The more dangerous the flat feet of children

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platypodia, children, exercise therapy, exercises

Flattening is a deformation of the foot, which is characterized by a flattening of its arch. Even a slight deviation from the norm can affect the health and physical development of the child.

At the foot 3 arches are distinguished: 2 longitudinal( along the inner and outer edges of the foot) and 1 lateral( between the bases of the fingers).The arches of the foot are designed to maintain balance and protect the body from shaking when walking.

Due to the presence of arches, the foot rests on the floor with three main points: the heel bone and the bases of the 1st and 5th toes. When the vaults are straightened, the foot flattenes and leans against the floor with its entire surface, which leads to a deterioration in its cushioning properties and the development of flatfoot symptoms. Depending on the deformation of the arches, longitudinal and transverse platypodia are distinguished.

There is an innate platypodia, the cause of which is intrauterine developmental dysfunction. The appearance of the leg is characteristic, which makes it possible to diagnose in the maternity hospital: the sole of the affected foot is convex, the outer section is turned outward.

Flat feet in toddlers

In children under 2 years of age, flat feet are physiological - the longitudinal arch of the foot is always flat. By the age of 3, the bones become denser, the ligaments are stronger and the joints occupy their true position: the "right foot" begins to form. The process lasts up to 5 years, so only from this age you can talk about true platypodia.

Control of foot development

It is not necessary to wait for 5-year-old age to reveal a flat foot in the child. It is recommended that you regularly visit an orthopedic doctor who can determine the prerequisites for incorrect foot formation. In this case, the doctor makes recommendations to prevent the development of deformities of the feet.

The Russian health care system has developed a follow-up plan for the orthopedist for children:

  • the first visit is carried out at the age of 1 month - the doctor excludes congenital skeletal diseases;
  • at 3 months - examination for the exclusion of hip dysplasia, may also require an ultrasound of the hip joints;
  • at 6 months - consultation aimed at identifying rickets;
  • at 12 months the doctor controls the correctness of the development of the spine and its bends, the volume of movement in the joints, the formation of gait;
  • in 3 years orthopedist checks gait, posture, condition of feet;
  • from 3 to 18 years is recommended to visit the orthopedist once a year even in the absence of pathology.

Flatfoot types

  • Rakhitic - a deficiency of vitamin D causes weakness of the foot muscles;
  • paralytic - occurs after a previous history of poliomyelitis;
  • traumatic - formed after a prolonged stay of the foot in the gypsum with a broken leg;
  • static - occurs due to overload of the foot due to obesity.

What is the danger of flat feet?

Children with flat feet more tired, complain of pain in their legs during a walk or hike. Over time, there are pains in the back due to an incorrect load on the spine. Gradually develops a scoliosis - a bend of the vertebral column to the right or left.

About flatfoot treatment

Treatment of flat feet should be long and complex. In fact, it's not even a cure, but a certain way of life.

Orthopedic insoles Orthopedic insoles are indispensable in the treatment of flatfoot. They help to "unload" the foot, correctly distributing the load. Insoles are selected individually, their height depends on the degree of flattening of the foot. Insoles should be placed not only in the street, but also in home shoes( which should always be worn when flat feet are used!).As the baby grows and develops, the orthopedic orthopedist's recommendation changes the size and shape of the orthopedic insoles.

Orthopedic footwear With severe flat feet, the child does not need insoles, but special orthopedic shoes. They not only create a physiologically correct basis for the foot, but also fix the ankle joint due to rigid internal lateral support.

Foot baths This procedure helps feet in the initial stages of flatfoot. Every day before going to bed it is recommended to arrange warm foot baths( water temperature 40-50 degrees Celsius) with sea salt. The duration of the procedure is 20 minutes. After the baths, it is advisable to perform self-massage - skating with the legs of special rollers or walking on rugs, which can be found in the orthopedic salon.

Physiotherapy A flat-footed child is offered professional massage courses, physiotherapy is prescribed: electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, paraffin and ozocerite applications. Such procedures improve blood circulation, strengthen muscles and ligaments, contributing to the proper formation of the foot.

Suspend flat feet and urgently consult an orthopedist in two cases:

  • if the child is tired after a short walk( about half an hour);
  • when new shoes lose shape within 1-2 months after purchase.

Gymnastics with flat feet

Therapeutic gymnastics play an important role in the treatment of flat feet. The instructor in physiotherapy exercises will help you choose the necessary set of exercises for the child and show how to properly implement them.

For example, such complexes are popular:

Complex of exercises with flatfoot number 1 The starting position is standing. Ask the child to crouch without taking his heels off the floor. Repeat the exercise 4-6 times. Lay on the rug sea stones, large beads, buttons and suggest the child to walk along the bumpy surface for 3-5 minutes. Invite the child to balance on the ball( under your control).Ask the child to roll his feet with a rolling pin sitting on a chair.

