Abstract LFK in Scoliosis

Therapeutic physical culture in scoliosis

The role of curative physical education in the strengthening of muscle groups. Exercises for the prevention of scoliosis. The use of curative physical education for conservative treatment of scoliosis. Swimming is one of the main activities of exercise therapy. Complexes of exercises for the patient with scoliosis.

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Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation

State Educational Institution

Subject: "Therapeutic physical culture in scoliosis"

Completed: student gr 3-52-6

Izhevsk 2010г.

Introduction

One of the leading means of conservative treatment of scoliosis is exercise therapy. Physical exercises have a stabilizing effect on the spine, strengthening the muscles of the trunk, allow you to achieve a corrective effect on deformity, improve posture, function of external respiration, provide a general strengthening effect. LFK is indicated at all stages of scoliosis development.

Objective: to show the importance of physiotherapy for conservative treatment of scoliosis

This objective assumes the following tasks:

1. To study the special literature on this topic

2. To group exercises for the prevention of scoliosis

3. To determine the role of exercise therapy in strengthening the basic muscle groups

Chapter 1.Scoliosis-pathology of the musculoskeletal system

Scoliosis -this is the lateral curvature of the spine in the frontal plane. The costal hump, which is observed, forms a deformation with a convexity laterally and posteriorly - kyphoscoliosis.

Scoliosis is more common than it is thought about. According to the St. Petersburg Children's Orthopedic Institute. G. I. Turner, 40% of the surveyed high school students identified a violation of statics requiring treatment. The name scoliosis receives according to the level of bending: cervical, thoracic or lumbar and accordingly convex side of curvature. Thus, it is possible to meet, for example, right-sided thoracic scoliosis.

Scoliosis can be simple, or partial, with a single lateral arc of curvature, and difficult - with several arcs of curvature in different directions and, finally, total if the curvature captures the entire spine. It can be fixed and non-fixed, disappearing in a horizontal position, for example, with a shortening of one limb. Simultaneously with scoliosis, it is usually observed and its torsion, i.e.turn around the vertical axis, with the vertebral bodies facing the convex side, and the spinous processes into the concave. Torsion promotes deformation of the chest and its asymmetry, while the internal organs are compressed and displaced.

The initial phenomena of scoliosis can be detected already in early childhood, but at school age( 10 - 15 years) it is most pronounced.

Treatment depends on the patient's age, type of scoliosis and degree of deformity of the spine.

Children's scoliosis with I and II degrees of curvature of the spine is treated conservatively. An important condition for successful treatment is a high-grade and vitamin-rich diet, regular outdoor activities, outdoor games. The bed should be rigid, for which a wooden shield is placed on the bed. The chair and table in the workplace should correspond to the height. It is necessary to watch, that the child sat at a table directly, and its feet thus reached a floor. The correct installation of light is also important, and in case of visual impairment, correction is necessary. Systematically conduct therapeutic gymnastics and often appoint wearing corsets.

Conservative treatment is also carried out in special boarding schools for children with scoliosis, in which, simultaneously with regular curriculum training, the necessary round-the-clock treatment regimen is created. One of the leading means of conservative treatment of scoliosis is exercise therapy.

Chapter 2. Application of the medical culture for the conservative treatment of

asthma 2.1 Physiotherapy for a combination of

physiotherapy Therapeutic exercise is the most common classical appointment in the complex conservative treatment of scoliosis, in the utility of the appointment of which hardly any orthopedist doubts. Even at the end of the child's growth, after 16-20 years, when the exercise of exercise therapy is more rehabilitative than therapeutic goals( maintenance of muscle and vitality, improvement of blood supply to the back muscles. ..), regular exercise of exercise therapy complexes is necessary.

At the age of children, exercise therapy is the therapeutic effect, the main goals of which are: unloading the spine, eliminating the existing muscle imbalance, the correct development and strengthening of the entire lumbosacral apparatus of the trunk, the formation of the correct neuromuscular reactions in the child( posture).

However, very often the effectiveness of exercise therapy is low. Among the main factors contributing to this, it is possible to list:

- irregular performance by children of exercise therapy complexes;

- the complexity of individual selection of the load for classes in groups;

- lack of pedagogical skills in some methodologists.

In view of this, independent home classes are held from time to time and it is not always possible for parents to track the correctness and completeness of their implementation. Classes in the group are usually built on the basis of the least prepared children( so that they can do everything), and not always the LFK methodologists actively stimulate children to perform exercises with the desired amplitude, the duration of delays in static exercises.

Thus, the child rarely succeeds in obtaining a full, therapeutic load, as a result of which the progression of the disease continues.

What should I do in this situation?

First, you need to have a conversation with the child, explain to him how important his responsible attitude to the performance of exercise physical therapy exercises. How to do it depends on the parents' pedagogical talent and knowledge of their child's psychology. But he must be an active participant in the process of treatment, this is the feature of scoliosis: it depends very much on the patient himself, he can not cope with injections or a massage.

Secondly, parents need to try to find a good sports center with a professional, competent LFK methodologist, who can convince and stimulate children to better results.

Scoliosis, like any disease, can occur in various forms, and treatment( including exercise therapy) should be carried out individually.

Depending on the type and location of the arch of the spine( S-shaped, thoracic, lumbar) and concomitant pathology, the orthopedic physician or the methodologist of the exercise therapy chooses a certain corrective position in which exercise exercises should be performed, which should compensate for curvature and muscle development inthe right direction.

The complex of drugs used for conservative treatment of scoliosis includes:

  • curative gymnastics;
  • position correction;
  • elements of the sport.

LFK combined with the regime of reduced static load on the spine. Exercise is carried out in the form of group sessions, individual procedures, as well as individual tasks performed by the patients themselves.

The technique of exercise therapy is also determined by the degree of scoliosis: in scoliosis of I, III, IV degrees, it is aimed at increasing the stability of the spine, while in scoliosis of the second degree - also on the correction of deformity. Exercises of medical gymnastics should serve to strengthen the basic muscle groups supporting the spine - muscles that straighten the spine, oblique abdominal muscles, square muscles of the waist, ilio-lumbar muscles, etc. Among the exercises that contribute to the development of correct posture, exercises are used to balance, balance,strengthening of visual control, etc.

Prophylaxis of scoliosis provides observance of correct posture. For prolonged sitting, the following rules must be observed:

o sit motionless for no longer than 20 minutes;

o try to get up as often as possible. The minimum duration of such a "break" is 10 seconds

o sitting, as often as possible to change the position of the feet: feet forward, back, put them side by side, then, on the contrary, dilute it.

o try to sit "right": sit on the edge of the chair so that the knees are bent exactly at right angles, ideally straighten the back and, if possible, remove some of the load from the spine, putting straight elbows on the armrests;

o periodically do special compensatory exercises:

6. Hang and pull your knees to your chest. Make the exercise the maximum number of times.

o Take on the floor a rack on your knees and arms outstretched.

o Try to bend your back as much as possible, and then push it down as far as possible.

Morning gymnastics, health training, active rest - a minimum for each person, and it consists of walking, running, gymnastics and swimming.

In addition to exercises of general strengthening, health-improving nature, there are many special ones, for example, to strengthen the abdominal muscles, breasts, and improve posture. ..

When practicing in the treatment pool, it is necessary: ​​

-to choose swimming exercises and style of swimming strictly individually;

- pay attention to the education of proper( uniform) breathing;

- when selecting initial positions and individual corrective exercises, take into account the type of scoliosis, the degree of curvature, changes in the spinal column in the sagittal plane( kyphosis, lordosis), the state of the muscular system and the tolerance of physical exertion, concomitant diseases that are not contraindication to swimming;

- pre-work out the elements of each swimming exercise on land, taking into account coordination disorders;

-exclude exercises that mobilize and rotate the spine, increasing its mobility.

The basic style of swimming in patients is a breasts on the chest with an extended pause of the slide, during which the spine is stretched as much as possible, and the muscles of the trunk are statically strained. In this style, the shoulder belt is parallel to the water surface and perpendicular to the movement, the movements of the arms and legs are symmetrical and occur in the same plane.

Swimming exercises depend on the degree of scoliosis.

For scoliosis of the first degree, only symmetrical swimming exercises are used( breasts on the chest, an extended pause of slip, a crotch on the chest with the work of only the legs, the passage of high-speed areas under the control of functional tests).At a scoliosis II - III degrees asymmetrical initial positions. Swimming in a corrected position after mastering the technique of breasts on the breast should take up to 40--50% of the time of training. This significantly relieves the load from the concave side of the arch of the spine. With scoliosis of the IV degree, the main task is not correction of deformation, but improvement in the general condition of the patient: improvement of the function of the cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary system, metabolic and trophic processes, peripheral circulation. In this regard, the exercises apply symmetrical starting positions, breathing exercises, exercises for large and medium muscle groups and joints. However, for training the cardiovascular system and increasing muscle strength of the muscles( under strict control!), It is necessary to individually introduce the flow of short velocity segments.

For children with scoliosis of II - III degree the initial correction positions are selected strictly individually and depending on the type of scoliosis. For example, in the chest type of scoliosis, to reduce compression from the concave side of the arc, asymmetric initial positions for the shoulder girdle are used: the arm on the concave side of the curvature is taken out when swimming forward( when the standing position is up, up).In the lumbar type and chest-lumbar type of scoliosis for correction of the arc, asymmetric initial positions for the pelvic girdle can be used: when swimming, the leg from the convex side of the lumbar arch is retracted with the fixation of the pelvis on the board. With a combined type of scoliosis with two primary arches( thoracic and lumbar), special attention is paid to the correction of the thoracic arch.

When choosing swimming exercises, the deformation of the spine in the sagittal plane( lordosis or kyphosis) is also taken into account.

These exercises allow you to some extent correct the flaws of the figure, allow you to better own your body.

The following exercises will significantly strengthen the muscles of the back and allow to keep the body in the correct position:

1. I.p.standing, hands behind his head. With force, take your hands to the sides, raising your arms up, bend. Quit for 2-4 seconds and return to the i.p. Repeat 6-10 times. Breathing is arbitrary.

2. Ip.- standing and holding a gymnastic stick behind his back( the upper end is pressed to the head, the lower end to the basin).Sit down, go back to i.p. Lean forward, go back to the i.p.and, finally, lean to the right, then to the left. Each movement is done 8-12 times.

3. Ip.lying on his stomach. Leaning on your hands and, without taking your hips off the floor, bend over. Quit in this position for 3-5 seconds, then return to the i.p.

4.I.- standing a step away from the wall. Touching the walls with the hands, bend backwards, lifting your hands up, and return to the i.p. Repeat 5-8 times. Standing against the wall, press against her nape, shoulder blades, buttocks and heels. Then move away from the wall and try to keep this position of the body as long as possible.

Physical exercises that increase the flexibility of the spine and lead to overstretch are contraindicated.

In addition, it is good to take a bath with sea or oceanic salt for 20 minutes.

Passive self-stretching is necessary: ​​for this, the head end of the bed should be raised by 10-15 centimeters and lying on your back and on your stomach for 40-50 minutes relaxing. You can add the visas on the gymnastic wall with your back to the wall for 1-5 minutes.

The following exercises are useful for different body positions:

When walking:

1. Hands from the shoulders up, from the shoulders downwards - 1 min.

2. Hands up the "lock", on the toes - 1 min.

3. Hands on the waist - lift each knee to the chest - 1 min.

4. Hands to the sides, slightly back, go to the floor squat -1 min.

5. Hands on the waist, elbows as far as possible from the rear, we go in full squat -1 min.

6. Doing attacks. Hands up, crouch down on each knee - 20 times.

Lie down on the back.

1. Hands behind the head, the body lies flat. We bend and unbend our feet forward-back, circular rotation - 1 min.

2. Hands behind the head. We take the opposite elbow knee - 10 times.

3. Pull your hands up. Take the right( left) hand straight left( right) leg, lower - 1 min.

4. The starting position is the same. We make claps with our hands under each foot in turn, while lifting our head - 10 times.

5. "Scissors" with hands and feet - 1 min.

