Transverse flatfootFlatfoot - a change in the shape of the foot, characterized by flattening, reducing the relief of its plantar surface. This negatively affects not only the foot, but also the entire musculoskeletal system. A heavy degree of flatfoot is the basis for refusing to conscript young men. Few people know that this ailment has varieties. There are flatfoot transverse, longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal.
A bit of anatomy
The main parts of the foot: tarsus, plyusna and fingers. All the bones of these sections are interconnected by a multitude of joints( their number in the foot is 24).In addition, the foot is additionally strengthened by numerous muscles, ligaments, connective tissue tendon plates( fasciae, aponeuroses).All these elements ensure the strength and elasticity of our foot, because it accounts for a significant part of the load when moving and maintaining the body in a vertical position.
Nature has taken care to minimize this load as much as possible. The plantar part of the foot is uneven - due to this it springs when moving, and the load does not apply to the whole surface, but to certain places. The unevenness of the sole has the appearance of bends on its surface, called vaults. In the foot, there are 3 vaults - one transverse and two longitudinal( internal and external).The transverse arch is formed by bones of the tarsus( cuboidal and 3 sphenoidal), and also by the heads of 5 metatarsal bones. What is the transverse flatfoot? This decrease in the height of the transverse arch of the foot, leading to changes in its overall configuration.
The main causes of
Depending on the reasons, this kind of flatfoot can be congenital and acquired. Congenital flat feet mainly develop due to genetically caused disorders of the skeletal structure of the foot or the inconsistency of fixative ligaments and aponeuroses. It should be noted that the foot is finally formed by the age of 6, and many diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system in children are potentially dangerous in terms of flatfoot development.
However, the acquired flattening of the transverse arch is most often observed in adults in the age range from 35 to 50 years. The main reasons leading to this:
- excessive load on the foot - constant long walking, wearing weights;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- osteoporosis - decrease in density and structure of bone tissue;
- inflammatory diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system( rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, gout);
- trauma of the foot( fractures of bones, ruptures of fascia, tendons, muscles);
- age-related degenerative changes in the musculoskeletal apparatus;
- paralyzes of the lower limbs with defeat of the brain or spinal cord( strokes, craniocerebral spinal cord injuries);
And the most common reason is incorrectly selected shoes - flat sole or too high heel. In the first case, with a load on the foot, her bones diverge, all the arches of the foot fall. Apparently, this is connected with the fact that in many cases there is a transversely longitudinal flatfoot, when a decrease in the transverse arch of the foot is preceded by a decrease in the longitudinal arches. At too high a heel( more than 4 cm) the pressure on the anterior parts of the metatarsal bones grows, which diverges to the sides. With the excessive height of the heel, the fact is connected with the fact that among the people suffering from transverse flatfoot 75-80% are women.
Clinical signs of
The main symptoms of transverse flatfoot are:
- pain in the legs and in the foot, increasing with walking;
- increased overall fatigue;
- edema of the feet;
- appearance of characteristic scuffs and corns at the base of the fingers;
- difficulties in the performance of certain movements( for example, to stand on your toes).
Decreasing the height of the transverse arch leads to the fact that the length of the foot in the longitudinal( anteroposterior) direction decreases, and in the transverse direction, it increases. This changes the distribution of gravity to the foot. Normally, most of the load goes to 1 metatarsal bone. With transverse flatfoot, almost all of the load falls on the middle sections( 2 and 3 metatarsal bones).
In this case, the height of the metatarsal bone over the remaining bones increases, 2 and 3 fingers are deformed( beak-like, hammer-shaped deformation), and the 1st finger deviates outwards. The deviation can be so pronounced that the first finger can be placed over the second one. In this case, at the base of the first finger, the cartilaginous tissue grows excessively in the form of a characteristic cone. It is from the angle of the deviation of the first finger that one can judge the degree of transverse flatfoot. Normally, it is 150. Depending on the severity of the deviation, there are 3 degrees of disease:
- 1 degree - no more than 200;
- 2nd degree - 20-400;
- 3 degree - over 400.
The change in the shape of the foot leads to an increase in the load on the other parts of the musculoskeletal system - the lumbosacral spine, shin, knee and ankle joint. In the future this can cause the development of osteochondrosis of the spine, articular arthrosis.
disease Treatment of transverse flatfoot can be conservative and operative. It should be borne in mind that it is impossible to completely get rid of transverse flatfoot, and all medical measures are aimed at eliminating symptoms and preventing flatfoot progression. Conservative treatment is effective with flat feet of 1-2 degrees and includes:
- therapeutic exercise;
- folk remedies;
- orthopedic appliances.