Complex of exercises with flatfoot number 2 The starting position is sitting on a chair. Let the child put one foot on the ball, and put the second on the floor. Suggest him to shake the ball with his feet left-right and back-to-back. Repeat 5 times. Then change your legs and again perform the exercise. Invite the child to grab the ball with both feet and hold the weight for a few seconds, then put it on the floor. Repeat 4-6 times.

Complex of exercises with flatfoot number 3 The starting position - sitting on a chair, the feet stand on the floor. Ask the child to hold the thumb of his right foot on the front of the leg of the left leg from the bottom up. Repeat 5 times. Do the same by changing your legs.

How to choose the right shoes?

Shoes can become the "culprit" of flat feet, and can help prevent the disease. The health of the foot largely depends on the correctness of the choice of shoes of crumbs. Shoes for the first steps should be of high quality and meet a number of requirements:

  • Shoes should be quite high, tightly wrap around and fix( but not squeeze) the ankle joint. Carefully inspect the leg of the baby after a walk. If it is printed tights or the relief of the shoe, then they are tight and they should be replaced. The back should be stiff and high( to the lower or middle third of the shin).
  • It is recommended to purchase leather shoes with a minimum of internal seams.
  • The sole should be stiff, non-slip, with a small( up to 1.5 cm) heel. Such shoes prevent stretching of the ligaments and over-extension of the foot.
  • It is not allowed to buy shoes as they are, but the gap should be no more than 1.5 cm.
  • When fitting, it is necessary to take into account that the shoes should be with a margin that does not prevent the child from walking: about 1-1.5 cm.

Expert: Author: Olesya Butuzova, pediatrician

Treatment of flat feet in children

Flat-footed( longitudinal and transverse) in children worried about modern parents almost from the first step made by the baby. As a rule, treatment is prescribed if the flat foot persists for up to 5 years or more.

Age feature or pathology?

Approximately 3-13% of children face flat feet at a young age. In fact, this condition is physiological up to 8-9 years. If the arch disappears in the standing position and appears when climbing on socks or sitting, then it is a question of flexible flat feet. Dr. Komarovsky in his advice to young mothers tells that in children of 1 year with a strong desire, any specialist will find a flattening of the foot, as this corresponds to the normal maturation of the limb.

Attention should be paid to children who have a hereditary predisposition to foot diseases, as well as the appearance of scoliosis, clubfoot and gait disturbances. Congenital dislocation of the hip, muscular dysplasia can provoke overstrain and bending of the foot. Children with established diagnoses are observed additionally.

Injuries to the feet, rickets, congenital weakness of the muscles form the prerequisites for flat feet. Detects a surgeon's disease before the year, but after 2 years, the strengthening of bones and ligaments continues, and should be supervised by a specialist.

The question of whether the disease is treated in children - is decided depending on the orthopedist's diagnosis. There are the following types of foot deformities:

  1. Flexible, painless flat feet does not require urgent measures. Orthopedic insertions can aggravate the situation on the contrary. Flexible platypodia is considered pathological in pain in the foot, and the formation of calluses and uneven wear of shoes are indications for treatment.
  2. Fixed flat feet - the basis for buying orthopedic shoes to prevent pain. It is recommended to prevent overweight and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Worries about how to cure a child, it is necessary for discomfort or pronounced signs:

  • Strong stomping of the heel on one side.
  • Visible changes in the gait.

The child can refuse to walk and run, not to participate in games that require a lot of stress on his legs. When complaining of pain, you should consult an orthopedist.

How do pediatricians diagnose?

Having looked at the leg with the naked eye, an experienced orthopedist is able to reveal flat feet. He watches the movement of the foot during walking, sitting, standing or doing exercises, and also examines the child's shoes and the specifics of wear.

In severe cases, you will need to make an X-ray to determine the degree of deformation. The doctor directs to examine the knees and hips of the child from the surgeon in order to exclude the influence of other limb flaws on the shape of the foot.

When is treatment required?

Most of the children outgrow the problem, and the doctor will advise you to come for follow-up visits. To reduce pain, insoles, inserts and orthopedic shoes are used, which is prescribed by a specialist.

Operations are rarely performed until the skeleton is fully formed. At this age, plastic tendons do not work. Subtalar arthritis for the formation of the arch is performed only with the intensifying nature of pain, since a side effect may be degenerative arthritis in the future.

Prevention - the best treatment

Concerns about how to treat flat feet in children, is dispelled by the doctor's answer - to strengthen the muscles of the legs. In case of obvious deformation, the complex of exercise therapy should be developed by the instructor and carried out under his guidance.

However, a few simple tips can be recommended to every adult to protect the child:

  1. To do with infancy is easy foot massage from flat feet.
  2. Issue a child to walk on pebbles, sand, grass or purchase a special mat that provides massage and helps the foot to develop properly.
  3. Buy shoes from leather, with a small heel and a hard back.
  4. Place at home a sports corner for outdoor games.
  5. Buy a baby bike, write down for swimming.

Children with diagnosed flat feet are strictly forbidden to skate, attend ballet and engage in weightlifting.

It is worthwhile to act actively at an early age, so that anxiety about how to cure a disease in adolescents was not belated.