6. Breast breathing - 1 min.

7. Hands on the belt - "bicycle" - 1 min.

8. Hands behind the head, pull your knees to your chest, straighten your legs up, slowly lower your straight legs - 20 times.

9. Hands to pull behind the head, each knee, clasping hands, tighten to the chest alternately - 10 times.

10. Abdominal breathing - 1 minute.

11. Hands to the sides, straight legs to lift up, lower right( left), 5 times.

12. Hands are on the floor straight, legs together. Stretch: hands and head stretch upward, and legs and pelvis - down.- 1 min.

13. We try to squeeze the shoulders to the floor for 30 seconds.

Lying on the stomach.

1. Hands are extended forward. Pull the body into the "strings"( pull the socks and hands in different directions) - 1 min.

2. Hands at point-blank range, lean on the palm of your hand and take turns straight up - 10 times.

3. Hands above the head in the lock, raise the shoulder belt and keep from 2 seconds.up to 10 seconds - 6 times.

4. Raise the head and arms up, with straight hands do "scissors", without touching the floor - 1 min.

5. "Boat" - hands in the lock are extended forward, legs together straight. Raise arms, legs, head and hold 1 min.- 5-10 times.

6. "Korzinochka": we take the arms of the leg behind the ankles and climb up on the abdomen, keep from 2 to 10 sec.- 10 times.

7. Abdominal breathing.

1. Standing on your knees, hands along the trunk. We decline back "like a plank" - 10-12 times.

2. Ip.the same, hands on the belt. Straighten one leg back 10-12 times.

3. Ip.also. We sit on the floor to the left and right of the foot, the back is straight.

4.I.the same, the knees together feet are widely divorced in the sides. Sit down between your feet and get up. The back is straight.10-12 times

On all fours.

1. Raise the right( left) straight leg and the left( right) straight arm, hold for 2-6 seconds.- 10 times.

2. To get the knee to the forehead, to throw back the head and leg upwards - 10 times.

3. "Pussycat" - back up and down - 1 min.

4. "In Turkish" - stretch your arms forward to the floor, head between hands, back to bend to the floor - 12 times.

5. Restore breathing.

Rest for 3-5 minutes: lying on the back, eyes closed, hands along the trunk, palms to the top, legs to the width of the shoulders. Breath is calm.

After LFK take a warm shower.

All exercises need to be done at an average pace and more to reverse the shoulders back.

With scoliosis, you can not sit for a long time, do sharp movements, lift and carry more than 3 kg, you need to play sports only with a qualified doctor, only on the recommendation of a doctor should take a multivitamin with calcium to strengthen bone tissue.

physiotherapy exercises patient scoliosis

Conclusion

One of the main ways of conservative treatment of scoliosis is exercise therapy. The most effective use in childhood, when it has not only a rehabilitative, but also a therapeutic effect on the patient's body. The main goals of exercise therapy: to relieve the load from the spine, to eliminate muscle imbalance, to promote the proper development and strengthening of the musculoskeletal apparatus of the trunk, to form the correct posture in the child.

Therapeutic physical training in scoliosis includes curative gymnastics - a certain set of exercises, which is selected depending on the type of curvature of the spine, as well as massage, water exercises, position correction and obschesportnye elements.

The therapeutic effect of gymnastics is achieved through exercises that:

- strengthen the muscular groups supporting the spine;

- have a corrective effect on deformation( correct it);

- improve posture;

- exercise the function of external respiration;

- have a general strengthening effect.

For correction of scoliosis, the patient performs exercises that change the position of his shoulder and pelvic girdle in space, as well as the trunk as a whole. Improvement of posture is most influenced by balance training, balancing.

Appoints physiotherapy physician, a specialist in exercise therapy determines the methodology of classes. Classes are conducted by the instructor, in particularly difficult cases( in the case of an unfavorable course of the disease) - a physician at the exercise therapy. Independently start classes and develop a set of exercises for themselves and do not follow them, as some movements are contraindicated in the curvature of the spine, for example: jumping, lifting weights;very carefully, you should apply exercises for stretching the spine.

Contraindicated actions that increase the flexibility of the spine and lead to overstretch. With great care apply corrective exercises, stretching the spine, for example, at the gymnastic wall. With "self-treatment", improper selection of exercises, the progression of the disease is possible, as well as complications - herniated intervertebral discs as a result of excessive loads, displacement of internal organs, back pain.

For greater efficiency of the chosen path of treatment, it is worth remembering only two things: in all respect a reasonable measure and do not forget to consult a doctor.

List literature

1. Large medical encyclopedia volume 23 pages 386-389

2. Journal of Health N 6 1986

3. Journal of Health N 8 1986

4. Journal of Power and BeautyN 8 of 1995

5. Napalkov P.N.Smirnov A.V.Shrayber MG, Surgical Diseases, Medicine 1969, p. 256,257

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Therapeutic physical exercise of exercise therapy in scoliosis

LFK in scoliosis

Download presentation " LFK in scoliosis " in ppt format

This article of the School portal will tell about exercise therapy , which is recommended for prevention and treatment of such a common disease as scoliosis. Here we will justify the main idea of ​​the abstract and presentation, which you can download from the link above.

One of the most difficult consequences of the human musculoskeletal system is caused by scoliotic disorders of the spine. Sometimes scoliosis is called the biological tragedy of mankind. Unfortunately, such a pathology, according to statistical data of European scientists, is found in almost 98% of children in the CIS countries.

LFK in scoliosis - the urgency of the work

Scoliosis leads to a violation not only of the musculoskeletal functions of the human body, but also depresses the proper functioning of the internal organs, nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems as a result of pathological curvature of the spine.

The manifestation of scoliosis and its development is a multifactorial process, the result of the interaction of various influences that disrupt the vertical position of the spine. And the ability to qualitatively correct the course of scoliosis is the main problem of conservative treatment, primarily with the remedial gymnastics during the growth and formation of the skeleton of the child's body.

To date, in the complex of measures for the treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of scoliosis, traditional methods of therapeutic physical training prevail, such as:

gymnastic corrective and therapeutic exercises; elements of swimming techniques and physical exercises in water; position correction and the use of fixing orthopedic corsets; massage physiotherapy procedures.

LFK in scoliosis - features and benefits

Conservative treatment of scoliosis at the present time with the help of anti-cosmetic gymnastics and corsetotherapy is quite effective. This complex treatment of this disease is summarized from three interrelated stages:

1) mobilization of the curved part of the spine;

2) careful correction of deformation;

3) stabilization of the entire spine in the corresponding position of the correction achieved.

In general, physical exercises contribute to a stable effect on the spine, significantly strengthening the muscles of the trunk, provide an opportunity to improve posture, corrective action on the deformation of the spine, stabilize the functions of external respiration, and also have a general strengthening effect. And LFK has indications at all stages of scoliosis development.

It should be noted that therapeutic exercise is necessarily in this case combined with a significantly reduced load on the spine. LFK in scoliosis can be conducted, both in group forms of work, and in the form of individual procedures, and also as tasks that are performed by the patient independently. In any case, the procedure for exercise therapy in the scoliosis of depends on its degree.

LFK in scoliosis - the content of the work

In the abstract work and presentation of "LFK in scoliosis," the concepts related to the disease itself - scoliosis - are discussed in detail. This is the definition of the disease, the classification of its species by origin, the localization of curvature, the clinical picture, the consequences of scoliosis, the methods of its detection and diagnosis.

A large section of the work is devoted directly to the therapeutic exercise exercise therapy in the scoliosis of : forms, tasks, techniques, treatment( introductory, main, final stages), a set of exercises for independent studies, physical pauses during the working day and more.

You can view the presentation about exercise therapy for scoliosis below ↓

nashashcola.ru

abstract on the topic "Therapeutic physical culture in scoliosis"

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Scoliosis and exercise therapy

Determination of the causes and description of scoliosis as a disease of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by curvature of the spine. Study of indications and contraindications to physical education. General analysis of complexes of therapeutic gymnastics.

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The Ministry of Higher Education of the Republic of Belarus

The Belarusian National Technical University

on the theme: "Scoliosis and exercise therapy"

Completed student:

1. Brief description of the disease of scoliosis

2. Causes of

4. Indications and contraindications tophysical education

5. Complexes of medical gymnastics

List of used literature

Introduction

This abstract is devoted to one of the diseases of the back that occurs most often in the doctorNoah practice any doctor surgeon - a scoliosis.

Scoliosis is one of the most urgent problems of modern orthopedics.

Correct posture makes us not only more attractive, but also contributes to the normal functioning of all organs and systems of the body, is the prevention of scoliosis. But in our life we ​​often have to lead an immobile lifestyle, get nervous, worry, and often violate the diet. This process begins, imperceptibly, from individual joints or segments of the spine. Very often it is accompanied by the appearance of various deformations, displacement or violation of the functions of internal organs.

1. Short description of scoliosis

Scoliosis( scoliosis, Greek skoliosis curvature) is a disease of the musculoskeletal system characterized by the curvature of the spine in the frontal( lateral) plane with the rotation of the vertebrae around its axis, leading to disruption of the function of the thorax, as well as to cosmetic defects or, more simply, lateral curvature of the spine.

Scoliosis can be simple, or partial, with one side arc of curvature, and complex - with several arcs of curvature in different directions and, finally, total if the curvature captures the entire spine. It can be fixed and unfixed, disappearing in a horizontal position, for example, by shortening one limb. Simultaneously with scoliosis, there is usually a turn around the vertical axis. The rotation promotes deformation of the chest and its asymmetry, while the internal organs are compressed and displaced.

curvature of the spine scoliosis medical gymnastics

2. The causes of scoliosis

There are scoliases congenital, based on various deformations of the vertebrae:

- underdevelopment;

- additional vertebrae, etc.

Acquired scoliosis includes:

1. Rheumatic, usually arising suddenly and caused by muscle contracture on the healthy side in the presence of the phenomena of myositis or spondyloarthritis;

2. Rickets that are very early manifested by various deformations of the musculoskeletal system. Softness of the bones and weakness of the muscles, wearing the baby on the hands( mainly on the left), prolonged sitting, especially in school, all this favors the manifestation and progression of scoliosis;

3. Paralytic, more frequent after childhood paralysis, with unilateral muscle damage, but can also be observed in other nerve diseases;

4. Habitual, on the basis of habitual bad posture( they are often called "school", because at this age they get the greatest expression).The immediate cause of them may be improperly arranged desks, seating of schoolchildren without taking into account their growth and numbers of desks, wearing portfolios from the first classes, holding the child while walking for one hand, etc.

3. Prevention measures

Treatment depends on the patient's age, type of scoliosis and degree of deformation of the spine.

Children's scoliosis with I and II degrees of curvature of the spine is treated conservatively. An important condition for successful treatment is a high-grade and vitamin-rich diet, regular outdoor activities, outdoor games. The bed should be rigid, for which a wooden shield is placed on the bed. The chair and table in the workplace should correspond to the height. It is necessary to watch, that the child sat at a table directly, and its feet thus reached a floor. The correct installation of light is also important, and in case of visual impairment, correction is necessary. Systematically conduct therapeutic gymnastics and often appoint wearing corsets.

Conservative treatment is also conducted in special boarding schools for children with scoliosis, in which simultaneous training with the usual program, the necessary round-the-clock treatment regimen is created. One of the leading means of conservative treatment of scoliosis is exercise therapy. Physical exercises have a stabilizing effect on the spine, strengthening the muscles of the trunk, allow you to achieve a corrective effect on deformity, improve posture, function of external respiration, provide a general strengthening effect. LFK is shown at all stages of scoliosis development, but it yields more successful results with the initial forms of scoliosis.

Morning gymnastics, health training, active rest - the minimum necessary for every person and it consists of walking, running, gymnastics and swimming. And this is a normal and typical( healthy) way of life.

4. Indications and contra-indications for physical activity

Physical exercises that increase the flexibility of the spine and lead to its stretching are counter-indicative.

Therapeutic physical training is shown as the leading means of conservative treatment of scoliosis. Physical exercises have a stabilizing effect on the spine, strengthening the muscles of the trunk, allow you to achieve a corrective effect on deformity, improve posture, function of external respiration, provide a general strengthening effect. LFK is shown at all stages of scoliosis development, but it yields more successful results with initial forms. Correction of scoliosis when performing physical exercises is achieved by changing the position of the shoulder, pelvic girdle and trunk of the patient.

