Causes, degrees, symptoms and treatment of deforming arthrosis
Treatment of arthrosis will not lead to complete healing. But if you start it in time, you can achieve that the joints will begin to function sufficiently fully or it will be possible to prevent the disease from developing further.
What is this disease?
Arthrosis of joints refers to chronic diseases. It develops because of early wear of the cartilage in the joints and is not an inflammatory disease. This is different from arthritis, which causes infectious agents and is inflammatory in nature.
Osteoarthritis of joints often does not make itself felt, develops gradually. Pain, if present, only after a significant load on the joint. Or the person has made unsuccessful movement - and has felt discomfort in an articulate area. But almost no one attaches much importance to such minor pain manifestations and does not exactly associate it with any ailment.
Pathology develops rapidly and can reach the last degree in a short period of time( less than 1 year).Both cases need timely treatment. Otherwise, the symptoms of the disease will increasingly manifest themselves, the quality of life will change for the worse. Possible and disability for severe arthrosis.
This disease deprives the joints of the ability to function normally. At the first stages, pain begins with physical exertion. If you give an opportunity to relax the sick body, then the pain disappears, but for a short time - until the next load.
Gradually the pain will begin to appear at night. The following signs of arthrosis of joints - a crunch in the joints, muscle tension, inflammation of nearby tissues. If the disease progresses, then joint deformation occurs, their mobility is increasingly limited.
The main causes of the disease - cells of cartilage tissues wear out and age. Contribute to this: heredity, disorders of the endocrine system, sedentary lifestyle, violations of water-salt metabolism. Injuries accelerate the development of the disease.
What is the deforming arthrosis?
Arthrosis of joints is divided into the following types:
- Gonoarthrosis is a disease of the knee joint. It contributes to the aging of man. But among the elderly people there are those who are not familiar with this disease. This type of arthrosis can be inherited. Often women and those who have excess weight suffer from it. Not the last place in its development belongs to injuries.
- Coxarthrosis - hip joints suffer from it. The patient experiences significant pain, which intensifies with the development of the disease.
- Vertebral arthrosis - Bechterew's disease. Because of the erasure of the joints in the spinal column, the patient loses the ability to move normally.
- Arthrosis of the joints of brushes is a disease that affects women. Patients experience pain at the slightest strain of fingers, when they are in cold water. Gradually, numbness develops, the fingertips stop feeling anything.
Arthrosis joints in the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 have several codes - M15-M19.
In addition to dividing the disease by localization of the process, joint arthrosis is divided into primary and secondary.
Primary develops with cartilage changes due to age. The disease is getting younger every year, that is, it affects not only the elderly. By the age of 50, almost a third of the population suffers from this kind of arthrosis of the joints, and at the age of 60 almost everyone has it. Therefore, it is important for many to know what kind of illness it is, what its symptoms and treatment are.
Secondary arthrosis develops after trauma. It is able to start in the elderly person, and in the young man.
Degrees of severity of the disease
Share joint arthrosis in 4 stages.
With pathology of degree 1, the joints do not lose their mobility in one direction. X-rays are not able to show the severity of the disease at this stage. There are no special symptoms: there is no fever, the affected areas of the body do not swell, the skin color does not change. The patient may experience a slight pain and hear a weak crunch. But all this does not cause a person discomfort, so he does not pay much attention to such insignificant manifestations of the disease.
At this stage of the pathology, you can make lotions with broths of herbs, use medicinal ointments. You can not take strong alcoholic beverages. It is mandatory to perform physical exercises and pay attention to your diet. Excess weight negatively affects the joints, so it should be normalized.
For arthrosis of 2nd degree, a visit to the doctor is mandatory. To determine the disease at this stage is already quite easy. Symptoms become much clearer. The patient begins to constantly experience a slight fatigue, a feeling of squeezing in the affected areas, which is very pronounced after the load. There is a sharp pain and a distinct crunch. Arthrosis of the 2nd degree is characterized by the fact that it is difficult to bend arms and legs.
At this stage, the deformity of the joints is already beginning. If you do not start treatment, then grade 2 arthrosis will begin to progress strongly.
Folk medicine at this stage is no longer enough. It is necessary to turn to traditional medicine.
Osteoarthritis of the 3rd degree is very painful. Even without loading the joints, the patient experiences severe pain. Any changes in weather conditions are reflected on the patient. It happens that the joints stop functioning completely, and the person becomes immobilized.
At this stage complex treatment is used: pills, other preparations, various procedures( for example, electrophoresis).
Unbearable pain has to be tolerated by a patient with stage 4 disease. Do not help potent cures for arthrosis, various pain killers, physiotherapy. The output is only in the replacement of the affected joint.
To treat arthrosis is necessary at the initial stages of the development of the disease. It is better not to run the disease in order to do without an operation. Otherwise, in addition to significant monetary expenditure, you will have to endure a lot of pain. It is important to turn to specialists in time.
Methods of treatment
How to treat arthrosis is of interest to many people. This process is lengthy. Each patient is selected an individual scheme for the restoration of damaged joints.
Cure the ailment is completely impossible. But to weaken the course of the disease, not to allow the joints to collapse further - it is quite possible.
Methods of treatment of the disease are divided into 4 types:
- with the help of traditional healers.
Non-drug treatment is used at the very beginning of arthrosis. It includes adherence to the diet and the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle.
There are various educational schools or courses at medical institutions, where they will tell and show how to improve their lives, having such ailment, how to treat it, where to go and much more.
In order to facilitate their condition, the patient should reduce the load on the affected joints. The first step is to get rid of excess weight, which has a negative impact.