Home gymnastics from flat feet - the main way to strengthen the legs:

  1. Breeding of the toes on the legs while sitting, standing or lying down. Hold the maximum dilution point for 10 seconds, repeat the exercise 10 times.
  2. Point things out in the room with your toes. Select the object, point the fingers of the elongated leg, bend the knee and hold on for 5 seconds. Draw letters of the alphabet with each foot.
  3. Walk on the socks for 5 minutes every day, trying not to touch the floor with heels. You can use a treadmill.
  4. Walking on the outer surface of the feet. Get up barefoot on the floor or carpet, put your feet on the width of your shoulders, slightly bend at the knees. Roll the body weight onto the outer edges of the foot and slowly climb to the socks, feeling the tension of the entire longitudinal arch. Hold for 5 seconds and repeat 5 times a day.
  5. Walking on sand barefoot. This allows the legs to adapt to the loads and strengthen.

Is it possible to correct a defect in adolescence?

Increasingly, there are questions about how to treat flat feet in adolescents, when the process is started and cascade anomalies have appeared: ankle, knees, hip joints. To the surgeon lead the child in occasion of a curvature of a backbone or a basin, and learn about deformation of foot.

The sooner we do prevention, the more noticeable the effect will be. Up to 12-13 years, the deformation of the feet is correctable. Dangerous flat feet in that the poor cushioning function of the plantar arch leads to rapid deterioration of the spine, osteochondrosis, and this affects the work of internal organs.

Further treatment of flat feet in adolescents is the use of instep support and surgical intervention for significant pain.

The task of parents is to catch the ailment at a stage when correction is still permissible. Therefore, visits to the orthopedist should not be "for a tick", and physical activity should be allowed into the life of the child from the kindergarten.

Flat-footed children

According to statistics, more than 65 percent of children already have a flat-footed approach to school age. Even more patients are leaving school. What is a flatfoot? Flat feet in children - is a foot deformity. Often parents do not even understand the seriousness of this disease, they think that it will pass - after all, the child is not disabled. But the flat feet never pass. In the neglected form, treatment becomes more complicated and expensive, even surgery is possible.

Flat-footed children is the loss of all the spring functions of the foot - it's like riding a car with working springs and a car with faulty ones. In the first car, even significant pits will be invisible, but in the second it will shake even on a small one. That's how the spine and the hip joint shake when walking in children suffering from flat feet. This can lead, first of all, to the curvature of the spine, as well as pain in the head, legs, back, or even some serious illnesses.

What is the danger of flat feet?

Flattening rapidly progresses and can lead to scoliosis, osteochondrosis, sciatica, arthritis, arthrosis, varicose veins and other diseases. Flattening accelerates the wear and tear of the whole musculoskeletal system! That is why at the first signs of flat feet it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor!

The baby's feet are formed before the age of 5 years. The earlier flat foot is detected, the easier it is to cure it. After five years of life, it is already more difficult. But, having begun treatment, it is possible to improve the condition of the foot, to stop the development of flat feet and to prevent the deformations of the spine. It is necessary to show the orthopedist of a child who quickly gets tired of walking and asks for his hands. Treatment flat feet in children is very difficult, so it is better to start as early as possible, and it is best to do preventive maintenance. Consider the factors that trigger the appearance of flat feet in children .These factors weaken the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot: clubfoot( congenital condition), severe infections with complications, trauma to the foot, rickets, weight lifting, overweight, wrong shoes.

Of all these factors, one conclusion can be drawn that flat feet in children may appear in a healthy child, and parents can provoke it. According to statistics, 80% of flat feet is static, that is, arisen with excess weight, loads or irregular shoes. Very often flat feet become the result of a whole bunch of incorrect actions. First of all - of poor-quality footwear. You can scoff at tasteless and scary Soviet children's shoes, but the medical requirements were strictly enforced in them.

To properly form a growing baby foot, shoes must necessarily have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less) and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.

And now look at the modern shoes for kids, which offer us merchants. Slippers, slippers on "carnations", slippers on absolutely flat soles. Socks from deliberately stupid to supersaturated. The other extreme is modern running shoes: they are so springy when walking and running, which completely free the foot from this function, and it, like any muscle construction, begins to "lazy."

Both that and the other shoes described above, maybe, and will instill a good taste for your child( and, most likely, will simply amuse your own vanity), but quite realistically will reward him with flat feet. To finish the theme of shoes, I will note that some doctors advise not to let babies wear other people's shoes, since the shoe, which is worn by someone else's foot, is essentially a footprint of someone else's foot and incorrectly distributes the load on the feet.

Before putting on shoes for a child, you need to take into account that for 2 or even 3 sizes larger than his own size, shoes will only hurt him. Free shoes will not help the tired muscles of the foot to keep it in the right position, and the tight will disturb the blood circulation and the legs will not recover after the loads. Be sure to have a heel, since its absence can lead to deformation of the foot. So remember, putting on your child's shoes from your older sister or brother is not always a cost saving, you can earn a sore like children's flatfoot .


shoes The "Culprit" of the acquired flatfoot may have incorrectly matched shoes. As soon as the child starts to get up, it's time to buy his first boots. Usually it occurs in the period from 7-8 months. The criteria for "correct" children's shoes are indicated quite clearly. The first footwear should:

Tightly fix the foot and ankle with lacing or Velcro, but never squeeze the foot and be too loose.

