How to treat a knee joint injury if there is swelling?Knee injury is a damage to the surrounding soft tissues caused by trauma. There are several types of knee injury:
- without fracture;
- with a fracture of the bones located inside the joint;
- without dislocation;
- with dislocation of the joint.
Contusion can be complete when all joints are damaged, and partial, when damage does not affect all parts of the joint. What can be damaged with a partial injury?
1. knee ligament, including intra-intestinal;
2. cartilage of the knee joint;
3. Surrounding joint muscles;
4. Tendons of the periarticular muscles.
Contusion can not occur without any traumatic factor. In most cases, injury is domestic or as a result of playing sports, when a person falls on his knee. The bruise is caused less often by strokes and the action of compressive forces in the region of the knee joint. This can happen, for example, during an automobile accident. Nevertheless, it is not important, for what reason the bruise occurred, it is important - as soon as possible to begin treatment.
ICD 10 classifies knee joint injury to grade 9 as a group of diseases caused by external causes.
Consequences of a knee injury
A bruise is one of the most common injuries of the knee joint. It can occur in both children and adults. Unfortunately, not everyone knows how serious the consequences might be, it would seem, a simple bruise. And at a certain age, this trauma can even become life-threatening, especially if there are any complications.
In some cases, if the injury has not been cured, a person loses the ability to walk normally due to severe pain in the knee joint area. Osteoarthritis often begins to develop after a knee injury, including a bruise. Therefore, do not think that the bruise will go away by itself, you need to start treatment. After all, the bruise is easier to cure than arthrosis of the knee of the 2nd degree( when there are obvious signs of arthrosis).The treatment of this injury-provoked disease includes: a diet for arthrosis of the knee joint, numerous medications and physiotherapy. You have to completely change your lifestyle. Therefore, it is better to cure a bruise and continue to live a full life.
Unfortunately, a bruise, like any other trauma, can not be foreseen, so prevention( except muscle strengthening and proper nutrition, strengthening joints) does not exist.
Diagnosis of injury
There is an opinion that the treatment of a bruise is very simple and does not require a doctor. Alas, this is completely wrong, since damage can be caused for very different reasons. The diagnosis of "knee joint injury" is placed only when other traumas that carry a very serious nature are excluded.
To accurately diagnose and, accordingly, to prescribe the appropriate treatment, a set of different methods are used: ask the patient about the consequences of the injury( swelling, pain, swelling, etc.), make a radiography that shows the most reliable result. It is not recommended to palpate the area of the affected knee joint, as touching can be accompanied by very severe pain.
Symptoms ofKnee injury can occur at any age, including in children, as they are constantly on the move. In most cases, a bruise is preceded by a fall on the knee or a blow to something. Sometimes even the most unpretentious jogging can provoke an injury to the knee joint.
The main symptom of a bruise is a sharp pain in the knee joint, more specifically, at the site of the injury. Some patients report almost unbearable pain. In a traumatized place, skin color changes, swelling and swelling occur. This is due to hemarthrosis, that is, with bleeding inside the joint. If the treatment is not started on time, the patient may even lose consciousness.
First aid for knee injury
In order to minimize the consequences of injury, it is important to provide first aid before going to a hospital or a trauma center. What should be done?
- As far as possible, protect the damaged joint.
- Completely eliminate the burden on the injured leg.
- Apply ice to remove swelling, swelling, reduce pain and slow hemorrhage in the cavity of the knee joint.
To stop bleeding is extremely important, because the hematoma formed as a result of hemarthrosis compresses the endings of nerves and intensifies pain sensations.
If a bruise has occurred on the street and to remove swelling, pain and swelling have nothing, you need to urgently call an ambulance. What should I do until the doctor arrives?
- Sit on a bench and lift an injured leg. This is necessary in order to reduce the flow of blood to the injured knee.
- To reduce pain, swelling and swelling, you can apply to a damaged knee, for example, a bottle with a cooled drink.
Remember that for the most effective treatment and to avoid complications, you need to start treatment as soon as possible. If you have received a knee joint injury, postpone your affairs and postpone appointments, first of all you need to take care of your health.
How to treat a knee injury?
Any knee injury requires careful treatment and a special approach, and a bruise is no exception. After all, it is accompanied not only by the pain syndrome, but also by swelling, bleeding and swelling of the periarticular tissues. With severe pain, the doctor removes it with the help of special medications. Preparations for the treatment of knee inflammation with bruises are most often NSAIDs, that is, they belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Often used also special ointments, which help to reduce hematoma. But such treatment should be coordinated with the doctor in order to avoid side effects.
With such knee injury as a bruise, it is necessary to reduce pain, remove the swelling of surrounding tissues, so that the tumor does not interfere with the patient. Therefore, it is important to remove the accumulated blood from the joint cavity. Typically, bleeding is eliminated with a puncture, sucking the syringe blood from the joint cavity. After a puncture, a fixative bandage is placed on the knee joint area, limiting the movements and warming the damaged area. Thanks to the bandage, swelling of the tissues and swelling practically do not occur.
