Longitudinal and transverse platypodia and its treatment
Flattening is a deformation of the arch of the foot, viz. Lowering of the arch. As a result of this deformation, the foot almost completely loses its damping properties, which leads to a number of unpleasant consequences and complications. In this article, we will try to understand as much as possible what is a flatfoot - treatment, symptoms, causes and complications.
In a healthy state, the human foot has two distinct arches - transverse( located under the bases of the fingers) and longitudinal( located along the foot).These arches fulfill the most important function - they enable the person to maintain balance and absorb shock during walking. It is clear that the foot itself, and specifically these arches of the foot are under serious load, because they weigh on the weight of the human body. And if the ligaments and muscles of the feet stop working normally and for some reason weaken, the shape of the foot begins to change - the arches of the feet decrease, it gradually becomes flat, as a result of which the main function of the foot - the spring one - is lost.
Healthy feet - a healthy body
If the foot ceases to absorb the load, then this function will be forced to perform other joints( ankle, knee and hip), and "get" and the spine. But they cope with such a function not too well, because they are not designed for this. In addition, such a peculiar load leads to an accelerated "wear" of the joints.
This is why flat feet are often the cause of pain in the legs and back of the , although at first glance the person simply does not see such a connection. So it is worth remembering that it is as a result of the development of flat feet that pain can appear in the feet, hips, knees and lower back, rapid fatigue when walking. In this case, the pain appears at a time when the body can no longer provide normal movement, and is forced to "redistribute the load."As a result, joints of the legs and hip joint suffer, posture disorders or problems with intervertebral discs may occur. The final result of the effects of flat feet on the body can be the development of scoliosis and arthrosis, often the development of varicose veins.
Another interesting fact is that quite often this disease occurs in people with "sedentary" work, and not only in the category of workers who are forced to spend the whole day on their feet. This is due to the fact that the muscles and ligaments weaken without load( too large loads can also lead to flatfoot development), so it is very important to maintain a certain motor activity.
Many young people are wondering whether they are taking to the army with flat feet. On our site there is already an article that can answer this question.
The causes of flatfoot
The reasons for the development of flatfoot can be quite a lot, we will try to list the most "popular" ones:
- bad or unsuccessfully matched shoes. It means shoes with a high heel or platform, narrow shoes, etc.;
- increase in body weight, which can occur for various reasons( pregnancy, obesity, etc.);
- hereditary predisposition. In this case, we are talking about defects in the development of the muscles, ligaments and bones of the foot;
- various injuries( trauma to the foot, fracture of the calcaneus or ankle, cracks or severe bruising of the cartilage, damage to the muscles and ligaments of the foot);
- diseases( for example, rickets, as a result of which the bones weaken and become soft, so they can easily deform, and the complication of poliomyelitis can arise - the leg and foot muscles paralysis);
- sedentary work and sedentary lifestyle. In this case, the muscles and ligaments of the foot become weaker, since they do not receive the necessary loads;
- excess load - running and jumping sports, standing work.
There are quite a few reasons, as you can see.
The human foot has two main arches, so it is quite logical that there are two types of flatfoot - longitudinal and transverse flat feet. Accordingly, with a decrease in the arch, the foot may increase in width or length. There is also a combined flatfoot, in this case we are talking about the simultaneous flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. This situation is also called longitudinal-transverse flatfoot.
Both basic types of flatfoot are quite common, but the most common is the transverse one.
Also, when classifying by species, the acquired and the congenital are often divided. Congenital flat feet are rare, it is the result of malformations of the fetus. Treatment of flat feet in this case begins with the first days of the child's life.
Types of flatfoot
But with the acquired flatfoot the situation is somewhat more complicated - it can appear at any age and can be of several types:
- is ricky;
- is paralytic;
- is traumatic.
Traumatic - occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the ankle and foot, or with severe damage to ligaments and soft muscle tissue that strengthens the arch of the foot.
Paralytic - occurs as a result of poliomyelitis, or because of paralysis of the tibial muscles and foot muscles.
Rickets - occurs as a result of rickets. This disease disrupts the normal formation of foot bones, they do not have the necessary characteristics in this case and can quickly deform.
But the most common form is static flatfoot. Approximately 80% of all cases are related to this species. Causes in this case may be overweight, uncomfortable shoes, prolonged excessive stress on the feet, weak muscles and ligaments of the foot, etc.