Therapeutic exercise is shown in the initial stages of arthrosis. It is better to perform it under the supervision of the instructor for exercise therapy.
Use of various items that can reduce the burden on sick joints. For example, when walking, use a cane.
Sanatorium treatment has a positive effect on the joint system. It should be appointed after consultation with the attending physician.
Drugs for joint arthrosis are most often used. Their choice is small. All drugs are divided into two types - symptomatic and chondroprotective.
Symptomatic drugs are prescribed the very first. They eliminate the main signs of the disease. For example, taking a pill, you can wait for the relief of pain for a short period of time. And chondroprotectors can stop the development of arthrosis, the patient takes them for a long time.
Sometimes injections are given for arthrosis directly into the joint itself. The effect is immediate.
Surgical treatment is recommended only after the disease has been tried by medication. It can be:
- arthroscopy - through small incisions, without opening the joints, all medical actions are performed;
- arthrodesis - relieves pain, the operation creates immobility of the surfaces of the joints;
- arthroplasty - replacing articular cartilage with the patient's own tissues or artificial material;
- joint replacement - the most effective treatment of severe stages of the disease, the full prosthesis of the patient joint is performed.
Arthrosis of the joints is considered incurable. But with timely treatment, following the recommendations of the doctor, you can significantly improve the condition of the affected joints and not become disabled.
No one is immune from this ailment. But everyone can try to weaken the course of the disease or slow it down. It is important to follow a number of simple rules. Do not abuse the physical load, negatively affecting the articular system of the body. But the feasible load is useful. For a long time to be in one position( sitting or lying) is harmful. It is necessary to keep the weight within the limits of the norm, to monitor the health, to be treated on time, to eat right.
Since young age, prevention of arthrosis is necessary - maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
One should be careful and avoid various injuries. And regular preventive examinations are mandatory for the doctor.
It is recommended to reduce the static load. Do not get involved in high-heeled shoes. You can not always sit with your foot on your leg. Should alternately sit and stand. Lifting weights is undesirable. After a day's work, it's good to lie down for a few minutes, at the same time do the exercise "bike".In summer it is necessary to swim more and do light physical exercises under water.
Gymnastics for joint arthrosis is an important part of the treatment. When it is performed, the patient should take care that pain should not be caused to his joints. Some instructors advise to develop joints, not paying attention to pain. But you can not do this. Any exercise is done exactly as many times as the patient can do it before the onset of discomfort. You should start with a small amount, each exercise is performed 2-3 times. Otherwise, spasm of the muscular system may occur, nervous overexcitation. And then the general condition will worsen.
The physical exercise can reduce pain. It improves the mobility of the joints, relieves tension in the muscles, and their tone increases. All this in general improves the flow of blood in the veins, the circulation in the tissues.
Exercises for gymnastics are selected by a physician of physiotherapy exercises. He focuses on the individual characteristics of the patient: the degree of joint damage, the general condition of the body. And exercises are performed under the supervision of an experienced instructor.
For different departments, their gymnastic complex is selected, that is, for neck arthrosis, only exercises are used, and for the spine disease - quite different.
Arthrosis of the ankle - symptoms and treatment
Degenerative changes in cartilage tissue lead to its gradual destruction. If this process affects the ankle, there is a significant increase in size, which causes injuries to adjacent soft tissues. This disease is called arthrosis of the ankle - symptoms and treatment of pathology can be different for each specific case, and also depend on the factors that provoked cartilage integrity disorders.
Causes and symptoms of arthrosis of the ankle
Some diseases of the musculoskeletal system can lead to the development of this disease:
- flat feet;
- curvature of toes.
In addition, an important role in the degenerative changes of cartilaginous tissue is played by heredity, individual features of the body and joint structure, the presence of endocrine pathologies, inflammatory and chronic ailments.
The disease described, arising from the listed reasons or suddenly, without accompanying provoking factors, is primary. In medicine, it is known as chronic deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint.
Also trigger the mechanism of degenerative cartilage destruction can its external damage. Especially often such diagnoses are put to professional athletes, whose activities are associated with increased stress on their legs. In such cases, there is posttraumatic arthrosis of the ankle, characterized by microcracks on the cartilage, articular bag, a decrease in the production of synovial fluid.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- joint pain, usually with physical exertion;
- stiffness of movements, palpable muscle tension of ankle;
- appearance of corns on the foot and fingers;
- joint deformity, which manifests itself in changes in gait, body position;
- swelling in the area of damage, redness of the skin;
- is a proliferation of bone tissue( in later stages).
How to treat arthrosis of the ankles?
Therapy of the disease consists of a set of measures aimed at stopping inflammation, pain and recovery of mobility.
Treatment of arthrosis of the ankle:
- Taking or injecting pain medications( Diclofenac, Naproxen).
- Physiotherapy( phono and electrophoresis, shock wave, UHF).
- Perform special gymnastics and exercise therapy.
- The use of chondroprotectors based on chondroitin, as well as biostimulants.
- When exacerbated, injections of steroid drugs directly into the cartilage( Piroxicam, Indomethacin).
If the listed methods of conservative therapy prove ineffective, the doctor may prescribe a surgical operation( arthrodesis, prosthetics, arthroscopy).
Treatment of arthrosis of the ankle at home
In uncomplicated form, the severity of the symptoms of the described disease can be reduced independently. To do this, it will be necessary:
- It is correct to choose shoes with a heel about 3-4 cm and a comfortable insole.
- Every day perform simple exercises( bends, tilts of the foot).
- To massage the joint, try manual therapy, working on the biologically active points of the feet.
- If necessary, take anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal drugs in tablets.