After injury it is important to protect the damaged joint, to limit the motor activity, so that it will return to normal. As a rule, the recovery after an injury of the knee joint takes an average of 2-3 weeks. During rehabilitation, a physician can prescribe a physiotherapy that will speed recovery.
With severe bruises, when not only swelling of the tissues and edema, but also rupture of ligaments, urgent surgical treatment is prescribed. In such cases, rehabilitation is much longer and more difficult.
The knee joint is the largest in man. His femoral, tibial, fibula and patella form. Cartilaginous bones are strengthened by the tendon of the quadriceps muscle, lateral and intraarticular cruciate ligaments. The mobility of the knee is provided by the joint fluid, the joint bag, and also the meniscus( intraarticular lamellar cartilage).
All the components of the knee during a person's life undergo all sorts of injuries of varying severity - bruises, fractures, tears and sprains.
Knee joint injury
The most common injury of the lower limbs, of course, is the bruise that a person of any age can get. Externally inoffensive, it can be very dangerous, especially if accompanied by complications.
The main sign of a bruise is a sharp pain, sometimes unbearable. Symptoms of injury include an instant change in the color of the damaged area, swelling of the knee, which appeared as a result of a hemorrhage in it.
The joint becomes limited in movement due to acute pain in it.
Injuries to knee joints are possible with a fall and with a direct impact on them. Who also did not run around with us in the childhood with broken knees? Increased activity of children does not leave a chance to avoid such bruises.
But the most injured knees are still for professional athletes, especially for runners, players, engaged in martial arts.
The cause of this injury is often falling, to protect when the knees are the hardest. A bruise can also be bruised upon impact on an object.
The trauma doctor determines the injury with an external examination by comparison with a healthy leg. Attention is paid to the shape of the knee joint, smoothed with hemarthrosis.
Then, when the patient is lying down, movements in the joint are examined. The presence of blood in the joint is also determined by the patient's limited movements. The ability to hold a leg in a straightened position is also checked.then for some types of knee injuries it is problematic.
After the injury, treatment begins with anesthetizing the patient with nonsteroidal drugs.
Then the classic method of pain relief is used by cooling the site of the injury. The ice narrows the small vessels, thereby reducing the edema and relieving pain syndrome.
Pressing dressing is an indispensable manipulation with a bruise, which allows to reduce hemorrhage and edema. After this, the patient should be laid and raised his foot on the dais.
The puncture of the joint cavity and soft tissues for the suction of accumulated blood helps to relieve pain and swelling. Puncture is prescribed with significant hemarthrosis and is performed by a surgeon, after which a fixative bandage is applied to the site of the injury.
Physicians recommend ointments that remove most of the symptoms of injury:
- Ointments with analgesics and anti-inflammatory components gel, strengthening the walls of blood vessels and destroying microthrombi;
- Chondroprotective ointments and gels, for example, Collagen Ultra, reducing compounds due to collagen, facilitating the rapid restoration of knee mobility.
Appointed a week after the injury. It includes:
- Dynamic current treatment.
With bruises, it is possible to treat folk methods. For example, ointments on pork fat or sabelnik have well proven themselves.
A mixture of pork fat with crushed leaves of plantain, which has the consistency of sour cream, greatly facilitates the patient's condition. A ointment from semolina porridge with steamed stems of the sabelnik promotes rapid recovery after a knee injury.
It is not recommended to engage in self-medication, which can provoke more serious complications.
Damage to ligaments
A common knee injury is damage to the ligaments, which is observed mainly in active young people, most often in sports.
This injury means breaking the fibers partially or completely, with the possibility of tearing off at the attachment point.
The general group of ligaments of the knee joint includes lateral ligament( external and internal) and cruciform( anterior and posterior).The rupture of each group of ligaments has its own specifics.
Different types of ligaments and are injured differently, the cause of their damage are excessively strong overexcusions, twisting of the extremities. But there are common reasons - it's sports that involve stress on the joints and a direct effect on the ligaments.
The direction and impact force determines which of the ligaments will be injured:
- The cruciate ligament can rupture with a strong impact on the back of the bent shank;
- The cruciate ligament is injured from the back if a shin strikes when the leg is bent or when the joint is unbent;
- Both types of lateral ligament can break if you turn your leg or stumble when walking on high heels.
Common signs of injury include:
- Painful sensations;
- Crying when getting injured;
- Hematoma( haemorrhage) of soft tissues;
- Knee joint swelling;
- Limited motion of the joint;
- Inability to rely on a bad leg;
- Excessive patellar mobility.
