Knee joint gonarthrosis of 2nd degree - treatment
Gonarthrosis - arthrosis of the knee, deforming arthrosis - a disease in which progressive destruction of the articular cartilage is observed.Symptoms and stages of gonarthrosis
In the development of the disease, doctors distinguish 3 degrees:
- With gonarthrosis of 1 degree, pain occurs only after prolonged physical exertion. In the region of the knee, there may be a slight swelling, which quickly passes by itself. At this stage, it is possible to cope with the problem of traditional medicine methods.
- With gonarthrosis of the knee joints of the 2nd degree, the pains become frequent or constant, arise even in a state of rest and are intensified after the exercise. When walking, flexing and unbending the leg in the knee, there may be a crunch and clicks. The knee is swollen almost constantly, its apparent deformation is observed. In addition, there is a joint stiffness, which can decrease throughout the day. At night, there may be pain in the calf muscles. Treatment of gonarthosis of the 2d degree requires taking a number of potent drugs, and folk remedies can only be used as auxiliary ones.
- With grade 3 gonarthrosis, visible significant joint deformity, permanent pain, limitation of mobility up to the impossibility of stepping on the aching leg, pronounced lameness. Conservative treatment at this stage is usually ineffective and surgical intervention is required.
How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree?
At the 2nd degree of knee joint gonarthrosis, treatment with conservative methods is still possible, but it should be performed under strict medical supervision. Treatment of gonarthrosis includes a whole complex of measures:
- Drug intake.
- If possible, reduce the load on the affected joint. With unilateral gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, the use of the cane is a good way to reduce the load, but in the bilateral form of the disease, when both knees are affected, this method is not available and it is necessary to limit oneself to special knee pads.
- Physiotherapy - laser, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis, low frequency vibration. Helps reduce puffiness, pain and inflammation.
- Massages, manual therapy and therapeutic gymnastics. They help improve blood supply, joint development and restoration of normal mobility.
- The diet for gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is an obligatory component of the treatment and is designed to normalize the weight( since the fat deposits create additional stress on the joints) and ensure the supply of the necessary vitamins and minerals. The food should be fractional( 4-5 times a day), contain a small amount of fats and as little salt as possible, be rich in plant and animal proteins, B, C and D. Vitamins.
Knee Joints Grade 2
Standard Schemetreatment of gonarthrosis prescribes the use of medicines of such groups:
1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:
They are used primarily to relieve the pain syndrome and to a greater extent eliminate symptoms than have a prolonged therapeutic effect.
- Chondroitin sulfate.
These are medicines containing synthetic analogues of the substances that make up the cartilaginous tissue of the joint. Contribute to the restoration of cartilage, but should be taken regularly, long courses. To the same group include preparations of hyaluronic acid, which is an analogue of articular lubrication.
3. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids. They are used in short courses for acute symptoms and severe pain.
4. Ointments and compresses - used to relieve swelling and reduce pain. Of the ointments, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most effective:
For compresses, most often used drugs such as Bischofite and Dimexid.
Knee joint gangarthrosis
Gonarthrosis is a deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, a degenerative-dystrophic disease in which the hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of the tibia and femur is affected and gradually degrades. In the late stages of the pathology, when the cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, the bone tissue begins to suffer, the disease acquires the character of osteoarthritis. The bone becomes denser, cystic cavities are formed, osteophytes grow at the edges of the joint, which causes the loss of joint function and disability.
Gonarthrosis is in the first place in terms of prevalence among all arthroses. Mostly middle-aged and elderly people, mostly women, are ill. But gonarthrosis of the knee joint can also occur in young people. In such cases, it is often a secondary process and develops after the trauma of the knee joint( posttraumatic gonarthrosis).
Gonarthrosis develops gradually over many years. The main signs of the disease: pain in the knees, the integration of their mobility and the periodic development of synovitis( accumulation of fluid inside the articulation).At first, the symptoms of arthrosis are almost invisible, but as the joint deteriorates, it becomes more intense and negatively affects the quality of human life.
This is how the knee joint affected by arthrosis
Reasons and types of knee joint gonarthrosis
As a rule, it is impossible to single out one cause that led to the development of gonarthrosis. In most cases, there are 2-3 or more risk factors for the development of the disease.
The main groups of reasons:
- Increased load on the components of the joint. This situation is observed in athletes, in people engaged in heavy physical labor, as well as in patients suffering from obesity.
