Lumbar osteochondrosis: treatment of the disease at home
Lumbar osteochondrosis is a neurological disease that is a complex of dystrophic changes in the bony joints. In world medical practice, this type of disease is very common. Practically 1/3 of the population suffers from this disease. Men and women are equally affected by this disease. The defeat of joints occurs in middle age. Treatment of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine should be performed in a hospital setting, however, it can be cured at home.
Causes of the manifestation of lumbar spine osteochondrosis
People at risk of lumbar osteochondrosis who work with constant physical exertion. However, the osteochondrosis of the lumbar region can affect people with a sedentary lifestyle. An important role is played by cases of vertebral trauma and genetic predisposition. According to statistics, 70% of the total number of diseases with osteochondrosis of the lumbar region falls on the hereditary factor, everything else is external influences. The arising pains at an osteochondrosis carry various character, they can be nojushchie( after a long sitting or after a dream) and shooting. The cause of the onset of pain syndrome is caused very often by jamming the nerve endings of the lumbar spine.
Symptoms of lumbar osteochondrosis
Acute pain sensations occur, usually after physical overload. Such a symptomatology of the disease may not appear immediately. Very often the patient complains of a malaise in the lower back on the day after the physical exertion. Dull aching pain in the lumbosacral region limits the person in his actions. Sometimes it is impossible to raise even a chair without pain. Painful sensations make the patient look for a convenient location of the body, apply postures that will shorten the pain for a short period of time. In tension, there are also sections of the cervical vertebra. This symptomatology indicates the onset of the disease and requires medical intervention. Treatment of osteochondrosis can be carried out in stationary and home conditions.
Drug medication for the lumbar spine
Modern medicine can not fully cure the disease of the bone structure of the body. The task is to eliminate the foci of inflammation in certain affected areas of the skeleton. At the initial stage, osteochondrosis should be treated by removing dynamic and static loads on the bony vertebrae. It should be noted that during treatment is recommended bed rest. Drug treatment provides for the removal of the inflammatory process by introducing into the body a non-steroidal group of drugs. These include: ibuprofen, meloxicam, lornoxicam, etc. They will help eliminate inflammatory foci and stop pain in the bony joints.
Cure the disease of the bone system is possible only with a comprehensive approach. This is a very complex and time-consuming process. Complex therapy provides not only medical treatment, but also a number of physiotherapeutic measures. Therapeutic exercise will help restore and give the bone structure the necessary mobility and plasticity to the cartilage joints. During treatment, the patient should receive a sufficient amount of B and D vitamins. The intake of calcium and phosphorus in food will be an additional stimulant for an early recovery.
Important! Cure osteochondrosis of the lumbar region is possible only with full implementation of all the recommendations of the doctor. Self-medication can worsen the situation, which will lead to irreversible consequences.
Lumbar osteochondrosis: treatment at home
There are many different methods of traditional medicine that are time-tested. The most effective methods are applied to this day. Here are a few recipes that our ancestors used:
- Add 2-hour raw grated potatoes( 3-4 pieces), mixed with 50 g of honey and 100 g of vodka, on the lumbar part of the back. Wrap your back with a warm woolen shawl or scarf. Such a compress will reduce the pain syndrome and soothe the nerve endings of the roots of the vertebral discs. This procedure will have a warming effect on the joint tissues and will give flexibility to the bone segments. Amanita and vodka. Insist 5 mushrooms of fly agaric on a liter of vodka for two weeks in a dark place. In case of acute inflammation rub the sore spot with this medical solution. After 2-3 receptions of such rubbing, the patient feels a significant improvement.
- Ointment prepared at home is a good aid. Juice 2 lemons mixed with garlic juice( 5 denticles), adding 3 tablespoons of honey and 100 g of vodka( you can dilute alcohol).Rub the loin daily before going to bed.
- Quickly remove the inflammation will help a simple 9% vinegar. It is necessary to dilute with warm water in proportions of 1: 1 and rub the back. This will reduce the subcutaneous temperature in the area of the inflamed area and for some time will ease the patient's condition.
It is often asked whether cold osteochondrosis can be treated at home. There is no unequivocal answer in modern medicine. Everything depends on the degree of neglect of the disease. Therefore, cold treatment at home is not recommended. Such an aggressive method of treatment can damage the spinal nerve endings. In any case, a consultation of a neurologist and rheumatologist is necessary.
To date, there are many devices that, through electromagnetic radiation, affect the bone segments of the skeleton. Do not use these methods alone.
In the home medicine chest of people suffering from osteochondrosis, there must be a necessary stock of the medical plaster Nanoplast Forte. In acute attacks, it is necessary to impose such a plaster on the lumbar part of the back. This will relieve pain and reduce inflammation, as well as improve blood circulation in affected areas. Apply a patch preferably at night. The course of treatment in this way is 2 weeks. After this, a break and examination of the attending physician is necessary.