Symptoms can be expressed externally depending on the degree of damage to the joints. At full rupture the joint becomes loose, excessively mobile.
Other specific injuries are as follows:
- The symptom of an external lateral ligament injury is pain that increases when the tibia deviates to the inside. In this case there is edema of the joint, hemarthrosis. The gap is often complete.
- Internal lateral ligaments with rupture cause edema of the joint, pain in it, the tibia is inclined to the outside.
- The cruciate ligament will be ruptured if the tibia is excessively mobile( symptom of the drawer).
The arthroscopy of the knee joint determines the cause of the injury and is diagnosed for subsequent treatment. The following are the indications for its conduct:
- Large accumulation of blood as a result of trauma;
- Exudation in the joint cavity( fluid accumulation);
- Pain of an incomprehensible nature;
- Suspicions for damage to the internal elements of the knee joint.
Arthroscopy is performed with anesthesia, while the arthroscope is inserted into the joint together with a mini-video camera. The doctor diagnoses on the basis of a study of menisci, cartilage of the femoral and tibia, patella and other parts of the knee.
A correctly diagnosed diagnosis allows for an effective treatment that involves the following:
- Ensuring the immobility and rest of the injured leg;
- Fixation of the affected knee joint with the help of tires, bandage, elastic bandages;
- Cold exposure to relieve pain and swelling in the first 2 hours after injury;
- Providing an elevated limb position for reducing soft tissue swelling;
Anesthesia with anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents;
- Use of warming compresses and warming ointments in the days after trauma;
- Physical exercises, massage.
All of the above treatments are sometimes ineffective. With a complete rupture of ligaments, treatment is possible only surgical, which involves two small incisions. It is also possible to replace injured ligaments with transplanted tendons. The operation is performed using endoscopic equipment.
Menisci are 2 cartilaginous crescent-shaped formations in the joint cavity that serve as articular cartilage protection and act as shock absorbers when loaded on the knees. One of them is internal, and the other is external.
Menisci are very traumatic elements, ranked 1st in the number of injuries among knee joint structures. Often such traumas happen with sportsmen - football players, figure skaters, skiers and ballet dancers.
Meniscus injury is often accompanied by rupture of ligaments and fractures with displacement, which requires immediate treatment to the surgeon or trauma doctor .
The main symptoms indicative of meniscus damage are:
- Severe pain with localization on the inner or outer part of the knee, especially under physical exertion;
- Difficulties when climbing or descending a ladder;
- Appearance of a characteristic sound when flexing a joint( a "click" symptom);
- A slight atrophy( a decrease in muscle tissue);
- Presence of excess fluid in the joint;
- Elevated temperature in the knee joint region;
- Increased joint in volume. The presence of this symptom requires an immediate medical attention.
Most of the damage to the meniscus occurs when an unsuccessful coincidence occurs in a person of any age - with the turn of the foot, kneeling something. Most often, such injuries occur in athletes and fans of extreme sports, as well as those who like to squat and squat for a long time.
Predisposed to similar injuries and people with weak or too loose( unbuttoned) from birth ligaments, as well as those suffering from gout and arthritis.
There is a high chance of getting a meniscus injury in a person who has a spasm of the muscles of the anterior part of the thigh, with strained straight and lumbar-lumbar muscles.
An experienced surgeon or traumatologist is able to diagnose a meniscus damage based on a visual examination of the patient and his story about the history of injury. To determine the extent of damage, the patient is examined using hardware diagnostic methods:
- MRI( magnetic resonance therapy).A reliable method that allows you to clearly define the type of injury - tearing, tearing or pinching of the meniscus;
- Arthroscopy( Examination, which allows obtaining maximum information on the state of the structures of the knee joint).
If untimely diagnosis of tissue tearing of the meniscus is possible, a dangerous degeneration into the cyst.
Meniscal damage can occur in three types: jamming, tearing and full separation.
Most often, pinching and tearing of the meniscus occur( up to 90% of cases), which can be cured without resorting to surgery. With the detachment of the meniscus, only its operative removal is possible.
The choice of the method of treatment for a meniscus is determined by the severity of the injury. For minor injuries, conservative treatments are used, and more serious injuries require surgical intervention. In any case, the doctor decides on the method of treatment on the basis of a diagnostic study.
Stepwise treatment of meniscus damage occurs as follows:
After restoring the joint, restoration is carried out using laser, magnetotherapy and ultrasound with hydrocartisone.
- Reconstructive surgery.
In the absence of serious disruptions, non-surgical treatment is possible, which consists in:
- relieving pain and swelling in the joint;
- fixation of the knee joint;
- application of cooling dressings;
- exercises in therapeutic gymnastics;
- application of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anesthetic drugs, the use of chondroprotectors for the restoration of cartilaginous tissue.
this method of treatment consists in removing the meniscus by arthroscopy, which involves a small surgical intervention with the use of an endoscope unit.