- Knee injury, congenital or acquired deformities of the musculoskeletal system. In such situations, the load on the joint is distributed unevenly and some areas of the cartilage are under increased pressure, which causes their destruction. An example of such deformations can be flatfoot, kyphosis, scoliosis, incorrect fusion of bones after fractures, etc.
- Disruption of the cartilage tissue metabolism and its ability to self renewal. This situation leads to a shortage of substances in the body, necessary for the regeneration of hyaline cartilage, metabolic and endocrine disorders, a decrease in microcirculation in the tissues of the articulation.
- Disturbance of secretion of synovial fluid in the knee joint. As you know, the synovial fluid, which is produced by the synovial membrane of the joint, provides smooth movements, reduces the frictional force, and also nourishes the cartilage, which does not have its own vessels. If, for some reason, the synovia becomes smaller, degenerative changes develop in the cartilage, it cracks and collapses.
There are many more risk factors for gonarthrosis. Their definition is very important not only for treatment, but also for prevention. Having got rid of such negative influence, it is possible to completely stop the development of arthrosis and preserve the full function of the lower limb.
Depending on the causes of the onset, two types of gonarthrosis are distinguished:
- Primary - diagnose when the true cause remains unknown. At risk are women, elderly people, patients with obesity, with metabolic and endocrine diseases.
- Secondary - set when there is a clear connection between arthrosis and its causative factor. For example, after a joint injury or surgery.
As a rule, the primary gonarthrosis is always bilateral, and the secondary one affects only one knee.
According to ICD-10( International Classification of Diseases 10 revision), gonarthrosis has the M17 code.
Reinforced knee joint loads may cause development of gonarthrosis
Degenerative gonarthrosis levels
Gonarthrosis is a chronic and slowly progressive disease. Symptoms, prognosis and tactics of treatment depend on the degree of pathological changes in the joint. There are three clinical stages of the disease:
- Arthrosis of the 1st degree is characterized by the appearance of pain or discomfort after an increased stress on the joints, at the end of the working day. After rest, all signs disappear on their own. The amplitude of the movements is not disturbed, there is no deformation of the joint.
- Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree. At this stage, pathology is diagnosed in most people, because it constantly makes itself felt. Patients complain of pain in the joint even after minor loads. Rest does not give the desired relief, and you have to take various painkillers. There is a limitation of the amplitude of movements in the knee, begins muscle atrophy, you can see the initial stage of limb deformation.
- Knee Osteoarthritis of the 3rd stage. The pain bothers the person round the clock, for its occurrence it is not necessary even to load a joint. Anesthetics do not help anymore. The mobility of the knee is partially or completely lost, its deformations develop, which is often the cause of disability. Treatment in this case is only surgical.
4 degrees of arthrosis does not happen, but there is a fourth X-ray degree of pathological changes in the joint, which coincides with the third, clinical stage.
Symptoms of the disease
At the initial stage of the disease, it is difficult to diagnose, as patients do not take the symptoms seriously and perceive them as normal fatigue. Most people can not even say that they are concerned about pain, most likely, unpleasant sensations in the knees after work or excessive load of joints, which completely and quickly disappear after rest.
A characteristic sign is pain during descent or ascent on stairs, as well as starting pain( occurs at the first steps after rest, then disappears).Outwardly, there are no changes. From time to time, patients may note some swelling( reactive synovitis).Also, most people complain of crepitation in the knee( crackling sounds with active and passive movements).
Pain in the knee joint is the first and the main sign of arthrosis
As arthrosis progresses, the pain becomes more intense, appears more often after minor loads. Independently does not pass, which often prevents a person from falling asleep. We have to take analgesics. Synovitis appears more often, have a more persistent current. Also a rough crunch develops during movements. The amplitude of movement decreases. It becomes difficult for a patient to perform familiar things, for example, to get off his knees. The knee joint begins to deform, it becomes wider, the shin bends( the beginning of the formation of O- or X-shaped deformation of the legs).
At the last stage the pain is intense and constant, it is not removed even by medications. Significantly difficult movements in the knee, especially flexion. The leg is in a forced position. The knee is enlarged in volume. There may be varus or valgus deformities of the legs.
Because of the described changes, gait and limb support function are disrupted. This leads to the fact that a person moves only with the help of an additional support( crutches, walking stick) or is not able to walk at all.
At the 2 nd and 3 rd stage, it is not difficult to establish a diagnosis. You can do this at the first, but only if you suspect a disease. Diagnostic program includes:
- examination by a doctor orthopedist or rheumatologist;
- clarifying complaints and identifying risk factors;
- objective examination of knee joints, determination of the amplitude of their movements;
- X-ray examination;
- joint ultrasound;
- in severe for diagnostic cases resort to MRI or CT;
- standard laboratory tests for blood and urine.