Have a minimum number of internal seams so that the toddler does not rub the skin around the ankles.

In its manufacture( including insoles) natural materials should be used.

The posterior should be high, rigid, reaching the border of the lower or middle third of the shin. This is necessary in order to avoid lateral curvature in the ankle joint.

It is better if the surface of the boots is perforated so that the legs can "breathe".

The sole should be stable and non-slip, with a small heel. In addition, it must be rigid. This prevents re-flexion in the joints of the foot and overgrowth of the ligaments. And for the baby, the toddler on the leather soles is quite suitable.

In shoes for children under 2 years there should be no instep, because the function of the shock absorber is the same "fat pad", otherwise it will interfere with the normal formation of the arches of the foot. True, everything is very individual. Perhaps some babies will have to choose shoes without a supinator and at an older age. This issue is better discussed with the doctor.

When fitting, you must take into account that the shoes were with a margin that does not prevent the child from walking - about 1.5 cm.

After a walk, you should pay attention to the foot of the baby: if the skin is imprinted with the relief of tights or internal seams of the shoe - shoes need to be changed. This will allow the small legs to relax from the usual position, and if the child's feet sweat, - how to dry the raw shoes without affecting the next walk. To properly form a foot, children need not only good shoes. The power of also matters. The connective tissue in its composition is somewhat similar to bone tissue. And in exactly the same way it suffers from rickets, that is, the wrong phosphoric-calcium metabolism in the body. With a lack of calcium, as is known, bones become soft and deformed under the influence of weight and muscles, and the connective tissue of the foot ceases to be elastic and elastic, and similarly obeys the pressure of body weight.

So even if your baby does not have signs of rickets, do not forget about flatfoot - another consequence of calcium deficiency. So, support in the daily diet of the child a sufficient amount of rich in phosphorus and calcium products. Do not forget about a sufficient number of sunbathing or preventive intake of vitamin D in the winter.

There is a misconception that flat feet in children up to six years is physiological and does not require correction. This is not correct, it is up to 5-6 years, when the ossification points are not closed, it is easier to correct or prevent the development of deformation of the feet and to form the correct gait. And after that, only treatment will help, which is much more difficult.

Independently treatment of the child is not recommended, it is better to visit the orthopedist constantly, it is better to conduct prophylaxis. Such prevention will be running on hillocks and hills, exercises, on balance, leaning on one foot, climbing along a rope or pole, walking on a log. Stop is not suitable for surfaces such as asphalt, concrete, linoleum, laminate and other hard coatings. On such surfaces, the muscles do not work, and therefore, atrophy and sag. Prevention is considered the best fight with flat feet in children !At the initial stage and children under 5 years of age, it is not recommended to wear felt boots, soft slippers and sandals with open heels. It is not necessary, aspires to parents that the child has started to walk earlier, also it is necessary to stop the desire of girls to wear high heels with a narrow toe. A useful prevention will be swimming in the water, and you need to work as much as possible with your feet.

Like any other muscular function, the formation of an elastic arch of the foot requires development and training. "barefoot life" is best for this. Let the child at least occasionally walk on pebbles, sand, earth, grass bundles - everything that causes his legs to constantly strain, transfer the weight of the body from one surface to another, from the heel to the toe. At home, this exercise can be successfully done with small cubes, balls, small playful toys, peas, beans, beans, the word of any uneven sex. However, it can be in thick socks, but not in shoes( even on a thin sole).Very important is therapeutic exercise. Such physical culture can be done while playing with the child, walking on a rolling pin, getting objects with the help of legs, climbing on the Swedish wall. The most common signs of flat feet in children are aching legs when walking, fatigue of the feet, by evening, the swelling of the foot, which by morning passes, the inner side of the sole wears out quickly. Children with such a diagnosis walk with their legs apart, bending their knees, thus the foot becomes wider.

A very simple flatbed test can be performed at home. It is enough just to moisten the cotton wool with paint and to anoint the baby's feet and put it on a blank sheet of paper. If there was only an imprint of the heel, the front part with the fingers and the contour means everything is in order. And if the entire foot or its middle part is visible, then this is a flatfoot. It is not necessary to do such experiments at an early age, since the fat pad causes a flat-footed contour and the result will not be correct. In this way it is good to check how the treatment is going.

If you think that flat feet - only a slight deviation from the norm, which does not require treatment, you are very wrong!

The main thing in solving the flatfoot problem is to really evaluate the problem and turn to the right specialist in time.

In childhood, a complete cure for flat feet is still quite realistic. Daily exercise for the "lazy" muscles of the foot is done with the help of massage, contrasting trays and special gymnastics. In the evenings, soak the child's legs in a hot bath with a tonic infusion of chamomile, pine extract or sea salt. Stroke the steamed feet, and then forcefully pound them with your thumbs or fist. Especially energetically puzzle out the outer edge of the foot - it should be the strongest. After kneading, pour your feet with cold water or wipe it with a piece of ice.