Prophylaxis and exercise therapy for lumbar osteochondrosis
Any treatment( home or in hospital) will be ineffective without the use of general physical therapeutic loads on cartilaginous bone joints. Therefore, we should not forget about simple physical therapy. The constant application of physical exercises together with drug treatment gives the greatest result in the fight against the disease. Specially developed types of physiotherapy exercises can be obtained at a medical institution. The doctor will consult on which parts of the bone structure should be given loads. The entire set of exercises should be aimed at stabilizing the intervertebral discs, as well as stimulating the muscular tissues of the bone skeleton. During the exercise, there should be no acute pain. Otherwise, stop the workload and consult a doctor. The amplitude of the impact of loads on the bone skeleton should be gradual. It is desirable to do all the exercises in the fresh air, alternating with a light jog.
Be attentive to your body!
Osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine - treatment regimen, simple exercises for the treatment of
disease. The lumbar spine consists of five vertebrae, it connects the thoracic region and the sacrum, it has great mobility. In addition, it is this area that daily takes great loads regardless of the person's lifestyle. For these reasons, it is not surprising that osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine is such a common disease. This pathological process manifests itself in steadily progressing degeneration and deformation of intervertebral discs. In the absence of a treatment regimen, the disease can significantly complicate life, in addition, it is fraught with complications of varying severity.
Causes of osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar region can occur due to excessive loads. In the risk group - people who are overweight and regularly perform physical work related to lifting weights. The problem is aggravated by the fact that many people lead a low-activity lifestyle, have problems with posture and do not know how to move properly. Daily lifting the weights, sitting and walking with uneven back, they only increase the harm from excessive loads on the spine.
Any incorrect load on the spine can cause osteochondrosis
Another common cause of this disease is back injuries. A tendency to osteochondrosis is also present in professional athletes engaged in certain sports. You can buy this disease even if you have performed incorrect physical exercises at home.
Osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral can develop because of a systemic malnutrition and day regimen. Strengthen the predisposition to this disease can be regular stress, chronic lack of sleep, a violation of metabolic processes in the body. According to some researchers, predisposition to osteochondrosis can be laid down at the genetic level. In some people, the intervertebral discs do have a more porous-loose structure, so they are more susceptible to various deformities.
Several decades ago, osteochondrosis was considered an age-related disease and was diagnosed more often in the elderly. Indeed, with the years gone by, the vertebrae and intervertebral discs lose their mobility and elasticity considerably, becoming less resistant to injuries and deformities. At the same time, the osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine has grown significantly younger, the majority of the cases are men and women at the age of 30, and people under 30 suffer from the disease.
Do not forget that osteochondrosis in the lumbosacral spine often occurs in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases of the joints of the spine - in patients with Bechterew's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, such a pathological condition complicates the course of autoimmune disease especially often.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis in the lumbar region of
In severe stages of the disease, pain can occur even when coughing or sneezing!
The appearance of regular pain in the lumbar region is the primary and one of the main symptoms of lumbar osteochondrosis. In this case, pain can appear spontaneously with awkward movement and spontaneously at rest, or only after physical exertion. Pain sensations can be localized, or spread up the back from the waist. Often the pain also gives to the buttocks and legs.
In severe stages of the disease, pain can occur when coughing or sneezing and other minor spikes in physical activity that do not strain the lumbar spine directly. Because of pain, mobility of the lumbar region is also possible. The back loses its flexibility, the patient can not easily bend over, make turns or torso of the trunk. Often, the osteochondrosis of the lumbar symptoms is in the form of general fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances - it is difficult for a patient to find a pose in the bed suitable for sleeping. The patient feels a decline of strength, because of discomfort, tries to reduce physical activity, and gradually loses the opportunity to even provide for his own domestic needs.
One of the possible complications of lumbar osteochondrosis is a disruption of the genitourinary system. Sometimes pain can appear in the kidney area, there may be a micturition disorder and unreasonable discomfort. When the vertebrae of the sacral segment of the spinal column are involved in the process, the patient's condition may progressively worsen-not only symptoms of lumbargia are added, but irritation or sciatica nerve inflammation, which further limits the possibility of movement.
What should be the treatment program?
For successful treatment of osteochondrosis the patient will have to radically change many of his household habits, and do not forget to work on his health every day, without days off and holidays for the rest of his life. Otherwise, even after successfully getting rid of the symptoms of the disease, the ailment can return after a while and then the fight will have to start again. However, repeated attacks of osteochondrosis occur even if the patient complies with the regime of physical activity.
The main task performed by conservative treatment of lumbar osteochondrosis is a stop of the progress of the disease and a gradual return of the spine to the anatomically correct position.
Dystrophic changes in the intervertebral discs can often be observed due to problems with the muscles of the lumbar spine. It is the muscular framework that provides support for the spine, and it is the healthy muscles of the back that largely provide the correct posture, so necessary for a healthy spine.
Lumbar osteochondrosis requires complex treatment. This massage, various methods of stretching, manual therapy, exercise therapy, a special diet and other additional procedures and conditions. Conservative treatment usually takes 2-3 months, if after the expiration of their positive dynamics is not observed, or, worse, osteochondrosis is progressing, it's time to think about surgical intervention.
