Knee joint gonarthrosis of 2nd degree - treatment
Gonarthrosis - arthrosis of the knee, deforming arthrosis - a disease in which progressive destruction of articular cartilage is observed.Symptoms and stages of gonarthrosis
In the development of the disease, doctors distinguish 3 degrees:
- With gonarthrosis of 1 degree, pain occurs only after prolonged physical exertion. In the region of the knee, there may be a slight swelling, which quickly passes by itself. At this stage, it is possible to cope with the problem of traditional medicine methods.
- With gonarthrosis of the knee joints of the 2nd degree, the pains become frequent or constant, arise even in a state of rest and are intensified after the exercise. When walking, flexing and unbending the leg in the knee, there may be a crunch and clicks. The knee is swollen almost constantly, its apparent deformation is observed. In addition, there is a joint stiffness, which can decrease throughout the day. At night, there may be pain in the calf muscles. Treatment of gonarthosis of the 2nd degree requires the reception of a number of potent drugs, and folk remedies can only be used as ancillary drugs.
- With grade 3 gonarthrosis, visible significant joint deformity, permanent pain, limitation of mobility up to the impossibility of stepping on the aching leg, pronounced lameness. Conservative treatment at this stage is usually ineffective and surgical intervention is required.
How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree?
At the 2nd degree of knee joint gonarthrosis, treatment with conservative methods is still possible, but it should be performed under strict medical supervision. Treatment of gonarthrosis includes a whole complex of measures:
- Drug intake.
- If possible, reduce the load on the affected joint. With unilateral gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, the use of the cane is a good way to reduce the load, but in the bilateral form of the disease, when both knees are affected, this method is not available and it is necessary to limit oneself to special knee pads.
- Physiotherapy - laser, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis, low frequency vibration. Helps reduce puffiness, pain and inflammation.
- Massages, manual therapy and therapeutic gymnastics. They help improve blood supply, joint development and restoration of normal mobility.
- The diet for gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is an obligatory component of the treatment and is designed to normalize the weight( since the fat deposits create additional stress on the joints) and ensure the supply of the necessary vitamins and minerals. The food should be fractional( 4-5 times a day), contain a small amount of fats and as little salt as possible, be rich in plant and animal proteins, B, C and D. Vitamins.
Knee Joints Grade 2
Standard Schemetreatment of gonarthrosis prescribes the use of medicines of such groups:
1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
They are used primarily to relieve the pain syndrome and to a greater extent eliminate symptoms than have a prolonged therapeutic effect.
- Chondroitin sulfate.
These are medicines containing synthetic analogues of the substances that make up the cartilaginous tissue of the joint. Contribute to the restoration of cartilage, but should be taken regularly, long courses. To the same group include preparations of hyaluronic acid, which is an analogue of articular lubrication.
3. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids. They are used in short courses for acute symptoms and severe pain.
4. Ointments and compresses - used to relieve swelling and reduce pain. Of the ointments, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most effective:
For compresses most often used drugs such as Bischofite and Dimexid.
What is the peculiarity ofgrade 2 gonarthrosis? By gonarthrosis is meant the damage to the cartilage and bony growths that occur on the joint, the xytosis of the articular tissue.
Knee Osteoarthritis - is a degenerative-dystrophic disorder of .
This deviation is of 3 degrees of severity, the most common is gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree, because only at this stage people notice the disease and are engaged in treatment.It should be noted that arthrosis is a problem of the current society, this deviation was formerly characteristic only of older people.
Now the disease has no age restrictions, appearing even among young people due to injuries.
Causes of the disease
The main cause of the disease is a mechanical factor.
Microtraumatization of the cartilage of the joint is observed, which causes its destruction. As a consequence - the load on individual parts of the joint surface increases, and then - its destruction.
It has also been shown that, with this disorder, changes in metabolic processes in the cartilage of .These changes consist in decreasing the amount of chondroitin sulfate, which is a special component of cartilage.
There are such causes of the lesion:
- fractures of the bones of the knee joint;
- arthrosis in Paget's disease;
- bone formation;
- rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
If you suffer from polyarthritis, treatment at home will be a great help to traditional medicine. Recipes and advice will be relevant at any stage of the disease.
