates a kind of friction between them when walking. This causes very severe pain. A person can no longer fully bend or unbend the joint. In the most severe cases, thorns appear. Because of this, the bone deforms, which, in turn, leads to the curvature of the leg.
When gonarthrosis is sometimes observed rapid deposition of calcium salts. As a result, calcification of the soft tissues of the knee occurs. However, this manifestation does not stand out in a separate clinical situation. Usually it does not extend directly to the joint itself.
The main types of disease
This disease is divided into primary and secondary.
Primary gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2 nd degree, whose treatment is directed mainly at the elimination of unpleasant symptoms, can occur even in an absolutely healthy person. Many doctors believe that such a disease is provoked by a violation of metabolism, the presence of excessive weight, as well as age-related changes in the joints. There are situations in which primary gonarthrosis has developed as a result of taking some contraceptive hormonal medications. Also, the cause may be poor heredity.
Most often the primary gonarthrosis affects both knees, but it can begin to develop in any of them. Pathological changes over time cover the entire joint and pass to the other leg. One-sided malaise can occur with an uneven load on the legs.
Secondary gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree, the treatment of which must begin in time, almost always one-sided. He has a clear reason.
The most common source is joint trauma. This can be as a hemorrhage in the joint, and a severe bruise or dislocation. The disease sometimes develops after some surgical interventions, with various inflammatory processes and neoplasms in the knee.
The situation can only get worse if you do not go to the doctor on time. Also, one should not engage in self-medication, as often it is fundamentally wrong. And this will only lead to even greater complications.
The main symptoms of
The disease begins with the appearance of pain in the joints after walking, as well as physical activity. But many people do not attach importance to this symptom, because discomfort passes if you rest a little. Sometimes there are mild pains in any one hip.
Characterized by knee joint gonarthrosis:
- increased pain in the knee joint;
- does not go through unpleasant sensations even after rest or sleep;
- severe discomfort when loaded on the knees;
- joint pain after a long walk;
- there is a significant underdevelopment of muscle tissue in the lower extremity of the corresponding side;
- appears a certain crunch in the knee;
- violation of the main function of the joint;
- appearance of the first signs of joint deformation.
By the time when the second degree of gonarthrosis is already determined, the disease covers both joints. One-sided malaise occurs when excessive load on any one leg. In this situation, a person unconsciously begins to shift all his weight to the other side. As a result, the degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue of the articulation develops.
Degrees of the disease
There are several degrees of the disease in terms of the intensity of their development:
- 1 degree( initial).Quite insignificant swelling and pain in the knee after physical exertion. The shape of the joints does not change.
- 2 degree. There is a slight crunch in the joints, the pain becomes stronger. There is a certain stiffness in the joint. The outlines of the knees begin to change outwardly.
- 3 degree. All symptoms manifest themselves in full. Gonarthrosis of the third degree of the knee joint is characterized by pain, which is permanent. The joint is strongly deformed and increases in size. It becomes difficult for a person to walk.
- 4 degree. On X-rays, a strong deformation of the joint is clearly visible. Practically complete absence of joint space. The pain does not stop, the knee is limited in movements.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis of the specific difficulties is not caused and is carried out on the basis of symptoms indicative of the rapid development of the disease:
- deformation of the knee joint;
- appearance of crunch;
- pain enhancement;
- limitation of joint mobility.
The most clear picture can be seen on the radiographic images. Deforming gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the second degree is characterized by specific edge enlargements and strong narrowing of the slit.
Treatment of altered joints
It is rather difficult to fight this disease. Before examining how to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint, it should be understood that the disease is considered incurable. After all, no one is able to return the joints to their joint mobility. The most that will be possible to do at all is to reduce the pain sensations only slightly and try to suspend the process for a while.
Only timely diagnostics of the disease will achieve these goals. However, any intervention will be ineffective if you do not learn to unload the affected joints.
Treatment of gonarthrosis should be carried out according to strict rules. To do this, stock up with a lot of patience. It is recommended to completely abandon all bad habits, observe a special diet, as far as possible, completely eliminate all heavy loads.
For gonarthrosis apply:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief( Nimesulide, Movalis, Diclofenac, etc.).
- Preparations, which contain components of articular cartilage( "Chondroitin-sulfate", "Glucosamine", etc.).
- Drug injections in the joint of hyaluronic acid preparations( Synvisc, Fermatron, Duralan).This acid is an analogue of an articular lubricant, which covers the cartilage, thereby reducing friction when moving in the joint.