Radiography is a valuable and informative method for diagnosing gonarthrosis
Conservative treatment of
Knee arthrosis therapy consists of several methods, individually they are ineffective, but if you use the whole treatment complex, very soon you will begin to move without pain.Read more: How to cure arthrosis of the knee joint?
The main tasks of treatment of gonarthrosis:
- relieve a person from pain;
- to adjust the nutrition of cartilaginous tissue and accelerate its recovery;
- improve microcirculation;
- reduce pressure and pressure on diseased hyaline cartilage joints;
- to develop a good muscular knee joint corset for protection and support;
- to increase the mobility of the joint;
- prevent deformation and ankylosis.
This can be done using the methods described below.
Not essential, but allows you to quickly eliminate pain and signs of inflammation. Most often prescribe drugs from the group of NSAIDs( diclofenac, meloxicam, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, celecoxib, aceclofenac, etc.).These drugs are used for both systemic therapy( tablets, injections), and for topical treatment( ointments, gels, creams, patches).They quickly and effectively relieve the pain, but they are forbidden to take long courses, as severe adverse reactions may occur.
Chondroprotectors are on the second place. These medicines in their composition have chondroitin and glucosamine( the main structural elements of the cartilage).Thus, it is believed that chondroprotectors with long-term admission can stop the progression of the disease and contribute to the restoration of already destroyed cartilage. Among the most popular drugs worth noting: Arthra, Dona, Structum, Teraflex, Hondrolon, Alflutop. Treatment should start with a monthly course of intramuscular or intra-articular injections, and then switch to 3-4 months of maintenance therapy with tablets. Only in this case it is possible to achieve a positive result.
Dona - modern and effective chondroprotector
The intra-articular injections are a popular method of treating gonarthrosis. Inside the knee can introduce chondroprotectors, as well as glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drugs of long-term action( Diprospan, Kenalog).The pain passes even after 1 injection, the effect can last for several months.
Also today, the introduction of so-called liquid transplants of synovial fluid( Fermatron, Hyastat, Synvisc, Ostenil) is popular. These drugs are based on hyaluronic acid, which compensate for the synovial deficiency in the joint and promote the resumption of cartilage.
Therapeutic exercises are the most important element of arthrosis therapy. Without regular special physical exercises, it is almost impossible to achieve improvement. Complex exercise therapy is selected individually, depending on the stage of arthrosis, the age of a person, his physical fitness, the presence of concomitant diseases.
Simple and effective complex of exercise therapy for arthrosis of knee joints:
Other methods of
Other methods of conservative therapy are:
- Massage and physiotherapy. They are used during remission, when acute pain is absent. Allow to improve blood circulation in the tissues of articulation, which contributes to the regeneration of damaged structures.
- Orthopedic aids. To protect the joint and prevent the progression of arthrosis, you can use special knee pads for physical work or sports. They perfectly support the articulation and protect it from damage. At the last stage of gonarthrosis, a cane can be used to facilitate movement and reduce pain.
- Treatment with folk remedies. Folk methods of therapy are very popular among the population. There are not one dozen recipes that can help reduce pain, improve the mobility of knee joints. But we must not forget that such treatment should be used only as an additional one, and not replace all other methods. Also, before using any prescription, you need to consult a doctor about possible contraindications.
Operation with gonarthrosis is prescribed in the following cases:
- inefficiency of conservative therapy;
- constant pain, which can not be eliminated in other ways;
- deformity or ankylosis of the joint;
- loss of leg function;
- patient desire.
Before and after arthroplasty of the knee joint
There are 2 groups of operations that are performed with gonarthrosis:
- organ preserving,
- knee arthroplasty.
All modern organ-preserving surgeries are performed by arthroscopy. There are several options for surgery: arthrodesis, arthroscopic debridement, periarticular osteotomy. The surgeon chooses the necessary procedure depending on the individual characteristics of the patient.
Endoprosthetics is the most effective and widespread type of operation for gonarthrosis. Replacement of the destroyed joint with an artificial prosthesis( in some cases, and bilateral prosthesis) allows you to save the mobility feet and live a full life without pain. It is also important to know that success depends not only on the operation, but also on the correctness of the rehabilitation period. Sometimes only such cardinal measures can help a person to move again without pain.
Two-sided gonarthrosis of the knee joint, treatment of any degree, diagnosis and prevention of the disease.