- To fix the damaged area with elastic bandage or a special sock in case of severe pain and swelling, leave the foot in a state of rest.
In addition, it is widely practiced treatment of arthrosis of the ankle by folk remedies. They are effective only at the initial stages of development of pathology and should be used as auxiliary methods.
Excellent foot baths with broths of mint, ledum, burdock, and hay are excellent for pain. Also recommended are compresses with mustard powder, infusion of violets, oregano, juniper.
Hip Osteoarthritis Symptoms
Hip Osteoarthritis Symptoms
Complex Cartilage Disease
Arthrosis refers to a joint disease that affects their cartilaginous tissue. Cartilage is needed to ensure that the bone in the joint moves gently and smoothly. It serves for good sliding of the surfaces of the bones of the joint relative to each other. But over time, the joints grow old, the cartilaginous tissue is worse restored by microtrauma, and with more significant harmful effects it begins to deform and collapse more quickly. Diseases can be susceptible to all the joints of a person. And in the group of risk, first of all, dancers come, and people of those professions, where the load on the joints is very large - builders, loaders, miners.
Normal and affected with arthrosis hip joint
What is the danger?
Osteoarthritis of any joint, if in time not to consult a doctor and not treat the disease, can lead to complete immobility of this joint and even to a surgical intervention. With dystrophic changes in the cartilage, the body begins to compensate for its deficiency, the build-up and ossification of the connective tissue begins at the junction of the joint bones. The joint loses its mobility, the person begins to experience increasing pains, and with time the mobility can disappear completely. In the case of the hip joint, the disease can lead to a fracture of the femoral neck, widespread among the elderly. The risk of fracture increases with an incorrect position of the bones of the hip joint, their weak mobility. In women in adulthood, there may be a deficiency of calcium in the bone tissue, which leads to additional fragility of bones.
Types of arthrosis and major lesions
Hip arthrosis lies in wait for older people, because cartilage wears out over time. And the more merciless people treat them in youth, the more likely it is to get this disease with the years.
Women suffer from arthrosis of the hip joint more often than men, and the disease is more severe, but unpleasant and dangerous symptoms should not be ignored by anyone. Because with the timely diagnosis of the disease, it can be treated more effectively, prevent exacerbations and choose a therapy that, with the least inconvenience to the patient, will help to avoid pain or discomfort.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of the disease will help to determine arthrosis of the hip joint. One of the main symptoms, of course, is pain in the groin, which is sometimes transmitted to the femoral part of the leg, or to the buttock. Usually, the pain does not reach below the middle of the thigh, less often to the middle of the shin. They usually spread along the front or side of the thigh and lower leg.
Pain in the hip - the main symptom of the disease
It is difficult to detect the disease at an early stage, as the pain is not very strong and appears only when moving. Usually the patient hopes that it is not dangerous, not serious, and eventually the disease will go away by itself. Over time, the pain becomes stronger. At first the joint hurts only at the beginning of movement, and then, when the person walks for a while, the pain weakens and even stops. Pain can also occur with severe stress on the joint.
With the course of the disease, there is an increasing degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue, the surfaces of the joint articulation of the bones begin to touch without damping cartilaginous tissue, the pain becomes permanent. It does not stop even when the movement stops, it worries the patient day and night, interferes with night sleep.
In the joint when moving, you can hear a dry crackle, which should not be confused with crunching a healthy joint, not accompanied by pain.
Over time, the patient begins to avoid unnecessary movements that cause pain. He can not get up from sitting or lying alone, "ride" a chair, legs wide apart. The difficulty is trying to move your foot to the side or press it against your chest. Even the motion of a patient with a foot in a lying position causes pain.
Once the cartilaginous tissue is severely degraded, it is replaced by the body with a connective tissue, which eventually heals, and the bones in the articular joint take an incorrect position relative to each other. This can lead to a shortened leg. In rare cases, the aching leg is lengthened. The difference in the length of the legs can be seen most of all when the patient lies on his back, stretching his legs.
Symptomatic of the disease
Subsequently, the gait also changes. The patient begins to fall on the aching leg, his posture is bent, the muscles are in constant unhealthy tension. And because of the painful sensations the patient's mental state changes, he becomes irritable, nervous exhaustion appears. Due to the constant incorrect posture and curvature of the spine, increased load on the group of muscles supporting the spine, pain may eventually develop in its lumbar region.
With the further development of the disease, the blood vessels and nerve endings, which go to the muscles of the diseased leg, are squeezed ever harder. Her muscle mass decreases, muscles begin to atrophy, and over time, such muscle deterioration becomes, clearly visible. In place of attachment of the tendons of these muscles in the knee, too, there is pain. Sometimes it is mistakenly interpreted as a symptom of the disease of the knee joint, since this pain may be stronger than the pain in the groin, buttock and thigh, typical for arthrosis of the hip joint.
Osteoarthritis can affect both one and both joints. And in the second joint, after the first, too, there are painful sensations.
How is the disease diagnosed?
The correct diagnosis can be made only by a qualified doctor. To establish such a diagnosis, an examination using an X-ray or ultrasound is often prescribed.
The probability of developing the disease appears for many reasons. To it may be a hereditary predisposition, the cause can be severe stress on the joint, including overweight, malnutrition, hypothermia, stress, impaired metabolism. In order to establish the cause of the disease, and therefore to prescribe the correct treatment, it is sometimes enough to simply ask about the patient's work and lifestyle and dietary preferences. Less often resort to the analysis of metabolism, hereditary characteristics, and even a special blood test for a genetic predisposition to arthrosis.
