Longitudinal flatfoot is a pathology in which flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot is observed. The foot spreads out in the longitudinal direction, slightly elongates and contacts the support not only with the outer edge, as in the norm, but practically with the entire surface. This leads to disturbance of the shock-absorbing functions of the foot, causes fatigue and pain in the legs and provokes the development of pathological changes in the overlying parts of the musculoskeletal system( in the spine and lower limbs).Diagnosis is made on the basis of sub-metering, planography and radiography. Treatment is often conservative.
Longitudinal flatfoot is a fairly common pathology that occurs in approximately 20% of patients with flattened foot. In other cases, there is either a transverse or a combined flat foot( a combination of longitudinal and transverse flatfoot).Usually it is acquired, congenital forms are rare and, as a rule, are accompanied by more pronounced anatomical abnormalities and clinical symptoms.
Longitudinal flatfoot can be detected at any age, but is especially common in children. Moreover, all children are born with imaginary flat feet, and the arches of the foot are formed only by the age of 3, so before this age it is impossible to diagnose this pathology. Among the adult patients suffering from this disease, people who are forced to spend long periods on their feet in connection with the performance of professional duties prevail. Orthopedics treat longitudinal flatfoot.
Anatomy of the foot
The human foot consists of 26 bones, many joints, ligaments and muscles. All listed anatomical elements are interrelated and represent a single entity providing the functions of support and walking. Correct functioning of the feet allows optimal distribution of body weight when moving in space, maintain proper posture and physiological position of ankle, knee and hip joints. When walking, the foot absorbs shock to the ground, thereby reducing the load on the overlying parts of the musculoskeletal system.
Joint elements form two arches of the foot, having the form of arcs. The longitudinal arch is located at the outer edge of the foot, the transverse - at the base of the fingers. Due to such a complicated arcuate shape, the foot does not touch the support with the entire sole, but with certain points: in the calcaneus, the bases of the I and V fingers. With longitudinal flat feet, the height of the longitudinal arch is reduced, the foot begins to touch the support almost the entire surface.
All of the above results in incorrect distribution of the load, deterioration of the damping qualities of the foot, impaired posture and the development of perverse motor stereotypes. As a result, progressive pathological changes develop not only in the feet, but also in other parts of the musculoskeletal system. The probability of coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis, osteochondrosis and other degenerative-dystrophic diseases increases.
Causes of longitudinal flatfoot development
In approximately 3% of cases longitudinal flatfoot is a congenital pathology that occurs as a result of intrauterine disruption of the formation of bones and ligaments of the foot. In addition, the cause of the development of this condition can be trauma, including - incorrectly fused fractures of the tarsus of the tarsus and metatarsals and fractures of the ankles. There is also a paralytic flat feet arising from paralysis or paresis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg and rachitic flat feet due to deformation of the bones due to their excessive softness.
However, the most common static longitudinal platypodia, due to the weakness of the ligamentous and muscular apparatus of the distal parts of the lower extremities. Predisposing factors contributing to the development of static flatfoot are excessive body weight, pregnancy, excessive physical activity, activities associated with prolonged standing( sellers, receivers, turners, etc.), wearing uncomfortable substandard shoes, and loosening of the ligaments and muscles of the footdue to aging or lack of sufficient physical exertion.
Symptoms and classification of longitudinal flatfoot
In orthopedics and traumatology, three degrees of longitudinal flat feet are distinguished, differing as a degree of anatomical changes and clinical symptoms:
- 1 degree of or mild platypodia. The height of the longitudinal arch is reduced to 25-35 mm, the angle of the arch of the foot is 131-140 degrees. There is no visible deformation of the feet. Patients report a feeling of fatigue after prolonged running, walking or physical activity. There may be a slight disruption in the smoothness of the gait. By the evening sometimes swelling of the distal parts of the lower extremities is noted. When pressing on the feet, discomfort or inconspicuous soreness appears.