Morning gymnastics, health training, active rest - the minimum necessary for each person and it consists of walking, running, gymnastics and swimming. In addition to exercises of general strengthening, health-improving nature, there are many special ones, for example, to strengthen the abdominal muscles, breasts, improve posture, etc. These exercises allow you to some extent correct the flaws of the figure, allow you to better own your body.

The complex of drugs used for conservative treatment of scoliosis includes:

- curative gymnastics;

- elements of the sport.

If painful sensations occur during the exercise, you should stop doing it.

The main tasks of exercise therapy: health improvement of the patient;creation of a balanced "muscular" corset of the trunk;improvement of the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

Particular tasks of exercise therapy are determined in accordance with the degree, form of scoliosis, the nature of its course.

Complexes of exercises LFK.

1. The pace of the exercise is slow

2. The number of repetitions of each exercise is 4-8-15 times.

3. To achieve correctness and precision of execution.

4. The amplitude of movements should be selected depending on the degree of scoliosis.

Complex 1:

1. Discharge of the spine. A classic exercise is walking on all fours. The duration of the exercise is 2-3 minutes.

We lay down on the litter on the back. Exercises on the back are designed primarily to strengthen the abdominal muscles.

2. "Extension" of the spine. Lie down on his back, his heels stretch "back", the top - "forward."We perform 3-4 "stretching" for 10-15 seconds.

3. Bicycle. Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, legs make movements that imitate riding a bike. It is important: most of the amplitude of the movements of the legs should be "below" the body, you do not need to chatter your legs over the stomach, you need the straightened leg alternately to pass close to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

4. Scissors. Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, perform cross horizontal and vertical legs with legs. It is important: horizontal wigs should be produced closer to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

Now turn on your stomach. Exercises on the abdomen are designed primarily to strengthen the various muscles of the back.

5. Stretching. It is similar to exercise 2, only on the abdomen.

6. Swimming. The starting position is lying on the abdomen, legs are straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. We bend in the lower back( head, upper part of the trunk, arms and legs are raised, the point of support is the stomach).Keeping this position, we carry out movements that simulate swimming with a breaststroke: hands forward, legs spread apart;hands to the sides, legs to connect;hands to the shoulders, legs still together. We perform 2-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions with short-term rest between sets( 5-10 seconds).

7. Scissors. Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, head resting on the back of the palms. We raise our legs and perform cross horizontal and vertical swings with our feet. Important: when performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. The execution rate is medium. We perform 2-3 approaches for 30-40 seconds.

8. Hold. Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, head resting on the back of the palms. Raise the legs and upper body, caving in the lower back( head, upper body, arms and legs raised, the point of support - the stomach).Feet together, hands in hand, palms turned up. Statically freezes in this position for 10-15 seconds. Important: it is advisable not to hold your breath, while performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. We perform 3-4 repetitions with a short rest between repetitions( 5-10 seconds).

The starting position is standing.

9. Rotation by hand. Exercise for the scapula retainers. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), elbows to the side, fingers to the shoulders. Perform the rotation of the hands back( clockwise).Important: this exercise does not need a large amplitude of motion, on the contrary, the elbows must make a small circle when rotating. The execution rate is slow. We perform 2-3 approaches for 20-30 seconds with a short rest between the approaches.

10. Squats. Exercise for posture. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), hands to the side, palms turned up. In this position, keeping a beautiful posture, we hang on the toes, then squat, again on the toes and in the starting position. We perform 5-10 such sit-ups with short-term rest. The pace of the exercise is slow.

Complex 2: exercise therapy for scoliosis of the 2nd degree.

When walking.

1. Hands raise from the shoulders up, from the shoulders down. Duration - 1 min.

2. Hands raise the "lock", climb the socks. Duration - 1 min.

3. Hands on the belt - raise your knees in turn to your chest. Duration - 1 min.

4. Hands are bred to the side, slightly back, go to the floor squat for 1 minute.

5. Hands on the waist, elbows as far as possible from the rear, we go in full squat 1 min.

6. Doing attacks. Hands up, crouch down on each knee - 20 times.

Lying on the back.

7. Hands behind the head. We take the opposite elbow knee - 10 times.

8. Pull your hands up. Get the right( left) hand straight left( right) leg, lower it. Duration 1 min.

9. The starting position is the same. We make claps with our hands under each foot in turn, while lifting our head - 10 times.

10. Hands behind the head, pull your knees to your chest, straighten your legs up, slowly lower your straight legs - 20 times.

Complex 3:

1. Raising the right / left leg.

2. Raising both legs, straight, with a hold on the vein.

Lying on the stomach.

3. The left hand to lift and hold, and the right hand to pull back and up.

4. Same, but with raising each leg alternately, hold hands and leg, right arm to the leg.

5. Hands under the chin, legs bent at the knees, lifting of the bent legs up.

6. Raising straight legs together upwards, keep on counting from 4 to 10.

Standing on all fours.

7. Right / left leg straighten and raise, bent.

8. Left arm forward.right leg - back, hold. Change position.

9. Push-pushing from the stop on the knees.

10. Sit on your heels, lower your head and shoulders. Slip your hands forward on the floor on exhalation. Stand on all fours - inhale.

After each complex, it is necessary to do an exercise to restore breathing: stretch on the socks( hands up) - inhale, descend( back bend, hands lower) - exhalation.

Exercises to strengthen the back muscles:

1) The starting position is standing, hands behind the head. With force, take your hands to the sides, raise your hands up, bend. Quit for 2-4 seconds and return to the i.p. Repeat 6-10 times. Breathing is arbitrary.

2) The starting position is standing and holding a gymnastic stick behind your back( the upper end is pressed to the head, the lower end to the basin).Sit down, go back to the starting position. Lean forward, return to the starting position. And, finally, lean to the right, then to the left. Each movement is done 8-12 times.

3) The starting position - lying on the stomach. Leaning on your hands and, without taking your hips off the floor, bend over. Stop in this position for 3-5 seconds, then return to the starting position.

4) The starting position - standing a step from the wall. Touching the walls of the wall, bend back, raising your hands up, and return to the starting position.

Repeat 5-8 times. Standing against the wall, press against her neck, shoulder blades, buttocks and heels. Then move away from the wall and try to keep this position of the body as long as possible. If you work sitting periodically "squeeze" your back and waist in the back of the chair, and if there is a high headrest with a head rest against it with your head.

Conclusion

So, summing up my work, I would like to note once again that scoliosis is a complicated disease, but curable.

In the treatment of scoliosis, we ensure the normal functioning of those organs that have been damaged in the deformation of the chest, thus preventing many diseases. If, however, scoliosis is not treated, then it progresses, passing into more severe forms, in which many organs, the locomotor system as a whole are damaged, and most importantly, the main method of treatment is surgical.

Treatment depends on the patient's age, type of scoliosis and degree of deformity of the spine. But the main thing is from the very desire of the patient to heal and correct his way of life from negative to healthy.

List of used literature

1. I. Kotesheva "Healthy technique in scoliosis."

2. Napalkov PNSmirnov A.V.Shrayber MG, Surgical Diseases, Medicine 1969

3. The Great Medical Encyclopedia Volume 23

4. Pictures from the Internet

otherreferats.allbest.ru

Therapeutic physical training in scoliosis, the Bank of Abstracts

The history of the treatment of scoliosis dates back to the origins of medicine. The first attempts to correct the twisted spine were undertaken by Hippocrates( 460-377 BC), which gave the disease the name "scoliosis," that is, "curve."

He created a special device, called the bench of Hippocrates, for stretching the spine and simultaneously pressing it. This device has long remained the only way to treat scoliosis. Four hundred years later, at the turn of our era, Cornelius Celsus began to apply for this purpose curative gymnastics and hydrotherapy.

And his follower Galen described the case when breathing exercises helped to cure a child whose chest was deformed. In the Renaissance, the French doctor Paré proposed a metal corset to fix the spine.

LFK in Ancient Greece and in Ancient Rome

Ancient Greek philosopher Platon ( circa 428-347 BC) called the movement "the healing part of medicine", and the writer and historian Plutarch ( 127 g) - pantrylife ".In Ancient Greece, the first information about medical gymnastics is attributed to the 5th century BC and connects them with a doctor named Herodik. About this wonderful physician, we can learn from the historical and philosophical treatises of Plato. He writes: "Gerodik was a teacher of gymnastics: when he fell ill, he applied gymnastic techniques for treatment;in the beginning, he tortured this mainly himself, and then later the rest of humanity. "Herodica is considered the founder of therapeutic gymnastics, for the first time patients began to seek help not in the temples, but in the gymnasium - in institutions where they taught gymnastics. Gerodik himself, according to Plato, suffered some incurable disease( probably tuberculosis), however, while practicing gymnastics, he lived almost up to a hundred years, teaching his patients therapeutic gymnastics. Later Hippocrates, disciple of Gerodik , who rightly is called the father of medicine.(460-377 BC) brought to the Greek gymnastics certain hygienic knowledge and understanding of the "therapeutic dose" of physical exercises for a sick person. Hippocrates considered exercise to be one of the most important means of medicine. And caring about the preservation of people's health, he recommended doing what is today called physical education. "Gymnastics, physical exercises, walking should firmly enter the everyday life of everyone who wants to keep working, health, a full and joyful life," he said. Claudius Galen( 129-201 AD) is a follower and admirer of Hippocrates, anatomist, physiologist and philosopher, the first known sports doctor who, at the beginning of his medical career, healed gladiators in ancient Rome. He created the foundations of medical gymnastics - gymnastics for restoring health and harmonious development of man. Proceedings Galena were the only authoritative source of medical knowledge right up to the Renaissance. Throughout his life Galen preached the "health law" known even under Herodick's "breathe fresh air, eat the proper foods, drink the right beverages, exercise, have a healthy sleep, daily bowel movements and control emotions"

Structure and function of the spine

The vertebral column - the dorsal rigid axis of the human body and many animals, composed of a series of individual short joints of bones called vertebrae, almost along the entire length of it is the canal containing the spinal cord. Above it joins with the bones of the skull, from below with the bones of the pelvis. It is divided into a person on the neck( 7 vertebrae), thoracic( 12), lumbar( 5), sacral( 5 fused vertebrae) and caudal( 5 undeveloped vertebrae).The spine is the backbone of the skeleton and performs two very important functions in the human body. The first function is musculoskeletal. The second is protective. The spinal column protects the spinal cord from mechanical damage. To him fit numerous nerve endings, which are responsible for the work of all organs in the human body. Figuratively speaking, each vertebra is responsible for the work of a particular organ. If the functions of the spine are violated, it is difficult to carry out a nerve impulse to tissues and cells in different parts of the body. Over time, it is in these areas of the body will develop various diseases. Most often there are curvatures: 1) scoliosis( lateral), rachitic( in children from 3-4 years old, 2) kyphosis( behind), habitual in rickety children, anemic girls due to hunchback posture when reading, in old age;3) lordosis( in front), occurs less frequently, with dislocations of the hips.

Therapeutic physical training with scoliosis

Therapeutic physical culture( LFK) is a method of treatment consisting in the application of physical exercises and natural factors of nature to a sick person with therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. The basis of this method is the use of the basic biological function of the organism - movement. The term therapeutic physical culture( or exercise therapy) denotes a variety of concepts. This is the breathing exercises after a serious operation, and training to walk after injury, and the development of movements in the joint after the removal of the cast. This is the name of the cabinet in the polyclinic, and the department at the Institute of Physical Education, and the department at the Medical Institute. The term "curative exercise" is used in a variety of ways, denoting both the method of treatment, and the medical or pedagogical specialization, and the division of medicine or physical education, and the structure of health.

Valentin Ivanovich Dikul made a great contribution to modern therapeutic exercise. One of Dikul's main achievements was his own rehabilitation technique, protected by copyright certificates and patents. In 1988, the Russian Center for the Rehabilitation of Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries and Consequences of Children's Cerebral Palsy was opened - the center of Dikul. In the following years, another three centers of VI Dikul were opened in Moscow alone. Then, under the guidance of Valentin Ivanovich, a number of rehabilitation clinics appeared throughout Russia, in Israel, Germany, Poland, America, etc.