Stages of the disease
In the course of development, the deviation goes through several stages:
- The initial stage of the disorder is the initial stage of the disorder, which is often neglected by patients. With it periodically there are pains, sometimes the composition swells, deformation of the joint is insignificant and imperceptible.
- Grade 2 gonarthrosis is already significantly more serious, and therefore requires more attention, pains appear both after sleep and during physical exertion on the joint. On the x-ray, deformation of the subchondral parts of the bones and a decrease in the joint gap are observed. This degree is accompanied by the rapid fatigue of and the occurrence of moderate pain in the knee. Also a sign of difficulty in flexing and flexing, combined with a crunch in the joint, deformation and an increase in the volume of the knee is observed.
- The third stage of the is the heaviest stage. It is characterized by pain, arising both during movement and at rest, meteorological dependence is observed. The gait is greatly disturbed, the mobility of the joint is limited.
Types of the disease
There are such types of gonarthrosis:
- right-sided deforming arthrosis, affecting the right knee;
- left-sided is a disease that causes lesions in the left knee joint;
- unilateral - arthrosis, affecting only one knee;
- bilateral - a disease of both knees.
Basically, in the latter case, the cartilage tissues in both joints are destroyed at the same speed, but sometimes the lesion of one joint progresses faster than the other - this may be related to the specific work or sport that the patient is engaged in, as well as to congenital deformity of the joints.
Symptoms and symptoms of the disease
Arthrosis of the 2nd degree is more intense, and its manifestations are more disturbing to the patients.
Pain in the broken joint is increasing and increasing. In addition to the standard pains that appear in the morning or after a long rest, pain occurs after a long walk or standing. They last long and pass only at rest after a while.
Pain often increases with exercise. Patients spare the sick knee and try not to step on the leg slightly. Because of this, there may be underdevelopment of the muscles of the affected leg.
If there is a deviation at this stage, there is a crunch in the knee. As the changes develop, it increases and becomes more pronounced.
At this stage of the disease, the first manifestations of deformity of the unhealthy joint are observed. Patients often can not fully bend their legs in the knee.
Grade 2 gonarthrosis mainly occurs after the first stage of the disease, so the diagnosis of the patient is usually already known to the doctor. The progression of the lesion is indicated by the appearance of new manifestations: pain intensification, joint deformation, limitation of mobility, crunch.
Diagnostics consists in interrogation of complaints of the patient, check of volume of movement in a joint and survey of the joint. Naturally, according to this information, only preliminary conclusions are made, and the leading ones are instrumental methods of diagnosis.
Most often this is the x-ray of the joints. Depending on the general picture of the disorder, the stage of the disease is determined. Also, if gonarthrosis is detected, arthroscopy and ultrasound are used.
How to treat
disease When diagnosed, treatment of grade 2 gonarthrosis should begin urgently. First you need to "unload" the joint.
This is achieved in several ways:
- weight loss;
- load limit;
- using a walking stick or crutches;
- exercises physical therapy, aimed at strengthening the muscles of the aching legs.
For this, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ibuprofen, ketoprofen), non-narcotic pain medications are prescribed.
Arthrosis preparations that contain cartilage tissue components( chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine) are effective. They contribute to the restoration of cartilage, i.e.help the body repair it. They can be taken in tablets, in the form of injections in the muscle, ointment or cream.
In some cases, injections of hyaluronic acid into the joint can be prescribed. In the absence of inflammation, physiotherapy can be used.
Physical exercises should always accompany the treatment of any form of arthrosis. Gymnastics anticipates the development of contractures, preserves the musculartone. Movement is the anticipation of any arthrosis.
Physiotherapy measures quickly eliminate pain, inflammation and restore the volume of movements in the knee. Laser and UHF therapy, phonophoresis, and massage are used. All procedures are appointed by a specialist.
For the fixation of the knee, knee pads and rigid orthoses are used.