- 2 degree of or moderately pronounced flat feet. The height of the longitudinal arch is reduced to 24-17 mm, the angle of the arch of the foot is 141-155 degrees. A visible flattening of the feet is revealed. Arthrosis changes in the talon-navicular joint are possible. The pain syndrome is more pronounced and can occur even after minor exertion or at rest, the pains spread to the area of the ankles and shins. Gait smoothness is broken. Palpation of the feet is painful.
- 3 degree of or pronounced flat feet. The height of the longitudinal arch is less than 17 mm, the angle of the arch of the foot is more than 155 degrees. Patients are concerned about persistent pain and swelling of the feet and legs. Along with deforming arthrosis of the foot joint arthrosis of the knee joints arises, pains appear in the lower back, osteochondrosis develops. Walking is difficult, there is a decrease in working capacity. The use of ordinary footwear is impossible, special orthopedic footwear is needed.
Diagnostics of longitudinal flatfoot
The main methods used to diagnose and determine the degree of longitudinal flatfoot are the proximity, planometry and radiography of the feet. The simplest and most affordable way is to calculate the sub-metric index by the Friedland method. To do this, measure the height of the foot from the top of the arch to the floor and the length of the foot from the edge of the heel to the end of the 1st finger. Then, the height of the foot is multiplied by 100 and divided by the length. The resulting figure is a sub-metric index, which should normally be 29-31.When the index is reduced to 27-29, it is possible to suspect the initial degrees of flatfoot. If the index is about 25, we are talking about a pronounced defect.
To determine the degree of pathological changes, planography and radiography are used. Plantography is a study in which the plantar surface of the feet is covered with a coloring material, and then the prints are examined on a paper sheet. X-rays are performed in the lateral projection, after which they are sent to the radiologist for description, which measures the distance and angles between the individual bones of the foot.
Treatment and prophylaxis of longitudinal flatfoot
For longitudinal flat feet of 1st degree, the main attention is paid to preventive measures. The patient is advised to avoid prolonged standing and walking. If this is not possible due to professional or household activities, the patient is advised to control that the toes of the feet are parallel to each other. It is useful to strengthen feet in natural conditions, including walking barefoot on rocks and sand, on logs and on various small objects( of course, making sure not to injure the soles).
Of great importance is the selection of suitable for the size of comfortable shoes with a small heel and a spacious toe. With a slight pronounced longitudinal flat feet, special insoles are used, with a moderate expression - they equip the patient with custom-made orthopedic footwear. Preventative measures are combined with foot massage, physiotherapy and physiotherapy. With ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, flat feet of 3rd degree and severe pain syndrome, surgical treatment is indicated.
Surgical interventions are performed in a planned manner, under conditions of the orthopedic department. Various methods are used, which can be divided into three groups - operations on ligaments and tendons, operations on bones and combined interventions. Operative methods are chosen taking into account the causes, severity and nature of the pathology. The most commonly used is the transplantation of the tendons of the calf muscles. With traumatic and rachitic flat feet, osteotomy is performed. At the end of the operation, gypsum boots are put on the feet for a period of 1-1.5 months. Then the plaster is removed, LFK, massage and physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.
Longitudinal flat feet in children
A distinctive feature of children's flat feet is more pronounced long-term consequences. The child's organism grows and forms, under such conditions, a disturbance of amortization and an incorrect load distribution can lead to the development of gross violations of posture, scoliosis and early arthrosis. The main methods of correcting this pathology in childhood are the use of quality footwear, foot baths and special exercises. Shoes should have a small heel height of 0.5 cm, hard back and insoles with insteps. In addition, the patient is offered to walk barefoot on sand and stones, roll stones or special wooden rollers.
With longitudinal flatfoot , a flat longitudinal arch becomes flat, and the foot touches the floor practically with its entire surface. The length of the foot increases slightly. Longitudinal flat feet occurs, as a rule, in young women with excess weight, as well as in people whose work requires constant static stress( sellers, accountants, secretaries).The greater the weight of a person, the greater the load is on the feet.