Gonarthrosis is a disease related to the degenerative-degenerative type. This is the most common type of arthrosis. It is characterized by progressive destruction of the knee cartilage, accompanied by deformation and dysfunction of the entire joint. This disease is observed, as a rule, in people in old age. Most often they suffer from women.
The development of the disease leads to a narrowing of the joint cracks, which causes the rapid deterioration of the cartilage. The process is accompanied by the restructuring and deformation of bone tissue. As a result, there are osteophytes, called spines. Increasing, they cause pain. If the treatment of knee gonarthrosis does not begin on time, then the most unfavorable consequences can be expected in the form of destruction of the cartilage and exposure of the bones under it. The result is a complete deformation of the joint.
This disease has a common name - "salt deposition".And for this there are grounds. Indeed, arthrosis of the knee joints can be accompanied by the deposition of calcium salt in soft tissues, but this process is of an organic nature and does not have clinical significance.
Causes of the disease
Depending on the origin, gonarthrosis is of two kinds:
Primary or idiopathic
Scientists have not yet been able to identify its cause. As a rule, this is a bilateral gonarthrosis that occurs in elderly people with excess weight.
It is the result of an earlier knee pathology: trauma, infection, chondromatosis. As a rule, this is a one-sided affliction that appears in people outside of any dependence on age.
The main symptoms of
The insidiousness of the disease lies in the absence of pain at an early stage. Therefore, it may take years before the patient seeks help from a specialist. At first, people feel barely noticeable pain that occurs after long walks or in other situations when their legs experience increased loads, for example, when walking on a ladder.
This disease has 3 degrees of
On the first occasionally shows dull pain. It occurs only after exercise and may be accompanied by swelling of the knees. At this stage, the knee does not yet have a pronounced deformation.
Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree has already more pronounced symptoms. The pain intensifies and becomes longer in time. Patients complain of stiffness in the morning, they use analgesics. There is a crunch when walking, and the joint increases in size, its flexion or extension is very limited.
GGonarthrosis of the 2nd degree has already more pronounced symptoms. The pain intensifies and becomes longer in time. Patients complain of stiffness in the morning, they use analgesics. There is a crunch when walking, and the joint increases in size, its flexion or extension is very limited.
In the third stage of the disease, patients experience almost unceasing painful sensations, which are aggravated by weather changes. Their gait is disturbed. The knee acquires a larger volume and changes shape. There are valgus - X-shaped deformations and varus - O-shaped.
This disease is diagnosed with the help of X-ray study, which allows you to put a fairly accurate diagnosis to find out the stage of the disease, and also to track the dynamics of its development. With a disease such as gonarthrosis of the knee, treatment requires a mandatory change in the lifestyle of the patient. It is important to start eating right, and also get rid of bad habits.
To people with a diagnosis of gonarthrosis, gymnastics helps to stop pathological processes and increase muscle tone. There are special sets of exercises, which you need to learn from a specialist, and then do them several times a day. It is necessary to rest lying down after work for at least 40 minutes.
You can reduce pain, and also relieve inflammation with anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs. For this, medicines from a number of chondroprotectors are used, they replace the synovial fluid. For warming, apply half-alcohol compresses, as well as warm baths with pine needles or sea salt.
Physiotherapy techniques are also effective in the fight at the initial stage. Patients are treated with phonophoresis with hydrocortisone, diadynamic currents, ultraviolet irradiation, electrophoresis with novocaine, laser and magnetic therapy, UHF, foot massage.
Patients are assigned to wear individual insoles. They use when walking the cane to unload their joints. Sometimes special orthoses are used to relieve pressure on certain bone areas.
When conservative therapy does not have an effect, one of three operations is performed: arthroplasty, arthrodesis or corrective osteotomy.
- Arthroplasty can restore the lost motor function of the knee. During the operation, a new joint surface is modeled and special pads are placed in it, which replace the affected parts. They are produced from the patient's own tissue or artificial material.
- In arthrodesis, bone fixation is performed with the help of various devices( screws, plates, transplants).After that they fuse. But the restrictions in the movement will still remain. An arthrodesis allows to forget about a pain at an arthrosis.
- An osteotomy is called dissection of bones and their subsequent fixation in a functionally correct position. Due to this operation, the distribution of loads on the joint bones will be more even, with normalization of intraosseous pressure, and pain disappears.
Osteotomy is the dissection of bones and their subsequent fixation in a functionally correct position. Due to this, the distribution of the load on the joint bones becomes more uniform and, as a consequence, intraosseous pressure normalizes, and the pain disappears.