Soviet scientists N. Semashko, V. V. Gorinevsky, Valentin made a great contribution to the creation of therapeutic physical cultureNikolaevich Moshkov, VV Gorinevskaya, Dreving, AF Kaptelin, VI Dikul and many others.

Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine. Occurs in childhood and adolescence. The causes of scoliosis: trauma, congenital changes, paralysis, dysplasia, etc. There are scoliosis by their location: cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbar, lumbosacral and total, covering the entire spine. The curvature can have one arc( C-shaped scoliosis), two arcs( S-shaped) and more( several vertices).Scoliosis is necessarily accompanied by turning the body of the vertebrae into the convex side, which leads to the appearance of a muscle cushion in the lumbar region and a rib humerus in the thoracic region. LFK and massage are obligatory elements in complex conservative and operative treatment.

Clinical and physiological grounds for the use of exercise therapy and massage is their ability to favorably affect the function of the musculoskeletal system, helping to reduce or stabilize the processes of deformation of the spine. Forms LFK: therapeutic gymnastics, gymnastics in the water. Gymnastic exercises are used in the IP lying, standing s on all fours. Train the muscles of the back, gluteal region, abdomen. To correct the defect, use special corrective exercises of two types - symmetrical and asymmetric. With symmetrical exercises, the middle position of the spine remains. The muscles on the convex side are strained more intensively, on the concave one they stretch. Asymmetric exercises are selected for a special effect on the curvature of the spine. Symmetrical exercises are used more often. The procedure also includes breathing exercises of a static and dynamic nature, exercises to develop a correct posture in a standing position, general restorative exercises. To increase the mobility of the spine use exercises on all fours, mixed vises, exercises on the inclined plane.

Classes in the pool include exercises at the side of the pool, swimming with inflatable shells, a raft: and free swimming.

There are three degrees of curvature of the spine .

In case of scoliosis of I degree, , symmetrical, restorative special exercises are used to strengthen the muscles of the back, abdominal, thoracic, corrective, exercises in combination with respiratory, exercises to develop coordination, and develop correct posture. They use walking, exercises in the IP lying on their back, abdomen, standing, including exercises with the ball, medical. With a weak muscular corset, the exercises are conducted only in a prone position.

With scoliosis of II degree, dynamic breathing exercises are added during walking, including asymmetric exercises, exercises with weights of dumbbells, maces;exercises for balance. IP - standing, lying on the back, stomach, side. More time is spent on corrective exercises( anti-flexion, detour exercises).The latter with torsion.

With grade III scoliosis, 65-70% of the time is spent in the position of unloading the spine( lying down).In addition to general restorative and breathing exercises, special corrective, detorcing exercises are used. If within two years the scoliosis does not progress, sports are recommended: swimming with brass style, volleyball, basketball, skis.

Scoliosis massage

Massage is used for scoliosis of all degrees with conservative and operative treatment. Massaging the back, abdomen, chest.

For scoliosis of the 1st degree, stroking, rubbing, kneading and vibration are used. At II and III degree - on the weakened muscles all above-stated receptions, and on muscles with the raised tonus - stroking and vibration.

The rib hump is influenced by all methods, and especially by vibration, tapping fingers, not allowing strong impacts, use pressure, trying to smooth the deformation mechanically.

The back is massaged in the supine position, a small pillow is placed under the belly, under the ankle joints - a low cushion, hands are placed along the trunk or they are bent before the chest. The head is straight or turned to the side opposite to the scoliosis.

When a massage of the abdomen and chest in front of the patient lies on his back, under the knee joints put a low roller, under the head - a small pillow, hands are located along the trunk.

In the position on the side( opposite side of the thoracic scoliosis) one hand is placed under the head, with the other hand the patient rests against the chest.

With a double curvature of the spine in different parts of the spine, the spine is divided into four divisions: two thoracic and two lumbar sprains, each of which is selectively used in various ways, taking into account the state of muscle tone. Massage at the beginning of the procedure is not selective, using techniques of superficial and deep stroking. Then a differentiated effect is carried out on the above sections, beginning with the thoracic. The masseur must be on the side of the massaged area. After the operation, massage is prescribed on time, depending on the severity and complexity of the operation. First, use a slight stroking, rubbing, vibration, without touching the scar. After 30 days, kneading and fretting are added in the area of ​​the costal projection, then massage the abdomen and legs. Duration of the procedure is 20-30 minutes. On the course - 20-25 procedures daily or every other day. The break between the courses is not less than 14 days. The treatment courses are repeated several times a year. According to medical statistics, scoliotic deformities are noted in 5-10% of children and adolescents. The overwhelming majority of cases of scoliosis development occur during puberty, i.e.for 10 - 14 years. Scoliosis, diagnosed at the age from the onset of puberty( 10 years) until the end of the vertical line. Ears, shoulder pads and shoulder blades are on the same level. The gaps between the lower arm and the thigh are the same on the left and right. The left and right crests of the iliac bones are also on the same level. If the symmetry is broken, you need to see a doctor. If in the prone position on the abdomen the curvature of the spine disappears, perhaps it is not scoliosis, but a violation of posture. But in this case it is better to visit a doctor, he can recommend so-called.a posture corrector that will help correct abnormalities not related to scoliosis. For bone growth( 18-20 years), is called juvenile scoliosis. This disease affects girls more often( up to 85%).Juvenile scoliosis is idiopathic, with the passage of time it progresses.

Diagnosis of scoliosis in adolescents has certain difficulties. Usually scoliosis in the initial stage of development does not create pain and does not cause any inconvenience. Therefore, it can be noticed only when there is already an obvious cosmetic defect. On the other hand, children at this age are shy and very worried about the flaws of their figure, so even if the child noticed that everything is not ok with his spine, he often hides it from friends, the school doctor and parents.

If you suspect a scoliosis, you should immediately seek medical attention from the orthopedist , who will make an accurate diagnosis on the basis of the examination and X-rays. Symptoms of scoliosis can be detected in the home. A healthy person, standing in a free pose, with his hands lowered along the trunk, the left and right parts of the trunk should be symmetrical. Cervical vertebrae, spine and coccyx are on the same conservative treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, doctors usually prescribe a complex of therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy( electrostimulation of muscles with high-frequency current), and differential massage. The complex of physical exercises should be made together with the doctor, tk.the choice of asymmetrical exercises depends on the individual patient. If you are offered to undergo a course of manual therapy, I advise you to refuse: manual therapy does not treat scoliosis( and this is not only my opinion).

For curvature angles of 20-40 degrees, a corset may be prescribed. In the world practice, corset therapy is considered to be the best means of conservative treatment of scoliosis. Wearing a corset requires an adolescent to make an extraordinary effort. And the point here is not only that he can restrain movements and cause other inconveniences in everyday life. Girls in adolescence are very shy of such unattractive things as medical corsets. Fortunately, the current fashion allows you to wear any, the most extensive clothing that will conceal all the unwanted details.

If therapy fails, the angle of curvature is more than 40 degrees and continues to increase, then the patient is prescribed surgical treatment. This, of course, is a complex and dangerous operation, and it is difficult for most people to decide on it. During this operation, special endocorrectors, metal rods and plates are installed on the spine, which fix the spine and prevent its further deformation. At the same time, several adjacent vertebrae are attached to each other, which slightly reduces the natural flexibility of the spine. Many people think that it is impossible to do the operation before the end of the growth of the skeleton. The metal implant will prevent the elongation of the spine with its growth and will only lead to even more severe deformation. In fact, this is not so. Now there are dynamic endocorrectors that do not prevent the growth of the spine and can be established for children and adolescents. In some clinics, children are operated from the age of 7 years.

In the treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, there is another important aspect that parents should pay attention to. The formation of the personality of a teenager is adversely affected by numerous psychopathogenic factors: restriction of motor activity, constant feelings about the defects of his figure, frequent stay in the hospital and sanatoriums, fear of the threat of surgery, painful reactions from peers and parents, education by the type of hyperope. As a result, adolescents develop closedness, decreased self-esteem, emotional and social infantilism, egocentrism. There is a possibility of mental disadaptation disorders and nervous breakdowns. Such adolescents require special attention from their parents, sometimes they even need the help of a psychologist or psychotherapist.

Consequences of scoliosis

Close attention to scoliosis is explained by the fact that severe forms of the disease cause significant disturbances in the most important body systems, leading to a decrease in life expectancy and disability. The literature data clearly outlines and thoroughly studies changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems in severe forms of scoliosis. The data on the presence of disturbances in the function of external respiration, heart rhythm and metabolic processes in the myocardium of insufficient adaptation of the cardiovascular system to physical exertion, a decrease in a number of indicators of physical development, a later onset of puberty in schoolchildren aged 7-16 years, patients with scoliosis I and IIdegree. Unfortunately, there is practically no data on changes in vital systems in cases of postural disorders and in the initial degrees of scoliosis in preschool children and younger schoolchildren.

Exercises

1. Discharge of the spine .All exercises LFK traditionally begin with exercises to unload the spine. A classic exercise is walking on all fours. The duration of the exercise is 2-3 minutes.

We lie on the litter on the back. Exercises on the back are designed mainly to strengthen the muscles of the abdominal press.

2. "Extension" of the spine .Lie down on his back, his heels stretch "down", the top of the head - "up".We perform 3-4 "stretching" for 10-15 seconds.

3. Bicycle .Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, legs make movements that imitate riding a bike. It is important: most of the amplitude of the movements of the legs should be "below" the body, you do not need to chatter your legs over the stomach, you need the straightened leg alternately to pass close to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

4. Scissors .Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, perform cross horizontal and vertical legs with legs. Important: gorontolnye flies desirable to produce closer to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

Now turn on your stomach. Exercises on the abdomen are designed primarily to strengthen various muscles of the back.

5. "Extension" Performed in the same way as Exercise 2, only on the abdomen.

6. Swimming The starting position is lying on the abdomen, the legs are straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. We bend in the lower back( head, upper part of the trunk, arms and legs are raised, the point of support is the stomach).Keeping this position, we carry out movements that simulate swimming with a breaststroke:

- hands forward, legs spread apart

- hands to the sides, legs to connect

- arms to the shoulders, the legs are still together

, etc.

Perform 2-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions with a short rest between sets( 5-10 seconds)

7. Scissors .Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, head resting on the back of the palms. We raise our legs and perform cross horizontal and vertical swings with our feet. Important: when performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. The execution rate is medium. We perform 2-3 approaches for 30-40 seconds.

8. Hold. Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. Raise the legs and upper body, caving in the lower back( head, upper body, arms and legs raised, the point of support - the stomach).Feet together, hands in hand, palms turned up. Statically freezes in this position for 10-15 seconds. Important: it is advisable not to hold your breath, while performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. We perform 3-4 repetitions with a short rest between repetitions( 5-10 seconds).

Now get up.

9. Rotation with hands. Exercise for blade retainers. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), elbows to the side, fingers to the shoulders. Perform the rotation of the hands back( clockwise).Important: in this exercise, you do not need a large amplitude of movement, on the contrary, the elbows must make a small circle when rotating. The execution rate is slow. We perform 2-3 approaches for 20-30 seconds with a short rest between the approaches.

10. Squats. Exercise for posture. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), hands to the side, palms turned up. In this position, maintaining a beautiful posture, we stand on the toes, then squat, again on the toes and in the starting position. We perform 5-10 such sit-ups with short-term rest. The pace of the exercise is slow

Probability of scoliosis disease

Unfortunately, doctors can not determine with a high degree of probability which of us will get scoliosis. For example, in the USA, at the time of adolescence, 2% of children become ill. This means that it develops in 20 of every thousand adolescents, and in 15 of these 20 the degree of curvature of the spine is -20 degrees or less;only in some of them does the disease progress. In the remaining 5 of every thousand adolescents, the curvature is more than 20 ° and only 1 in 2 progresses later, which will require treatment.