The first degree usually does not bother a person, except for fatigue in the legs and pain in the feet during exercise. The second degree makes itself felt by the increasing pains in the legs, the difficulties with the selection of shoes. The third degree of longitudinal flat feet causes constant pain in the soles of the feet, shin and even the lower back, and the selection of shoes at this stage is not only difficult, but sometimes even impossible at all.
Causes and varieties
Congenital platypodia is a consequence of a deviation from normal maturation of the ligaments and bones of the foot. It is difficult to diagnose this kind of pathology, because the pediatric foot before the age of 6 due to the incompleteness of development is even normally flat. Still, thanks to research, it is determined that this variety is 3% of all manifestations of the defect.
's traumatic flat foot appears as a result of various injuries. Most often, bones of the metatarsal, ankle, and calcaneus are affected, which do not fuse properly after fractures.
Paralytic platypodia can be defined as neurogenic. Deformation in this case arises from the fact that the muscles of the lower leg and foot are completely absent, paralyzed or weak. This defect is especially common due to the effects of childhood poliomyelitis.
The rickety flatfoot gets its development on the basis of rickets, in which the bones of the foot become soft, supple, and therefore easily deformed even under small loads.
The static flat-foot is the most common form. It is due to the fact that the muscular and ligament apparatus of the lower limbs is poorly developed.
The body may have a predisposition to flat feet due to hereditary factors. The development of the defect is significantly influenced by the body weight. With a larger mass, the flat feet develop faster. For static flatfoot, a weak musculoskeletal system is only a background, the main factor is caused by provoking factors. The causes of static deformation of the feet are overloads, which are associated with prolonged stay on the legs, weakening with age of the muscles of the knee-foot apparatus, weak physical preparation and so on.
Degrees of longitudinal flatfoot
Acquainted carefully with the physiological characteristics of different degrees of this pathology:
- 1 degree of longitudinal flat feet. Slightly flat feet, corresponds to the angle of the arch of the foot in 131-140 °, height - 35-25 mm.
- 2 degree of longitudinal flat feet. Diagnosis "Longitudinal flat feet of the second degree" indicates that the level of the arch of the foot is 141 - 155 °, the height of the arch is reduced to 24-17 mm. On the talon-navicular joint, signs of curvature may appear.
- 3 degree of longitudinal flat feet. At the third degree of longitudinal flatfoot there is an increase in the angle of the arch - over 155 ° and a decrease in height - less than 17 mm;also becomes noticeable deforming arthrosis of other foot joints.
Degrees of longitudinal flatfoot
Diagnostics of flatfoot and determination of its degree is carried out using various techniques. The simplest and most accessible of them consists in determining the sub-metric index by the method of Friedland. In this case, the doctor uses a special compass to measure the height of the foot from the floor to the top of its arch. Next, it determines the length of the foot between the end of the thumb and the edge of the heel. Then the height of the foot is multiplied by 100 and divided by its length. The ratio of these quantities is called a sub-metric index. The norm is 29-31.If the index is 27-29, then we speak of flatfoot, if it is 25, then here we are talking about a large degree of defect.
A more accurate method for detecting flatfoot and establishing its degree is planography. When using it, the patient's soles are covered with special colorants, then he needs to stand on a paper sheet. Imprint on a blank sheet is analyzed. It determines whether there is pathology and how it is expressed.
In the case of a mild degree of deformity, there is no need to perform special therapeutic measures. Correction of the violation and prevention of its amplification are carried out. Prevention of flat feet is easy. The patient should not stand for a long time and walk a lot. If you need to walk long enough, you need to make sure that the toes of the feet are parallel to each other.
With a long standing, you also need to make sure that the feet do not move apart. To strengthen muscles, exercises in natural conditions are very useful: it is good to walk on sand, loose soil, a small scattered on the floor of objects, on a log, on a morning dew in the summer. In order to prevent flatfoot and treat it at an initial stage, you need to choose a comfortable and suitable size shoes. Another condition: the sock is not tight, and the heel does not exceed 5 cm in height.