In arthrodesis, bone fixation occurs with the help of special devices( transplants, plates, screws).After that, they grow together. Although the motor limitations still remain, but this allows you to get rid of the pain with deforming arthrosis.
Arthroplasty will restore the lost motor functions of the knee. During the operation, new articular surfaces are modeled and special spacers are placed between them, which will replace the affected areas. The gasket is made of an artificial material or the patient's own tissue.
Grade 2 Grade - what is and how is treated
Degenerative-dystrophic disease, or grade 2 gonarthrosis, occurs after the defeat of the cartilage tissue of the knee joints. The ailment causes unpleasant sensations - both soreness, and difficulties of bending of the legs, and deformation of the tissues. Disregard for yourself is fraught with serious consequences, is therefore important in time to seek medical help.IMPORTANT TO KNOW!A new means of restoring joints in 99% of subjects. The pain goes away 100%!Read more here - & gt;
Gonarthrosis is one of the first places among diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Most often they suffer women over 40 years of age, in the stronger sex, the disease manifests itself much less often.
Gonarthrosis 1 degree, in the absence of treatment which develops the second, appears due to excessive body weight, varicose veins, sedentary work and various problems with the knees. In addition, it is increasingly being used by athletes who are more prone to damage, such as meniscus ruptures, fractures and bruises.
Symptoms and differences of the 1st and 3rd degree
The mechanism of the development of the disease is the following: a slight damage to the cartilage leads to degeneration, an increase in pressure on certain areas of the joint surface. About that, what is gonarthrosis of 2 degrees and about all its manifestations the patient learns when the destruction of the knee begins. At the same time there is a metabolic disorder in the connective tissues and the saturation with chondroitin decreases.
Has gonarthrosis of 3 severity, the most common among which is the average, as only then people begin to pay attention to health and treat. This is due to the fact that the disease lasts for a long time imperceptibly, and at first it simply does not matter. To prevent complications and complete immobility, you need to know the course of the course of gonarthosis:
- gonarthrosis 1 degree. Bilateral gonarthrosis 1 degree is difficult to identify - periodically arising pain, swelling and joint changes are insignificant and invisible;
- gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree. At the 2nd stage of gonarthrosis, the intensity of excruciating sensations increases, they become longer, appear both from physical exertion, and in the mornings. The person begins to worry about the crunch and difficulty of flexing-extension of the leg. The knee deforms and increases in volume. Inflammation of the synovium - this is determined by swelling, fever and redness. The general condition of the patient is characterized by rapid fatigue;
- gonarthrosis of the 3rd degree. It is characterized by constant, persistent pain, the patient becomes sensitive to changes in weather conditions. The walk is severely disrupted, because it can be difficult to move your legs.
Specialists distinguish one-sided and bilateral development of the disease. In the first case, the joints of one of the lower limbs are affected. Thus, left-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree leads to more serious consequences in the left leg. But more often a complicated variant is diagnosed, when the knee is subjected to both knees. In addition, rheumatologists classify it depending on the cause:
- primary gonarthrosis. Primary bilateral gonarthrosis of 2nd degree is more common in elderly patients. As its causes are called increased load as a result of excessive weight, leg curvature, genetic predisposition and hormonal disorders.
- secondary gonarthrosis. It occurs after, or against the background of the pathology of the knee joint - infection and trauma. In most cases, it is unilateral and is observed in people of any age.
Prevention and treatment of
Getting rid of gonarthrosis is a complex and time-consuming process, therapeutic charging and special massage are widely used for this. Two-way gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is treated with - medications with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hondoprotectors. In addition, a warning and complete relief from an illness requires adherence to the principles of a healthy lifestyle.
Gonarthrosis is a serious disease that has been known for many decades. Until recently, there was an opinion that it is impossible to get rid of the disease, but modern medicine allows us to achieve significant improvement in the condition of patients. It all depends on how quickly the patient will notice signs of ill health, will undergo diagnostic measures and begin treatment.
The disease of gonarthrosis is quite common these days. First of all, it affects people involved in sports. Two-sided gonarthrosis and one-sided affects the knee joints, resulting in:
- blood circulation disorder;
- desiccation of cartilaginous tissue;
- deformation of the joint.
Otherwise, this disease is also called osteoarthritis, arthrosis and deforming arthrosis, which affects the knee joint. It starts at the molecular level, progressing over time into a complex disease. As a result of its course, the cartilage can completely disappear, which will lead to the exposure of the bone. It goes without saying that in this case it is extremely difficult to make any movements, because the pain syndrome manifests itself very strongly.