Degrees of disease
There are 3 degrees of development of this disease.
Longitudinal flatfoot is less common, but with this disease the change in the shape of the foot is gradual and almost invisible to the patient.
- Longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the legs. This degree is very poorly expressed, the patient can only experience discomfort when pressing on the foot or while dressing the shoes. In some cases, swelling may appear in the evening.
- Longitudinal flatfoot of the 2nd degree is already manifested by constant pains, which can be quite intense and spread to the region of the shins and ankles. With this degree of disease, the gait is already losing its smoothness, walking becomes heavier.
- Platypodia of the third degree is manifested by persistent severe pains that cover not only the foot, but also the lower leg, and in some cases even low back pains appear. Deformation of the foot with this degree of disease is already pronounced and very noticeable, often there are swelling in the joints of the foot. Walking to a person at this stage of the disease is difficult, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to move around.
Do you happen to have such symptoms?
It is worth paying attention to the appearance of such symptoms:
- shoes trampled on the inside;
Flat feet have every third person in our country
- very quickly get tired feet while standing or walking;
- appears pain in the foot after physical exertion;
- at the end of the day feels pain and fatigue in the legs, there is a feeling of heaviness, puffiness;
- swelling in the ankles;
- walking on heels becomes very hard;
- leg increases in size, resulting in buying shoes for size larger.
Many of these symptoms correspond not only to flat feet, but also varicose veins, so that when they occur, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Symptoms of longitudinal flatfoot
- fatigue in the legs, with pressure on the middle of the foot or sole appears pain, by the evening the back of the foot swells;
- persistent and severe pain both in the feet themselves, and in the region of the shins and ankles, it becomes difficult to find comfortable shoes;
- together with pain in the feet begins to appear pain in the lower back, outwardly becomes invisible longitudinal arch;the foot swells, the ankle joint is inactive, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to walk.
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot
- disappear the transverse arch of the foot, as a result of which the deformation of the fingers develops;
- there appear pain and skin pigmentation in the forefoot;
- appears hammer-shaped fingers.
What should be the treatment?
First of all, it should be noted that the treatment of transverse and longitudinal flat feet is in principle the same in terms of measures applied. In addition, it must be remembered that if an adult is treated, there will still be no complete recovery, only certain improvements are possible. But the children are fully recovered because the child's leg is just being formed and correction is possible.
Treatment of flatfoot in adults
Since the full recovery of an adult with this disease is impossible, the treatment is designed primarily to stop the progression of the disease, and then create the necessary conditions for adjusting the foot. That is why is very important to diagnose the disease as early as possible .
Since the preferred method of treatment of the disease in the early stages of its development is conservative therapy, the treatment involves relieving pain and improving the condition of the muscles and ligaments of the foot, thereby stopping the development of the disease.
The video, which you can see below, shows one of the methods for diagnosing and treating flatfoot:
For the removal of pain, medications are usually used in combination with physiotherapy procedures.
The basis of the same treatment is therapeutic gymnastics. at flatfoot is determined by the orthopedic physician , while the exercises are selected for a specific patient, taking into account the form and extent of the disease.
A good therapeutic effect with flat feet gives a foot massage, including a hydromassage. Thanks to such procedures, blood circulation is normalized and the muscle tone of the shin and feet is increased.
At the initial stage, a good effect gives the use of special orthopedic insoles, which again are made individually.
But, unfortunately, the above procedures will have a serious effect only in the early stages of the disease. With strong deformations of the foot, which occur in the late stages of the development of the disease, there is only one method of treatment - surgery.
Treatment of flat feet in children
Most often, children develop longitudinal flat feet, and it is successfully treated fully without surgery, since the bones, muscles and ligaments of the child are quite susceptible to conservative methods of treatment.
If you have to deal with a congenital type, then it begins to be treated from the first days of the child's life, for which special langets and bandages are used. But this type of disease is rare.
In most cases, the causes of flatfoot are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as fragile bones. That is why the treatment has a toning effect - mainly therapeutic exercise and massage. Also, contrast baths for feet are often helpful. It is also necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes, and you should take care of the child's gait very carefully.