When the flatfoot is expressed to a small extent, it is corrected with the help of special insoles in shoes. If the deformation is quite large, the patient is equipped with orthopedic footwear, created to order. Frequent use has found a technique for making plaster casts from a plaster of a carrier of a disease, by which orthopedic insoles are made.
With strongly pronounced flat feet accompanied by a constant pain syndrome, surgical treatment is necessary. Before the operation, the patient, on the recommendation of the doctor, wears special rigid bandages on the foot, they to some extent contribute to its correct position. Flattening is most often removed by transplanting the tendons of the muscles, which descend on the foot from the shin. The degree of manifestation of deformation determines the volume of the operation.
In some cases, the cause of flatfoot is the changes in the bone apparatus of the foot, for example, when it occurs against the background of rickets. Medical intervention gives the bones the right shape, often by excising their fragments. Immediately produce and transplant tendons. On the bones, the operation is more reliable than on the tendons, because in the latter case there is a redistribution of the muscle tone, in the future they again can not cope with the increased loads on the foot, and the flatfoot returns.
When all types of surgery are performed, the patient's lower extremities are closed with plaster bandages from the fingertips to the upper third of the shin. After 1 - 1,5 months.remove bandages, and massage and physiotherapy procedures.
Basically, flat feet have a weak degree of severity and are eliminated conservatively. The outcome of operations is usually favorable.
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Types and stages of flatfoot
Flat feet call the flattening of the arches of the foot with partial loss or complete loss of its cushioning function. There are several types and degrees of the disease. This division is necessary for choosing the right treatment. For example, flat feet of the 2nd degree can still be corrected with the help of conservative methods, and at 3 degrees the main type of treatment is surgery.
- The following forms of flatfoot are distinguished by the nature of deformation:
- static flatfoot( most frequent).
- By degree - 1, 2 and 3 degrees of flatfoot.
The longitudinal form of the disease is the flattening of the longitudinal arches of the feet, and the transverse form is the spreading of the anterior part of the foot. With the combined version, there are simultaneously two types of deformation. Progression of longitudinal flat feet leads to an increase in the length of the foot due to a gradual flattening of the longitudinal arch. In the transverse form, the length of the foot, on the contrary, decreases, since the metatarsal bones fan out in a fanlike manner, the thumb is turned outward, and the hammerlike deformation of the third finger occurs.
The frequency of this form is approximately 20% of all cases of the disease. Most often the longitudinal flatfoot is static and develops as a result of weakness of the muscles of the legs and feet, as well as the ligament apparatus. This leads to a decrease in the height of the inner longitudinal arch, while the calcaneus rotates inward, and its tendon moves outward. The tension of the tendons of the peroneal muscles is combined with the stretching of the anterior tibial muscle. The appearance of feet changes. They extend, widening in the middle part. The longitudinal arch is lowered, the feet are turned to the inside. Through the skin of the inner edge of the foot, you can see a protruding scaphoid bone. The patient's walk becomes awkward, when walking, he excessively breeds socks to the sides. During the longitudinal form of flatfoot, 4 stages are distinguished:
- flat foot development,
- stage of flat-footed foot.
The prodromal stage( predbolezn) is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the feet after prolonged static loads. There may also be pain in the muscles of the shins and in the upper part of the vaults. In the stage of alternating flatfoot, the pains in the shins and feet become more pronounced by the end of the day, they also appear during prolonged walking, especially on high heels. There is a muscular tension, sometimes a temporary contracture of the muscles of the shins and feet. Longitudinal arches become flattened in the evening, but after rest they again take a normal form.
Tip: if your profession is associated with a long standing, then from time to time to reduce painful sensations in the feet in the initial stages of flatfoot it is necessary to unload the muscles of the arch. To do this, you need to stand a little on the outer edges of the feet. In the evening, to reduce pain, warm baths are recommended.
When the arch of the foot loses the ability to recover, the flat foot arrives. At this stage, pain and a sense of tension develop after minor static loads on the feet. Painful sensations are of a permanent nature and can disturb even in peace. At this stage, gait changes become noticeable.
Degrees of flat foot
- Flattening of 1st degree - the beginning of a firm flattening of the arch: its height is 25-35 mm.