Congenital scoliosis

Some patients ask: "Is it possible that they are born with scoliosis?" We answer: "Yes, it happens, but congenital scoliosis is much less common than various forms of idiopathic scoliosis."In the early stages of embryonic development, the vertebra may be curved, which gradually begins to progress. As a child, this can go unnoticed, congenital scoliosis is sometimes found only after many years. In persons with congenital scoliosis, other birth defects are possible, for example, kidney or bladder function may be impaired, approximately 20% of these patients experience hearing loss, and some may have cardiovascular diseases.

Scoliosis in adulthood

In the US, 2 to 4 million people of adult age suffer from scoliosis. In most cases, the curvature of the spine is less than 30 degrees;the disease does not progress and does not require treatment. Scoliosis in such cases begins to develop in adolescence( with the exception of observations of degenerative scoliosis).Degenerative scoliosis develops in the elderly, usually after 50 years, and can be due to various causes: worn discs, osteoporosis has developed a disease in which the bones become brittle and brittle. The longer a person lives, the higher the probability of a degenerative scoliosis.

Is the physical load useful in the scoliosis of

Doctors - experts in the field of diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis - still believe that only a set of specially selected physical exercises can never cure scoliosis. They constantly talk about this to teenagers and their parents, medical students and stare doctors. Physical exercises only support and strengthen the general tone of the body. Their fulfillment gives the patient and his family members a feeling of comfort and satisfaction that something is being done for treatment. Scoliosis is primarily programmed genetically, and the curvature can only be slightly corrected at certain moments of the patient's life by rigid fixation, surgery, or using a combination of several treatments. Sometimes it can be seen how the severity of scoliosis curvature changes several times over the period until the skeleton is fully developed, and when it is finally achieved, it takes one of the weaker forms. If such a patient was recommended The appropriate set of physical exercises, then among them and their parents there would be a lot of enthusiastic admirers of this method of treatment. And they would be ready to confirm under oath that physical exercises have created a miracle. Unfortunately, at present it is impossible to predict with absolute accuracy, in which patient a scoliosis may suddenly decrease curvature, and which - to increase. It is necessary to develop a simple test, with the help of which it would be possible to determine the magnitude of the "genetic dose" of this disease, inherited by the patient from the parents. Then in advance it would be possible to establish in what cases the curvature will not grow, and in which scoliosis will take a very serious form and for its treatment the most effective measures should be taken. A set of physical exercises for scoliosis can be recommended if it allows you to coordinate the activity of the muscles of sick children with a weakened muscular system and increased weight with reduced physical activity and if it positively affects the psyche of the parents of such children. When a doctor recommends a special set of physical exercises, then, apparently, he wants to increase your muscle tone. If the doctor tells you that a suitably chosen set of exercises will help stop the growth of curvature, immediately consult another orthopedic doctor.

Axillary corset

When bending the lower part of the body it is recommended to wear a corset, which is called axillary. This corset covers the body area from the armpits and almost to the pelvic area from the front and up to the middle of the buttocks from behind. It is made of plastic, assembled from individual pre-manufactured parts. Special cushions are also put in the corset.

Charleston corset

Charleston corset was developed by doctors F.Rid and R.Cuper from Charlestoja. This orthopedic device of the same type as the axillary corset serves for "hypercorrection."With his help, the patient's body is supported in a bent position, which is chosen taking into account the degree of curvature of the spine. This corset can only be used during sleep. Experience shows that the Crirlon corset gives a very high effect.

Effect of heredity

There is evidence of the transfer of scoliosis by heredity. In 60% of the children with scoliosis, observed by Dr. Keim, this disease was of a family nature. Dr. Keim knew 2 families, in each of which scoliosis suffered up to 6 people. In one family, 2 children had scoliosis at such a stage that surgery was required, and 3 children were recommended to wear a corset. The author of the book knew one young woman, in the family of which not only she and her parents, but 7 of 8 her brothers and sisters suffered from scoliosis, 2 children underwent surgery, and 2 wore Miluok corsets. If scientists can detect and identify a gene or genes that promote the development of scoliosis, then it is possible, through genetic engineering, it will be possible to influence heredity. Since this is not possible, we have to look for other methods of treatment. Professor of the Department of Surgical Orthopedics of the University of Goteborg in Sweden A.Nahemson named a number of signs typical for scoliosis."In patients with scoliosis, one of the parents suffered from it;one leg and one arm shorter than the other. Patients with scoliosis grow very fast;girls start menstruation early. Their direction of sight is indirect, speech is undeveloped, the position of the body is unstable. Spinal nerves do not grow fast enough, muscles of different groups are developed unequally. In the muscles of such patients, abnormal fibers are contained, and virus-like inclusions are also present. The biochemical composition of blood is unstable. The body absorbs vitamin C worse, but better - sugar. In all organs there are fibers of abnormal elastin.

History of Scoliosis Treatment

The history of scoliosis treatment dates back to the origins of medicine. The first attempts to correct the twisted spine were undertaken by Hippocrates( 460-377 BC), which gave the disease the name "scoliosis," that is, "curve."

He created a special device, called the bench of Hippocrates, for the extension of the spine and simultaneous pressure on it. This device has long remained the only way to treat scoliosis. Four hundred years later, at the turn of our era, Cornelius Celsus began to apply for this purpose curative gymnastics and hydrotherapy.

And his follower Galen described the case when breathing exercises helped to cure a child whose chest was deformed. In the Renaissance, the French doctor Paré proposed a metal corset to fix the spine.

LFK in Ancient Greece and in Ancient Rome

Ancient Greek philosopher Platon ( circa 428-347 BC) called the movement "the healing part of medicine", and the writer and historian Plutarch ( 127 g) - pantrylife ".In Ancient Greece, the first information about medical gymnastics is attributed to the 5th century BC and connects them with a doctor named Gerodik. About this wonderful physician, we can learn from the historical and philosophical treatises of Plato. He writes: "Gerodik was a teacher of gymnastics: when he fell ill, he applied gymnastic techniques for treatment;in the beginning, he tortured this mainly himself, and then later the rest of humanity. "Herodica is considered the founder of therapeutic gymnastics, for the first time patients began to seek help not in the temples, but in the gymnasium - in institutions where they taught gymnastics. Gerodik himself, according to Plato, suffered some incurable disease( probably tuberculosis), however, while practicing gymnastics, he lived almost up to a hundred years, teaching his patients therapeutic gymnastics. Later Hippocrates, disciple of Gerodik , who rightfully is called the father of medicine.(460-377 BC) brought to the Greek gymnastics certain hygienic knowledge and understanding of the "therapeutic dose" of physical exercises for a sick person. Hippocrates considered physical exercises to be one of the most important means of medicine. And caring about the preservation of people's health, he recommended doing what is today called physical education. "Gymnastics, physical exercises, walking should firmly enter the everyday life of everyone who wants to keep working, health, a full and joyful life," he said. Claudius Galen( 129-201 AD) is a follower and admirer of Hippocrates, anatomist, physiologist and philosopher, the first known sports doctor who, at the beginning of his medical career, healed gladiators in ancient Rome. He created the foundations of medical gymnastics - gymnastics for restoring health and harmonious development of man. Proceedings of Galen were the only authoritative source of medical knowledge right up to the Renaissance. Throughout his life, Galen preached the "health law" known at Gerodik's "breathe fresh air, eat the proper foods, drink the right beverages, exercise, have a healthy sleep, daily bowel movements and control emotions"

Structure and function of the spine

Vertebral column - the dorsal rigid axis of the human body and many animals, composed of a series of individual short joints of bones called vertebrae, almost along the entire length of it is the canal containing the spinal cord. Above it joins with the bones of the skull, from below with the bones of the pelvis. It is divided into a human on the neck( 7 vertebrae), thoracic( 12), lumbar( 5), sacral( 5 fused vertebrae) and caudal( 5 undeveloped vertebrae).The spine is the backbone of the skeleton and performs two very important functions in the human body. The first function is musculoskeletal. The second is protective. The spinal column protects the spinal cord from mechanical damage. To him fit numerous nerve endings, which are responsible for the work of all organs in the human body. Figuratively speaking, each vertebra is responsible for the work of a particular organ. If the functions of the spine are violated, it is difficult to carry out a nerve impulse to tissues and cells in different parts of the body. Over time, it is in these areas of the body will develop various diseases. Most often there are curvatures: 1) scoliosis( lateral), rachitic( in children from 3-4 years, 2) kyphosis( behind), habitual in rickety children, anemic girls due to hunchback posture when reading, in old age;3) lordosis( in front), occurs less frequently, with dislocations of the hips.

Therapeutic physical training with scoliosis

Therapeutic physical culture( LFK) is a method of treatment consisting in the application of physical exercises and natural factors of nature to a sick person with therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. The basis of this method is the use of the basic biological function of the organism - movement. The term therapeutic physical culture( or exercise therapy) denotes a variety of concepts. This is the breathing exercises after a serious operation, and training to walk after injury, and the development of movements in the joint after the removal of the cast. This is the name of the cabinet in the polyclinic, and the department at the Institute of Physical Education, and the department at the Medical Institute. The term "curative exercise" is used in a variety of ways, denoting both the method of treatment, and the medical or pedagogical specialization, and the division of medicine or physical education, and the structure of health.

Valentin Ivanovich Dikul made a great contribution to modern therapeutic exercise. One of Dikul's main achievements was his own rehabilitation technique, protected by copyright certificates and patents. In 1988, the Russian Center for the Rehabilitation of Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries and Consequences of Children's Cerebral Palsy was opened - the center of Dikul. In the following years, another three centers of VI Dikul were opened in Moscow alone. Then, under the guidance of Valentin Ivanovich, a number of rehabilitation clinics appeared all over Russia, in Israel, Germany, Poland, America, etc.

Soviet scientists N. Semashko, V. V. Gorinevsky, Valentin made a great contribution to the creation of therapeutic physical cultureNikolaevich Moshkov, VV Gorinevskaya, Dreving, AF Kaptelin, VI Dikul and many others.

Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine. Occurs in childhood and adolescence. The causes of scoliosis: trauma, congenital changes, paralysis, dysplasia, etc. There are scoliosis by their location: cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbar, lumbosacral and total, covering the entire spine. The curvature can have one arc( C-shaped scoliosis), two arcs( S-shaped) and more( several vertices).Scoliosis is necessarily accompanied by turning the body of the vertebra into the convex side, which leads to the appearance of a muscular cushion in the lumbar region and a rib humerus in the thoracic region. LFK and massage are obligatory elements in complex conservative and operative treatment.

Clinical and physiological justification for the use of exercise therapy and massage is their ability to favorably affect the function of the musculoskeletal system, helping to reduce or stabilize the processes of deformation of the spine. Forms LFK: therapeutic gymnastics, gymnastics in the water. Gymnastic exercises are used in the IP lying, standing s on all fours. Train the muscles of the back, gluteal region, abdomen. To correct the defect, use special corrective exercises of two types - symmetrical and asymmetric. With symmetrical exercises, the middle position of the spine remains. The muscles on the convex side are strained more intensively, on the concave one they stretch. Asymmetric exercises are selected for a special effect on the curvature of the spine. Symmetrical exercises are used more often. The procedure also includes breathing exercises of a static and dynamic nature, exercises to develop a correct posture in a standing position, general restorative exercises. To increase the mobility of the spine use exercises on all fours, mixed vises, exercises on the inclined plane.

Classes in the pool include exercises at the side of the pool, swimming with inflatable shells, a dam: and free swimming.

There are three degrees of curvature of the spine.

For scoliosis of the first degree, symmetrical, general strengthening exercises are used to strengthen the muscles of the back, abdominals, thorax, corrective, exercises in combination with respiratory exercises, exercises to develop coordination, and develop correct posture. They use walking, exercises in the IP lying on their back, abdomen, standing, including exercises with the ball, medical. With a weak muscular corset, the exercises are conducted only in a prone position.

With scoliosis of the II degree, dynamic breathing exercises are added during walking, including asymmetrical exercises, exercises with weights of dumbbells, maces;exercises for balance. IP - standing, lying on the back, stomach, side. More time is spent on corrective exercises( anti-flexion, detour exercises).The latter with torsion.