The most important factor in the treatment of this disease in children is time - the earlier the disease will be diagnosed, the greater the chances of complete recovery of children. For the same reason, it is important to prevent flat feet in childhood.
The sooner you start the treatment, the faster you will get the result:
- watch your weight, observe a diet( if there are even slightly extra pounds, it is better to throw them off);
- make contrasting foot baths( cold, hot water);
- wear comfortable shoes, orthopedic is recommended, there should be a heel, but not more than 4 cm, shoes should not be narrow, but not very spacious;
- regularly do foot massage;
Unfortunately, these recommendations do not help everyone, often you have to resort to surgery.
Orthopedic footwear and special insoles
It is important to change the shoes for the duration of treatment to ensure that the foot is in the right natural position when walking. The sole of a special shoe can absorb shocks during the movement of a person.
Results from wearing the right shoes:
- load on the foot becomes smaller;
- fatigue of the legs decreases;
- does not further deform the joints;
- stops receive improved damping functions;
- the load on the spine is reduced.
Individual orthopedic insoles can replace special shoes. Such treatment will be cheaper at a cost. Insoles take into account the features of the structure of the foot, have various additional elements.
To correct deformities of the foot, if they are still of a minor nature, at home, you can do special gymnastics. It will be enough 15 minutes a day to strengthen the muscles, to form the correct position of the foot. In addition, exercise improves blood flow and reduces the overall fatigue of the legs.
What exercises are recommended:
- put pencils and pens on the floor, try to lift them using toes;
- walking on tiptoe;
- walk, leaning on the outside of the foot;
- take a bottle( empty or with water) and roll it with your feet.
In the treatment of flat feet in adults at home, a special massage is actively recommended by all specialists. It is important that the massage is conducted by a qualified worker, and the general course of treatment is no less than a dozen procedures. The duration of one massage session for one foot should not be less than 10 minutes.
Important! In principle, you can not apply to a specialist for a therapeutic massage, and conduct it yourself. Then you have to buy a special massage device: a rug, rollers, balls.
To relax the muscles after the massage it is recommended to take warm foot baths. Conservative home treatment, described above, is suitable only for the first stage of flatfoot, until the foot has not yet strongly deformed.
What folk methods will help
Such mats in a wide range are sold in pharmacies. They are suitable for self-massage. Every day on a special rug you just need to walk barefoot for 5 minutes.
People never consulted specialists, but tried to do massage at home. It is necessary to fix the foot horizontally with four fingers of the hand. With your thumb press on the entire surface of the foot. This therapeutic massage is especially effective in the morning.
Compliance with the
diet At the initial stage, the flatfoot can be cured by adjusting its menu. It is necessary to abandon the sweet and flour, to eliminate fatty foods from the diet. From now on, the menu is made up of vegetables and cereals. You need to eat up to five times a day, but not more than 350 grams of food at a time. So it will be possible to get rid of excess weight, which often leads to deformation of the foot.
In addition, with flatfoot, it is necessary to drink milk, because it contains vitamin D. You can just take vitamin D, bought in a pharmacy in a clean form. In general, if there are doubts that the body receives enough vitamins and minerals, you can drink a special course of such drugs.
What to do for the prevention of
To prevent the treatment of flat feet in adults at home, do not stand at all, you need to monitor the body weight, choose the right shoes. Women should understand that the constant wearing of high heels inevitably leads to the development of flat feet.Share with your friends!
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Treatment of flat feet in adults |Center for Traumatology and Orthopedics
Flattening is a deformation that leads to flattening of the foot and loss of its physiological functions.
With flatfoot, the bony structures of the posterior and middle parts of the foot are gradually established in such a way that leads to the omission of the arches.
Anatomically, the foot has two main arches - the transverse( between the bases of the fingers) and the longitudinal( along the inner edge), which are designed to absorb the load and maintain the body weight. Depending on the type of arch that falls, three types of flatfoot are distinguished: longitudinal, transverse and combined( longitudinal-transverse flatfoot).In most cases, it is the combination of flat feet that predominates, because if deformation develops, both arches of the foot drop. The consequence of this dysfunction, as a rule, is a flat valgus deformation of the feet.