Special support devices are used that can reduce the load on the joint. It can be like an ordinary cane, and hard knee pads, as well as special orthopedic insoles. Such a device is chosen by the doctor individually for each patient, relying on the degree and severity of his illness.
If the patient does not already have a chance to save the joint, surgery is recommended. Gonarthrosis of the knee joint is often treated with complex therapy, resorting to surgical intervention only in extreme cases.
There is such an operation option as endoprosthetics. It consists in the fact that the prosthesis is replaced by the whole joint or some of its parts. The operation is most often done when a unilateral gonarthrosis is post-traumatic in nature. This includes the rupture of ligaments, fractures of the knee joint.
Surgical treatment is performed only if the disease is not accompanied by osteoporosis. Another taboo to the operation is the increased fragility of bones.
Additional methods of
Comprehensive treatment is supplemented by some fairly effective methods:
- special massage;
- physiotherapy with thermal action and laser;
- exercise therapy;
- UHF, electrophoresis.
Special therapeutic exercises
With gonarthrosis of the knee joint, it is impossible to completely exclude physical activity. The individual curative gymnastics program will help to strengthen the weak muscles surrounding the joint, and improve blood circulation.
Because the joints need movement, then physical education should be practiced constantly. During such exercises, not only the affected muscles are trained, but the entire musculoskeletal system is trained.
Gymnastics in gonarthrosis of the knee joint can be performed by patients at home. But it is always worth remembering that physical exertion on sick joints is allowed only during the remission of the disease. The presence of edema and pain will simply make any movement unrealistic. Ignoring this nuance can exacerbate the condition to some extent.
When gonarthrosis is strictly prohibited squats, long walking, running, stress knee joints. They will always cause acute pain.
For each degree of the disease, its individual treatment is applied
1 degree - massage, easy medical gymnastics, physiotherapy. To reduce the load on the joints, it is recommended to reduce weight.
With the 2nd degree, the load on the joints should be minimized. Physiotherapy, physiotherapy exercises are prescribed. Anesthetics, anti-inflammatory drugs and some chondroprotectors are used.
Gonarthrosis of the third degree of the knee joint requires therapeutic symptomatic treatment. The patient may be referred for surgical treatment. At the same time, all bone growths are removed, osteoplastic cartilage is done. On the last - fourth - stage, joint replacement is increasingly performed.
We use folk remedies
Various decoctions and sprays made from medicinal plants are used in case if 1 or 2 degree of such a disease as gonarthrosis of the knee joint is diagnosed. Folk remedies with a serious degree of disease, unfortunately, will not have absolutely no effect.
This is one of the most common methods of combating the disease, widely used by patients who are diagnosed with gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree. Treatment involves the use of blue or red clay. It should be applied only with a plastic or wooden spatula. No contact with metal is allowed.
Clay is diluted with water to a consistency of liquid sour cream. The mixture is spread on a cloth. They put it on a sore knee and wrap it with cellophane or with a warm woolen shawl. This compress is held for a couple of hours, after which the clay is washed off.
Tincture made of ficus
A special tincture from gonarthrosis is prepared from the most common domestic ficus. His leaves are passed through a meat grinder and add a little vodka. Insist for 3 weeks in a dark place. The dishes should be very tightly closed.
First of all you need to take a salt bath. Prepared infusion slightly warmed, and then applied to the affected joint and wrapped in a warm kerchief. Do this for 10 days in a row.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint - treatment and useful recommendations
In order for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint to be successful, all medical and preventive measures need to be combined so that it becomes possible to solve several problems simultaneously.
First of all, you need to eliminate pain, then activate local circulation and improve the supply of hyaline joint cartilage. At the same time, all efforts should be directed at strengthening the muscles surrounding the diseased joint, reducing the pressure on the damaged bones and increasing the mobility of the joint.
How to treat arthrosis of the knee?
- In order for the treatment to proceed normally, it is necessary to eliminate the pain and relieve the inflammation. In this case, NSAIDs are traditionally used.
Gonarthrosis is a disease that requires complex treatment of. These nonhormonal drugs have a good anti-inflammatory effect and perfectly eliminate the pain syndrome.
- The most necessary medicines for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint are chondroprotectors. The action of these drugs is aimed at restoring the cartilage surface of the affected joint, as well as improving the production of the joint and fluid and the normalization of its properties.
- The use of a therapeutic cream or ointment for arthrosis of the knee joint greatly facilitates the patient's condition and reduces pain. It should be noted that these drugs are not a panacea for this ailment, but their analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect is sometimes very useful.
Recommendation: If the pathological process occurs against the background of synovitis, ointments with NSAIDs are prescribed.