If the cause of the disease is established correctly, in order to avoid the recurrence of exacerbations and prevent the progression of the disease, this cause needs to be eliminated. In the case of excessive loads, it is sufficient to change the mode of work or rest, to stop the exercises, which lead to overwork of the joint and muscles. If the cause of the disease is malnutrition or overweight, a special diet is being developed, which the patient will need to follow to improve his condition.
Prevention and timely access to a doctor is a guarantee of health
With timely access to a doctor and qualified diagnosis, many problems can be avoided, and if you start the disease and hope for a spontaneous cure, you can get a lot of trouble - from complete loss of mobility to mandatory surgery with the replacement of the jointon the artificial. If the disease is not treated, it can provoke the development of other diseases - nervous exhaustion, degeneration of the femoral muscle, diseases of the lumbar spine.
Video - Osteoarthritis of the hip joint symptoms
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint: treatment, preparations
Doctors call osteoarthrosis an epidemic of the XXI century. According to statistics, every sixth inhabitant of the planet suffers from it. To date, it is not possible to completely cure this disease. However, there are methods that help stop its development and significantly improve the lives of patients.
Osteoarthritis( it's just arthrosis, or deforming arthrosis) is a chronic disease in which the articular cartilage is destroyed. Over time, their wear leads to negative changes in the surrounding tissues: muscles, ligaments, articulating bones.
A painful process can develop in any part of the body, but most often affects the supporting joints: hip, knee and wrist. And in this sad list is the osteoarthritis of the knee joints( gonarthrosis), which is revealed in 40-50% of patients.
- 7 The best method of fighting - prevention
Culprits of the disease
Although arthrosis is not life-threatening, it is one of the main causes of premature disability, yielding only to cardiovascular pathologies in this sense. It is believed that the disease occurs due to metabolic disorders in the cartilage tissues. Among the most likely factors that contribute to the development of this phenomenon doctors are called:
- Age. After 50 years, the ability of cartilage to reduce self-healing. In addition, with age, the body loses the moisture necessary to maintain the elasticity of the cartilage. However, this does not mean that all elderly people should suffer from ostearthrosis - a simultaneous combination of several factors is required to include the mechanism of the disease.
- Female gender. In women, arthrosis of the knee joint is diagnosed 10 times more often than in men. This injustice is associated with a genetic predisposition - the ailment is transmitted on the maternal line.
- High stress on the knee joints. Miners, loaders, professional athletes, dancers are at risk. The cause of the disease in them is a permanent microtraumatism of articular cartilage.
- Overweight. People with superfluous kilograms suffer from arthrosis 4 times more often than their slim peers. Excess weight not only increases the load on the joints of the legs, but also causes the violation of blood flow in the limbs, which makes it difficult to transport nutrients to the cartilage tissues.
- A sedentary lifestyle. Many patients with osteoarthrosis have many office workers. For normal operation of the joint, it is important that it receives a sufficient number of useful compounds. If a person spends most of the day without moving, the flow of necessary elements decreases.
- Endocrine pathologies and diseases of the osteoarticular system. Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, gout, arthritis, and osteoporosis contribute to impairment of innervation or nutrition of the joints.
- Dysplasia( weakness) of connective tissue. This is a congenital defect, which is manifested by hypermobility of the joints, because of which the load on them significantly increases and they wear out before the time.
The main symptoms of knee arthrosis
The first sign of osteoarthritis is pain. In the early stages of the disease, it is mechanical, that is, it occurs after physical exertion, prolonged walking, climbing the stairs, or just towards evening, when fatigue accumulates. Unpleasant sensations pass after rest.
Sometimes the pain can be episodic, appearing suddenly, for no apparent reason. Acute seizures occur when pieces of splinter cartilage fall into the joint cavity. In such cases, the disease is complicated by synovitis - inflammation of the internal( synovial) membrane of the joint bag. The affected area swells and becomes hot.
Over time, pain syndrome increases and worries already continuously. In the morning, patients need time to disperse and "develop" a knee. During the movement, crunching sounds and clicks due to the destruction of the cartilage can be heard. In the later stages, the joint becomes practically immobile.
What happens to the joint?
When gonarthrosis affects the entire knee joint. But everything begins with the defeat of its cartilaginous surface.
During movement, the cartilage acts as a shock absorber, making it easy for the bones to slide relative to each other. At the same time, the slightest load( walking, running, jumping) leads to the destruction of some part of it. In a healthy joint, instead of old cartilaginous fibers, new ones are formed immediately, so the person does not feel any discomfort. But in people with ostearthrosis, the processes of recovery occur at times more slowly - the cartilage becomes more and more delicate and fragile until it finally breaks down.
Along with the articular surface, the underlying bone also changes. At the edges of the joint, bone growths are formed, which deform it and cause inflammation of the surrounding tissues.
When should I contact a rheumatologist?
Very often patients with ostearthrosis come to see a doctor only when the pain in the knee becomes intolerable. Alas, such a picture in the overwhelming number of cases indicates that the joint has already been seriously destroyed and the patient can save only surgical prosthesis.
That's why it's important to contact specialists as soon as possible - with the appearance of the first signs of discomfort in the legs. In the early stages, the course of the disease can still be corrected, keeping the patient's "native" joint and normal working capacity.
How is the examination?
An experienced physician, in order to suspect gonarthrosis, it is enough to examine and talk with the patient. However, additional studies may be needed to confirm the diagnosis:
- X-ray examination.
This is how the joint looks from the inside
According to the X-ray images, the doctor will evaluate the degree of destruction of the cartilage and determine the stage of the disease.
- ultrasound. Allows you to examine soft tissue and detect fluid accumulation in the joint bag, which is not available to the X-ray machine.