For a special gymnastics from a flatfoot a child will have to spend at least 10 minutes a day. Where can I get these ten minutes? Buy a massage mat and put it in the bathroom. While the child is washing and brushing his teeth( twice a day), let him stand on the mat with his bare feet, rise on his toes, roll from toe to heel, stands on the outer edge of the soles.

When to go to the doctor

Do not treat the child yourself. Massage, physiotherapy, corrective devices( orthopedic insoles), therapeutic exercises are prescribed by a doctor who takes into account the age, severity of pathology, and also takes into account the main cause of flatfoot development.

Perhaps all parents understand that preventive examinations of specialists are not a whim of doctors, but a necessary measure. The main thing is not to miss the time of visiting the doctor. An orthopedic examination is performed:

in the first month of life, this is necessary to exclude congenital deformities and skeletal diseases, including congenital flat feet;

in 3 and 6 months of age, when it is possible to identify rickets;

in 1 year. This is an important stage in the life of the child, when he sits alone, crawls, walks. At this time the doctor checks the correctness of the natural curves of the spine, the volume of movements in the joints;

in 3 years. The orthopedist checks the posture, gait, measures the length of the limbs, examines the condition of the feet. Ideally, at this age, an orthopedic with a child should be visited every year - in order not to miss the development of flat feet. Parents need to be prepared for the fact that the orthopedist( if he doubts the final diagnosis) will send a small patient to an additional examination in a consultative and diagnostic center.

See also Gymnastics with flat feet

Oksana I have flat feet. I am 23 years old. Apparently at a time when I was little, no one bothered about the flat feet of the child. My father also had a flat feet, everyone thought "into him" and even no one tried to treat him. Plants in the garden and the school wrote flat foot, but no treatment was prescribed. Only at the university on a medical examination I was told for the first time that in the future there will be problems and wondered why they were not treated as children. After that, I tried to do something, I rolled a tennis ball, but hardly anything would help, the bones were formed. Sometimes I feel the consequences. Often the back pain, legs during walking, I think with age the problems will increase(

Lilya At the very flatfoot since childhood.) Problems in a heap. In childhood, my legs ached that I climbed on the wall. By the way, barefoot never could walk, it was very painful stopI also run very badly, constantly stumble and fall, I often dislocate legs when walking fast, and I also have a lot of work to do. I'm afraid that I'm waiting in my old age.)

Olga Very informative. Now we are 3, let's go to the orthopedist. .. Empty

Olesya My daughter was diagnosed with flat-valgus feet at 3.5 years old, was prescribed a massage, electrostimulation of the muscles of the feet and exercise therapy. . At home, pencils and buttons were raised with the fingers of the feet while they were waiting for our turn to massage,we do all the prescribed 2 times a year, we registered for choreography, we wear orthopedic insoles, the improvement is observed. As the doctor told me, the main thing is to have everything fixed up to 7 years, until the skeleton is formed. Then all bones become strong and all these measures can be useless. Before the massage, the legs hurt very much, especially at night or after a load( trampoline, a long walk, etc.).So do not delay with treatment. It is very important!

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Flat-footed child: causes, consequences, methods of treatment. Massage and gymnastics with flat feet

Flattening in the child - a very common disease of the musculoskeletal system. In fact - this deformation of the foot of the child with the flattening of its arch. Usually deformed in the children longitudinal arch of the foot, because of this the sole becomes flat and begins its entire surface to touch the floor. The consequences of flat feet of children can be very bad for their health and development of the body.



It is possible to determine exactly whether there is a flatfoot in a child, it is possible only when he is about five years old, but rather even six. Why is it so, because it is desirable to fight with flat feet in children from the smallest age, the earlier, the better? Firstly, up to a certain age in children, the bone apparatus of the foot is not strengthened, in part it is a cartilaginous structure, the muscles and ligaments of the foot are weak, easily subject to stretching, therefore it is impossible to determine the flat feet of the child. Secondly, the soles of the small child seem flat, as the recess of the arch is filled with a soft fat pad, and masks the bone base of the foot.

In the case of normal development of the musculoskeletal system, the arch of the foot acquires the necessary shape for correct functioning by the age of 5-6 years. But in some cases, there is a deviation in development, and flat feet appear.

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  • How to determine the flat feet of a child, or to make sure that everything is going well, if the baby is not yet five years old?

To determine the flat feet of a child, you can use the following: lubricate the baby's feet with watercolor paints or conventional sunflower oil and place it neatly on a sheet of white paper that absorbs oil well. Distract the attention of the baby for a minute and a half so that he stands still. Then remove the child from the paper and carefully look at the footprints obtained.

If the traces are printed in the form of a "bean" - you can not worry, it's quite normal. In healthy children, this is how it should be: the arches of the children's feet are slightly raised, while moving and walking they carry a spring function.