With obvious disruption of the joint, the uselessness of conservative treatment and the destruction of cartilage, surgical methods are used:
- endoprosthetics - replacement of the affected joint with artificial;
- osteotomy - excision of bone changes or restoration of the axis of the limb;
- arthroscopic intervention is performed by instruments injected through the puncture of the skin in the knee. By means of this low-traumatic method, parts of the destroyed cartilage are extracted from the joint cavity, drugs are introduced.
Read more about the treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis in our article.
Treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis - medications, chondroprotectors, sport and diet
Knee joint gonarthrosis is a common disease that is a gradual drying of the cartilage tissue that causes joint deformity with. ..
Forecast and complications
When the joint is damaged, biomechanics of the spine and other joints,which causes the appearance of a herniated intervertebral disc and arthritis of other joints.
Treatment is carried out for life, because the process is constantly progressing. But with a competent selection of funds and timely start of treatment, it is possible to significantly stop the process and prevent disability.
- weight control and its reduction with excess body weight;
- regular physical education;
- preventing large loads on the knees;
- for injuries or inflammation of the knee - an urgent request to a specialist for help.
Gonarthrosis is a chronic disorder that is aggravated over time. In order for the process not to become neglected, every effort should be made to prevent and treat under the supervision of experienced doctors.
Video: Knee joint gonarthrosis 2-3 degrees
Application shock wave therapy( UVT) for the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint 2-3 degrees.
Knee joint gangarthrosis
Gonarthrosis is a deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, a degenerative-dystrophic disease in which the hyaline cartilage covering the articular surfaces of the tibia and femur is affected and gradually degrades. In the late stages of the pathology, when the cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, the bone tissue begins to suffer, the disease acquires the character of osteoarthritis. The bone becomes denser, cystic cavities are formed, osteophytes grow at the edges of the joint, which causes the loss of joint function and disability.
Gonarthrosis is in the first place in terms of prevalence among all arthroses. Mostly middle-aged and elderly people, mostly women, are ill. But gonarthrosis of the knee joint can also occur in young people. In such cases, it is often a secondary process and develops after the trauma of the knee joint( posttraumatic gonarthrosis).
Gonarthrosis develops gradually over many years. The main signs of the disease: pain in the knees, the integration of their mobility and the periodic development of synovitis( accumulation of fluid inside the articulation).At first, the symptoms of arthrosis are almost invisible, but as the joint deteriorates, it becomes more intense and negatively affects the quality of human life.
This is how the knee joint affected by arthrosis
Reasons and types of knee joint gonarthrosis
As a rule, it is impossible to single out one cause that led to the development of gonarthrosis. In most cases, there are 2-3 or more risk factors for the development of the disease.
The main groups of reasons:
- Increased load on the components of the joint. This situation is observed in athletes, in people engaged in heavy physical labor, as well as in patients suffering from obesity.
- Knee injury, congenital or acquired deformities of the musculoskeletal system. In such situations, the load on the joint is distributed unevenly and some areas of the cartilage are under increased pressure, which causes their destruction. An example of such deformations may be flatfoot, kyphosis, scoliosis, incorrect fusion of bones after fractures, etc.
- Disturbance of the metabolism of cartilaginous tissue and its ability to self-renew. This situation leads to a shortage of substances in the body, necessary for the regeneration of hyaline cartilage, metabolic and endocrine disorders, a decrease in microcirculation in the tissues of the articulation.
- Disturbance of secretion of synovial fluid in the knee joint. As you know, the synovial fluid, which is produced by the synovial membrane of the joint, provides smooth movements, reduces the frictional force, and also nourishes the cartilage, which does not have its own vessels. If, for some reason, the synovia becomes smaller, degenerative changes develop in the cartilage, it cracks and collapses.
There are many more risk factors for gonarthrosis. Their definition is very important not only for treatment, but also for prevention. Having got rid of such negative influence, it is possible to completely stop the development of arthrosis and preserve the full function of the lower limb.
Depending on the cause, two types of gonarthrosis are distinguished:
- Primary - diagnose when the true cause remains unknown. At risk are women, elderly people, patients with obesity, with metabolic and endocrine diseases.
- Secondary - set when there is a clear connection between arthrosis and its causative factor. For example, after a joint injury or surgery.