- Arthroscopy. This diagnostic method is used only in the most severe cases. During the procedure, a cut is made above the knee joint, where the mini-camera is inserted with the lighting device. The tool allows you to look at the bones, cartilages and reveal changes in surrounding tissues, as they say, from the inside.
- MRI. An optional but very desirable method of investigation. It allows you to notice the slightest deformations in the joint, when even the external signs of the disease are not clearly pronounced.
How is arthrosis of the knee joint treated?
Treatment of osteoarthritis is a long and complex process. In the early stages, non-drug therapies are recommended, which help to cope with the symptoms and stop the progression of the pathological process. To such measures first of all are:
- Therapeutic physical training. A special set of physical exercises designed to strengthen the musculoskeletal system, it is necessary to perform 2 times a day. Gymnastics well improves blood flow and restores nourishment of joints.
- Massage. Manual techniques are aimed at relaxing the pathologically tense muscles, eliminating spasmodic pains, strengthening lymph and blood circulation in the diseased area.
- Physiotherapy. Electrophoresis, ultrasonic irradiation, mud therapy, electromagnetic therapy are used as auxiliary agents. Different methods help reduce pain and eliminate inflammation. The optimal set of procedures is appointed by the attending physician.
- Acupuncture. Stimulation of biologically active points in the process of acupuncture leads to an increase in the production of hormones of joy - endorphins and enkephalins, which contribute to the removal of pain.
What drugs are used to treat arthrosis of the knee?
Drug therapy is aimed at both eliminating symptoms and restoring damaged joint tissues.
During the exacerbation of the disease, treatment begins with the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).This group of drugs( Movalis, Celebrex, Diclofenac) effectively relieves pain and inflammation, but does not affect the articular cartilage. In addition, NSAIDs negatively affect the gastrointestinal tract, so they can not be used for a long time. In severe pain and synovitis, drugs are administered intramuscularly, in other cases, tablets and capsules are recommended.
Chondoprotectors are used to stimulate the restoration of cartilaginous tissues. Most of these drugs are based on chondroitin( chondroxide), glucosamine( DONA) or their combinations( Structum, Artra).Both compounds are natural components of articular cartilage. They improve the metabolism in the joint and protect it from further destruction. To obtain the desired effect, these medicines must be taken for a long time - within 2-3 months. The form of administration is tablets or powders.
However, the best effect is given by injection chondoprotectors based on mucopolysaccharides( Alflutop) or hyaluronic acid( Durallan).They are injected directly into the cavity of the joint bag and take on the role of lubricant, which facilitates the sliding of the cartilage relative to each other. As a result, the destroyed joints experience much less stress. But these medications can be used only at the initial stages of the disease, until the joint space narrowed. To maintain the result, the course should be repeated 2 times a year for several years.
Another type of injection involves the introduction of a joint of corticosteroid hormones( Diprospan).They quickly eliminate inflammation and swelling, but have a large set of side effects, so they are recommended by doctors only in extreme cases.
From local treatments that are combined with internal medication, doctors can recommend a wide range of painkillers( Voltaren, Ketonal) and chondoprotective( chondroxide, chondroitin) ointments. The former are used for exacerbations of the disease, the latter for periods of calm.
In the last stages of arthrosis, the replacement of the knee joint becomes the only measure that helps to improve the patient's condition. There are practically no age limits for the operation. But most often patients of the surgeons are people aged 50-70 years.
In endoprosthetics, the destroyed joint is replaced by an artificial joint, consisting of metal and polymers. He serves for 15-20 years. The operation is under general anesthesia. Within a day the patient is allowed to move with crutches, after 5-7 days they are discharged from the hospital. After a month of outpatient observation, the crutches are replaced with a cane. The whole period of rehabilitation takes 2-3 months.
Recommendations for home treatment
At home, follow the recommendations given by your doctor. It is useful to perform gymnastics - but with a small amplitude of movement and only during periods of calm of the disease, so as not to accelerate the destruction of the joint. It is good, if the complex of exercises will be selected individually by a specialist in physiotherapy exercises. Some doctors believe that swimming can be an excellent alternative to gymnastics: cartilage is not loaded during water procedures, but muscles and ligaments are strengthened.
In the absence of puffiness, warming compresses can become a good help in the fight against the disease. To this end, apply dry cotton-gauze dressings or bags with heated salt. Compresses are heated in the oven and applied to the affected joints once a day for 20-25 minutes.
It is also possible to apply anti-inflammatory applications with dimexidum, bischofite alone and use portable physiotherapeutic devices.
Outside of exacerbations, self-massage of the knee joint is allowed. For this, the patient's leg, slightly bent at the knee, is laid on the couch, the second is lowered to the floor. It is not the joint that needs to be massaged, but only the surrounding tissues. The procedure is performed between meals( 2 hours after and 1.5-2 hours before meals).
Muscles of the legs should be relaxed as much as possible. Massage is carried out with the use of cosmetic oils( peach, apricot), baby cream or recommended by the doctor anesthetic ointments. The area around the knee is stroked, rubbed and circularly massaged with pads of fingers. The procedure is carried out for 5-10 minutes and is completed by the application of a dry warm bandage.
It is very important to establish the correct motor mode against arthrosis. The load from the affected joint should be minimized. Long walks are not recommended, frequent descents and ascents on the stairs, lifting weights. Half-hour walks are required to alternate with a 10-minute rest.
The chairs in the house should be with armrests, so that it is convenient for the patient to get up from them - the main emphasis for lifting should fall on the wrists, and not on the legs.
During forced physical activities it is desirable to use special fixatives - knee pads, supporting bandages, elastic bandages. In addition to relieving knee joints, supportors and orthopedic insoles will help. Choose them individually, taking into account the nature of the foot.