In case the entire footprint is imprinted entirely - you have something to worry about, there is a predisposition of the child to flat feet, pay attention to it until it's too late. And if your child is 6 years old you often hear that he is tired with long walking, complains of frequent pain in his legs, then you just need to consult an orthopedic doctor.

If we consider the ratio of the narrowest part of the track to the widest, the arch of the foot is considered normal when it is 1: 4, flattened, at a ratio of 2: 4, and flat at 3: 4.

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Factors influencing the development of flatfoot are:

  • 1. heredity( when someone in the family had or has this disease, you need to be especially careful: the baby should be regularly inspectedto the orthopedic doctor and take preventive measures),
  • 2. Wearing the "wrong" shoe( completely without heel on the flat sole, too wide or narrow shoes),
  • 3. Excessive stress on the feet( for example, with increased body weight or frequentraisedand weights),
  • 4. excessive hypermobility( flexibility) joints,
  • 5. muscle paralysis leg and foot( polio or cerebral palsy),
  • 6. rickets,
  • 7. Stop injury.

The existing causes of flatfoot often lead to serious health complications.

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Sometimes, parents are completely unaware of the seriousness of the disease, because at first it is not noticeable at all and does not seem to have a significant negative impact on the baby at first glance. It would seem that this is just such a feature, how dangerous is the flatfoot? However, this error can lead to serious consequences of flat feet of children and lead to a sad development of events.

The presence of flat feet disrupts the "spring" functions of the foot, the depreciation practically disappears altogether, and all the "recoil"( shake) when walking is on the shin and hip joints, which can lead to arthrosis. That is why the flat feet of a child must necessarily be prevented, if possible, and treated without fail.

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To combat flat feet in children, apply gentle methods of therapy. Physiotherapeutic treatment of flat feet in children, manual therapy, physiotherapy, special massage and gymnastics with flat feet in a child are preferred. Medication is prescribed in extreme cases, as an anesthetic and drugs to treat the effects of flat feet children. In therapy, in addition to many side effects and an inability to remove the cause of the disease, it can only aggravate it.

  • Shoes with flat feet

To the suffering flatfoot child, the orthopedist always appoints special footwear for wearing: suitable in size, made of natural materials, with a hard back and clear fixation on the leg, and, of course, with a little heel. Individual insoles are selected for the insoles, taking into account the specific shape of the baby's foot.

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The first methods to combat flat feet in children are soft-tissue techniques of massage and manual therapy. Use special techniques that are aimed at strengthening the muscles that tighten the arch of the foot, and improve its blood supply. Massage with flat feet of the child should also have a mild effect on the ligamentous apparatus and joints, and correct the foot and ankle of the child resulting from the deformity.

In view of the fact that the flat feet of a child has a negative effect on the bones, joints of the legs and lower parts of the spine, it is advisable in the process of treating flat feet in children to pay attention to the condition of the spine and the musculoskeletal system. Massage and gymnastics with flat feet in a child must use these systems of the body.

Often the disease provokes the development of scoliosis( curvature of the spine).In case of detection of other pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, the physician should prescribe a therapeutic massage at the flat feet of the child, special gymnastics and exercises with flat feet in the child, and in some cases a course of manual therapy is necessary. The techniques of manual therapy will help the physician to work directly on the suffering spine from the absence of depreciation, relieve tension in it and eliminate the asymmetry of the sacrum, which sometimes arises with flat feet and can become the root cause of curvature of the spine.

• How to do a massage with a flatfoot child?

With flat feet, the massage is carried out on the legs of the baby directly, as well as on the buttocks 1 time in 1.5 months, and in combination with additional measures of violation of the child's posture - once every 3-4 months, focusing on the back, waist and abdomen.

Massage with flat feet of a child should be carried out as follows:

  • Foot massage

For the beginning rub your palm or palm to rub the plantar part, from the heel to the fingers. We knead fingers and the whole foot with the thumb. Then with the thumb pad "draw" the figure 7 on the foot, from the base of the thumb to the base of the little finger and then along the outside of the foot in the direction of the heel.

Then rub the interdigital intervals of the foot on its back surface and circular movements of the condyles( in the lower part of the tibia the bony protuberances).

Next, you need to make a turn of the foot: we fix the leg with one hand for the condyles, grasping it from behind, and the second hand move smoothly along the inner side of the foot, starting from the heel to the fingers. In the process, we unfold the foot outward and slightly raise the zone of the thumb of the baby's legs upward.

  • Shin massage

Now you can carry out the massage of the shin. With palms, stroke, rub and knead both sides of the shin, focusing on its inner surface, pinching and flicking with fingertips. Massage the lower leg from the ankle in the direction of the knee joint.

  • Massage of thighs and buttocks

Massage of thighs and buttocks do without special accents: stroke, rub and knead the muscles of the thigh along the bone, and massage the buttocks in any direction. The only supplement is the mandatory inclusion of vibration elements( pinch, flick with the edge of the palm, shake).