At the third degree of scoliosis, 65-70% of the time is spent in the position of unloading the spine( lying down).In addition to general restorative and breathing exercises, special corrective, detorcing exercises are used. If within two years the scoliosis does not progress, sports are recommended: swimming with brass style, volleyball, basketball, skis.

Scoliosis massage

Massage is used for scoliosis of all degrees with conservative and operative treatment. Massaging the back, abdomen, chest.

For scoliosis of the 1st degree, stroking, rubbing, kneading and vibration are used. At II and III degree - on the weakened muscles all above-stated receptions, and on muscles with the raised tonus - stroking and vibration.

The rib hump is influenced by all methods, and especially by vibration, tapping fingers, not allowing strong impacts, use pressure, seeking to smooth the deformation mechanically.

The back is massaged in the prone position on the abdomen, a small pillow is placed under the abdomen, a short cushion is placed under the ankle joints, hands are placed along the trunk or they are bent before the chest. The head is straight or turned to the side opposite to the scoliosis.

When massage the abdomen and chest in front of the patient lies on the back, under the knee joints put a low roller, under the head - a small pillow, hands are located along the trunk.

In the position on the side( opposite side of the chest scoliosis) one hand is placed under the head, with the other hand the patient rests against the chest.

With a double curvature of the spine in different parts of the spine, the spine is divided into four divisions: two thoracic and two lumbar sprays, each of which is selectively used by various techniques, taking into account the state of muscle tone. Massage at the beginning of the procedure is not selective, using techniques of superficial and deep stroking. Then a differentiated effect is carried out on the above sections, beginning with the thoracic. The masseur must be on the side of the massaged area. After the operation, massage is prescribed on time, depending on the severity and complexity of the operation. First, use a slight stroking, rubbing, vibration, without touching the scar. After 30 days, kneading and fretting are added in the area of ​​the costal projection, then massage the abdomen and legs. Duration of the procedure is 20-30 minutes. On the course - 20-25 procedures daily or every other day. The break between the courses is not less than 14 days. The treatment courses are repeated several times a year. According to medical statistics, scoliotic deformities are noted in 5-10% of children and adolescents. The overwhelming majority of cases of scoliosis development occur during puberty, i.e.for 10 - 14 years. Scoliosis, diagnosed at the age from the onset of puberty( 10 years) until the end of the vertical line. Ears, shoulder pads and shoulder blades are on the same level. The gaps between the lower arm and the thigh are the same on the left and right. The left and right crests of the iliac bones are also on the same level. If the symmetry is broken, you need to see a doctor. If in the prone position on the abdomen the curvature of the spine disappears, perhaps it is not scoliosis, but a violation of posture. But in this case it is better to visit a doctor, he can recommend so-called.a posture corrector that will help correct abnormalities not related to scoliosis. For bone growth( 18-20 years), is called juvenile scoliosis. This disease affects girls more often( up to 85%).Juvenile scoliosis is idiopathic, with the passage of time it progresses.

Diagnosis of scoliosis in adolescents has certain difficulties. Usually scoliosis in the initial stage of development does not create pain and does not cause any inconvenience. Therefore, it can be noticed only when there is already an obvious cosmetic defect. On the other hand, children at this age are shy and very worried about the flaws of their figure, so even if the child noticed that everything is not ok with his spine, he often hides it from friends, the school doctor and parents.

If you suspect a scoliosis, you should immediately seek medical attention from the orthopedist , who will make an accurate diagnosis on the basis of the examination and X-rays. Symptoms of scoliosis can be detected in the home. A healthy person, standing in a free pose, with his hands lowered along the trunk, the left and right parts of the trunk should be symmetrical. Cervical vertebrae, spine and coccyx are on the same conservative treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, doctors usually prescribe a complex of therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy( electrostimulation of muscles with high-frequency current), and differential massage. The complex of physical exercises should be made together with the doctor, tk.the choice of asymmetrical exercises depends on the individual patient. If you are offered to undergo a course of manual therapy, I advise you to refuse: manual therapy does not treat scoliosis( and this is not only my opinion).

For curvature angles of 20-40 degrees, a corset may be prescribed. In the world practice, corset therapy is considered to be the best means of conservative treatment of scoliosis. Wearing a corset requires an adolescent to make an extraordinary effort. And the point here is not only that he can restrain movements and cause other inconveniences in everyday life. Girls in adolescence are very shy of such unattractive things as medical corsets. Fortunately, the current fashion allows you to wear any, the most extensive clothing that will conceal all the unwanted details.

If therapy fails, the angle of curvature is more than 40 degrees and continues to increase, then the patient is prescribed surgical treatment. This, of course, is a complex and dangerous operation, and it is difficult for most people to decide on it. During this operation, special endocorrectors, metal rods and plates are installed on the spine, which fix the spine and prevent its further deformation. At the same time, several adjacent vertebrae are attached to each other, which slightly reduces the natural flexibility of the spine. Many people think that it is impossible to do the operation before the end of the growth of the skeleton. The metal implant will prevent the elongation of the spine with its growth and will only lead to even more severe deformation. In fact, this is not so. Now there are dynamic endocorrectors that do not prevent the growth of the spine and can be established for children and adolescents. In some clinics, children are operated from the age of 7 years.

In the treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, there is another important aspect that parents should pay attention to. The formation of the personality of a teenager is adversely affected by numerous psychopathogenic factors: restriction of motor activity, constant feelings about the defects of his figure, frequent stay in the hospital and sanatoriums, fear of the threat of surgery, painful reactions from peers and parents, education by the type of hyperope. As a result, adolescents develop closedness, decreased self-esteem, emotional and social infantilism, egocentrism. There is a possibility of mental disadaptation disorders and nervous breakdowns. Such adolescents require special attention from their parents, sometimes they even need the help of a psychologist or psychotherapist.

Consequences of scoliosis

Close attention to scoliosis is explained by the fact that severe forms of the disease cause significant disturbances in the most important body systems, leading to a decrease in life expectancy and disability. The literature data clearly outlines and thoroughly studies changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems in severe forms of scoliosis. The data on the presence of disturbances in the function of external respiration, heart rhythm and metabolic processes in the myocardium of insufficient adaptation of the cardiovascular system to physical exertion, a decrease in a number of indicators of physical development, a later onset of puberty in schoolchildren aged 7-16 years, patients with scoliosis I and IIdegree. Unfortunately, there is practically no data on changes in vital systems in cases of postural disorders and in the initial degrees of scoliosis in preschool children and younger schoolchildren.

Exercises

1. Discharge of the spine .All exercises LFK traditionally begin with exercises to unload the spine. A classic exercise is walking on all fours. The duration of the exercise is 2-3 minutes.

We lie on the litter on the back. Exercises on the back are designed mainly to strengthen the muscles of the abdominal press.

2. "Extension" of the spine .Lie down on his back, his heels stretch "down", the top of the head - "up".We perform 3-4 "stretching" for 10-15 seconds.

3. Bicycle .Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, legs make movements that imitate riding a bike. It is important: most of the amplitude of the movements of the legs should be "below" the body, you do not need to chatter your legs over the stomach, you need the straightened leg alternately to pass close to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

4. Scissors .Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, perform cross horizontal and vertical legs with legs. Important: gorontolnye flies desirable to produce closer to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

Now turn on your stomach. Exercises on the abdomen are designed primarily to strengthen various muscles of the back.

5. "Extension" Performed in the same way as Exercise 2, only on the abdomen.

6. Swimming The starting position is lying on the abdomen, the legs are straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. We bend in the lower back( head, upper part of the trunk, arms and legs are raised, the point of support is the stomach).Keeping this position, we carry out movements that simulate swimming with a breaststroke:

- hands forward, legs spread apart

- hands to the sides, legs to connect

- arms to the shoulders, the legs are still together

, etc.

Perform 2-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions with a short rest between sets( 5-10 seconds)

7. Scissors .Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, head resting on the back of the palms. We raise our legs and perform cross horizontal and vertical swings with our feet. Important: when performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. The execution rate is medium. We perform 2-3 approaches for 30-40 seconds.

8. Hold. Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. Raise the legs and upper body, caving in the lower back( head, upper body, arms and legs raised, the point of support - the stomach).Feet together, hands in hand, palms turned up. Statically freezes in this position for 10-15 seconds. Important: it is advisable not to hold your breath, while performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. We perform 3-4 repetitions with a short rest between repetitions( 5-10 seconds).

Now get up.

9. Rotation with hands. Exercise for blade retainers. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), elbows to the side, fingers to the shoulders. Perform the rotation of the hands back( clockwise).Important: in this exercise, you do not need a large amplitude of movement, on the contrary, the elbows must make a small circle when rotating. The execution rate is slow. We perform 2-3 approaches for 20-30 seconds with a short rest between the approaches.

10. Squats. Exercise for posture. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), hands to the side, palms turned up. In this position, maintaining a beautiful posture, we stand on the toes, then squat, again on the toes and in the starting position. We perform 5-10 such sit-ups with short-term rest. The pace of the exercise is slow

Probability of scoliosis disease

Unfortunately, doctors can not determine with a high degree of probability which of us will get scoliosis. For example, in the USA, at the time of adolescence, 2% of children become ill. This means that it develops in 20 of every thousand adolescents, and in 15 of these 20 the degree of curvature of the spine is -20 degrees or less;only in some of them does the disease progress. In the remaining 5 of every thousand adolescents, the curvature is more than 20 ° and only 1 in 2 progresses later, which will require treatment.

Congenital scoliosis

Some patients ask: "Is it possible that they are born with scoliosis?" We answer: "Yes, it happens, but congenital scoliosis is much less common than various forms of idiopathic scoliosis."In the early stages of embryonic development, the vertebra may be curved, which gradually begins to progress. As a child, this can go unnoticed, congenital scoliosis is sometimes found only after many years. In persons with congenital scoliosis, other birth defects are possible, for example, kidney or bladder function may be impaired, approximately 20% of these patients experience hearing loss, and some may have cardiovascular diseases.

Scoliosis in adulthood

In the US, 2 to 4 million people of adult age suffer from scoliosis. In most cases, the curvature of the spine is less than 30 degrees;the disease does not progress and does not require treatment. Scoliosis in such cases begins to develop in adolescence( with the exception of observations of degenerative scoliosis).Degenerative scoliosis develops in the elderly, usually after 50 years, and can be due to various causes: worn discs, osteoporosis has developed a disease in which the bones become brittle and brittle. The longer a person lives, the higher the probability of a degenerative scoliosis.

Is the physical load useful in the scoliosis of

Doctors - experts in the field of diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis - still believe that only a set of specially selected physical exercises can never cure scoliosis. They constantly talk about this to teenagers and their parents, medical students and stare doctors. Physical exercises only support and strengthen the general tone of the body. Their fulfillment gives the patient and his family members a feeling of comfort and satisfaction that something is being done for treatment. Scoliosis is primarily programmed genetically, and the curvature can only be slightly corrected at certain moments of the patient's life by rigid fixation, surgery, or using a combination of several treatments. Sometimes it can be seen how the severity of scoliosis curvature changes several times over the period until the skeleton is fully developed, and when it is finally achieved, it takes one of the weaker forms. If such a patient was recommended The appropriate set of physical exercises, then among them and their parents there would be a lot of enthusiastic admirers of this method of treatment. And they would be ready to confirm under oath that physical exercises have created a miracle. Unfortunately, at present it is impossible to predict with absolute accuracy, in which patient a scoliosis may suddenly decrease curvature, and which - to increase. It is necessary to develop a simple test, with the help of which it would be possible to determine the magnitude of the "genetic dose" of this disease, inherited by the patient from the parents. Then in advance it would be possible to establish in what cases the curvature will not grow, and in which scoliosis will take a very serious form and for its treatment the most effective measures should be taken. A set of physical exercises for scoliosis can be recommended if it allows you to coordinate the activity of the muscles of sick children with a weakened muscular system and increased weight with reduced physical activity and if it positively affects the psyche of the parents of such children. When a doctor recommends a special set of physical exercises, then, apparently, he wants to increase your muscle tone. If the doctor tells you that a suitably chosen set of exercises will help stop the growth of curvature, immediately consult another orthopedic doctor.