The subsequent progress of bilateral primary gonarthrosis leads to the inability to perform flexion in the knees, which threatens to completely immobilize the knee joints and eventually splice the bones.
Causes of the disease
It is not a secret that the knee joint of a person is one of the largest. It allows not only a person to make moves with his feet, but, and is recognized, to support a heavy human body. As a result of this accumulation of obligations, this area is considered the most traumatic. The most common cause of the emergence of primary gonarthrosis bilateral is old age, when the joints and cartilaginous tissue are in a very worn and battered state. However, there are other reasons that contribute to the premature development of the disease. Among them:
- The presence of any knee damage. As a result of the injury, the patient begins to develop posttraumatic arthrosis in the knee area.
- The presence of a disease that is detrimental to cartilaginous tissue. To such diseases it is possible to carry an arthrosis.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Admission of specific drugs.
Stages of the disease
Like any other disease, bilateral deforming gonarthrosis can be observed in three stages. Each of the stages is accompanied by a certain process of change in the joint region. So, the first stage is assigned at the very beginning of the disease, when no clear signs of gonarthrosis are observed. For this period, the symptoms of a pain symptom in a dull form are characteristic after physical exertion, jogging or long walking. At this stage, the periodic appearance of a tumor in the knee region, which after a time without intervention disappears. Deformation of the joint at the initial stage does not occur.
Two-sided gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is assigned when the symptoms begin to carry a rather revealed character. Pain manifestations during this period accompany the patient much more often, and are expressed most intensively. This stage is characterized by the appearance of a crunch in the knee region, which can occur as a result of movement. After a long period of inactivity, there is some stiffness in the joints, especially during the hours after sleep. Such stiffness can pass after charging. This period is characterized by an increase in the joint and its defogurirovannost.
The third stage of the disease, of course, is the most difficult. During this period, the previous symptomatology develops, while the pain syndrome accompanies the patient almost always, regardless of the position of the knee. The appearance of pain can depend on the weather factors, while the motor activity is reduced to a minimum. Bilateral gonarthrosis of the third degree can be manifested in O-shaped and X-shaped deformations.
In order not to start the development of the disease and start its treatment in time, it is necessary to consult a doctor when the slightest symptoms appear. It goes without saying that it is with the visit of a specialist that the process of diagnosing a primary gonarthrosis bilateral disease begins. After the examination, the doctor sends the patient to the X-ray, as a result of which the doctors manage to note the deformation of the knee joint, and also after a time after the first picture to track the dynamics of the disease.
The initial stage of the disease, for example, bilateral gonarthrosis 1 degree can be detected and using magnetic resonance imaging. To avoid the error of diagnosis, the patient is sent for the delivery of various tests.
Treatment of bilateral primary gonarthrosis
After diagnosis of the disease, the patient is first of all assigned conservative treatment. It goes without saying that such treatment can be carried out only at the initial stage of gonarthrosis, because this treatment is not calculated for more complex stages. It is worth noting that the treatment of gonarthrosis is carried out in a complex way, which allows achieving a positive result in a much shorter period.
- First and foremost, therapy is prescribed, where the main place is taken by taking various analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. With their help, it is possible to significantly reduce the intensity of the pain syndrome, and also to remove the inflammation in the affected area. In this case, the basis of drug treatment is made up of drugs called chondroprotectors. In addition, the patient is prescribed the use of drugs aimed at replacing the synovial fluid.
- The second component of the treatment is physiotherapy. Its basis is therapeutic gymnastics, electrophoresis, magnetotherapy and other varieties of such treatment. Therapeutic gymnastics today plays a big role in the treatment of diseases associated with joints. Specialists prepare a set of exercises for patients with bilateral deforming gonarthrosis, which can improve blood flow, reduce pain and restore mobility to the joints.
- The third component of the treatment is orthopedic treatment. To this option applies the use of various orthopedic adaptations, for example, canes, orthosis and others. With their help, it is possible to achieve unloading of the joint, which is simply necessary for bilateral gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree and other stages.
- The last option is surgical treatment. This option is necessary at the advanced stage of the disease, when no other treatment can produce the proper effect. Surgical intervention can be performed only with the permission of the patient. The doctor in advance is obliged to discuss with the patient all the conditions of the operation, the subsequent recovery period, and also to report on possible alternative options. Most often, patients with a grade 3 bilateral gonarthrosis resort to this option.