  • Back massage at flat feet of the child practically does not differ from the massaging of other parts of the body, the nuance here is a more thorough and long grinding of the muscles of the back and waist, kneading( especially the sacral "triangle") and the use of vibratory techniques( percussion techniques in the fieldbacks should be done without affecting the kidney area of ​​the child).

    An important element for the treatment of flat feet in children is gymnastics exercises.

    Parents should understand that flat foot is an ailment which, in the absence of adequate therapy, full-fledged flat feet treatment in children with massage, gymnastics, and other methods, leads to serious health complications and significant deformities of the foot bones, and in addition to diseases of the musculoskeletalapparatus. Modern and timely therapy, treatment of flat feet in children at home, prevention of the disease, restore the health of the child and confidence in their own attractiveness.

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    The treatment of flat feet exercises on the leg muscles, as strengthening them, we do not allow it to develop. Actually exercises and massages at kids in very small age, are able to prevent the manifestation of flat feet in the future.

    From an early age, it is necessary to identify and carry out the prevention of this disease. For preventive purposes, use many different means:

    • 1. Strengthening the whole body in general, including through proper nutrition of the child,
    • 2. physical activity, exercise,
    • 3. sufficient exposure to fresh air,
    • 4. special exercises forflat feet in the child.

    • How to perform exercises with flat feet in a child?

    The most important is the correct selection of the child's shoes. She should sit on the leg clearly. She should have a small heel( 5-8 mm), well, of course, an elastic insole inside, and a strong, hard back.

    However, the exercises will be more useful if they are performed barefoot, and if possible, several times daily. One lesson can be done in the morning, immediately after lifting and carrying out the morning procedures, the next - after lunch.

    In addition, there are recommendations, every day before going to bed, to keep 3-5 minutes of foot in water at room temperature. The main thing is do not overcool and do not chill the baby, but it's better to accustom gradually to such procedures, first just pour your feet with room water, and then day after day, build up a little time.

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    • Playing exercises with flat feet in a child

    Of course, try not to miss the summer: on good days, let the child run barefoot on the ground, water, sand, sharp pebbles. Excellent preventive benefit will be from walking barefoot legs on a special therapeutic mat with pebbles.

    For the purpose of prevention, you can teach your child various games containing elements of correction, and presented in an interesting form. This approach will help the child to have a good posture. In particular, you can use the following games.

    • "Who is more skilled?"

    With the kid, who has grown up to 1.5-2 years old, you can start playing games, such as, for example, "who carries a pillow longer on his head".The pillow should be selected approximately 10x10 cm in size, and sew in it peas, lentils or any other cereals. Wearing a pillow on your head can help fix your posture or support the correctness of its formation at any age.

    • Spots with a vise

    Kids run to the sides. The one who leads them runs, trying to stain someone. But you can not stain someone who can and will have time to sit down on your toes, straightening your back, bending your arms in your elbows, squeezing your fingers, and pointing upwards. Very useful position.

    • Sideways with a sipping

    Children run up, as usual. But now from the guide you can "save yourself" by standing on your toes and raising your arms, as if stretching. The one who is stained is a new one.

    • Therapeutic gymnastics: exercises with flat feet in a child

    Exercise No. 1. Walking on socks. Correct posture is required: hands on the belt, head straight, slightly bend.

    Exercise # 2. Walking on the outside of the foot: press your fingers inside, set your feet while walking parallel to each other.

    Exercise # 3. Walking on any ribbed surface( "washing" board, for example).Stamping on the ribbed board is very useful. Place the board at a slope of 30 degrees on some support.

    Exercise # 4. Walking on the spot without taking off socks from the floor. At the same time you need to try to raise the heels higher.

    Exercise # 5. Walking on a stick sideways, or just over a thick cord.

    Exercise No. 6. Rolls from the toe to the heel, while it is better to stand on a stick or cord, but it is possible and simple on any hard surface.

    Exercise # 7. Walking with rolls made from the heel to the toe. Keep the body straight, do not lower your head. It is very important to make a recovery with a heel.

    Exercise No. 8. Riding a stick forward and backward with stops. The stick should be about 3 cm in diameter. The exercise should be carried out sitting, but with an emphasis on the legs.

    Exercise No. 9. Raise the body to the toe with full-foot drop. In this case, the feet stand so that the big toes together, and the heels apart.

    Exercise No. 10. Squats with legs on toes. You can hold on to the support for balance.

    Exercise No. 11. Very good gymnastics with flat feet in the child in the sitting position. You need to sit on the floor, make emphasis with your hands behind, and then grab your toes with some small objects( sticks, cord, balls), and shift them left and right. Then you can grab items larger than the inner arches stop - pin, ball, pull them to yourself, pass next to the seated.

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    It is recommended that the child after the sleep knead the feet before standing up: sitting, unbend and bend the toes of the feet, raise the legs,stop, massage the lifting of one leg of the other.

    Will help to strengthen the arches of feet, climbing bare feet on the gymnastics ladder, the rope. Walking on a board, a log, a rocking bridge not only develops the arch of the foot, but also has a good effect on preventing flat feet and clubfoot development in children.