Advantages of this method:
- no large cuts;
- rapid rehabilitation after surgery;
- does not require the application of a special plaster bandage;
- reduced duration of stay in the hospital.
Arthrotomy is somewhat less common, that is, an open surgery. Surgical treatment consists of suturing, resection, removal of the meniscus completely or partially.
Suturing is assigned taking into account the age of the patient, the condition of the damaged area, the stability of the knee joint.
A necessary step in the end of treatment is rehabilitation, which involves the removal of pain, swelling, restoration of the meniscus mobility, strengthening of ligaments and muscles. Physiotherapeutic procedures and massage help to adjust the motor function in the knee. A complete restoration of the meniscus function can take time from weeks to 3 months.
Fractures in the knee joint area
The complexity of knee joint fractures is that it consists of 4 bones, with trauma of each of them a full or partial fracture of the entire joint occurs.
The knee is formed by the femoral, tibial, fibula and patella. Fractures of the first two bones are due to sharp muscle contractions, as a result of which the bony projections( condyles), on which the muscles are fixed, break down. Injury of the patella ends with a fracture of the calyx.
Fractures are classified as both extraarticular( only bones are damaged) and intraarticular( the synovial bag that covers the joint from outside is injured).
Common for all 4 types of such fractures are:
- Acute painful manifestations during palpation or any movement in its area;
- Gradual appearance of swelling in the knee joint region;
- Bleeding, manifested in the place of injury;
- Limitation of knee flexion and extension functions.
The main causes of fractures of the knee joint are the impact on him of direct force or trauma, which most often occurs when falling on a bent knee.
The patella does not break so often, even a direct stroke does not always end with a fracture. True, there is a danger of getting injured without force, it comes because of a strong tendon tension, because of which a patellar bone break is possible, most often complete.
The clinical picture and additional research methods allow an objective diagnosis.
A good radiographic effect is provided by the X-ray examination method, which allows you to obtain a clear line of bone fracture or displacement.
Diagnostics using the method of arthroscopy, which involves examining the site of bone damage using an endoscopic device that allows you to view near the possible cracks in the cartilaginous tissue and determine the nuances of the fracture.
The fracture of the cartilage is more difficult to determine, the X-ray can not show it, the arthroscopy method is used.
After clearing the diagnosis, it is necessary to start immediate treatment, which is carried out in a specialized institution and consists in the phased organization of medical care.
It begins with the urgent provision of immobility of the knee joint with the help of available means to protect it from further injury. At this stage, an analgesic analgesia is used to overcome the pain shock.
Then the patient is provided with specialized assistance by a trauma doctor.
It is in exact comparison of fragments of bones with their further fixation in the necessary position, which will create good conditions for healing.
It can happen in two ways - closed and operative. At the first, the fragments are connected by hand. Operative intervention is conducted in an open way.
After any fracture, a plaster cast is applied to ensure the immobility of the joint fragments.
In case of injury of articular cartilage, it is necessary to use drugs that promote the restoration of cartilaginous tissue - chondroprotectors.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed for fracture of the condyle of the knee joint.
At the last stage, the joint is rehabilitated, which includes physiotherapeutic procedures, therapeutic gymnastics and massage, which contribute to the restoration of its functions.
Competent medical support of the patient at all stages of treatment will lead to complete restoration of functions of the knee joint.
Knee injury - causes, symptoms, treatment, effects
Knee injury is one of the most common injuries of the lower limbs in modern medicine. In addition, this trauma is typical not only for adults, but also for the youngest children. Despite the apparent harmlessness of the knee injury, such a trauma can carry a rather serious danger to the health of the victim's body. Not many realize the seriousness of the situation, especially if the bruise is accompanied by various complications. It should be noted that even the most common bruise can carry extremely unpleasant consequences. Despite the absence of special prevention of bruises, there is a specialized treatment that should be started in a timely manner. There are also cases when a banal bruise of the knee caused the development of severe joint pains that occurred several years after the injury.
Causes and symptoms of knee injury
In most cases, the knee injury in a child is due to the increased activity inherent in children. The cause of such injuries is, as a rule, falling to the knee or blowing on any object. Sometimes even an ordinary jogging or skating in the winter can cause damage to the knee joint. A rupture of the ligaments, resulting from an excessive deviation of the tibia to the side, can provoke a knee joint injury. Most often this problem affects people involved in sports such as track and field athletics, football, martial arts and others.
Among the main symptoms of knee injury can be identified sharp localized pain, which sometimes becomes unbearable. There are also symptoms of a knee injury, such as a discoloration in the area of damage and the appearance of swelling of the knee, which arises from the appearance of hemarthrosis( joint hemorrhage).In addition, among the remaining symptoms of knee injury can be identified restriction of the joint in the usual movements. This circumstance is caused by the onset of acute pain at the time of movement. A sufficiently strong contusion can lead to a temporary loss of consciousness as a result of a pain shock.