One of the most important components of the treatment of diseases associated with cartilaginous tissue and joints is strict adherence to diet, no exception is gonarthrosis bilateral, whether it be 1 degree, or what other. Before starting treatment, the doctor must adjust the patient's diet. It is very important in this case to observe the daily calorie intake, and not to allow its excess. This is most significant for people who are overweight. In the diet should be included protein food, in addition, it should pay special attention to various broths and jellies, no exception are flooded.
Among products that negatively affect the development of gonarthrosis primary bilateral, a special place is taken by alcohol, milk and some types of vegetables. These foods should be eliminated from the diet. Compliance with such a diet will positively affect the patient's condition, and will also promote a speedy recovery.
Gonarthrosis: signs, forms, diagnosis, what is it?
- Prevention of gonarthrosis
A disease affecting every seventh inhabitant of the planet is a gonarthrosis. It is a non-inflammatory, degenerative-degenerative process. It flows in a cartilaginous tissue covering the head of the bones that form the knee joint. Develop the disease can be unnoticed for several decades, and can arise in just a few months. Sometimes the ailment leads to disability.
Gonarthrosis often occurs in parallel with other diseases of the knee joint. Because of the imposition of signs of one ailment on another, it can be extremely difficult for doctors to clearly distinguish the symptoms of gonarthrosis.
Signs and stages of gonarthrosis
A typical symptom of gonarthrosis is a feeling of constriction and stiffness in the knee joint. The onset of pain after prolonged walking, prolonged sitting, standing or lying. To become lighter, you usually have to "poke" your leg. With the development of the disease, discomfort becomes more stubborn and permanent. Limited mobility of the joint develops.
Often, patients who are diagnosed with granitis, feel a crunch at the time of motion by the knee. When the disease progresses, lameness develops.
In the most difficult clinical cases, the patient becomes unable to move without the assistance of unauthorized persons, some supports or crutches. Often when lying down, discomfort disappears, but there are times when pain reappears at night.
It's good to understand what it is - gonarthrosis is possible if we consider the stages of the disease:
- gonarthrosis 1 degree: no external deformation of the knee, slight swelling of the joint, periodically showing severe pain;
- gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree: intense unpleasant sensations even after minimal load, pronounced "joint crunch", problems with full knee flexion;
- gonarthrosis of 3 degrees: discomfort is experienced constantly, because of this - sleep disturbance, the body's response to weather change;the mobility of the joint is severely limited or absent completely, the gait changes, deformity of the legs is observed - they can have an X or O-shape.
Kinds of gonarthrosis on the side of localization
Given that the knee of which leg( right, left or both) will be diagnosed with an ailment, in medicine there is a right-sided, left-sided and bilateral gonarthrosis. Regardless of the location of the site: in one or both laps, the severity of the symptoms will depend on the severity of the course of the disease. The intensity of therapy will also be determined by the degree of neglect.
In medical practice, situations are very common where patients are diagnosed with one of the complex forms of arthrosis of the knee joint - gonarthrosis bilateral. Moreover, the cases of the development of the disease at once on two legs are much greater than the cases of the appearance of the disease on the one hand. In either case, gonarthrosis is primary - there is no apparent cause, and secondary - a provoked injury or disease.
Usually the primary form begins to form in childhood or young age. To serve as an excuse may be the formation of articular surfaces or ligamentous apparatus.
Due to the fact that the joint during walking constantly brings out loads that are not commensurate with its capabilities, it begins to deform. In adults, the disease can occur in the ordinary life cycle.
Usually primary bilateral bilateral gonarthrosis diagnoses to the elderly. Great risk of gonarthrosis in those who have an increased body weight. In this case, the malaise, small bone vessels are first affected by pathological changes. Because of this, the supply of essential nutrients to the synovial fluid that feeds the knee cartilage is impaired. Therefore, he begins to "feel hungry."
Then the turbidity begins to form in the joint, thinning and stratification of the tissue takes place. In some areas, the cartilage can disappear completely, exposing the surface of the bones. In response to such changes, the bones are flattened and expand into sides. Deformations are exposed to other elements of the knee - muscles, ligaments, capsule. Gradually the joint loses the ability to perform its functions and "fades."
The development of secondary gonarthrosis by the trigger mechanism in most cases becomes systematic traumatization of the cartilage.
Secondary posttraumatic gonarthrosis occurs against the background of such injuries as ligament ruptures, fractures, dislocations, severe knee injuries. This form of the disease develops in the same way as the primary gonarthrosis. Therefore, it needs timely treatment to the doctor and adequate treatment.