    Climbing barefoot on a gymnastic or rope ladder will help to strengthen the ligaments and muscles of the feet, ankle joints, toes, and develop in the child agility, courage, determination. Above all, do not overestimate the capabilities of your baby, take into account his individual abilities. And then he will be healthy and happy!

    • How to prevent flat feet in children?

    In small children, all organs are formed and improved in the process of growing up, this also applies to the handles and legs, so the seemingly absolutely flat foot of the baby does not at all mean that the baby has developmental problems. Flattening in children can be detected using standard medical procedures, but due to the fact that the bone tissue of toddlers is susceptible to external influences, this defect can be easily corrected by therapeutic gymnastics.

    On the foot of a newborn baby it is impossible to understand whether it threatens flat feet, but if he has already begun to stomp and you see obvious violations of gait, be sure to consult a doctor

    How to identify flat feet in children?

    To determine the flat feet of a child, you can use the standard procedure - planotography. The essence of it is to put a footprint on a clean paper sheet( with the foot smeared with a special compound).However, as practice shows, children from one year to 5, and even more, do not always manage to do this procedure in the right way, because because of not quite formed foot it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis, because the leg is still being formed and mutated.

    The following factors can be symptomatic of the disruption of the shape of the foot:

    • clubfoot - when walking, the legs of the toddler are turned upside down. This is a consequence of weak leg muscles, which prevents the child from restraining his legs in the right position, a sign that most often occurs in children for up to a year;
    • walking on the edge of the leg - when the baby steps not on the foot, but on its lateral inner part, the legs in this case expand in the knee part, forming a kind of wheel;
    • pain after walking - if the child often complains of leg pain after walking, this may be a sign of flat feet;
    • erasing the backs and socks of the shoe - because of the incorrectly placed leg while walking, the shoes rub against the asphalt much more, and therefore spoils faster.

    If you notice one or more symptoms of flatfoot, you should consult a doctor as early as possible, a timely defect development is much easier to fix, and it will take a little time and will not give the crumb practically no concern.

    Treatment of flat feet is easy, many exercises with the right approach like the child, but the main condition in this matter is the regularity of the

    exercises. The methods of treating flatfoot in children

    If your child is diagnosed as "flat feet", do not despair: there is an answer to the question of how to treat flat feetin children. Today a whole series of procedures and exercises has been developed. All proposed manipulations are painless, and many of them are even very pleasant.

    • With congenital flat feet, the baby will be prescribed special langets and tight bandages for up to a year. Such fixing means help to keep the foot in the right position, while made of modern soft and pleasant to the touch materials, they do not cause any discomfort.
    • To strengthen the ligaments of the foot and muscles, a course of tonic procedures is prescribed. It includes curative gymnastics( such a service is available in the fizkabinet of a children's polyclinic) and massage( it is better if a professional masseur does it).Children up to a year all the procedures can be carried out at home, but it is better if you consult with your doctor what and how exactly you should do.
    • To cure a flatfoot in a toddler, walking on uneven surfaces will also help, for this purpose doctors advise to heal on the sea, where you can walk on sand and pebbles, often get out on the nature and move barefoot there on the grass and stones. Even at home, you can create a kind of training base, suggesting that a child is drowned on small sea stones or scattered peas.
    • It's not easy to cure flat feet: it is recommended to use special orthopedic insoles in shoes to avoid deforming the foot, or to choose models specially for such a case.

    Treatment of flat feet in children under one year does not cause much difficulty, especially if you start on time. Any violations of the development of the body are amenable to correction, the main thing is to notice them in time.

    Properly selected children's shoes - a very important part of flatfoot prevention

    How to prevent flat feet in children?

    Since flat feet in modern children is a fairly common phenomenon, numerous studies have been carried out to find out what are the main causes of such a violation. As a result, developed the main recommendations, following which one can prevent this unpleasant phenomenon.

    • First, the shaping of the foot is greatly influenced by uncomfortable shoes. At a young age, most of the time the child should be stripped off, because excess pressure on the leg leads to deformation;
    • second, inadequate motor activity can also be the cause of flat feet in children. If the crumb spends enough time in the active state - creeps, walks, runs, - it helps to form and develop the calf muscles, thereby strengthening the entire muscular system;
    • third, to strengthen bones, you must provide the child with a balanced complex nutrition. In the diet of the baby must be present fresh vegetables and greens, fish, porridge, tender meat, sour-milk products. As a supplement to the body does not prevent an additional vitamin complex, but it should appoint a doctor;
    • Fourth, when choosing shoes, the needs of the child should be guided, since the slightest discomfort in walking will lead to negative consequences. Choose children's shoes of high quality and be sure to try on shoes and sandals before buying;
    • fifth, regularly conduct standard physical exercises( for example, morning exercises).A small load will help not only strengthen the muscles of the arms and legs, but also accustom your crumb to a healthy lifestyle.

    As you can see, it's not so difficult to follow the recommendations on flatfoot prevention in infants, but you will save your child from the subsequent discomfort, and you do not have to treat this ailment.

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