Axillary corset

When bending the lower part of the body it is recommended to wear a corset, which is called axillary. This corset covers the body area from the armpits and almost to the pelvic area from the front and up to the middle of the buttocks from behind. It is made of plastic, assembled from individual pre-manufactured parts. Special cushions are also put in the corset.

Charleston corset

Charleston corset was developed by doctors F.Rid and R.Cuper from Charlestoja. This orthopedic device of the same type as the axillary corset serves for "hypercorrection."With his help, the patient's body is supported in a bent position, which is chosen taking into account the degree of curvature of the spine. This corset can only be used during sleep. Experience shows that the Crirlon corset gives a very high effect.

Effect of heredity

There is evidence of the transfer of scoliosis by heredity. In 60% of the children with scoliosis, observed by Dr. Keim, this disease was of a family nature. Dr. Keim knew 2 families, in each of which scoliosis suffered up to 6 people. In one family, 2 children had scoliosis at such a stage that surgery was required, and 3 children were recommended to wear a corset. The author of the book knew one young woman, in the family of which not only she and her parents, but 7 of 8 her brothers and sisters suffered from scoliosis, 2 children underwent surgery, and 2 wore Miluok corsets. If scientists can detect and identify a gene or genes that promote the development of scoliosis, then it is possible, through genetic engineering, it will be possible to influence heredity. Since this is not possible, we have to look for other methods of treatment. Professor of the Department of Surgical Orthopedics of the University of Goteborg in Sweden A.Nahemson named a number of signs typical for scoliosis."In patients with scoliosis, one of the parents suffered from it;one leg and one arm shorter than the other. Patients with scoliosis grow very fast;girls start menstruation early. Their direction of sight is indirect, speech is undeveloped, the position of the body is unstable. Spinal nerves do not grow fast enough, muscles of different groups are developed unequally. In the muscles of such patients, abnormal fibers are contained, and virus-like inclusions are also present. The biochemical composition of blood is unstable. The body absorbs vitamin C worse, but better - sugar. In all organs there are fibers of abnormal elastin.

Scoliosis and physiotherapy exercises Type: abstract Added 08:55:20 07 January 2011 Similar paintings Hits: 10964 Comments: 2 Rate: 3 people Average: 5 Rating: unknown Download

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Abstract - Scoliosis and exercise therapy - Physical training and sport

History of the treatment of scoliosis

The history of the treatment of scoliosis dates back to the origins of medicine. The first attempts to correct the twisted spine were undertaken by Hippocrates( 460-377 BC), which gave the disease the name "scoliosis," that is, "curve."

He created a special device, called the bench of Hippocrates, for stretching the spine and simultaneously pressing it. This device has long remained the only way to treat scoliosis. Four hundred years later, at the turn of our era, Cornelius Celsus began to apply for this purpose curative gymnastics and hydrotherapy.

And his follower Galen described the case when breathing exercises helped to cure a child whose chest was deformed. In the Renaissance, the French doctor Paré proposed a metal corset to fix the spine.

LFK in Ancient Greece and in Ancient Rome

Ancient Greek philosopher Platon ( circa 428-347 BC) called the movement "the healing part of medicine", and writer and historian Plutarch ( 127 g) - pantrylife ".In ancient Greece, the first information about medical gymnastics is attributed to the 5th century BC and connect them with a doctor named Gerodik. About this wonderful physician, we can learn from the historical and philosophical treatises of Plato. He writes: "Gerodik was a teacher of gymnastics: when he fell ill, he applied gymnastic techniques for treatment;in the beginning, he tortured this mainly himself, and then later the rest of humanity. "Herodica is considered the founder of therapeutic gymnastics, for the first time patients began to seek help not in the temples, but in the gymnasium - in institutions where they taught gymnastics. Gerodik himself, according to Plato, suffered some incurable disease( probably tuberculosis), however, while practicing gymnastics, he lived almost up to a hundred years, teaching his patients therapeutic gymnastics. Later Hippocrates, disciple of Gerodik , who rightly is called the father of medicine.(460-377 BC) brought to the Greek gymnastics certain hygienic knowledge and understanding of the "therapeutic dose" of physical exercises for a sick person. Hippocrates considered physical exercises to be one of the most important means of medicine. And caring about the preservation of people's health, he recommended doing what is today called physical education. "Gymnastics, physical exercises, walking should firmly enter the everyday life of everyone who wants to keep working, health, a full and joyful life," he said. Claudius Galen( 129-201 AD) is a follower and admirer of Hippocrates, anatomist, physiologist and philosopher, the first known sports doctor who, at the beginning of his medical career, healed gladiators in ancient Rome. He created the foundations of medical gymnastics - gymnastics for restoring health and harmonious development of man. Proceedings Galena were the only authoritative source of medical knowledge right up to the Renaissance. Throughout his life, Galen preached the "health law" known at Gerodik's "breathe fresh air, eat the proper foods, drink the right beverages, exercise, have a healthy sleep, daily bowel movements and control emotions"

Structure and function of the spine

Vertebral column - the dorsal rigid axis of the human body and many animals, composed of a series of individual short joints of bones called vertebrae, almost along the entire length of it is the canal containing the spinal cord. Above it joins with the bones of the skull, from below with the bones of the pelvis. It is divided into a person on the neck( 7 vertebrae), thoracic( 12), lumbar( 5), sacral( 5 fused vertebrae) and caudal( 5 undeveloped vertebrae).The spine is the backbone of the skeleton and performs two very important functions in the human body. The first function is musculoskeletal. The second is protective. The spinal column protects the spinal cord from mechanical damage. To him fit numerous nerve endings, which are responsible for the work of all organs in the human body. Figuratively speaking, each vertebra is responsible for the work of a particular organ. If the functions of the spine are violated, it is difficult to carry out a nerve impulse to tissues and cells in different parts of the body. Over time, it is in these areas of the body will develop various diseases. Most often there are curvatures: 1) scoliosis( lateral), rachitic( in children from 3-4 years old, 2) kyphosis( behind), habitual in rickety children, anemic girls due to hunchback posture when reading, in old age;3) lordosis( in front), occurs less frequently, with dislocations of the hips.

Therapeutic physical training with scoliosis

Therapeutic physical culture( LFK) is a method of treatment consisting in the application of physical exercises and natural factors of nature to a sick person with therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. The basis of this method is the use of the basic biological function of the organism - movement. The term therapeutic physical culture( or exercise therapy) denotes a variety of concepts. This is the breathing exercises after a serious operation, and training to walk after injury, and the development of movements in the joint after the removal of the cast. This is the name of the cabinet in the polyclinic, and the department at the Institute of Physical Education, and the department at the Medical Institute. The term "curative exercise" is used in a variety of ways, denoting both the method of treatment, and the medical or pedagogical specialization, and the division of medicine or physical education, and the structure of health.

Valentin Ivanovich Dikul made a great contribution to modern therapeutic exercise. One of Dikul's main achievements was his own rehabilitation technique, protected by copyright certificates and patents. In 1988, the Russian Center for the Rehabilitation of Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries and Consequences of Children's Cerebral Palsy was opened - the center of Dikul. In the following years, another three centers of VI Dikul were opened in Moscow alone. Then, under the guidance of Valentin Ivanovich, a number of rehabilitation clinics appeared all over Russia, in Israel, Germany, Poland, America, etc.

Soviet scientists N. Semashko, V. V. Gorinevsky, Valentin made a great contribution to the creation of therapeutic physical cultureNikolaevich Moshkov, VV Gorinevskaya, Dreving, AF Kaptelin, VI Dikul and many others.

Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine. Occurs in childhood and adolescence. The causes of scoliosis: trauma, congenital changes, paralysis, dysplasia, etc. There are scoliosis by their location: cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbar, lumbosacral and total, covering the entire spine. The curvature can have one arc( C-shaped scoliosis), two arcs( S-shaped) and more( several vertices).Scoliosis is necessarily accompanied by turning the body of the vertebrae into the convex side, which leads to the appearance of a muscle cushion in the lumbar region and a rib humerus in the thoracic region. LFK and massage are obligatory elements in complex conservative and operative treatment.

Clinical and physiological justification for the use of exercise therapy and massage is their ability to favorably affect the function of the musculoskeletal system, helping to reduce or stabilize the processes of deformation of the spine. Forms LFK: therapeutic gymnastics, gymnastics in the water. Gymnastic exercises are used in the IP lying, standing s on all fours. Train the muscles of the back, gluteal region, abdomen. To correct the defect, use special corrective exercises of two types - symmetrical and asymmetric. With symmetrical exercises, the middle position of the spine remains. The muscles on the convex side are strained more intensively, on the concave one they stretch. Asymmetric exercises are selected for a special effect on the curvature of the spine. Symmetrical exercises are used more often. The procedure also includes breathing exercises of a static and dynamic nature, exercises to develop a correct posture in a standing position, general restorative exercises. To increase the mobility of the spine use exercises on all fours, mixed vises, exercises on the inclined plane.

Classes in the pool include exercises at the side of the pool, swimming with inflatable shells, a dam: and free swimming.

There are three degrees of curvature of the spine.

For scoliosis of the first degree, symmetrical, general strengthening exercises are used to strengthen the muscles of the back, abdominals, thorax, corrective, exercises in combination with respiratory exercises, exercises to develop coordination, and develop correct posture. They use walking, exercises in the IP lying on their back, abdomen, standing, including exercises with the ball, medical. With a weak muscular corset, the exercises are conducted only in a prone position.

With scoliosis of the II degree, dynamic breathing exercises are added during walking, including asymmetrical exercises, exercises with weights of dumbbells, maces;exercises for balance. IP - standing, lying on the back, stomach, side. More time is spent on corrective exercises( anti-flexion, detour exercises).The latter with torsion.

At the third degree of scoliosis, 65-70% of the time is spent in the position of unloading the spine( lying down).In addition to general restorative and breathing exercises, special corrective, detorcing exercises are used. If within two years the scoliosis does not progress, sports are recommended: swimming with brass style, volleyball, basketball, skis.

Scoliosis massage

Massage is used for scoliosis of all degrees with conservative and operative treatment. Massaging the back, abdomen, chest.

For scoliosis of the 1st degree, stroking, rubbing, kneading and vibration are used. At II and III degree - on the weakened muscles all above-stated receptions, and on muscles with the raised tonus - stroking and vibration.

The rib hump is influenced by all methods, and especially by vibration, tapping fingers, not allowing strong impacts, use pressure, seeking to smooth the deformation mechanically.

The back is massaged in the prone position on the abdomen, a small pillow is placed under the abdomen, a short cushion is placed under the ankle joints, hands are placed along the trunk or they are bent before the chest. The head is straight or turned to the side opposite to the scoliosis.

When massage the abdomen and chest in front of the patient lies on the back, under the knee joints put a low roller, under the head - a small pillow, hands are located along the trunk.

In the position on the side( opposite side of the chest scoliosis) one hand is placed under the head, with the other hand the patient rests against the chest.

With a double curvature of the spine in different parts of the spine, the spine is divided into four divisions: two thoracic and two lumbar sprays, each of which is selectively used by various techniques, taking into account the state of muscle tone. Massage at the beginning of the procedure is not selective, using techniques of superficial and deep stroking. Then a differentiated effect is carried out on the above sections, beginning with the thoracic. The masseur must be on the side of the massaged area. After the operation, massage is prescribed on time, depending on the severity and complexity of the operation. First, use a slight stroking, rubbing, vibration, without touching the scar. After 30 days, kneading and fretting are added in the area of ​​the costal projection, then massage the abdomen and legs. Duration of the procedure is 20-30 minutes. On the course - 20-25 procedures daily or every other day. The break between the courses is not less than 14 days. The treatment courses are repeated several times a year. According to medical statistics, scoliotic deformities are noted in 5-10% of children and adolescents. The overwhelming majority of cases of scoliosis development occur during puberty, i.e.for 10 - 14 years. Scoliosis, diagnosed at the age from the onset of puberty( 10 years) until the end of the vertical line. Ears, shoulder pads and shoulder blades are on the same level. The gaps between the lower arm and the thigh are the same on the left and right. The left and right crests of the iliac bones are also on the same level. If the symmetry is broken, you need to see a doctor. If in the prone position on the abdomen the curvature of the spine disappears, perhaps it is not scoliosis, but a violation of posture. But in this case it is better to visit a doctor, he can recommend so-called.a posture corrector that will help correct abnormalities not related to scoliosis. For bone growth( 18-20 years), is called juvenile scoliosis. This disease affects girls more often( up to 85%).Juvenile scoliosis is idiopathic, with the passage of time it progresses.