As a rule, the primary gonarthrosis is always bilateral, and the secondary one affects only one knee.
According to ICD-10( International Classification of Diseases 10 revision), gonarthrosis has the M17 code.
Reinforced knee load may cause development of gonarthrosis
Degenerative gonarthrosis levels
Gonarthrosis is a chronic and slowly progressive disease. Symptoms, prognosis and tactics of treatment depend on the degree of pathological changes in the joint. There are three clinical stages of the disease:
- Arthrosis of the 1st degree is characterized by the appearance of pain or discomfort after an increased stress on the joints, at the end of the working day. After rest, all signs disappear on their own. The amplitude of the movements is not disturbed, there is no deformation of the joint.
- Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree. At this stage, pathology is diagnosed in most people, because it constantly makes itself felt. Patients complain of pain in the joint even after minor loads. Rest does not give the desired relief, and you have to take various painkillers. There is a limitation of the amplitude of movements in the knee, begins muscle atrophy, you can see the initial stage of limb deformation. Knee Osteoarthritis of the 3rd stage. The pain bothers the person round the clock, for its occurrence it is not necessary even to load a joint. Anesthetics do not help anymore. The mobility of the knee is partially or completely lost, its deformations develop, which is often the cause of disability. Treatment in this case is only surgical.
4 degrees of arthrosis does not happen, but there is a fourth X-ray degree of pathological changes in the joint, which coincides with the third, clinical stage.
Symptoms of the disease
At the initial stage of the disease, it is difficult to diagnose, as patients do not take the symptoms seriously and perceive them as ordinary fatigue. Most people can not even say that they are concerned about pain, most likely, discomfort in the knees after work or excessive load of joints, which completely and quickly disappear after rest.
A characteristic sign is pain during descent or ascent on stairs, as well as starting pain( occurs at the first steps after rest, then disappears).Outwardly, there are no changes. From time to time, patients may note some swelling( reactive synovitis).Also, most people complain of crepitation in the knee( crackling sounds with active and passive movements).
Pain in the knee joint is the first and the main sign of arthrosis
As arthrosis progresses, the pain becomes more intense, appears more often after minor loads. Independently does not pass, which often prevents a person from falling asleep. We have to take analgesics. Synovitis appears more often, have a more persistent current. Also a rough crunch develops during movements. The amplitude of movement decreases. It becomes difficult for a patient to perform familiar things, for example, to get off his knees. The knee joint begins to deform, it becomes wider, the shin bends( the beginning of the formation of O- or X-shaped deformation of the legs).
At the last stage the pain is intense and constant, it is not removed even by medications. Significantly difficult movements in the knee, especially flexion. The leg is in a forced position. The knee is enlarged in volume. There may be varus or valgus deformities of the legs.
Due to the described changes, gait and limb support function are disrupted. This leads to the fact that a person moves only with the help of an additional support( crutches, walking stick) or is not able to walk at all.
At the 2nd and 3rd stage, it is not difficult to establish a diagnosis. You can do this at the first, but only if you suspect a disease. Diagnostic program includes:
- examination by a doctor orthopedist or rheumatologist;
- clarifying complaints and identifying risk factors;
- objective examination of knee joints, determination of the amplitude of their movements;
- X-ray examination;
- joint ultrasound;
- in severe for diagnostic cases resort to MRI or CT;
- standard laboratory blood and urine tests.
Radiography is a valuable and informative method for diagnosing gonarthrosis
Knee arthrosis therapy consists of several techniques, individually they are ineffective, but if you use the whole treatment complex, very soon you will start moving without pain.Read more: How to cure arthrosis of the knee joint?
The main tasks of treatment of gonarthrosis:
- relieve a person from pain;
- to adjust the nutrition of cartilaginous tissue and accelerate its recovery;
- improve microcirculation;
- reduce pressure and pressure on diseased hyaline cartilage joints;
- to develop a good muscular knee joint corset for protection and support;
- to increase the mobility of the joint;
- prevent deformation and ankylosis.
This can be done using the methods described below.