If the symptoms of a knee injury are too slow or do not disappear at all, you should always consult a doctor for advice.
Consequences of a knee injury
The most harmless consequence of a knee injury is an abrasion or a small bruise on the knee. In a successful situation, only a small temporary aesthetic defect may occur. The development of sufficiently serious consequences of a knee injury in a damaged place is possible when the necessary qualified medical care has not been provided in a timely manner.
Among the most common consequences of knee injury can be isolated inflammation of the meniscus, which occurs, as a rule, against traumatic injury of the knee joint. The disease can go into a chronic form with untimely elimination of damage. In this situation, there is the possibility of degeneration and cystic degeneration of the meniscus.
Among the remaining symptoms of knee injury can be noted the accumulation of fluid in this area, the main manifestation of which is the formation of swelling and puffiness of the joint of varying degrees. In this case, patients note a characteristic pain in the area of injury.
Partial ligament rupture or stretching is also a consequence of a knee injury that develops as a result of a sufficiently strong direct impact on the knee area, as well as a blow to the front, back or side part. After a complete rupture of ligaments, the knee loses its ability to move, and after stretching it becomes more stiff.
First aid in this situation is to provide maximum protection of the damaged joint, excluding even the lightest loads. It is recommended to conduct cold procedures that promote vasospasms, which reduces the scale of internal hemorrhage. The main task in the provision of first aid is to stop the build-up of hemarthrosis, because the hematoma helps squeeze the nerve endings and provokes the emergence of intense pain. In the event that the incident occurred on the street and the limb is limited in movements, an ambulance should be called immediately. Prior to the arrival of doctors, the victim must be seated on a bench and raise his injured leg in order to minimize the flow of blood. An early and effective recovery depends largely on the quality of the primary methods of treating the knee injury.
Treatment of a knee injury in the presence of a severe pain syndrome consists, first of all, in carrying out anesthesia under the supervision of a doctor with the help of various medications. In the course of treatment, the knee injury is usually applied to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Analgin, Ketanov, Diclofenac and others. In some cases, various ointments from bruises are used to treat a knee injury.
In order to eliminate edema and reduce pain, knee joint puncture is performed and the blood accumulated in it is aspirated. Then a fixing bandage is applied to the injured area, limiting movement and warming the injured area. It is not recommended to engage in self-medication, as it can provoke the development of various complications.
At the first time after receiving an injury, you should limit any physical exertion to the injured leg. It should be noted that the duration of the recovery period in this case may be prolonged, since the knee is constantly in motion. As a rule, the physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed for the victim. Among the most common ointments containing analgesic and anti-inflammatory components used in the treatment of a knee injury, it is possible to identify Fastum gel, Lyoton, Traumeel C and others. In order to quickly and effectively heal the knee joint, chondroprotective agents are also used. Traditional medicine in this case suggests the use of ointments based on pork fat with leaves of plantain, as well as ointments based on sabelnik. The process of normal recovery of a knee injury usually takes about two to three weeks. In more severe cases, the recovery period can be significantly stretched.
This article is only for educational purposes and is not a scientific material or a professional medical advice.
Knee injury - symptoms, consequences, treatment
Knee injury is a closed trauma, in which the most frequently injured superficial soft tissues without severe disruption of joint function. Knee injury( knee cap) is one of the most common injuries of the lower limbs, characteristic of all age categories. Sometimes this injury is not given much importance, but it must be remembered that its consequences can be very serious, such as meniscal inflammation, sprain and ligament tearing, and others.
Causes and symptoms of knee injury
Knee injuries are always caused by external causes, this can lead to a variety of situations in which it is possible: falls, getting punches, jamming in accidents and much more. Especially often the knee cap is affected by children and sportsmen involved in such sports as football, athletics, wrestling. With a knee injury, symptoms may appear after a few hours after the injury. These include:
- Abrasions, wounds, bruising;
- Edema of the periarticular tissues;
- Limited mobility of the joint.
Also, the main symptoms of a knee injury include localized pain, its nature and intensity depends on the severity of the injury, and in some cases, painful shock can lead to loss of consciousness. Sign of a severe injury is the appearance of a significant tumor, exceeding the size of the joint. Such a leak testifies to the possible development of hemarthrosis - violation of the integrity of blood vessels and the accumulation of blood in the joint cavity, also with soft tissue hematoma, a painful swelling, the so-called cone, can form above the knee. Any of these symptoms require adequate medical attention.