- 2 degree: height of the vault from 17 to 25 mm. Increased stress and deterioration of the blood supply lead to the development of osteoarthritis of the joints of the foot.
- With 3 degrees of flatfoot, the height of the arch is less than 17 mm.
The last 3 degree of flatfoot is characterized not only by a significant deformation of the foot, but also by other disorders of the locomotor system. This can be osteochondrosis, intervertebral hernia, arthrosis of the joints of the lower extremities, scoliosis. The third degree of flatfoot makes it impossible to engage in sports and causes difficulties in moving even in everyday life. Because of the change in the shape of the feet, most of the body weight falls on the anterior part of the calcaneus and the talus bone. There is a turn of the foot inside and simultaneous spreading of its anterior parts. At 3 degrees the big finger deviates laterally. Absence of full-fledged treatment can lead to the development of the next stage of flatfoot - the stage of flat-footed foot. At this stage, the foot turns even more inward, its valgus deformation occurs. At this stage, surgical intervention is indicated.
Distinctive features of longitudinal flatfoot
- pain in the area of the plantar surface of the feet during palpation;
- gait violation( clubfoot or, conversely, spaced socks, uneasy when walking);
- longitudinal flat feet of 2 degrees differs by the spreading of pain to the shins and ankles;
- with a third degree of flatfoot pain localized, except for the feet, ankles and lower legs, in the knee joints, lumbar spine and even headache, edema of the shins;
- have to buy shoes larger than before.
In transverse flatfoot, flattening of the transverse arch of the foot occurs, and its anterior part rests on the heads of all metatarsal bones, whereas normally it is only on I and V. As a result, the bones of the metatarsal divide, the finger deviates outward, and the middle fingerthe finger is deformed hammer-shaped. The transverse flat foot is approximately 75% of the cases. In the development of this form of foot deformity, the insufficient function of the ligament apparatus is of primary importance. More often this type of flatfoot develops in people with excessive body weight, and also with frequent wearing of high heels or simply uncomfortable shoes( with a narrow nose, tight, bought not in size), a long static load. Longitudinal and transverse flat feet are several times more common in women than in men, which may be associated with footwear.
- stop extension in the front departments;
- shortening of the feet;
- valgus deviation of 1 finger, hammer-shaped deformed 2 and 3 fingers;
- skin hypnosis under the bones of the bones of the metatarsus;
- tension of the extensor tendons of the fingers.
Externally, the thumb is at a different angle over the second toe. The movement is difficult and there is pain in the joint between the main phalanx of the big toe and the head of the first metatarsal bone, which is explained by the development of osteoarthritis. The mechanism of longitudinal flattening is due to the weakness of the plantar aponeurosis. Since the load on the metatarsals increases, corns and corns appear on the skin below them, bone-cartilaginous growths appear along the inner edge of the head of the first metatarsal bone. The appearance of the feet with transverse flatfoot is quite typical: the widened anterior parts, protruding, enlarged head 1 of the metatarsal bone( "bone"), the outermost thumb, hammer-shaped 2 and 3 fingers. Patients can complain not only of pain and quick fatigue while walking, but also the difficulty in selecting shoes.
- The first( weakly expressed) degree: the angle of deformation of 1 finger is less than 20 degrees.
- The second degree is a transverse flatfoot of moderate severity: the angle of deformation is between 20 and 35 degrees.
- Transverse flatfoot 3 degrees( pronounced form) - the angle of deformation is more than 35 degrees.
Important: if you feel pain in your feet and notice the deviation of the first finger outward with an increase in the "stone", be sure to consult a doctor.
The earlier the treatment of flat feet has begun, the more visible the result will be.
This form of flatfoot in the occurrence is the third after the transverse and longitudinal. A longitudinal-transverse or combined flat foot is a simultaneous flattening of the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot.