Some doctors prescribe an operation only with such complication of osteochondrosis as an intervertebral hernia. The most common type of surgery involves removing the damaged disc. Discectomy is the correct name for this operation, it is the most productive of the modern answers to the question of how to treat osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine. Currently, for surgical treatment of this condition, microsurgical treatment and endoscopic interventions on the spinal column are increasingly used.
Beginning of treatment of osteochondrosis in the lumbar spine of
With the diagnosis of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, the doctor is often treated because of regular back pain. For this reason, the treatment or prevention of this disease should begin with a review of the patient's lifestyle. To properly distribute the load on the spine, it is recommended to select orthopedic bedding, avoid excessive physical exertion and regular moderate loads for patients leading a sedentary lifestyle. Nevertheless, one can not exclude such a variant of the course of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, in which the pain syndrome is joined late enough, after the development of pronounced changes in the spine( hernias, disc protrusions, spondylolisthesis).
Often after the first visit to a specialist, medical treatment of osteochondrosis of the lumbar region is prescribed, drugs used to fight this disease, relieve pain and stop inflammation. Often, for the same purposes in the diagnosis of osteochondrosis of the lumbar region, folk remedies are used on a par with the production of pharmacological companies. Many recipes based on herbs and gifts of nature can be taken orally or externally to reduce pain and relieve inflammation. It is important to remember that drug therapy only suppresses the symptoms( symptoms) of the disease, but does not cure the root cause of the changes - if such treatment is not supported by complex rehabilitation measures, its effect will be very short-lived.
It is also possible to treat osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, special exercises performed under the guidance of a qualified specialist. The complex should be picked up by a doctor, the first trainings must necessarily pass under the supervision of an experienced instructor. If the patient has a pronounced problem of excess weight, you should follow a diet and increase daily physical activity. A complex of these measures can lead to optimal weight loss.
What other ways to treat osteochondrosis can be used?
Classical medicine also offers a variety of traction options for fighting osteochondrosis. These procedures are performed in the conditions of treatment and prevention institutions and often require special equipment. A good result is also a massage, the main task of which is to relieve tension from the muscles of the affected department - eliminating spasm reduces the severity of pain even without using medications.
Photo: exercises with osteochondrosis help only when they are performed correctly and regularly
A rather controversial method of complex therapy for the treatment of back osteochondrosis is the wearing of a rigid fixing corset. This accessory really helps to keep the back in the right position, but often there is muscle atrophy. Therefore, the best option - the use of a corset during attacks and wearing a few hours a day to maintain the correct position of the back. It is recommended to select such a corset after consulting a traumatologist or vertebrologist - not every corset design will bring the expected relief. During the attacks of the disease, you can wear soft woolen belts for the natural warming of the affected area. But do not forget, the warming of the lower back during pains with heaters and other external sources of heat is strictly prohibited.
LFK for osteochondrosis of the lumbar region is used almost always. Complexes consist of exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back and stretch them. Productivity and effectiveness of physical training consists of their regularity, correctness of the exercises and the patient's desire to achieve the goal. Do it regularly, but you can not overwork. If any exercise is too difficult to perform, or if discomfort occurs, it is necessary to stop the exercise.
Nowadays the diagnosis of osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine is sometimes treated in somewhat exotic ways. These are unusual types of massage, and Chinese acupuncture and a number of other procedures, which are recommended only at the appropriate clinics with a good reputation. Some hardware methods of official medicine can also help with osteochondrosis: vacuum massage, leeches and other classical methods of normalizing blood circulation. Good results are also provided by the usual sanatorium treatment. Especially useful for osteochondrosis is a variety of water procedures. If the patient can afford a vacation, the treatment of osteochondrosis of the lumbar region is recommended in a specialized sanatorium or dispensary.
Causes, symptoms of lumbar osteochondrosis, how to treat ailment
Most people over 30 years old even felt pain in the lower back. By the age of 60, about 80% of the population complain of this symptom. The main and most common cause of these pains is the osteochondrosis of the lumbar region. The first signs of this disease can be diagnosed already in adolescents aged 15-19 years, and by the age of 30, pain in the back is already troubling one person out of a hundred. Among all cases of osteochondrosis, the lesion of the lumbar region occurs in almost 90% of cases.
Essence of osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine develops as a result of destruction of connective tissue of intervertebral discs, bodies of adjacent vertebrae, articular surfaces of intervertebral joints and ligaments. All this occurs due to metabolic disturbance under the influence of loads.
The onset of the disease is the breakdown of glycoproteins - complex substances that are a combination of proteins with polysaccharides. These substances determine the elasticity and elasticity of the connective tissue. Further, the process extends to the bony structures of the spine adjacent to the cartilage. Such processes are called degenerative-dystrophic.
The intervertebral disk suffers the first pathology development. It consists of a pulpous gel-like nucleus and a fibrous ring. With the development of osteochondrosis, the gel-like substance of the core dries out, losing its elastic cushioning properties. Then the fibrous ring is broken: cracks or tears are formed through which the core substance can go beyond it. The vertebrae begin to experience great mechanical stresses, which leads to increased formation of bone and fibrous tissues in places of increased stress on the spine and the appearance of bone growths - osteophytes.