Consequences of knee injury
One of the most minor consequences of a knee injury is the development of subcutaneous hematoma with preservation of the integrity of the skin without damage to the knee joint. In this case, the consequence of damage is only an aesthetic defect. But in some cases, without a qualified help, the consequences of a knee injury can be serious pathologies. Consider some of them:
- Inflammation and rupture of the meniscus. Inflammation of the cartilaginous formation, performing a cushioning function between the joints, is characterized by the appearance of sharp pain during flexion and extension of the knee, which restricts the motor activity. Also in the future, the knee joint may retract with internal hemorrhage into the cavity of its outer capsule, followed by blocking. The sensation of pain becomes diffuse in this case. Without timely treatment, the lesion can pass into a chronic form, with the threat of degeneration of the meniscus;
- Fluid accumulation in the knee. Complication with a knee injury is accompanied by pain and swelling of the joint, which indicates the accumulation of fluid in its cavity. In this case, edema may exceed the joint size several times. The patient is given complete rest and fixes the knee with a plaster bandage. If no positive result is observed, the knee joint is punctured;
- Sprain or ligament rupture. Occurs as a result of a direct blow to the knee, as well as blows to its back or side. When stretching there are swelling, bruising, movement becomes difficult and painful, with a rupture of ligaments the knee is loses its ability to move. These conditions are also characterized by the instability of the joint, its "fallout" during walking with a serious degree of injury;
- Dislocation and fracture of the patella. The kneecap( patella) plays an important role in the functioning of the knee joint, and partially serves as a protection against damage, and because of its location itself is often injured. The patella shows various dislocations, subluxations and fractures of varying degrees of complexity. The most common with bruises in athletes is the habitual dislocation. It is characterized by instability, pain in the joint, destruction of cartilage, muscle weakness, and restriction of motor function;
- Prepatellar bursitis. Inflammation of the prepatellar sac, which prevents friction between tissues in the region of the knee joint, arises from bruises and injuries. It is accompanied by swelling, tenderness and redness in the knee area, an increase in temperature, if the skin is damaged, infection and development of purulent bursitis are possible, in which case surgery is required.
In addition to the above consequences of knee injury, there are other complications, so with such injuries, mandatory specialist consultation is necessary to prevent possible pathological processes.
First aid for knee injury
With a knee injury, it is very important to provide first aid before contacting a specialist. To do this, it is necessary to protect the damaged joint, excluding the impact on it of any load, it is better to put the patient, while raising the leg above the level of the heart, and try to immobilize it with a pressure bandage. It is also recommended to attach a hot-water bottle to the damaged area with ice or a cold compress for 10-15 minutes, after the same period of time, the procedure should be repeated. This will prevent the appearance or growth of hemarthrosis, reduce joint flushing and stop bleeding. In addition, the patient can take an adequate analgesic to relieve the condition. If the injury occurred outside the home, you must call for emergency help, pre-plant or lay the patient, lifting a damaged leg to reduce the flow of blood to the affected area.
Treatment of a knee injury
Treatment of a knee injury is usually carried out in conservative ways, surgical intervention is resorted only to the development of a significant hemarthrosis. To address to experts it is necessary right after an occurring trauma to exclude probability of complications it is recommended to make a roentgen of a knee. First of all, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed for the removal of inflammation and pain relief. At ruptures or sprains of ligaments a fixing bandage can be applied to limit movements, and in extreme cases even gypsum. A week after the knee injury, UHF therapy and other physiotherapy procedures may be prescribed, and ointments can be used to dissolve the hematomas, remove swelling and inflammation. Operative treatment of a knee injury consists in puncture of soft tissues and suctioning of accumulated blood for removal of pain syndrome and swelling.
To restore the lost functions of the knee joint will help special gymnastics, matched for you by a doctor. Do not self-medicate, but follow all the recommendations of specialists.
If there was a knee injury, what to do, swollen knee - how to treat such a trauma? These questions are often asked by the trauma patient. From the injuries of the limbs, no one is immune. Many people face this problem. As a rule, people are not serious about knee injuries. However, very often a knee injury requires professional help from a doctor.
What if you hurt your knee?
It is impossible to insure against injury. Even with severe knee injury, it is necessary to provide first aid before the doctor's arrival. There is nothing complicated here, but if you do not, complications may appear.
Most often knee injuries are obtained when falling or colliding with a solid object. To treat a knee it is necessary immediately. This will avoid the formation of bruises and serious consequences in the form of hemorrhage.
- Fix the knee in a comfortable position.
- You must attach an ice pack or a cold towel. This will reduce puffiness. In addition, it's a great way to stop bleeding, if there is one.
- If there is an open wound, it is important that it does not get contaminated.
- Apply a tight bandage or use a flexible bandage. You can impose a special knee.
- Take a comfortable position, this will avoid pain.
- You can not bend and unbend the leg, otherwise you can get a dislocation.
In order to avoid inflammation, you need to take Analgin, Paracetamol, Diclofenac or Spasmalgon. In addition, these funds will help to remove pain. In the event that the pain is severe, then you need to call the doctors.