- According to experts, compresses that are used for arthrosis are much more effective than creams and ointments. Very good helps to eliminate the inflammatory process of natural medical bile, which can be purchased at the pharmacy.
Warning! This drug is contraindicated in patients suffering from pustular skin diseases, as well as persons with inflammatory processes in the lymph nodes and febrile conditions.
- Intra-articular injections are medications for arthrosis of the knee joint, which are used only when providing emergency care. This group includes drugs that include corticosteroid hormones. It should be noted that intraarticular injections do significantly ease the patient's condition, but they do not have a therapeutic effect, but only cause temporary relief.
Warning! Corticosteroids are not recommended for prevention purposes, since their action is based only on eliminating the response inflammatory reaction of the body to damage the joint cavity. They can not be used as an independent method of treatment, since they do not prevent further development of arthrosis.
- Physiotherapy methods and manual therapy for the treatment of I and II stages of gonarthrosis are simply irreplaceable. Sometimes, for a significant relief of the patient's condition, it is enough to undergo several procedures. The most effective method, according to experts, is a combination of massage, intra-articular injections of ostenil and the use of chondroprotectors.
- Do not forget that the question of how to cure arthrosis of the knee joint will be particularly acute until the patient adheres to the recommended diet and begins to perform all the exercises of a specially designed course of medical gymnastics.
- A cane or crutches is a good aid in the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint. These improvised drugs take on the order of 40% of the load, which was intended for the patient's joint.
Recommendation: the cane should be selected accordingly with growth. The most optimal is the length, which corresponds to the distance from the wrist, lowered along the trunk, to the floor. The end of the cane should be equipped with a rubber attachment so that it does not slip and does not absorb.
- In the case when the pathology is started and there is no possibility to facilitate the patient's condition with the help of medications, as in addition to the pain syndrome, there is complete immobility, characterizing the third stage of arthrosis of the knee joint, the operation is perhaps the only way out of the situation.
Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree
When diagnosing first degree gonarthrosis, first of all, it is necessary to reduce the load on the joint. To do this, patients who are overweight are prescribed a special diet, and it is also recommended to limit physical activities that are detrimental to the functioning of the knee joint.
At the same time, without fail, the treatment of the first stage of arthrosis involves the regular exercise of physiotherapy exercises, since it is the movement that allows to keep the joint mobility and provide it with normal blood supply and nutrition.
For the removal of pain at this stage of the disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anesthetics are prescribed to patients.
Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint of 2nd degree
To eliminate pathological symptoms at this stage of the disease, as well as at an earlier stage of its development, it is necessary to relieve the joint. For this purpose, weight loss and load limitation are recommended.
. Recommendation: To ease the condition, it is recommended that patients use the cane.
Also do not forget about physical therapy, physiotherapy techniques and massage. In the process of drug treatment of gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, NSAIDs
are prescribed. Treatment of arthrosis should be carried out regularly by
in the form of tablets, ointments and injections, as well as non-narcotic pain medications. At the same time, this form of pathology provides for the use of chondroprotectors( preparations containing the components of articular cartilage).They contribute to the restoration of the cartilaginous structure, thereby greatly facilitating the patient's condition. In some cases, specialists recommend intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid preparations. In medical practice, this tool is called liquid prosthesis, since their action is similar to that of normal synovial fluid.
This is a very effective tool that forms on the damaged cartilage a unique protective film that improves the sliding of the contacting surfaces and protects the cartilaginous tissue from further destruction.
Types of surgical interventions:
- Knee arthrodesis. This technique involves fixing the lower limb in the most suitable functional state for it, after which it is immobilized in the knee, and the remains of the cartilaginous tissue are completely removed. It should be noted that this operation is not very popular, since in this case the patellar and tibia are intergrown, which causes ankylosis and the knee is completely immobilized. This is a radical method, in which the pain is completely eliminated, since its cause is removed, and along with it the patient loses the joint, while remaining a lifelong invalid.
- Arthroscopic debridement is an operative intervention that has a temporary but nonetheless lasting effect. As a rule, this technique is recommended for patients who are diagnosed with the second stage of gonarthrosis, that is, when the cartilage tissue is even more or less preserved. In the course of this operation, with the aid of an arthroscope, the dead cells of the cartilage are extracted from the joint cavity, which cause pain. The effect of this operation lasts about two to three years.
- Periarticular osteomy. Immediately I would like to clarify that this method at the present stage
Endoprosthetics - the most popular technique in our timeis practically not used, as it is very complicated, and also requires a long rehabilitation( about six months), but, at the same time, the effect ofit is temporary. This operation involves sawing and matching the bones from a different angle. In this case, the load is redistributed, and as a consequence, the pain disappears.