Causes of the development of the disease in the lumbar department of the
A degenerative process is triggered in the spine under the influence of several factors. In various situations, usually one of them prevails, while others create favorable conditions for the progression of the disease. Therefore today, osteochondrosis of the lumbar region is considered a multifactorial disease.
Most Important Reasons:
- Static load in unfavorable conditions: prolonged retention of the working tool in one position, pressing something;long standing, when the spine experiences the greatest load due to gravitational forces( osteochondrosis first appeared in a person erect).
- Flat feet.
- Wearing heavy bags, loads.
- Physical overload when doing sports or hard physical work. Injuries and microtrauma.
- Long stay in forced half-bent position, for example, during school, university, work in the office and at home at the computer, driving in the car. At this moment, the external pressure on the disk can be increased up to 20 times, as it turns out to be a compressed vertebra.
- Hereditary predisposition. Hereditary factors are of a different nature and can be associated with congenital disorders of the structure of the skeleton( contributing to an incorrect distribution of the load on the spine) or metabolic peculiarities( in which the synthesis of glycoproteins can be slowed or broken).
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine is an irreversible process. Manifestations of the disease depend on the degree of development of pathology. There are four degrees:
- 1st degree - the period of change and movement of the gelatinous nucleus inside the disk.
- 2nd degree - the period of destruction of the fibrous disc ring.
- 3rd degree - the period of ruptures of the fibrous ring and the release of the substance of the gelatinous nucleus beyond its limits with the formation of a herniated disc.
- 4th degree - the period of the spread of the degenerative process to the vertebrae with the involvement of intervertebral joints and ligaments. There is development of arthrosis of the intervertebral joints( spondyloarthrosis).
Some authors distinguish three degrees, but in all cases their designation is conditional and is given to better understand the ongoing processes, their connection with the symptoms and the prognosis of the disease.
At the first degree of pathology, pain occurs due to irritation of nerve endings located in the fibrous ring and longitudinal ligaments. The patient feels local discomfort in that part of the spine where the affected disc is located: acute pain or lumbago lumbago, dull pain of a permanent nature( lumbalgia).
Irritation of nerve endings leads to the development of reflex syndromes, which characterize the first degree: impulses from irritated endings spread to the spinal cord and "transmit the problem" to other organs and tissues. It is for this reason that a person can experience pains far from the "problem" place: there may be a reflex spasm of muscles and blood vessels, a violation of blood supply in the limbs, ligaments, disruption of the internal organs. Violation of the blood supply and nutrition of ligaments and tendons leads to the appearance of painful changes and seals in places where they attach to bones( enthesopathies), which often become the main cause of suffering.
Other characteristic symptoms of lumbar spine osteochondrosis at this stage are pain in the lumbosacral segment, which gives up in the leg( lumboscialgia), or pain only in the leg( sciatica, is much less common).
Spasm of large hip vessels can cause blood flow disorders and simulate lower limb arterial diseases, such as obliterating atherosclerosis. In rare cases, there may be bladder and urinary incontinence.
The 2nd degree is characterized by the appearance of instability and increased mobility of the vertebrae, which causes a prolonged and persistent muscle strain. The patient feels such symptoms as a constant fatigue of the muscles of the waist, discomfort, a feeling of "uncertainty in his back."
On the third degree, due to the prolapse of the disc fragments, the so-called radicular syndromes are observed, which are associated with the compression of the nerve roots with the fallen fragments.
Patients experience a sensitivity disorder in the innervation zone of the * compressed nerve. At first they feel an increased sensitivity in a certain area, burning, tingling, then numbness occurs, a complete loss of sensitivity may develop. Decreased sensitivity is accompanied by impaired motor function until the onset of paralysis, as well as thinning and decreasing muscle volume( atrophy).
* Innervation - the connection of organs and tissues with the central nervous system through nerves.
In the area where these changes develop, it is possible to judge the specific site of the lesion in the spine department. If the area of the upper part of the foot suffers( it is called the rear of the foot), there is weakness in the extension of the thumb, the process is associated with damage to the intervertebral disc between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae. If such symptoms occur in the region of the heel and the outer edge of the foot, a weakness appears in the calf muscle, the patient experiences difficulty in trying to walk on the heels - possibly a disc in the lumbosacral segment.
A characteristic sign of lesion of the lumbosacral department in the 3rd degree is a symptom of Lasega. The doctor lifts a straight leg lying on the back of the patient, with severe pain in the lumbosacral segment spreading over the back of the foot. When bending the leg in the knee joint, the pain stops immediately.
When the fragments of intervertebral discs fall into the lumen of the spinal canal, there are signs of spinal cord injury.
There may be a "ponytail" syndrome, in which the bundle of spine nerves in the lumbar and sacral segments is compressed. In this case, the sensitivity and motor functions of the legs, the functions of the pelvic organs( most often the bladder) are disturbed.