Not essential, but allows you to quickly eliminate pain and signs of inflammation. Most often prescribe drugs from the group of NSAIDs( diclofenac, meloxicam, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, celecoxib, aceclofenac, etc.).These drugs are used for both systemic therapy( tablets, injections), and for topical treatment( ointments, gels, creams, patches).They quickly and effectively relieve the pain, but they are forbidden to take long courses, as severe adverse reactions may occur.
Chondroprotectors are on the second place. These medicines in their composition have chondroitin and glucosamine( the main structural elements of the cartilage).Thus, it is believed that chondroprotectors with long-term admission can stop the progression of the disease and contribute to the restoration of already destroyed cartilage. Among the most popular drugs worth noting: Arthra, Dona, Structum, Teraflex, Hondrolon, Alflutop. Treatment should start with a monthly course of intramuscular or intra-articular injections, and then switch to 3-4 months of maintenance therapy with tablets. Only in this case it is possible to achieve a positive result.
Dona - modern and effective chondroprotector
The intra-articular injections are a popular method of treating gonarthrosis. Inside the knee can introduce chondroprotectors, as well as glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drugs of long-term action( Diprospan, Kenalog).The pain passes even after 1 injection, the effect can last for several months.
Also today, the introduction of so-called liquid transplants of synovial fluid( Fermatron, Hyastat, Synvisc, Ostenil) is popular. These drugs are based on hyaluronic acid, which compensate for the synovial deficiency in the joint and promote the resumption of cartilage.
Therapeutic exercises are the most important element of arthrosis therapy. Without regular special physical exercises, it is almost impossible to achieve improvement. Complex exercise therapy is selected individually, depending on the stage of arthrosis, the age of a person, his physical fitness, the presence of concomitant diseases.
Simple and effective complex of exercise therapy for arthrosis of knee joints:
Other methods of
Other methods of conservative therapy are:
- Massage and physiotherapy. They are used during remission, when acute pain is absent. Allow to improve blood circulation in the tissues of articulation, which contributes to the regeneration of damaged structures.
- Orthopedic aids. To protect the joint and prevent the progression of arthrosis, you can use special knee pads for physical work or sports. They perfectly support the articulation and protect it from damage. At the last stage of gonarthrosis, a cane can be used to facilitate movement and reduce pain.
- Treatment with folk remedies. Folk methods of therapy are very popular among the population. There are not one dozen recipes that can help reduce pain, improve the mobility of knee joints. But we must not forget that such treatment should be used only as an additional one, and not replace all other methods. Also, before using any prescription, you need to consult a doctor about possible contraindications.
Operation with gonarthrosis is prescribed in the following cases:
- inefficiency of conservative therapy;
- constant pain, which can not be eliminated in other ways;
- deformity or ankylosis of the joint;
- loss of leg function;
- patient desire.
Before and after arthroplasty of the knee joint
There are 2 groups of operations that are performed with gonarthrosis:
- organ preserving,
- knee arthroplasty.
All modern organ-preserving surgeries are performed by arthroscopy. There are several options for surgery: arthrodesis, arthroscopic debridement, periarticular osteotomy. The surgeon chooses the necessary procedure depending on the individual characteristics of the patient.
Endoprosthesis is the most effective and widespread type of operation for gonarthrosis. Replacement of the destroyed joint with an artificial endoprosthesis( in some cases, bilateral prosthetics) allows you to maintain the mobility of your leg and lead a full life without pain. It is also important to know that success depends not only on the operation, but also on the correctness of the rehabilitation period. Sometimes only such cardinal measures can help a person to move again without pain.
Knee joint ganglion of 2nd degree
Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is a neglected disease that requires qualified treatment. At this stage of the disease there is already a limitation of mobility in the affected joint. Painful sensations are accompanied by any movement of the foot in the knee, most often they appear after a long walk and carry even small weight. After a long rest the pain gradually passes.
Signs of gonarthrosis
The patient is heard crunching in the joint, and during the radiography in the picture, the narrowing of the joint gap is determined. Sometimes a joint fluid accumulates in the joint cavity. Visually, one can see the deformation of the knee region, in the second stage of the disease the patient begins to limp.