If you have difficulty with movement, you can use ancillary tools - walking sticks, crutches. The cane should be matched exactly for growth. It is important that its handle is located at the base of the thumb. If the left knee hurts, the cane should be in the right hand, and vice versa.
Patients with arthrosis are strongly encouraged to revise their menu. From the diet it is necessary to exclude fatty meat dishes. They contain arachidonic acid, which provokes inflammation of the joints. You can replace meat food with fish. It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, releasing arachidonic acid from the body.
Arthrosis of the hands: symptoms, treatment and photos
Deforming arthrosis of the hands is a disease of small bones of the hand, leading to a gradual destruction of the cartilaginous layer between the joints. Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive disease leading to irreversible changes in the joints, which is difficult to treat and at the last stages greatly hampers life.
Symptoms of arthrosis of the hands
One of the causes of arthrosis is a violation of metabolic processes, which is most often observed in old age. In addition to age-related changes, the provoking factors in the development of the disease can be:
- Hand Injury;
- Long, constant load on the hands, which is observed when doing physical work;
- Congenital anomalies in the development of the structure of the bones of the hand;
- Rheumatoid arthritis, gout, endocrine diseases.
The appearance of the following symptoms may indicate that the small bones are deformed:
- Pain in the hand that appears when doing physical work.
- Crunch in the joints when moving;
- Puffiness of phalanges of fingers;
- Sensation of tension in the muscles of the hand.
This disease can lead to such sad consequences.
Arthrosis of small joints in the hands has three stages of the disease.
- The first stage is characterized by the appearance of minor pain after performing a long, monotonous work. At rest all symptomatology disappears.
- The second stage is the intensification of soreness, discomfort does not last a long time. There is an unpleasant crunch when you move your hand, puffiness. The patient avoids doing some movements. Periodically there is inflammation of the joints, which is manifested by swelling of the phalanx of the joints, the radiocarpal region. When the inflammatory process can raise body temperature, there are symptoms of intoxication.
- The third stage - the deformation of the joints is strengthened. Soreness is strongly pronounced, it occurs both during exercise and at rest, some movements can not already take place. The cartilaginous layer is almost completely destroyed, there are bony overgrowths along the edge of small and large joints. At the third stage, the development of osteoporosis is possible. The lack of the necessary motor activity leads to a decrease in the tone of the muscles of the entire arm.
With arthrosis of the hand, the interphalangeal joints of the second, third and fourth fingers are most often involved in the pathological process. This disease is more typical for people of a certain profession - text-makers, seamstresses.
Diagnosis is made on the basis of examination, analysis and X-ray images. At the first stage, there is a noticeable narrowing of the joint between the articulations on the radiograph. At the second stage, the picture can show a picture of the formation of bone growths around the joint. The third stage is a complete closure of the joint space, deformation of the entire joint, while the mobility of the patient in the wrist is lost almost completely.
Treatment of arthrosis brush
The sick person needs to know that the degenerative changes in the joint that have started can not be changed, but the process of their destruction may well be under control. Applying to the appearance of the first clinical signs to the doctor, it will be possible to stop the process of cartilage destruction, which will stop the disease at the first stage, preserve the fullness of movements and work capacity. Complex treatment of arthrosis includes:
- Anesthesia. Patients usually go to the clinic at the appearance of pain, so the doctor's task is to relieve the pain syndrome with analgesics.
- Anti-inflammatory therapy.
- Suspension of the process of destruction of cartilage tissue. Chondroprotectors are prescribed for this purpose, this group of drugs must be drunk for a long time, sometimes up to several months. Chondroprotectors are necessary for everyone who is ill, as they do not allow further deformations to develop, stop the destruction of cartilaginous tissue.
Arthrosis of interphalangeal joints of the hands at the last stages of the development of the disease with a pronounced inflammation, severe pain and deformity can be treated with corticosteroids. At the beginning of the disease can be treated with physical therapy, laser treatment, medical gymnastics. To remove the pain, you can use and therapeutic ointments with active painkillers and anti-inflammatory components.
During the period of treatment and throughout life to a patient with arthrosis, it is recommended to include certain dishes in food. First of all, it is a cold, welded from legs, ears, bones of animals - collagen and gelatin contained in them, strengthen the durability of cartilaginous tissue, improve the circulation. When arthrosis is shown and the use of lactic acid products. Exacerbation of the disease can cause alcohol intake, so many patients still refuse alcohol at the first stages. In the diet of patients it is necessary to include as many fresh vegetables, greens, fruits as possible. In the absence of diseases of internal organs and after consulting with a doctor, it is possible to carry out medical starvation. For a patient with arthrosis, it is important to get enough vitamins and antioxidants, the most important for cartilaginous tissue are vitamins A, E, C.
In the treatment of deforming arthrosis of interphalangeal joints on the fingers of the hand along with prescribed medications, performance of massage and special gymnastics is indicated. To conduct them, you can contact a specialist, and you can perform some exercises yourself. Self-massage includes:
- Easy rubbing of all fingers, the very arm and forearm;
- Mash of the palm and fingers. For these purposes, you can use a suitable rubber ball.
Rubbing is performed by the pads of the fingers of the other hand with circular and stroking movements. Ease of movement provides massage oil, purchased at the pharmacy. It can also be prepared by mixing olive oil with sesame oil and adding vitamin A in a solution in an amount of 10 ml.
Inflamed joints of the hands need periodic rest, so patients need to alternate physical activity with periods of relaxation. When performing any kind of work, the brush should be rest every hour, during breaks, you can spend relaxing gymnastics. The doctors note that the inflammatory process in the first stage rarely passes into the subsequent if the patient passes the entire course of treatment and constantly performs the recommended exercises.