In the 4th degree, intervertebral ligaments, joints are involved in the process, fibrosis of the disc is developed - replacement of all its elements with a dense cicatrical connective tissue. This period can be characterized by the disappearance of the pain syndrome, the restoration of the supporting function of the spine, but simultaneously there is a significant limitation of the amplitude of movements in it. Different stages of the process can be observed in different affected discs, so the manifestations of the disease can be very diverse.
Modern methods of treatment
In the treatment of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, medicamentous, non-medicamentous and surgical methods are used. Since osteochondrosis of the spine is an irreversible process, the treatment is aimed at eliminating clinical syndromes and preventing the progression of the disease. Maximum forces should be applied for treatment with conservative methods.
At the first stage of therapy, the exclusion of provoking static and dynamic loads is of the utmost importance, in case of severe exacerbation it is necessary to observe bed rest. Sometimes this measure helps more than medications.
Medications( analgesics and various derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammation: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, lornoxicam, meloxicam, etorikoksib, celecoxib, nimesulide, etc. Medications can be in tablets or injections depending on the specific situation. When they are not effective, glucocorticoid hormones are used: dexamethasone, prednisolone, betamethasone, triamcinolone, etc. The doctor can do injections with these drugs directly to the location of the disease site. Obligatory in the treatment of osteochondrosis is the intake of vitamins of group B: B1, B6 and B12.
To eliminate reflexogenic and concomitant psychogenic disorders, sedatives( relanium, diazepam, zopiclone), anticonvulsants( topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin, etc.) and antidepressants in tablets( amitriptyline, clomipramine, fluoxetine, trazodone, etc.) can be prescribed. With signs of radicular syndrome, diuretics are prescribed, and for paralysis - anticholinesterase drugs( galantamine, proserin, ipidacrin).
Currently, in the treatment of osteochondrosis, chondroprotectors( chondroxide, structum, rumalone, arteparone, etc.) are widely used. However, reviews about them are ambiguous, at the moment their effectiveness has not been reliably proven.
In an acute period for pain relief, novocain blockades can be applied - the introduction of local anesthetic drugs directly into the affected area.
In the photo - ibuprofen from different manufacturers
How to treat an ailment after the elimination of acute pain? It is necessary to begin therapy immediately with non-drug methods. Applied therapeutic gymnastics, massage, physiotherapy procedures, acupuncture. It is quite popular electrophoresis and phonophoresis with caripazime on the affected area of the spine. Caripazim is an enzyme preparation that promotes resorption of the discarded areas of the disc.
If the conservative methods are not effective, an operation can be performed.
Surgical treatment is performed in the following cases:
- If it is not possible to stop pain by other methods for 3-4 months. With very intense pain, surgical treatment can be performed after 2 weeks.
- Ponytail syndrome.
- Signs of acute compression of the roots of the spinal cord( weakness and numbness in the extremities).
Contraindications to the operation - some serious diseases, old age.
Today for the treatment of osteochondrosis high-tech methods of surgical intervention are used: microsurgical, percutaneous endoscopic. Thanks to new technologies, it was possible to significantly improve the prognosis, rehabilitation in the postoperative period and shorten the period of temporary incapacity for work.
What can the patient do at home?
At home, especially with chronic pain of a permanent nature, you can treat osteochondrosis, using dry heat, compresses, applicators Kuznetsova and Lyapko.
It is important to take care of rational physical activity, exclude postures in which the body is in a forced unnatural position, organize a comfortable place for work, sleep and rest.
Sufficient attention should be paid to physical activity, gymnastics, to ensure maximum unloading of all parts of the spine. Often, these activities can completely eliminate pain and help better the most modern tablets and injections.
Self-treatment of osteochondrosis before the diagnosis is clarified is dangerous, since similar symptoms can be observed, for example, in tumorous processes, and improper procedures can aggravate the situation.
It is important to read: the symptoms of osteochondrosis.
What is it?↑
Osteochondrosis is a special form of spinal cord injury associated with degeneration and deformation of intervertebral discs, a decrease in their height and the so-called beak-like sprouting of the vertebrae.
The disease affects various parts of the spine, however, lumbar( especially 4 and 5 segments) and sacral than the thoracic and cervical parts most often suffer.
This is due to the fact that the lumbar department has the maximum load associated with moving the body in space, physical work, maintaining a constant posture.
As a rule, if the lower back is affected, then the sacral department is involved in the process.
Osteochondrosis of the sacral region alone is a very rare phenomenon. This is due to the peculiarity of the structure of the human body.
Causes and factors of the disease development ↑
The main cause of osteochondrosis development is an incorrect distribution of the load on the spine.
Minimum load on the spine - in the supine position, slightly more - lying on the side. The standing position with a flat back is optimal on the load on the lumbar region.
In the sitting position, the load on the spine is increased by a factor of 1.5 due to the relaxation of the muscular corset.
Changing the position of the body of the body forward causes an even greater increase in the load on the anterior margin of the vertebrae and the vertebral column. Pressure increases if a person holds a certain weight in their hands.