If the condition does not improve, you should visit a doctor.
In order to relieve pain and inflammation, you can use a local remedy in the form of an ointment. It can be Menovasinum, Levomecol or Diclofenac.
For some time it is necessary to provide a damaged knee rest. This is important in order for the joint to recover, and it will prevent even more serious damage. It is necessary to raise the leg upwards, in order to reduce the flow of blood. If there is a suspicion of serious injury, you should see a doctor.
What if there was a bruise, knee swelling and pain? The biggest danger of a bruise is that the skin most often remains intact, there may be minor scratches or bruises. Do not forget that sometimes for all this may hide a fracture, with fragments or a mixture of bones. Even if he overgrows himself, it will lead to disability. Therefore, in order to avoid this, you need to undergo a survey.
There are symptoms that can help distinguish a bruise from fracture or dislocation:
- After a bruise, a sharp pain appears in the knee area. In the absence of serious damage, it passes after a while. However, with serious damage, it can build up, and swelling may increase.
- Skin over the affected knee becomes red, which is a sign of synovitis, which is a response to the damage.
- Another symptom is a tumor. Sometimes it can be observed that the joint has increased in volume. This is because liquid begins to accumulate in its cavity.
- One of the consequences of a contusion is hemarthrosis, which manifests itself as a hemorrhage into the joint cavity. With a strong internal bleeding, the joint increases in volume several times.
If the injury is severe, then there is a chance that the leg will lose mobility.
These are the symptoms that characterize the bruise. If they do not disappear for a long time, then this can be a reason for anxiety and you need to see a doctor. The most frequent complication that occurs after a fall or stroke is the displacement inside the joint. Another complication is arthrosis of the knee joint.Back to the table of contents
How to treat a knee injury
Treatment should begin immediately. In order to eliminate pain and relieve inflammation, you should take an anesthetic and provide the patient with peace. If the swelling is severe, then you need to go to the hospital, where they will make a puncture, which will eliminate the fluid from the joint.
A fixative bandage is applied to the site of the bruise. An analgesic ointment has a good effect, which has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. Doctors advise to avoid sudden movements, especially the first few days after the injury. It is impossible to provide complete peace of mind, so you need to tune in to the fact that the process of recovery will be long.
There are effective folk medicine that can be used only after consultation with a doctor. In order to relieve pain, you need to take inside the tincture of mint and valerian.
You can apply a compress using an alcohol tincture made from white lily. It is fixed with a bandage.
Effective anti-edematous action is a vegetable oil. It is used to prepare a remedy, which includes boiled water, vinegar and vegetable oil. It is necessary to mix all the components in equal proportions, get a towel in the liquid and apply to the bruise. Keep it should be at least 4-5 hours, and then take a break and repeat the treatment.Back to the table of contents
What complications can be after a knee injury
Frivolous attitude towards a knee joint injury can lead to complications. That's why you need to start treatment immediately, and with severe trauma you need to see a doctor. One of the complications is the fluid that accumulates in the joint. This process leads to a strong puffiness, and to an increase in the joint in size. The only way to cure this is by imposing gypsum, which leads to impaired mobility. Sometimes a puncture is required, which allows liquid to be eliminated.
The patella is very uncomfortable, so when you hit it, you can easily get a dislocation or fracture. If you can not cure them in time, you can remain disabled. The most common complication is sprain or ligament rupture. One of the characteristic manifestations of stretching is the lack of the ability to stand on the foot. Movements become painful and difficult.
Upon impact, regardless of the degree of severity, often a meniscus is damaged. Meniscus is a small cartilaginous plate, which is located in the region of the knee joint. There are only two. If you do not provide medical assistance in time, this leads to the fact that the meniscus begins to gradually deteriorate. The consequences of this can be quite serious, and even disability can occur.
Knee edema can very often be associated with bursitis. Very often it leads to an increase in body temperature and is accompanied by severe pain. In the event that there is an infected wound, there is a risk of developing purulent bursitis, which can be cured only through surgery.
As you can see, a knee injury can lead to quite serious consequences, especially if it is not treated. If the symptoms of injury can not be eliminated at home, then you need to go to the clinic and be treated. Timely and correct treatment can help to avoid serious consequences. Knee injury: what to do and how to treat?
Large and small injuries accompany a person throughout his life. In the event that the damage is not accompanied by severe pain, there is a tendency to throw everything on its own. An example of dangerous indifference can be a knee injury - what to do and what not to do, you should know each person to be able to provide the necessary help to yourself or another traumatized person.
Knee injury - one of the most common injuries of the lower extremities
First of all, it is necessary to determine whether a bruise or a more serious injury has occurred. If you have any doubts, you should consult your doctor and get a checkup. Nevertheless, you should know what to do with a knee injury, in which order and what to look for.