Plane-foot types depending on the causes
This is a rare form of flatfoot, which is most often represented by flattening of the longitudinal arch and by pronation of the foot( flat-footed foot).The reason - congenital inferiority of the ligaments, muscles and bones of the foot. To treat this form of the disease from the first days of life, the child is impregnated with gypsum dressings, later uses orthopedic footwear, and massages and curative gymnastics are widely used.
ParalyticParalytic flat foot develops as a result of any transferred neuroinfection( eg, poliomyelitis).Paralysis of the calf and foot muscles may also occur with damage to the tibial nerve. The degree of flatfoot depends, in this case, on how pronounced the paralysis of the musculature supporting the arches.
RicketyIt develops as a result of rickets born in early childhood. Rickets cause weakness of bones, ligaments and muscles, so the arches of the feet flatten under the weight of the body.
This type of flatfoot arises after fractures or other injuries of the foot bones( tarsus, metatarsal, heel bone) and ankles. Usually this happens when the fractures are not matched properly, therefore, with pronounced flat feet, surgical treatment is preferred.
Static loads are the most common cause of flatfoot. Factors predisposing to the occurrence of static flatfoot are the following:
- prolonged static load associated with occupational activity( for example, surgeons).
Diagnosis of flatfoot is based on the analysis of complaints, external examination and palpation of the feet. Clarify the diagnosis using X-ray. When analyzing the radiograph, the degree and stage of flatfoot is determined. A simple way to assume the degree of flatfoot is the planogram. For this study, the patient's foot is smeared with a harmless dye and a footprint is made on clean paper in a standing position. According to the shape and shape of the print, one can judge the degree of the disease. It is also important to know the cause of the flatfoot, for this patient it is necessary to ask in detail about the work, about what he usually wears shoes, etc. It is especially easy to spot a valgus flat foot when examining the first finger outwardly and overlapping the second finger.
Important: When referring to a doctor, be sure to tell about the injuries of the lower limbs, as well as infectious diseases and rickets in childhood.1 comment
- Vasya 15.07.2014
I have a third degree of flatfoot, about 15 years ago, doctors revealed this. The most interesting thing is that I'm on my feet for 12 hours at work and everything is fine. In general, I do not feel any discomfort and pain. True, there is one thing: I always buy expensive, quality shoes! But in a cheap I can not walk for a long time, my legs start hurting after an hour.
Degrees of flatfoot 1, 2, 3 - degree
Softly and noiselessly, like a cat, a man has never learned to walk. Of course, all the animals walk on four legs, but here you have to grumble for two, hard, of course. Yes, and indecent in our enlightened time to walk a man on four.
So, the stop is arranged in such a way that it acts as a spring and softens the impact of the foot on the asphalt, prevents shaking during walking, helps to keep the balance.
The foot consists of two arches - longitudinal( along the inner zone of the foot) and transverse( between the fingers).It happens that the arches of the foot are flattened, and since the flat spring can no longer perform its function, the cushioning properties of the foot come to naught. This is a flatfoot. And, depending on what the arch leads, it is possible to obtain longitudinal flatfoot or transverse flatfoot. And you can acquire with different degrees of flatfoot , which will be discussed further.
Forks and degrees of flatfoot
Depending on which of the arches is deformed, distinguish between longitudinal and transverse flat feet. There is, naturally, a combined option.
Longitudinal flat feet are more common in young women with excessive body weight, because they feel excessive pressure on still soft bones of the foot. The foot contacts the floor with almost the entire area.
The same trouble awaits people , whose activities are associated with a large static load - sellers, weavers, etc. When flattening the fore foot, the width and length of the foot increase.
In cases with transverse flatfoot, women are also seen, mostly older, from 30 to 50 years old. The process is characterized by an increase( expansion) of the front zone of the foot, the foot is shortened because of the "fan" unfolding metatarsal bones. The deformation of the fingers occurs, takes the form of hammers( usually the middle finger), the thumb leans outward. There is a characteristic "bone".The heads of the first metatarsal bones grow, and the stomatitis arises. One of the reasons for the transverse flatfoot is the use of uncomfortable, narrow shoes especially on high heels .
By origin distinguish congenital platypodia, traumatic, paralytic and static.