The development of flat feet occurs due to the fact that the ligament of the foot weakens with time, the calcaneus begins to fall down from the outside and the entire foot moves inwards towards the central point. At the same time, the vaults drop, and it often happens that the bone, which can be palpated on the inner part of the foot, practically touches the surface. There is overgrowth of certain structures of the foot, ligaments, which causes pain when walking. When a person moves and walks a lot, after a while there is fatigue, discomfort and at night the legs begin to get very tired and sick.
Many people do not consider this disease serious, and they do not ask "How to cure flat feet?" But, unfortunately, frivolous attitude towards this pathology can lead to complications: deforming arthrosis of the foot joints, knee and hip joints, osteochondrosis, scoliosis, valgus deformityfeet.
Flat-footedness develops very slowly and gradually, as a rule, from childhood. But if in childhood the diagnosis of flat feet does not cause certain clinical symptoms( pain, discomfort, fatigue), then, unfortunately, after tens of years, it begins to manifest and disturb very much. Often the pains are such that a person can not always pass a sufficiently long distance.
In addition, with the development of flatfoot there is a certain redistribution of the load on the bones of the foot, the biomechanics of motion is changing and this causes overstrain in the knee and hip joints, which leads to the pronation of the pelvis and, as a consequence, to the scoliosis of the spine.
Sometimes scoliosis is diagnosed in a child only when it is standing - when it lies down, the spine straightens. This is the so-called functional scoliosis, which manifests itself only under load. And if the child is made insoles, which return the foot to a normal physiological state and raise the arch of the foot, the load on the problem areas is reduced and the scoliosis disappears.
Symptoms of flatfoot
The main symptom of developing flat feet is pain in the feet, ankles and lower leg, especially after prolonged movement. The gait becomes heavy, "unnatural."In addition, flat feet is the cause of cones on the legs( Valgus deformation of the first finger), which leads to deformation of the foot. In connection with the fact that with flatfoot disruption of the natural distribution of the load, pain can also occur in the knee and hip joints, often in the lower back.
Degrees of flatfoot development
1 degree. Poorly expressed deformation of the foot, fatigue and painful sensations arise, as a rule, after a long stay on the legs.
2 degree. Deformation( flattening) is seen during normal inspection. The foot begins to "flatten out", a small blockage of feet appears inward. Painful sensations arise not only in the foot, but go over to the shin and knee.
3 degree. A pronounced deformation. Violations begin in the work of the musculoskeletal system, and pain arises even after a short walk. Often there is a Valgus deformation of the first finger( more about getting rid of cones on the legs), leading to a serious deformation of the foot, the appearance of corns, "hammer-like" fingers.
Diagnostics of flatfoot
An orthopedic doctor performs visual examination of the foot and is scheduled to perform radiography. Based on the X-ray images, the final diagnosis is made - the degree of development of the disease and the type of flatfoot are determined. Depending on this, the specialist chooses a method of treatment( conservative or operative) and develops a therapeutic program.
How to get rid of flat feet?
It is quite difficult to get rid of flat feet with conservative methods of treatment. This is possible only at very early stages of development, if the flat feet are detected at the age when the child is still very small( 3-5 years).If at this moment it will be possible to inspire the child that he needs to engage in certain exercises that need to be done for a long time, then he will not have a flat foot in the future. Also, in addition to exercises, flat feet in children can be adjusted with insoles, orthopedic appliances, special shoes. Unfortunately, most often this does not happen and flat feet, as a rule, develops.
Conservative treatment methods that would have helped to cure flat feet in adults, in fact, do not exist. We can use individual orthopedic insoles, perform various physiotherapy procedures, do massage, physiotherapy, acupuncture, but all this will be directed only at suspending the already existing deformation, so that the flat feet slowed down. But if the flatfoot already exists and, especially if it has reached the started stages, then it can be cured only in an operative way.
Of course, the phrase "flatfoot surgery" causes fear, but to date there are such surgical interventions that allow you to quickly and slightly traumatologically get rid of flat feet through small incisions. The essence of these operations is that, bone structures, with the help of a special implant, set in anatomically correct position. The patient goes for several years, during which the ligaments and muscles get used to this condition, and then the implant is removed.
This small operation has very high efficiency and is carried out at any stage of flatfoot development. For the treatment of flat feet in adults in the advanced stage, in addition to this method, additional corrective techniques can also be used.