Fig.: Correct and incorrect position of the body
Factors provoking the appearance and progression of the pathology are:
- low motor activity - concerns people leading a sedentary, passive lifestyle;
- doing physical work, lifting weights( often there are intervertebral hernias), weight lifting;
- incorrect posture and walking;
- congenital defects of the spine, skeleton as a whole, uneven development of the musculoskeletal system;
- flat feet. In the normal state, the arch of the foot absorbs the loads when moving;in people suffering from flatfoot, the whole load falls on the intervertebral discs, which causes a faster destruction of the latter;
- is overweight;
- long stay in an uncomfortable position;
- genetic predisposition, hereditary fragility of cartilaginous tissue;
- back injury, especially the lumbosacral spine;
- infectious diseases( consequence of tuberculosis, osteomyelitis);
- diseases of the endocrine, cardiovascular and digestive system;
- inflammatory processes, diseases of the joints of the spine( Bechterew's disease, rheumatoid arthritis);
- hormonal disorders, changes in metabolism, blood composition;
- improper nutrition, day regimen, lack of nutrients;
- stresses, chronic lack of sleep;
- age changes( with age, vertebrae and discs lose mobility and elasticity);
The above causes the loss of elasticity of the intervertebral discs. Deformed discs with physical loads, sudden movements are shifted to the side.
This is how the disc hernia arises.
In this case, the absence of a cartilaginous interlayer between the vertebrae leads to squeezing, reducing the distance between them. This entails infringement and inflammation of the roots of the spinal nerves( the so-called "horse tail syndrome").
Signs and Symptoms ↑
The main symptom of osteochondrosis is pain in the back, lumbago( lumbago), which are released in the leg along the sciatic nerve( sciatica).
Symptoms of the disease manifest as the development - as a rule, not earlier than the second stage. Initially, they occur with sudden movements, physical exertion, then turn into constant aching pains with exacerbations. In the last stages, the pain occurs when coughing, sneezing, ie.little physical activity.
Pinched nerves as a result of osteochondrosis causes radicular syndrome:
- in the waist arises shooting pain;
- there is a violation of the sensitivity of the skin on the legs;
- weakness in the muscles;
Osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine: treatment and symptoms
Symptoms of lumbar osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations. The symptomatology of the disease depends on the stage of the pathological process and the degree of degenerative changes in the affected vertebral column. The disease develops gradually, beginning with minor changes in the cartilaginous tissue of the intervertebral discs, and at the initial stages is not manifested.
As the degenerative processes progress, the pathological changes in the discs become more pronounced, and over time, the patient begins to appear some signs of osteochondrosis. Depending on the severity of the lesion of the cartilaginous tissue of the spine, three degrees of the process can be distinguished.
Osteochondrosis 1 degree
In the initial stages of lumbar osteochondrosis, small seals of the intervertebral discs are observed, which does not disturb the patient in any way or is manifested only by orthopedic symptoms: a feeling of stiffness in the loin, unpleasant sensations in the form of weak pulling pains with tilts and corners of the trunk. Acute pain in the loin associated with osteochondrosis in this stage does not happen. A typical sign of the initial manifestations of lumbar osteochondrosis is the appearance of rapid fatigue with a static load, it becomes difficult to sit for a long time in one position. After a prolonged sitting, there may be a crunch in the lower back while moving in the lumbar spine.
Osteochondrosis of 2nd degree
Further progression of the pathological process leads to more pronounced changes in the disc, which causes its protrusion beyond the vertebral bodies - protrusion occurs. At first it arises only with the vertical position of the body, but with time it assumes a constant character. At this stage, osteochondrosis is manifested by vertebral syndromes.
Lumbago is often the first manifestation of lumbar osteochondrosis. The pain arises suddenly, usually with an awkward movement: a deep tilt forward, an attempt to abruptly rise from a sitting position, lifting the gravity in front of him. Pain in lumbago is usually compared with a shock of current. When a patient is shot, the patient freezes in a pose in which there is no sharp pain and is afraid to move. In this case, a constant, pronounced muscle tension is observed. They protrude, in the form of ridges, located on both sides of the spinous processes. Muscular hypertonus is a protective reflex that facilitates the physiological immobilization of the lumbar spine.
Another manifestation of vertebral syndrome may be lumbolgia - chronic pain in the lower back. Unlike lumbago, there is no clear connection with the movements and the appearance of pain. Painful sensations of aching slightly increase with quiet movements. Patients can perform not hard work, but it is usually difficult for them to bend and even more difficult to unbend. The pain is aggravated after prolonged sitting or standing, because of this, patients try to change the position of the body more often. Adopting a horizontal position leads to a reduction in pain, since the load on the intervertebral discs is significantly reduced. Pain can last for months, periodically receding and intensifying when there is another exacerbation of the disease.
Osteochondrosis of 3 degree
With far-reaching destructive changes, the formation of herniated intervertebral discs occurs. As a result, a pronounced compression of the spinal structures develops and a number of other manifestations of the disease are added to the vertebral syndrome in the clinical picture.