Congenital pathology of the foot is not easy to establish before the age of six, since children are marked with all elements of a flat foot. Congenital flat feet are defined in about 3% of all cases.
Traumatic platypodia - is a consequence of a fracture of the ankles, calcaneus, tarsometric bones.
Paralytic platypodia - a consequence of the paralysis of the plantar muscles of the foot and muscles that begin on the shin. This is usually a consequence of polio.
There is a rickety flat foot - due to the load of the body on the weakened elements of the foot.
The static flatfoot is most often observed, which is caused by the weakness of the leg and foot muscles, ligaments and bones. The reasons are different: heightened body weight, prolonged standing in a standing position, for example, at work, of course, old age, sedentary work without industrial gymnastics, etc.
Stop is also a rather complex device and act normally as a single complex it can, onlyif there is an equilibrium between the load acting on it and the strong ligaments and muscles. With the weakening of the ligamentous-muscular complex, the normal form is broken - the foot sags, flattenes, loses its elasticity, springiness.
In this case, shocks and jolting when walking are transmitted to the spine, ankle, knee, hip joints of the legs. Since these organs are not designed for such loads, they perform a spring function poorly and quickly fail.
Many know the pain in the back, legs, when the eggs are filled with lead by evening - this is often the result of flat feet. This disease constantly reminds of itself when walking, when unnaturally fast fatigue occurs, pain in the feet, hips, lower leg, lumbar spine.
Without support of the foot, the body quickly ends the forces necessary to ensure normal movement. Then the knee, hip joints suffer, pathological posture develops.
The result is deplorable - arthrosis .A combination of flat feet plus arthrosis, great joy does not bring. Immediately, and scoliosis, as a consequence of the pathology of the support system.
The development of varicose veins is often associated with flat feet. And here it is much more difficult to help patients.
THE FIRST SYMPTOMS OF FLAT SILENCE can be recognized by everyone:
• On the inside, the shoes wear out much stronger
• Fast fatigue of the legs when walking and standing
• Unhealthy fatigue arises by the end of the day, the legs ache, sometimes with convulsions and edema
• Unbearably walkingon the heels of
• the leg is enlarged, you have to replace the shoes with a large one( especially in width), your shoes will not fit
. Of course, these signs are characteristic not only for flat feet, but also for othersabolevany - e.g., for varicose veins or kidney disease.
Therefore, do not do yourself medical investigations, but contact an orthopedic surgeon if you have unpleasant, painful or incomprehensible sensations in the foot.
The basis of flatfoot diagnostics is clinical examination of problem areas by an orthopedic physician and radiographic examination of the feet. At the same time, X-rays of both feet are performed in a straight and lateral projection with a load, and, based on the X-ray images, the final diagnosis is made and the degree of flatfoot is determined.
DEGREES OF PLANE
When the ligament begins to fail, this is the earliest stage of the disease. The shape of the foot has not yet changed, but due to the stretching of the ligaments from increased loads, pain occurs after a long walk or by the end of the day. A small rest relieves pain.
The first degree( flat-foot 1 degree ) is a slightly flattened flat foot. Here, after physical exertion, a feeling of fatigue is felt in the legs, pressure on the foot causes painful sensations. In addition to fatigue when walking, the gait becomes less plastic, the foot swells up in the evening.
Second degree ( flat feet of 2nd degree) diseases - combined flat feet. The arches are leveled, the foot is flattened. The pains become permanent and their intensity increases. Pain rises up to the knee joint. Walking is difficult.
The third degree of flatfoot( 3rd degree stamping) is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot. It could be said that everything is already over, but patients often turn to the doctor at this stage. On the lower leg, there is almost always swelling, pain is constantly felt in the feet, legs, knee joints. To this is added a pain in the lower back, a painful headache. Sports activities are already inaccessible, work capacity falls, even walking short walking is hampered. Shoes are suitable only for special.
Having arisen, the flatfoot progresses rather quickly. So it's better not to let it develop. Before thinking about flapping a flat-footed method, slough away from the army, consider whether you need it.
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