Treatment of arthrosis with folk remedies
Together with the course of treatment prescribed by a doctor, you can use folk recipes - various self-prepared ointments, rubbers, compresses. For small joints of the hand, you can use trays with hay. A small amount of hay bales are poured with boiling water and in hands with hot water they hold hands for about 20 minutes. The procedure is recommended daily. Instead of hay, you can take grass mother-stepmother, turns, the root of the fox.
Helps to relieve pain and inflammation of the honey - salt compress. Honey in the required amount is mixed with salt, the mixture is wetted with tampons, they are applied to the damaged joints, bandaged and left overnight. Inflamed joints can be applied warm clay with medicinal components, such a drug is sold in a pharmacy. Inside, it is recommended to use brewed leaves from a young birch. Decoction of birch leaves cleanses blood and affects the improvement of metabolic processes in the body.
Treatment of arthrosis of small joints is a long process, requiring compliance with certain working conditions, vitamin complexes, preventive drugs throughout life.
Arthrosis of the knee joint: symptoms and treatment
- 5 Prevention of arthrosis with diabetes
Osteoarthritis - what is it?
Arthrosis is considered an old disease and is formed when there is insufficient intake of vitamins, microelements and collagen substances into the body.
Cartilage in the joint serves as a protective lining between the bones. Wear of cartilage in the knee joints occurs daily with motor loads - walking, sitting down, climbing the stairs. This process should be supplemented by the formation of new cells in the cartilaginous tissue and replenishment of the joint fluid. With a lack of nutrition and blood supply, cartilage ceases to restore its structure, arthrosis is formed.The name deforming arthrosis is used starting from the second stage of the disease, when the tissue of the knee cartilage is significantly worn out or absent altogether( third stage).
- In diabetics, the main source of problems and complications is insufficient blood supply. The blood of a diabetic patient is dense and viscous, it slowly moves along the vessels and does not fully supply the cells with oxygen, nutrition. Thus, diabetes promotes arthrosis.
- During the life of cells, so-called waste is formed. Their transportation to the organs of excretion( intestines, lungs, bladder) also occurs with blood flow. Reduced blood flow does not provide a full discharge of carbon dioxide and other wastes. Thus, intracellular poisoning and inflammation are formed.
- Diabetes is associated with obesity in 85% of cases. Excess weight is a source of stress on the exhausted knee joints. The combination of fasting cartilage tissue and increased stress forms one of the complications of diabetes - arthrosis of the knee joint.
Causes of arthrosis in diabetics
In addition to the main cause of the disease - cartilage wear and its inability to recover, there are additional factors that accelerate the appearance of the disease:
- Frequent heavy loads on the knee joints( obesity, too long pedestrian movements) - form the conditions for the wear of the hyaline( knee)) cartilage.
- Low motor activity - reduces blood flow and forms complications.
- Frequent microtrauma( work in the guard or on loading) - require replenishment, healing and increased amounts of nutrients and collagen substances.
- Arthritis - inflammation of the joints, often provokes their destruction - arthrosis.
- Age-related disorders of collagen synthesis. It is a protein that occupies 25% of the total protein composition of the human body. Collagen consists of any connective tissue - cartilage, ligaments. With age, the person weakens the synthesis of collagen, which provokes arthrosis, arthritis, dislocations, fractures.
Symptoms of arthrosis: how does the disease manifest in diabetics?
The main symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint are pain, inability to perform movement, slight periodic swelling.
1. In the early stages of the disease, the pain appears suddenly and lasts for a short time. Most often, painful sensations arise when walking on a ladder and rise from a sitting position( from a chair, a sofa, an armchair).In rest the pains pass and do not disturb.
The appearance of sharp pains is preceded by several years of periodic weak painful sensations with prolonged walking or running.When the first weak symptoms appear, you should pay attention to your diet, assess whether the body receives collagen, calcium, vitamins, and review the level of physical mobility and lifestyle. Doctors advise diabetics to make daily walks on 3-4 km. And also to diversify the menu with vitamin dishes, use collagen supplements, quit smoking, alcohol and night parties.
2. The next stage of the disease is manifested in an increase in puffiness. Sometimes the amount accumulated around the joint fluid increases and passes to the back side of the patella - under the bend of the knee. Such a tumor is called Baker's cyst. For its treatment, surgery is not necessary. Used anti-inflammatory and anti-edema drugs, hormone drugs.
How to treat arthrosis of the hands?
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease characterized by damage to the cartilaginous tissue. Worldwide, disease is one of the most common causes of disability. Among all cases of , about 20% are hand lesions. This is a very unpleasant affliction. Strong pain, loss of motor functions and violation of fine motor skills brings a lot of troubles and inconveniences. Understand the question of how to treat arthrosis of the hands is not easy. It is not always possible to completely heal the joint, but with timely diagnosis it is possible to alleviate the symptoms and stop the development of the disease, not allowing critical deformations.
Causes and factors contributing to the emergence of
The basis for the occurrence of arthrosis is hereditary predisposition. Genetic disorders of collagen synthesis are observed in patients prone to this disease, but more precisely the cause of such deviations is not established. However, there are a number of factors that indirectly contribute to the development of arthrosis.
The causes of arthrosis of the hands can be completely different
Heavy manual labor and large permanent loads on the joints of the fingers and wrists increase the risk of arthrosis. People whose professional activities are connected, mainly with the work of hands, are more likely to have arthrosis. Another factor, in part related to physical exertion, is joint trauma.