Radicular syndrome, most often, develops against a background of long-lasting vertebral manifestations. In most cases, there is a sudden sudden pain localized in the lumbar region on the one hand with irradiation to the buttock, the hip joint, gradually spreading to the entire leg. Aggravation is usually associated with awkward movement, prolonged forced position or lifting of weights. Painful sensations in the root syndrome increase with movement, increased intra-abdominal pressure( coughing, sneezing, straining).After a while there are disorders of sensitivity in the lower limb, such as hyperesthesia, hypesthesia, paresthesia, in severe cases - anesthesia. The muscle tone decreases, weakness develops, there is a hypotrophy of the leg muscular tissue.
Compression myelopathy( compression of the spinal cord) at the level of the lumbar region is manifested by motor disorders in the lower limbs, there is a significant decrease in the volume of the thigh, shin, decrease and even absent reflexes. There may be a malfunction of the pelvic organs: incontinence or retention of urine, feces, a violation of sensitivity in the perineum. This symptomatology is extremely unfavorable in terms of prognosis and requires immediate treatment. The spinal cord disturbance syndrome is manifested by intermittent claudication, a feeling of weakness in the legs, pain, painful paresthesias during walking, extending to the lower parts of the trunk and into the perineum. The patient can be persecuted by constant urge to urinate, later there are violations of the function of the pelvic organs. There is a tendency to develop bedsores.
Neurotic disorders develop in the long course of the disease, when severe pain and various motor and sensory disorders are severe. In patients, irritability increases, there may be manifestations of aggression towards the surrounding people, the mood changes rapidly, sleep is often disturbed, and disability decreases. As a rule, very hypochondriacal people with a labile psyche are susceptible to neurologization.
How to treat lumbosacral osteochondrosis?
In the case of 1 and 2 degrees of osteochondrosis, treatment is usually carried out at home using conservative methods. In most patients, properly prescribed therapy allows you to stop the symptoms of the disease for several weeks, after which a remission occurs, the duration of which depends on the patient's lifestyle, the severity of osteochondrosis, and the use of therapeutic and prophylactic measures. Constantly conducted prophylaxis allows to achieve remission for many years.
Surgical treatment of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine is used when an intervertebral hernia occurs. It is indicated by 15-20% of patients and is used in the development of serious neurological complications or inefficiency of conservative methods for several months.
When the disease worsens, the emphasis is on medication, the main purpose of which is to fight with pain. For this, the following medicines are used:
- Drugs that have an anti-inflammatory effect, are prescribed by mouth or intramuscular injections. In most cases, drugs are used that belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: diclofenac, indomethacin, ketarol, ibuprofen, nemisil, moovales, etc. In parallel with the general application of NSAIDs, these drugs are also prescribed for topical use, in the form of medicinal forms such as ointment orgel. In the absence of the effect of nonsteroidal agents, local anesthetics are used in combination with hormones in the form of epidural and paravertebral blockades.
- Muscle relaxants give a good effect in combination with diuretics and vasoactive substances. The use of these drugs allows you to remove muscle spasm and reduce tissue swelling, improve blood circulation in the area of compression.
- Sedatives, daytime tranquilizers, antidepressants are used to treat and prevent the development of neuroticism.
- Group B( B1 and B12) vitamins improve nerve tissue nutrition, promote its rapid recovery after compression effects.
After the acute period of illness, treatment should not stop. To fix the positive effect of drug therapy, during the period of remission the following medical measures are applied:
- Massage massage is considered one of the most effective therapeutic and prophylactic measures in combination with other therapeutic methods. It allows you to significantly reduce the rigidity of the lumbar muscles, improve blood circulation, lymph circulation directly in the tissues adjacent to the lumbar spine. In the case of hypotrophy associated with radicular syndrome, lower limb massage contributes to the improvement of trophism and the innervation of hypotrophic muscles.
- Physiotherapy is prescribed in combination with a massage after relief, in the absence of pain syndrome. Classes are held daily, therapeutic gymnastics begins with minimal, gradually increasing loads, since otherwise one can provoke another exacerbation. The complex of exercises must be started, avoiding sudden movements and refraining from doing high-amplitude exercises. Exercises for the waist are shown to patients who used the corset for a long time. Systematic exercises of exercise therapy will significantly strengthen the muscles of the waist, thereby reducing the undesirable load on the intervertebral discs.
- Strict adherence to a gentle regime is an integral part of the successful treatment of osteochondrosis, as well as the prevention of its exacerbations. For the back, especially the lumbar region, it is extremely important to fulfill the following conditions: to sleep on a bed equipped with an orthopedic mattress and a special cushion of medium hardness of small sizes;under the neck you need to put a special roller.
- Avoid prolonged stay in uncomfortable position. After a long sitting, you need to get up slowly, without sharp jerks. After that, the elementary charge and a small self-massage should be performed, which will allow to eliminate stagnant phenomena in the lower back.
Osteochondrosis of lumbar region - symptoms, treatment, gymnastics
Pain sensations in the back of different intensity are experienced by more than 80% of people. About 40% of them apply for help to a specialist.