Recovery after minimally invasive interventions occurs within a week. If you have to do more serious operations, the recovery can be longer and depends on the amount of surgical intervention performed.
The effectiveness of these operations is so high that, as a rule, if a patient does surgery on only one leg, then in 99% of cases he will come again to do the operation on the other.
Actuality of flatfoot treatment
Many people think that flat feet is not such a dangerous disease as, for example, arthritis, but in vain. It is flatfoot, untreated in time, can become one of the reasons for the formation of dangerous health complications. These include such "adult" diagnoses as curvature of the spine, osteochondrosis, intervertebral hernia, arthrosis, arthritis including.
Is flatfoot treated and how effective is treatment? The answer is simple - flatfoot can be completely corrected only up to the child's age of 6-7 years, and in adults - only carry out a correction. That is why treatment and correction of flat feet are relevant for adults and children, and therapeutic gymnastics is a good help in complex therapy.Before starting flatfoot treatment at home, you need to get a doctor's consultation. This must be done to assess the degree, shape of flat feet, and also to choose orthopedic footwear and insoles.
What can I do at home? These are measures aimed at overall health promotion, nutrition correction, walking tours, classes, exercises and much more.
- In summer, you can walk and walk without shoes, it is advisable to choose a rocky surface for this. On the plantar surface of the foot are all active points, so this walk not only forms anatomical arches of the foot, but contributes to overall health.
- From sports you can go swimming, especially swimming in the style of crawl. Leg movements with this style develop rotational movements of the foot. If conditions permit, and the disease is mild, you can do ski sports or figure skating. This will keep the foot in a strictly horizontal position.
- A good effect is provided by a flat-foot massage, which can be done by using simple techniques. For this, stroking, kneading, rubbing, squeezing are used. Massage tones muscles, ligaments and fascia, and their tone, in turn, leads to correction of the foot.
- It is necessary to teach the child to walk properly. To do this, for several minutes 6-7 times a day, ask him to walk, straightening his shoulders, lifting his head, and the feet should be strictly horizontal and parallel to each other.
- The main condition for treatment is therapeutic gymnastics with flat feet. Use for this instructor is not necessary, because the techniques are simple and easily duplicated, even by children.
How to cure flat feet with simple exercises, you ask? To understand what happens during the exercises, it is necessary to recall that flat feet is a disease of the whole musculoskeletal system. A load that is not distributed correctly can lead to dangerous illnesses in adulthood. And the flat foot is treated only with shoes or insoles, as it is necessary to strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the entire leg and lower parts of the spine, because the innervation of the foot begins in the lumbar part of the spine.
Complex of exercises with flat feet( click to enlarge).
The complex of exercises
- hands are stretched upward, we go on socks;
- hands on belt, we walk on heels;
- hands on the belt, we walk on the outside of the foot;
- tennis ball pinched between the feet, we walk on the outside of the foot.
In the standing position:
- hands on the belt, stand on the outside of the foot, turn the trunk to the right and left;
- we stand on the outside of the foot, we rise on the toes.
Standing on a stick:
- move on a stick, placing stops both along and across.
In sitting position:
- legs stretched forward, bend, unbend fingers;
- the legs are bent at the knees, maximally raise and lower the heels without lifting the socks off the floor;
- legs stretched forward, pulling the socks as much as possible, and then pulling ourselves away;
- legs are extended forward, we reduce and we breed legs, joining stops;
- legs are stretched forward, grab a pencil and lift;
- legs stretched forward, grab a tennis ball, toss it and catch it;
- legs are bent at the knees, we roll a tennis ball from the sock to the heel along the longitudinal arch.
In the position of the body at an angle of 45 degrees:
- raise both legs and torso at an angle of 45 degrees and hold as much as you can.
How often to do gymnastics
All the exercises need to be done regularly, for 1.5-2 years, giving it 15-20 minutes per day. Each exercise should be done, repeating several times.
How to cure flat feet with walking, if in some regions only 2-3 months a year is warm? In winter time, you can adjust the massage mat for walking. Make a massage mat from flat feet with your own hands is not difficult - just enough for dense fabric threads or glue to attach small items( buttons, curlers, glass stones and other small items).
Early detection of the diagnosis and timely treatment started are the key to a full recovery. A therapeutic gymnastics, held regularly, can become an indispensable assistant in successful treatment.