What is dangerous gonarthrosis 2 degrees?
If you do not carry out any medical measures, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree will gradually pass to the next stage - gonarthrosis of the 3rd degree. In this case, the severity of symptoms increases several times. The pain torments the person constantly, and day and night, and does not pass at rest. The movements in the affected joint are limited to such an extent that the patient can not bend the leg to a 90 degree angle, moreover, difficulties arise with the extension of the leg. Lame expressed strongly, a person crouches on one leg l
because at all can not walk without help. The deformation of the knee region is visible to the naked eye, and on the X-ray images there are gross changes not only of the joint, but also of the bones adjacent to it. The joint gap is practically absent.
There are several stages of gonarthrosis
The doctor usually interrogates the patient, collects complaints, conducts visual examination of the patient, determines the amount of movements. With the diagnosis of "deforming gonarthrosis of the knee joint," instrumental diagnostic methods are required. It is necessary to take an x-ray, and if necessary - ultrasound and arthroscopy.
Osteoarthrosis( new osteoarthrosis, from other Greek - ὀστέον - bone, ἄρθρον - joint, synonyms: deforming osteoarthritis( DOA), arthrosis, deforming arthrosis) - degenerative-dystrophic joint disease caused by damage to the cartilaginous tissue of articular surfaces. Some common types of osteoarthritis have been given separate names. In particular, the term "gonarthrosis"( from the Greek-γόνυ-knee) is used to refer to arthrosis of the knee joint
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree requires an integrated approach, combining the efforts of the patient and the doctor. Treatment of the lesion of the knee region is no different from treating atroses of another localization. Necessarily prescribed therapeutic exercise: it provides an opportunity to maintain and increase mobility in the joint. During the movement, blood circulation and nutrition of the cartilaginous elements increase.
Are there any methods for treating gonarthrosis?
Where to go and what to do?
Three main methods should be distinguished here:
- Therapeutic physical training
- Medical treatment
The physician of the exercise therapy or the physiotherapist for physiotherapy will help you to choose the necessary set of exercises.
The basis of treatment should be the principle - as little as possible to burden the patient's joint itself, but at the same time ensure its mobility. Therefore, all exercises are performed sitting or lying down. An excellent way to restore mobility and relieve joints is swimming in the pool.
It is impossible to reject such an effective method as self-massage of the knee area, in addition, the muscles of the shank and thigh are additionally massaged. This allows you to maintain muscle tone, improve blood supply and prevent muscle atrophy.
For the removal of symptoms prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. Benefits will also come with ointments with irritating, warming and anesthetic effects.
Venotonizing drugs will help improve circulation.
Because the disease is caused by cartilage damage, do not neglect the chronroprotective agents. Known means - хонроитин a sulfate, глюкозамин a sulfate, гиалуроновая acid. Take these medicines should be a long time. In the evening, warm compresses can be applied to the leg.
In severe cases, they resort to surgery - endoprosthetics of the affected joint.
Knee joint gonarthrosis( arthrosis): treatment of 1 degree, 2 degrees, 3 degrees.
Along with this, the bone tissue is restructured and deformed, so-called spines or osteophytes are formed. It is they that limit the movement of the joint and cause pain.
If, in the presence of a man diagnosed with knee joint gonarthrosis, the treatment should be started, this may result in the disappearance of the cartilage, deformation of the joint and exposure of the underlying bone.
Knee joint gonarthrosis of 1 degree
The first signs are the appearance of a feeling of discomfort in the joint and periodic pains. As a rule, the disease develops gradually and pain over time is more periodic.
Especially should pay attention to the condition of the joint in the morning, after sleep. Most people complain about the morning pain( after a long period of immobility), but leaving and developing the joint pain goes away.
Also, a person feels discomfort when climbing and descending the stairs, becausethe weight of the body rests on one leg and the articular cartilages in the knee joint are compressed. It is worth paying attention to crunches in the joints.
Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 1st degree characterizes such features:
- fatigue of the limb
- moderately restricted movement in the joint
- a slight crunch
can be heard. In the gonarthrosis of the knee joint 1 degree of pain will occur at the beginning of the walk, after a prolonged load, and at rest or light load theyare absent. At this stage, the knees still retain their natural form and are practically not deformed. In the joint space, there will be some narrowing.
Knee joint gnarthrosis of 2nd degree
Grade 2 knee joint gonarthrosis already restricts in human movement. At this stage, pain will accompany any movement associated with the affected knee. Especially severely affected knee will hurt after a long walk and wearing a light weight.
The pain syndrome can only be reduced after a long rest. Check the joint for flexion right now - if you can not bend your leg in your knee, serious deformations have already begun.
In the second stage, a knee crunch will be well audible, joint deformation will also be visible, the patient will begin to limp and muscle malnutrition will develop. On the x-ray, you can see the narrowing of the joint gap in comparison with the norm 2-3 times.
A pathological fluid may also accumulate in the joint. At the second degree, drug treatment becomes necessary, it is impossible to cope with the disease alone with one's folk remedies.
knee joint gonarthrosis Grade 3 knee joint gonarthrosis will further strengthen the patient's pain syndrome. The mobility of the knee joint will decrease to a minimum. Pain will bother a person even when the knee joint is at rest. Deformation of the joint bones becomes very noticeable.
It will be difficult for the patient to find a comfortable position for rest. In the case when the destruction of the joint is observed and a violation of blood circulation, the joints will twist at night and on the weather.
In the structure of the knee joint articular cartilage is practically absent, due to the sharp sealing of the articular surfaces. Pain relieves patients even when lying down. The likelihood of gait disturbance due to X or O-deformity is very high.
At this level, it is advisable to perform arthroscopic surgery of the knee to remove outgrowths and deformed elements, as well as joint replacement - replacement of native elements with artificial analogs.
. On the x-ray, the joint gap will be practically absent.
How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint? Treatment of gonarthrosis should be started as early as possible, as the patient's recovery process will be quite long.
The main task in the treatment is to remove the load on the joint as much as possible. Get rid of excess weight( diet and proper nutrition), do regular massage of the affected part of the joints, practice physical exercises on the recommendation of a doctor( exercises and gymnastics).
In the first stage, treatment can be conservative and include:
Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree: how to treat bilateral, right-sided and left-sided gonarthrosis
Progressive gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree often leads to the fact that a personloses the ability to move independently without assistance or an auxiliary cane. Any movement causes pain and does not allow you to ignore the pathology of cartilage and bone tissue. It is necessary to contact the doctor as soon as possible to diagnose and prescribe the appropriate treatment. But first, you should consider the most probable causes and typical symptoms of this ailment.
The risk factors include, first of all, excessive body weight with a sedentary lifestyle and lack of sufficient muscle mass development in the gastrocnemius and femoral area. Recently, orthopedic doctors are discussing the risk of destruction of the cartilaginous tissue of the knee joints on the background of venous insufficiency. Thus, varicose veins of the lower limbs, which is accompanied by severe congestion, may well become a risk factor for the appearance of problems with large joints. This is due to the violation of microcirculation and diffuse nutrition of cartilage with the help of muscle fibers surrounding it.
Women aged 40-45 years are more likely to suffer. Primary pathological changes in them begin during pregnancy, against a background of pre-eclampsia and the associated edematous syndrome. In the future, in the absence of rehabilitation, the cartilage tissue changes and gonarthrosis of the second degree develops, which prevents certain movements during walking.
Two-sided gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree and its treatment
Depending on the causes of the disease, the disease can be unilateral or affect the knee joints symmetrically with almost equal expression of symptoms and destructive changes. Double-sided gonarthrosis of the second degree is more common, since the systemic pathological changes in the patient's body remain the leading causes. Usually the disease at an early stage is detected only in a random way, as patients prefer not to pay attention to sudden pain in the knees, a feeling of increased fatigue of the calf muscles and convulsive syndrome that accompanies the disease at the initial stage of its development.