The development of the secondary form of gonarthrosis can result:
- operations to remove the meniscus - they disrupt the integrity of the knee structure and lead to its rapid wear;
- disproportionately high burden on the legs, injuries;
- large body weight - exerts excessive pressure on joints and cartilage of the knee;
- arthritis - inflammation of the joints: a prolonged course of the disease leads to the formation of fluid in the joint cavity, which in time can be complicated by arthrosis;
- surgery performed on the knee;
- radical metabolic disorders, which cause deposition of salts in the cavities of joint tissues;
- other factors and diseases, which for a long time were accompanied by spasm of the muscles of the legs or blood vessels.
Bilateral deforming gonarthrosis
One of the diseases, whose tactics of treatment at a modern level of development of orthopedics is far from unambiguous, is a deforming gonarthrosis. According to the generally accepted opinion in medicine, there is only one factor in the progression of degenerative changes. It is represented by a violation of the limb axis, which subsequently leads to a significant overload of the knee joint articular tissue.
The treatment of deforming gonarthrosis should be considered separately, since it does not fit into the usual treatment regimen. This is due to the need for preventive surgical interventions. Their goal is to normalize biochemical relationships in the knee joint, which is necessary both to prevent the development of the disease and for treatment. This correction gives good results.
With the advent of arthroscopy, surgeons quickly realized the value of this method of treatment with deforming gonarthrosis: minimally invasive and low traumatism. Already at the beginning of the operation, you can determine the further treatment tactics. If there is no cartilage in the inner and outer parts of the joint, total endoprosthetics is used. In the presence of one of the cartilage departments, corrective osteotomy may be indicated.
Right-sided gonarthrosis: symptoms and treatment
The main symptom of the disease is pain in the right knee. At the onset of gonarthrosis, a feeling of stiffness in the joint disturbs only in the morning. In the future, unpleasant feelings can manifest themselves after a long walk or stay on their feet. If you do not start treatment on time, in the late period of gonarthrosis the pain will be constantly disturbed. A person can not lead a habitual way of life for him.
There will be a characteristic crunch in the knee joint, the severity of which will depend on the progression of the disease. Obvious will be the deformation of the right knee joint, because of what the movements in the joint will gradually be limited. This is the most unfavorable manifestation of such a disease as a right-sided gonarthrosis.
For successful treatment, it is required to relieve the load from the knee with the help of such measures:
- weight loss;
- performing special exercises to strengthen the muscles of the right leg;
- limits the time spent on legs and walking.
Left-sided gonarthrosis: symptoms and treatment
The leading sign of left knee joint damage is pain. When gonarthrosis, they are initially palpable in the morning and go through a certain time.
In later stages of the progression of the disease, the pain of the left knee becomes noticeable after a long hike or standing on the legs. The insidious symptom of gonarthrosis is the restriction of joint mobility and deformity of the knee.
At first the patient notices that he can not completely bend his left leg in the knee. With the passage of a long time, when the left-sided gonarthrosis progresses, the volume of movements in the knee decreases. The patient becomes increasingly difficult to walk, he can even become disabled. With severe left-sided gonarthrosis, unpleasant sensations in the knee are permanent. A crunch becomes audible.
Like the right-sided, the development of left-sided gonarthrosis is inherent in the "morning stiffness" of the joint - the difficulty of knee movements that occurs in the morning. Half an hour later, the volume of movements usually returns to normal.
Prevention of gonarthrosis
Medication therapy for gonarthrosis, despite its popularity and effectiveness, has a modest role. To solve a problem with an ailment prevention first of all helps. To prevent deforming gonarthrosis, a reasonable combination of exercise and rest, exercise in physical education, and timely access to a doctor will help. The active maintenance of the vascular and muscular system in tone will also help.
There are important rules of prevention. They allow, without waiting for the moment when signs of gonarthrosis begin to manifest, to improve the condition of knee ligaments:
- constantly wear comfortable shoes;
- adhere to the right and balanced diet;
- exercise regularly;
- avoid excessive loads on the knee joint;
- take( preferably prescribed by a doctor) vitamin complexes.
To people who have only developed gonarthrosis, careful treatment of the health of knee joints is recommended. To prevent the progression of the disease, you need to avoid hypothermia of the legs. It will be necessary to perform every day for a few minutes all the "bicycle" exercise known since childhood. A complex of simple methods of prevention will help to reliably protect the body from the appearance of gonarthrosis.