The next group of causes includes concomitant health problems. Diabetes mellitus and other diseases of the endocrine system, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity and psoriasis can become additional risk factors. Congenital pathologies of the joints, for example, dysplasia and dislocations, can lead to arthrosis in the future.
Lifestyle, as in the case of many other diseases, also plays an important role. Excessive use of alcohol has an effect on the occurrence and course of the disease. Also, proper nutrition, lack of excess weight and a favorable ecological situation are important. All these factors reduce the risk of arthritis of the hands, the treatment of which can be very difficult and expensive.
Symptoms and stages of the disease
The disease has several stages, characterized by varying degrees of severity of the disease. Accordingly, the symptoms vary from stage to stage. For the initial stage of the characters, periodic pain in the joints of the fingers with active movements or hands. Also at the onset of the disease can indicate a crunch in the joints. Sometimes already in the first stage there is a small swelling in the area of the joint, which is then transformed into a small nodule, the so-called gabberden nodule.
Osteoarthritis of small joints of hands can develop both at a young age and in the elderly.
The second stage is characterized by progressive pain, which becomes constant and intensifies when moving. Limited mobility of the joint is observed. Gradually the atrophy of the muscles of the hand or the damaged finger is intensified. The joint increases in size due to the formation of nodules of Gaberden or Bushard( bony growths).Often, the nodules of Gaberden are formed symmetrically on both hands. Their appearance may be accompanied by burning or throbbing pain, but in some cases it is painless. After a few months, redness and swelling disappear, leaving only solid nodules. Bushara nodules are formed on the lateral surface of the joint, develop longer and without exacerbation. Both those and others become the reason of restriction of mobility of a joint.
During the third stage, joint mobility is almost completely limited. The nodules of Bushard and Gaberden expand over time and lead to considerable deformation of the fingers or the hand as a whole. In addition, bone formation deforms the joint itself, leading to the destruction of cartilage and bones. The area around the affected joint may swell and blush. Severe pain and limited mobility cause considerable inconvenience, leading to the impossibility of performing the simplest household activities. Tired of reading? Then look at the video of the gymnastics of the hands.
In the diagnosis of arthrosis of the hands, treatment may vary depending on the stage of the disease. However, in any case, it is desirable to establish the cause of the disease, and if possible, remove the negatively acting factor. For example, excessive strain on joints or permanent injuries.
Medical treatment of arthrosis of the first and second degree presupposes the use of drugs-chondroprotectors. With a sufficiently long application, they can stop the destruction of the cartilage. Sometimes chondroprotectors are even able to reverse the damage to the cartilaginous tissue. .
If the patient experiences severe pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to alleviate his condition and relieve inflammation. To remove pain, use, for example, ibuprofen, diclofenac, pyroxam. In case of complications, for example, synovitis, corticosteroids are used topically or inward.
At the first stages of arthrosis, correctly selected exercises can be effective. For example, a simple exercise gives good results, the essence of which is to drum your fingers on the table. The amplitude of movements should not be large, movements should not injure damaged joints even more. Other exercises on fine motor skills can also give results, for example, picking small objects, rosaries, using foam toys, etc.
Osteoarthritis of interphalangeal joints of hands( X-ray).
Sometimes a special massage of the hands is useful. The technique of percussion is used, that is, tapping. With this massage, the massage therapist presses the patient's hand to his knees with his palm and strikes with the other hand. In the beginning, the impact force should be small, but with time the intensity increases.
It is important to remember that any severe pain during massage is a signal to stop the procedure immediately and to lessen the impact in the future.
Sometimes diagnosing arthrosis of the hands, the doctor appoints the treatment using various methods of physiotherapy. Magnetotherapy, electrophoresis, and laser therapy are applied. The use of these techniques leads to improved cartilage trophism. Warming paraffin wipes can also be prescribed, which relieve the pain syndrome.
Methods of prevention
Arthrosis of the hands, the symptoms of which can be very unpleasant, requires a very long and complex treatment. Therefore, to try to prevent the onset of the disease is much more desirable than to take a complex, and sometimes inefficient, treatment. Since predisposition to arthrosis is transmitted genetically, there are no special prevention methods. However, following a few simple tips will reduce the risk of disease.
First of all, it is very desirable to think about choosing a profession even in youth. Constant stress on the hands increases the likelihood of problems with joints. Therefore, pianists, people who constantly work with the keyboard, massage therapists are more prone to arthrosis. If the profession still requires a load on the brush, all possible measures should be taken to reduce this load. A convenient workplace, a keyboard and preventative exercises will help reduce the risk of disease.
The most common disease occurs in women during menopause. This is due to a change in the hormonal background. Decreased estrogen leads to significant loss of moisture in the body, including cartilage and joints, which makes them more fragile. Replenishment of fluid loss is very important, especially in the period of hormonal changes.
For the prevention of arthrosis, you can apply a special massage. The main techniques of preventive massage:
- rubbing the palms of each other;
- rubbing the fingers of one hand with the fingers of the other, is carried out first in the direction from the base to the nail, then - in the opposite direction;
- bending and unbending of fingers without clenching into a fist;
- with firmly folded palms pressing fingers of one hand on the fingers of the other;
- pressing fingers against each other with the diluted palms.
If the diagnosis is already set, count for a quick cure is not necessary. The process of joint repair is very long and difficult, but knowing how to treat arthrosis of the hand, it is possible to significantly alleviate the pain sensation and slow down the processes of destruction of the cartilaginous tissue and joints. If you know about the predisposition of family members to this disease, you should think about prevention in advance. Timely measures taken can reduce the risk of developing and severe disease. If you leave comments on this article, we will be very grateful to you.