Symptoms, which gives a bilateral gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, leave no chance to ignore them, since they greatly impede movement, cause severe soreness. Symptoms can be expressed as follows:
- soft tissue swelling around the affected joint;
- tenderness in palpation;
- slight degree of deformation of bone tissue, which is visible through the skin;
- pain enhancement during movement, especially often for pain patients complain when climbing the stairs;
- crunch, creak, clicks in the joint area, which arise due to friction of bone tissue in conditions of a thin cartilaginous napkin.
Treatment of bilateral gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree does not guarantee a quick positive result, as there are already serious destructive changes not only in the cartilaginous, but also in the bone tissue of the femoral and tibia bones of the joints joining the joint. For therapy, intraarticular blockades can be used, including hormonal drugs( hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, prednisolone).All of them contribute to a rapid elimination of the inflammatory process, which entails a sharp reduction in the intensity of pain. The edema subsides, hyperemia is eliminated - the patient has the impression that there is an obvious process of recovery. However, after a few days the effect disappears and pain returns with redoubled force. This happens because hormonal drugs increase the process of destruction of bone tissue due to the washing out of calcium.
The second trend in conservative therapy is the use of treatment regimens with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins and chondroprotectors. These measures do not give an expressed positive effect. The patient is offered a wait-and-see tactic using symptomatic means to reduce pain. At the 3rd and 4th stage, a surgical operation is proposed with the aim of prosthetics of the knee joint.
You can prevent the development of pathology to this state. Perhaps successful conservative treatment. How to do this is written on this page.
Right-sided and left-sided gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree
A one-sided pathological process often develops as a result of trauma. This can be a bruise, rupture of the ligamentous and tendon apparatus, dislocations, fractures of the femoral and tibia bones. In a number of cases, right-sided gonarthrosis of the second degree is a consequence of a violation of posture in the form of scoliosis and kyphosis. When the center of gravity is shifted, the distribution of the damping load falls on the large joints of the lower extremities. Left-sided gonarthrosis of the second degree can become a complication in injuries of the lower leg and ankle joint. Do not exclude from the number of possible causes coxarthrosis of the hip joint, which is accompanied by a shortening of the femur and a violation of the position of the heads in the cavity of the knee joint of the bones.
Both for left-sided and right-sided gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, diagnostics most often does not present any special difficulties. There is an asymmetric deformity of the joint, swelling and redness of the soft tissues, soreness when trying to palpate. During the movement, a crunch or a creak can be heard. An x-ray photograph shows narrowing of the joint gap and bony growths of irregular shape. When carrying out tomography, thinning of the cartilaginous tissue and a decrease in the volume of the synovial fluid are observed.
Associated disease may be bursitis of aseptic etiology. When treating it, one should take into account the deformation of the joint and the deficit of muscle mass in the gastrocnemius.
How to treat gonarthrosis 2 degrees by methods of manual therapy?
And now we offer to learn how to treat gonatrosis of 2nd degree by methods of manual therapy: is it possible to recover and what are the chances of success? First of all, it is worth noting that the most likely pathological cause of destruction of any cartilaginous tissue in the human body is the disturbance of diffuse nutrition from adjacent muscle fibers. Own cartilage network does not have cartilaginous tissue and receives all the nutrients from the muscle tissue. Therefore, with muscle dystrophy in conditions of insufficient volume of physical activity and stagnant phenomena against the background of venous insufficiency, destruction of cartilage and decomposition of hyaluronic fibers occur. This leads to bare bone tissue, which loses its natural protection against friction. In the process of contact of bone surfaces, microscopic trauma and cracks occur. They become the centers of future bone growths.
What do you need to do to stop this process and possibly turn it back? It is necessary to restore normal blood supply to cartilaginous tissue. It can help to do manual therapy.
Methods of osteopathy, fractional traction are used to cut off the physiological position of the head of bones in the joint cavity, therapeutic massage and physical training in the form of gymnastic exercises. To reduce the pain syndrome and activate the process of self-restoring tissues, acupuncture and reflexotherapy can be used.
Every patient has chances for successful treatment! The most important thing is to start treatment on time and carefully follow all the recommendations of the manual therapist. He, among other things, will advise a special diet and drinking regimen, help to develop a sparing schedule of the day and will give very important advice.
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