Diagnosis of scoliosis in adolescents has certain difficulties. Usually scoliosis in the initial stage of development does not create pain and does not cause any inconvenience. Therefore, it can be noticed only when there is already an obvious cosmetic defect. On the other hand, children at this age are shy and very worried about the flaws of their figure, so even if the child noticed that everything is not ok with his spine, he often hides it from friends, the school doctor and parents.

If you suspect a scoliosis, you should immediately seek medical attention from the orthopedist , who will make an accurate diagnosis on the basis of the examination and X-rays. Symptoms of scoliosis can be detected in the home. A healthy person, standing in a free pose, with his hands lowered along the trunk, the left and right parts of the trunk should be symmetrical. Cervical vertebrae, spine and coccyx are on the same conservative treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, doctors usually prescribe a complex of therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy( electrostimulation of muscles with high-frequency current), and differential massage. The complex of physical exercises should be made together with the doctor, tk.the choice of asymmetrical exercises depends on the individual patient. If you are offered to undergo a course of manual therapy, I advise you to refuse: manual therapy does not treat scoliosis( and this is not only my opinion).

For curvature angles of 20-40 degrees, a corset may be prescribed. In the world practice, corset therapy is considered to be the best means of conservative treatment of scoliosis. Wearing a corset requires an adolescent to make an extraordinary effort. And the point here is not only that he can restrain movements and cause other inconveniences in everyday life. Girls in adolescence are very shy of such unattractive things as medical corsets. Fortunately, the current fashion allows you to wear any, the most extensive clothing that will conceal all the unwanted details.

If therapy fails, the angle of curvature is more than 40 degrees and continues to increase, then the patient is prescribed surgical treatment. This, of course, is a complex and dangerous operation, and it is difficult for most people to decide on it. During this operation, special endocorrectors, metal rods and plates are installed on the spine, which fix the spine and prevent its further deformation. At the same time, several adjacent vertebrae are attached to each other, which slightly reduces the natural flexibility of the spine. Many people think that it is impossible to do the operation before the end of the growth of the skeleton. The metal implant will prevent the elongation of the spine with its growth and will only lead to even more severe deformation. In fact, this is not so. Now there are dynamic endocorrectors that do not prevent the growth of the spine and can be established for children and adolescents. In some clinics, children are operated from the age of 7 years.

In the treatment of scoliosis in adolescents, there is another important aspect that parents should pay attention to. The formation of the personality of a teenager is adversely affected by numerous psychopathogenic factors: restriction of motor activity, constant feelings about the defects of his figure, frequent stay in the hospital and sanatoriums, fear of the threat of surgery, painful reactions from peers and parents, education by the type of hyperope. As a result, adolescents develop closedness, decreased self-esteem, emotional and social infantilism, egocentrism. There is a possibility of mental disadaptation disorders and nervous breakdowns. Such adolescents require special attention from their parents, sometimes they even need the help of a psychologist or psychotherapist.

Consequences of scoliosis

Close attention to scoliosis is explained by the fact that severe forms of the disease cause significant disturbances in the most important body systems, leading to a decrease in life expectancy and disability. The literature data clearly outlines and thoroughly studies changes in the respiratory, cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems in severe forms of scoliosis. The data on the presence of disturbances in the function of external respiration, heart rhythm and metabolic processes in the myocardium of insufficient adaptation of the cardiovascular system to physical exertion, a decrease in a number of indicators of physical development, a later onset of puberty in schoolchildren aged 7-16 years, patients with scoliosis I and IIdegree. Unfortunately, there is practically no data on changes in vital systems in cases of postural disorders and in the initial degrees of scoliosis in preschool children and younger schoolchildren.

Exercises

1. Discharge of the spine .All exercises LFK traditionally begin with exercises to unload the spine. A classic exercise is walking on all fours. The duration of the exercise is 2-3 minutes.

We lie on the litter on the back. Exercises on the back are designed mainly to strengthen the muscles of the abdominal press.

2. "Extension" of the spine .Lie down on his back, his heels stretch "down", the top of his head - "up".We perform 3-4 "stretching" for 10-15 seconds.

3. Bicycle .Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, legs make movements that imitate riding a bike. Important: the greater part of the amplitude of the movements of the legs should be "below" the body, you do not need to chatter your legs over the stomach, you need the straightened leg alternately to pass close to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

4. Scissors .Lie down on the back, hands behind the head or along the trunk, perform cross horizontal and vertical legs with legs. Important: gorontolnye flies desirable to produce closer to the floor. The execution rate is medium. Perform 2-3 sets of 30-40 seconds.

Now turn on your stomach. Exercises on the abdomen are designed primarily to strengthen various muscles of the back.

5. "Extension" Performed similarly to Exercise 2, only on the abdomen.

6. Swimming The starting position is lying on the abdomen, the legs are straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. We bend in the lower back( head, upper part of the trunk, arms and legs are raised, the point of support is the stomach).Keeping this position, we carry out movements that simulate swimming with a breaststroke:

- hands forward, legs spread apart

- hands to the sides, legs to connect

- arms to the shoulders, the legs are still together

, etc.

Perform 2-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions with a short rest between sets( 5-10 seconds)

7. Scissors .Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, head resting on the back of the palms. We raise our legs and perform cross horizontal and vertical swings with our feet. Important: when performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. The execution rate is medium. We perform 2-3 approaches for 30-40 seconds.

8. Hold. Lying on the abdomen, legs straight, the head rests on the back of the palms. Raise the legs and upper body, caving in the lower back( head, upper body, arms and legs raised, the point of support - the belly).Feet together, hands in hand, palms turned up. Statically freezes in this position for 10-15 seconds. Important: it is advisable not to hold your breath, while performing this exercise, the hips should be torn off the floor. We perform 3-4 repetitions with a short rest between repetitions( 5-10 seconds).

Now get up.

9. Rotation with hands. Exercise for blade retainers. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), elbows to the side, fingers to the shoulders. Perform the rotation of the hands back( clockwise).Important: in this exercise, you do not need a large amplitude of movement, on the contrary, the elbows must make a small circle when rotating. The execution rate is slow. We perform 2-3 approaches for 20-30 seconds with a short rest between the approaches.

10. Squats. Exercise for posture. Standing in front of the mirror( controlling the posture), hands to the side, palms turned up. In this position, maintaining a beautiful posture, we stand on the toes, then squat, again on the toes and in the starting position. We perform 5-10 such sit-ups with short-term rest. The pace of the exercise is slow

Probability of scoliosis disease

Unfortunately, doctors can not determine with a high degree of probability which of us will get scoliosis. For example, in the USA, at the time of adolescence, 2% of children become ill. This means that it develops in 20 of every thousand adolescents, and in 15 of these 20 the degree of curvature of the spine is -20 degrees or less;only in some of them does the disease progress. In the remaining 5 of every thousand adolescents, the curvature is more than 20 ° and only 1 in 2 progresses later, which will require treatment.

Congenital scoliosis

Some patients ask: "Is it possible that they are born with scoliosis?" We answer: "Yes, it happens, but congenital scoliosis is much less common than various forms of idiopathic scoliosis."In the early stages of embryonic development, the vertebra may be curved, which gradually begins to progress. As a child, this can go unnoticed, congenital scoliosis is sometimes found only after many years. In persons with congenital scoliosis, other birth defects are possible, for example, kidney or bladder function may be impaired, approximately 20% of these patients experience hearing loss, and some may have cardiovascular diseases.

Scoliosis in adulthood

In the US, 2 to 4 million people of adult age suffer from scoliosis. In most cases, the curvature of the spine is less than 30 degrees;the disease does not progress and does not require treatment. Scoliosis in such cases begins to develop in adolescence( with the exception of observations of degenerative scoliosis).Degenerative scoliosis develops in the elderly, usually after 50 years, and can be due to various causes: worn discs, osteoporosis has developed a disease in which the bones become brittle and brittle. The longer a person lives, the higher the probability of a degenerative scoliosis.

Is the physical load useful in the scoliosis of

Doctors - experts in the field of diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis - still believe that only a set of specially selected physical exercises can never cure scoliosis. They constantly talk about this to teenagers and their parents, medical students and stare doctors. Physical exercises only support and strengthen the general tone of the body. Their fulfillment gives the patient and his family members a feeling of comfort and satisfaction that something is being done for treatment. Scoliosis is primarily programmed genetically, and the curvature can only be slightly corrected at certain moments of the patient's life by rigid fixation, surgery, or using a combination of several treatments. Sometimes it can be seen how the severity of scoliosis curvature changes several times over the period until the skeleton is fully developed, and when it is finally achieved, it takes one of the weaker forms. If such a patient was recommended The appropriate set of physical exercises, then among them and their parents there would be a lot of enthusiastic admirers of this method of treatment. And they would be ready to confirm under oath that physical exercises have created a miracle. Unfortunately, at present it is impossible to predict with absolute accuracy, in which patient a scoliosis may suddenly decrease curvature, and which - to increase. It is necessary to develop a simple test, with the help of which it would be possible to determine the magnitude of the "genetic dose" of this disease, inherited by the patient from the parents. Then in advance it would be possible to establish in what cases the curvature will not grow, and in which scoliosis will take a very serious form and for its treatment the most effective measures should be taken. A set of physical exercises for scoliosis can be recommended if it allows you to coordinate the activity of the muscles of sick children with a weakened muscular system and increased weight with reduced physical activity and if it positively affects the psyche of the parents of such children. When a doctor recommends a special set of physical exercises, then, apparently, he wants to increase your muscle tone. If the doctor tells you that a suitably chosen set of exercises will help stop the growth of curvature, immediately consult another orthopedic doctor.

Axillary corset

When bending the lower part of the body it is recommended to wear a corset, which is called axillary. This corset covers the body area from the armpits and almost to the pelvic area from the front and up to the middle of the buttocks from behind. It is made of plastic, assembled from individual pre-manufactured parts. Special cushions are also put in the corset.

Charleston corset

Charleston corset was developed by doctors F.Rid and R.Cuper from Charlestoja. This orthopedic device of the same type as the axillary corset serves for "hypercorrection."With his help, the patient's body is supported in a bent position, which is chosen taking into account the degree of curvature of the spine. This corset can only be used during sleep. Experience shows that the Crirlon corset gives a very high effect.

Effect of heredity

There is evidence of the transfer of scoliosis by heredity. In 60% of the children with scoliosis, observed by Dr. Keim, this disease was of a family nature. Dr. Keim knew 2 families, in each of which scoliosis suffered up to 6 people. In one family, 2 children had scoliosis at such a stage that surgery was required, and 3 children were recommended to wear a corset. The author of the book knew one young woman, in the family of which not only she and her parents, but 7 of 8 her brothers and sisters suffered from scoliosis, 2 children underwent surgery, and 2 wore Miluok corsets. If scientists can detect and identify a gene or genes that promote the development of scoliosis, then it is possible, through genetic engineering, it will be possible to influence heredity. Since this is not possible, we have to look for other methods of treatment. Professor of the Department of Surgical Orthopedics of the University of Goteborg in Sweden A.Nahemson named a number of signs typical for scoliosis."In patients with scoliosis, one of the parents suffered from it;one leg and one arm shorter than the other. Patients with scoliosis grow very fast;girls start menstruation early. Their direction of sight is indirect, speech is undeveloped, the position of the body is unstable. Spinal nerves do not grow fast enough, muscles of different groups are developed unequally. In the muscles of such patients, abnormal fibers are contained, and virus-like inclusions are also present. The biochemical composition of blood is unstable. The body absorbs vitamin C worse, but better - sugar. In all organs there are fibers of abnormal elastin.

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