It is known that 20% of people after 30 years of age suffer from radiculitis, which is one of the signs of lumbar osteochondrosis.
This type of osteochondrosis affects people of working age more often and in some cases can lead to disability.
Causes of lumbar osteochondrosis
The main reasons are:
- Posture disorders. Wearing uncomfortable shoes, the habit of carrying bags on one and the same shoulder, incorrect posture at the table lead to the development of osteochondrosis.
- Perinatal injuries, hereditary spinal cord anomalies. Excess weight. With obesity, there is an increased pressure on the spinal column, which leads to degenerative changes in bone tissue and promotes the development of lumbar osteochondrosis.
- Disturbance of metabolic processes. The cause may be malnutrition or any infectious processes occurring in the body.
- Sharp changes in lifestyle( another diet, changing physical exertion to increase or decrease).
- Age-related degeneration of bone and cartilaginous tissue.
- Pregnancy. In later terms, when pressure on the spine is particularly large, it is possible to develop lumbar osteochondrosis.
- Consequences of injuries of the lower limbs or spine.
- Low or too high activity. Disregard for physical education, sedentary work, physical inactivity, or, on the contrary, heavy physical labor associated with lifting weights and heavy load on the back, lead to lumbar osteochondrosis.
- Congenital or acquired pathology of the musculoskeletal system( reduction of fingers, flat feet, shortening of legs, clubfoot).
- Constant overexcitation, frequent stress.
Symptoms of lumbar osteochondrosis
Symptoms of lumbosacral osteochondrosis include:
- Back pain. This is the earliest and most characteristic symptom. Pain can be given to the legs, thighs, buttocks. The nature of low back pain may be different. When the torso is tilted, as well as when coughing and sneezing, low back pain intensifies.
- Peeling and dry skin in places of loss of sensitivity and pain.
- Impaired sensation of the muscles and skin of the lower half of the body.
- Curvature of the spine. Depending on the type of curvature, osteochondrosis is divided into kyphosis( the spine is smoothed or slightly bent back), lordosis( the spinal column is bent forward) and scoliosis( the spine is curved to the left or right side).
- Tingling and creeping in the legs.
- Spasm of the arteries of the feet, chills of the legs.
- Violation of sensitivity in the genitals, violation of defecation and urination.
The most dangerous consequence of lumbar osteochondrosis is the development of vertebral instability. This is fraught with the appearance of dangerous violations in internal organs( men may have problems with potency, in women - with ovaries and uterus).
Treatment of lumbar osteochondrosis
Therapy of lumbar osteochondrosis is complex and includes:
Non-drug treatment .This type of therapy includes manual therapy, physiotherapy, spinal traction, massage, reflexology, physiotherapy. The purpose of exercise therapy is to perform a specially designed for him complex of physical exercises. The program is aimed at preventing complications of osteochondrosis, strengthening the musculoskeletal system, correcting the posture, and removing the compression of the nerve endings. In addition, the exercise physiotherapy facilitates the normalization of metabolic processes in the lesion, improves blood supply and reduces the burden on the spine by strengthening muscles and ligaments. The method of physiotherapy is used for relief of pain and removal of inflammatory phenomena. Physiotherapeutic procedures include laser therapy, ultrasound, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis. Therapeutic massage with osteochondrosis of the lumbar region improves blood circulation, relieves tension in muscles and stops pain. With the help of manual therapy there is a correction of posture, the volume of movements in the spine is restored, the pain syndrome is stopped. The meaning of traction( traction) is to exert pressure on the vertebral column with the help of special equipment. It is believed that stretching promotes an increase in the intervertebral space and the removal of pain. But many experts consider this method to be dangerous, as it, in their opinion, leads to the development of intervertebral hernias.
With the help of reflexotherapy have a physical effect on the reflexogenic zones of a person.
Medication treatment .At this type of lumbar osteochondrosis therapy:
- NSAIDs are used. They are used to relieve pain and inflammation. Assign inside( tablets) and topically( ointment).To the NSAID include "Ibuprofen", "Diclofenac", "Meloksikam", "Finalgon", "Kapsikam", "Naiz", "Fastum Gel".
- Novocaine blockade( used for severe pain).
- steroid preparations( in the form of intramuscular and epidural injections)
- muscle relaxants( "Sirdalud", "Midokalm").They are used to relieve spasms and relax the muscles.
- vitamins B12, B6, B1.Used to normalize metabolic processes.
To achieve a positive effect in the treatment of lumbar osteochondrosis, all the recommendations of the treating physician should be strictly followed.
Gymnastics for osteochondrosis of lumbar department
Exercises for lumbar osteochondrosis:
- Feet on shoulder width, arms on waist. Slow inclination forward, back straight. Straightening. Tilt backwards. The number of repetitions is 10.
- The starting position, lying on the back, the legs are bent at the knees. The elbow of the left hand touches the knee of the right leg, then vice versa. Number of repetitions - 10.
- Lying on the back, you need to strain the abdominal muscles for 10 seconds, then relax. The number of repetitions is 10.