This refers to damage to soft tissues of traumatic origin due to compression or impact. Most often, the injury has no external injuries and is a closed trauma. At the same time, the tissues located on or close to the surface are affected first of all.
An essential part of the injury can be considered a painful component, the intensity of which is directly related to the degree of injury received. The stronger the knee injury, the more intense the pain. Knee joint injury is most typically characterized by the following symptoms:
- increased pain from the moment of injury;
- rapidly increasing edema of adjacent tissues;
- epidermis acquires a typical bluish shade for the injury.
In cases where there is a severe knee injury, it is methodically important to accurately determine the type of injury, which is done by exclusion from possible methods. In connection with the similarity of symptoms, you should make sure that there is a bruised knee joint, without fractures, sprains and rupture of ligaments.
After all, for example, a significant knee injury is very similar in symptoms to the rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament - such cases are not uncommon, and in order to clarify the diagnosis, X-ray studies are successfully used.
Provision of first aid to the victim, who has a knee injury, is reduced to three main actions:
- use cooling compresses;
- give the limb the highest possible position;
- fix the knee joint zone with a pressure bandage.
It is correctly rendered first aid, when there is a knee injury, is the basis on which further treatment of the knee joint depends and on which depends.
ice pack will be the first aid in case of injury.
treatment measures. If the knee injury is not strong and has been treated without getting a significant amount of blood into the articular bag of the knee statute, adhere to the following treatment method.
- It is necessary to provide complete rest for the knee joint, which received a bruise.
- An important factor is the removal of pain blockade. Cold compresses should be continued. They, in addition to removing the pain syndrome, provide a narrowing of the blood vessels and a decrease in the amount of blood that has been poured out from the injury of the vessels directly into the soft tissues of the knee.cold also helps to reduce the edema of the injured knee joint.
- In addition to cold compresses for the knee, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to reduce the pain syndrome. The most common are Analgin, Ketanov, Oksigan and others.
- The obligatory procedure, which involves the treatment of the knee joint, is the use of an elastic bandage for fixing the knee. This precaution will not be superfluous - it will provide the temporary immobilization necessary for the knee leg.
Hold the leg fixation with an elastic bandage followed by relaxed muscles in the following order:
- to begin to bandage you need to lower the knee and climb up;
- cover the area above the kneecap and descend to the lower leg;
- bandage is applied with overlapping of the previous turn approximately by 1/3.
When there is a complex knee injury, treatment is prescribed more intense. Here it is possible to carry the following "heavy" measures and medications, as to treat the bruise of the knee is necessary according to the extended scheme of .Treatment order includes items:
- Non-steroidal pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat trauma in the knee area of the leg. Used tools such as Indomethacin and Voltaren.
- Treatment of a sore leg with topical preparations, in particular ointments related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Diclac, Indomethacin, Diclofenac and others, has proved to be a promising method. Treatment with ointments patella and adjacent soft tissues successfully removes the symptoms of the disease.
- Injury of the leg in the patella region with hemarthrosis will require a puncture to remove blood from the articular knee joint bag. To treat a bruise, weighed down with hemarthrosis, there will be a surgeon or traumatologist - a long needle is inserted into the joint cavity and pumps out the expired blood. The procedure allows you to treat the bruise and its symptoms more effectively by speeding up the recovery functions.
To treat a foot injury in the area of the knee cap with physiotherapy, you can start after a week after the injury. Positive dynamics in the regeneration of damaged tissues shows the use of UHF and dynamic currents. Physiotherapy should be treated according to the doctor's prescription, but on average, about 10 courses will be required to restore the foot in the patella area.
Complications of injury
Even such minor injuries as a knee injury require attention. After all, treat any injuries and illnesses at once, so that after a time not to encounter a developed severe pathology.
Any injury to the knee joint needs to be treated promptly
Below is a list of diseases that can become serious consequences of a bruise.
- Chronic inflammatory process of meniscus as a consequence of traumatic meniscus lesion. The prognosis is degeneration and cystic degeneration. Symptoms are permanent dull pain and joint blockage.
- The accumulation of fluid in the joint bag is a typical complication. Symptoms - swelling of the joint and growing pain. Medical measures - plaster and immobility. If the procedure is ineffective, a puncture of the joint is prescribed.
- Damage to the ligamentous apparatus - sprain of the ligaments leads to a difficult joint mobility, and the rupture leads to a complete loss of mobility. Symptoms - puffiness, tenderness of the joint, crunching and painful sensations during movement, the appearance of hematomas.
- Bursitis is a direct consequence of bruises. Symptoms - fever, joint swelling and painful movement. Bursitis can be infected with staphylococcal infection, if a bruise has damaged the epidermis and wounded infection.
Restoration of health after damage to the soft tissues of the knee joint is a fairly long process. It is necessary to consult a doctor, not to miss the development of complications.