- The most popular technique today is endoprosthetics. In this case, the knee joint is completely removed, and a high-quality prosthesis( made of ceramics, plastic or metal) is installed in its place. Such a cardinal operation will allow the patient to lead a normal life without remembering arthrosis for 20 years or more.
Arthrosis of the knee joint( gonarthrosis), is an acute disease of the bone system, which is accompanied by a restriction of motor functions and a general deformation of the tissue structure of the osteochondral knee joints.
The abnormality is observed mainly in the female half of the population. Men suffer from this type of disease much less often. There is a certain degree of gradation in the development of the disease.
Degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint
Causes and symptoms of arthrosis
There are various causes of arthrosis of the knee joint.
Chronic pathology is accompanied by changes in articulating surfaces. This is due to the violation of metabolic processes in the human body.
Knee joints carry the main burden of body weight during movement. It is generally believed that the main risk factor for arthrosis of the knee joint is a mechanical effect on bone structures. However, to the violation of metabolic processes, not only a mechanical effect on the knee joints results.
Types of gonarthrosis
• Primary arthrosis of the knee( or idiopathic).Since the main group of patients with primary arthrosis are the elderly, it is commonly believed that arthrosis of the knee arises from the natural aging of the body: the tissue segments wear out, the degeneration of the muscular tissues occurs. The provoking factor is obesity, sedentary lifestyle and hereditary predisposition. However, since the disease does not overtake all, - official medicine recognizes that until now there are no reasons for the development of such a disease.
• Secondary gonarthrosis. This form of the disease occurs under the influence of physical and mechanical changes, such as: rupture and trauma of ligaments, shin fractures, meniscus damage and other deformities. Symptomatic manifestations of the disease as a result of the injuries of ligaments and joints, is not immediately apparent. Only after some time( usually 3-4 years), it is possible to diagnose pathological changes in the knee joint with confidence. Secondary gonarthrosis is found among all ages.
Normal knee joint and with a modified arthrosis process( X-ray).
By the intensity of pathological changes, bone disease can be differentiated into a power gradation:
• Arthrosis of the 1st degree of the knee joint is the initial phase of the deformation state of the bone structure. There are no obvious pathological abnormalities with this form of the disease. There are periodic complaints of dull pain in the knee when walking and running. In some cases, there is a short edema of the knee joint. But after rest( when the load goes and the legs are in a horizontal position), all the symptoms pass.
• Osteoarthritis of the 2nd degree of the knee joint .The next phase of the inflammatory process, differs from the previous degree, with increasing pain with minor loads. The patient complains of prolonged and intense pain. At this stage, some patients begin to take painkillers. When flexing and unbending, you hear a characteristic crunch in the joint. At this stage of the manifestation of the disease, there is a slight joint deformation, which moderately restricts the motor functions of the knee joint.
• Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 3rd degree .With this condition of the bone segment, the clinical picture of the disease has a pronounced symptomatology of arthrosis of the knee joint. Pain syndrome is felt at any touch to the patella. The patient experiences a constant sense of discomfort. Disappears the state of rest, as a result of which, the patient does not find a place. Workability is reduced to zero, sleep is disturbed, and as a consequence, neuropsychological disorder of the whole organism occurs.
Musculoskeletal system, completely changes its axial support. The person's gait becomes unstable, a strong joint deformation is observed.
In the photo below, a modification of the knee joint due to the development of the disease.
In the video below, the process of developing arthrosis of the knee joint is presented in a multimedia format:
Treatment of arthrosis
At the initial stage of treatment of the disease, non-steroidal group drugs are used that help relieve pain and reduce muscle tension in bone structures.
In the future, complex therapy is recommended. Treatment of arthrosis is a long and painstaking work that requires patience and desire from the patient. The main condition for successful recovery is compliance with all the recommendations of the treating doctor. The most effective method of drug treatment will be the use of hondoprotectors, as well as preventive gymnastics and therapeutic massage.
The main condition for preventive actions is adherence to the elementary rules of a healthy lifestyle. Rational nutrition, which should minimize the consumption of salt and spicy food. The dining table must consist of products with sufficient amounts of vitamin A and D.
Well, the most important thing is movement. Even regular daily walks can save you this serious illness. If you are aware of your non-active lifestyle, you will enter your daily schedule for a 15-minute charge, - no arthrosis threatens you. The main movement, and this is life for the muscles and as a result of the joints.
Watch for yourself and always be healthy!