Exercises for feet involve walking on toes and on the heels, on the outer and inner sides of the foot, rolling from the heel to the toe and back, lifting the light objects( pencil, handle) with your toes. It is also recommended, while sitting, to flex and unbend fingers. All these exercises are designed to strengthen the musculoskeletal apparatus of the shins and feet. This is also facilitated by the massaging of the shins and feet, held in the self-massage. All this is quite feasible at home, but on the recommendation of a massage therapist and specialist LFK.
Among the folk remedies used for transverse flat feet are floral and herbal infusions, decoctions( linden, sage, plantain, yarrow), as well as various mixtures of honey, onions, garlic, sea salt, iodine. All this is used in the form of foot basins, compresses, lotions, which strengthen muscle tone, reduce pain, prevent the development of inflammation.
With flatfoot it is necessary to use special orthopedic insoles. Such insoles are made of polymer materials, repeat the contours of the foot and have thickenings in the problem areas - at the base of the fingers. They use it constantly. To wear shoes must be strictly in size, not tight and not narrow. The optimal height of the heel is 3-4 cm. And it is best to use a special orthopedic footwear, equipped with insoles insole and made to order.
With transverse flatfoot of grade 3 with severe pain, surgery is prescribed. In the course of surgery, correction and fixation of transverse water bones, plastic of ligaments, removal of excess cartilaginous tissue are carried out.
Transverse platypodia symptoms
Transverse flat feet symptoms
Plane is a disease that consists in the progressive flattening of anatomical arches. There are three types of this pathology: combined, longitudinal and transverse. As a rule, the most common in humans is exactly a combined flat foot, that is, a pathology that combines several types of this disease.
The essence of the problem of transverse flatfoot
Whatever the flatfoot, there are many reasons that can cause it. Postponed trauma, congenital pathology, lack of vitamins, diseases of the endocrine system, overweight and much more - all this can lead to the appearance of such a violation as flat feet.
Features of transverse platypodia
This type of pathology is more common in women than in men about twenty times. Also a feature of transverse flatfoot is the fact that it occurs at a later age. This type of disease is more common for people older than thirty-five years than for young people.
The severity of the pathology depends on many factors, but one of the most important is the weight of a person. Excessive fullness can lead to a significant deterioration not only of the digestive system, the work of the heart, liver, etc., but also to the development of transverse flatfoot.
Basic symptoms of transverse flatfoot
Each disease has its own symptoms, which help to recognize the disease and start immediate treatment. In some pathologies, symptoms may not manifest immediately, but transverse flat feet symptoms are quite obvious. Therefore, it is very important to know them and, if necessary, contact the doctor in a timely manner.
Degrees of transversal plateloplasty
One of the most important indicators that will help to identify this disease in the early stages is the legacy of shoes. If your shoes, boots, sneakers become too quickly wear out from the inside of the sole, then this is the first alarm signal, which may indicate the presence of flat feet.
You should also watch yourself and pay attention to the endurance of your legs. If they are quickly tired, both walking and static, this is another important symptom of transverse flatfoot. The main signs include frequent cramps, a feeling of heaviness and pain in the legs towards the evening, puffiness of the ankles and feet.
Pain in the legs - the first symptom of the disease
If you have been walking on high heels for many years, and recently it has become impossible due to severe pain and other difficulties, this can also indicate a transverse flatfoot. In general, the presence of this disease leads to a number of difficulties in the choice of shoes. A person with this pathology has to buy shoes several sizes larger than his own due to the non-standard width of the foot. And old shoes, which could be worn for several more years, are not suitable, since the leg does not fit into it.
Two types of symptoms of
All signs of transverse flatfoot can be divided into two types: painful and visual. To a painful kind concerns strong burning sensation and painful sensations in stops, badly transferred cramps in the field of a shin. If the flatfoot is quite neglected, then a person can feel severe pain not only in the foot, but also in the back, hip and knee joints. This in turn can lead to the development of arthrosis in these areas.
The visual manifestations include, first of all, an increase in feet in size. It is difficult not to pay attention to the formation of the transversely-spreading foot - this is how it is called orthopedic specialists. Also, the manifestation of transverse flatfoot is the deformation of the first finger, which is called valgus deviation. It arises in connection with the unnatural distribution of the load caused by the flatfoot.
Anatomy of flatfoot
Another symptom of transverse flatfoot is exophyte. It is a "bone", which is formed in the region of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The second, third and fourth finger take the greatest load, which leads to the fact that they take the form of a "hammer".
Thus, it can be concluded that the transverse platypodia has pronounced symptoms that are becoming more and more noticeable due to progressive deformation processes. A stable deformation of the forefoot causes the biomechanical processes of all components of the musculoskeletal system to be disturbed, which take part in walking and any other movements.
One of the symptoms is a bone on the foot
Diagnosis of transverse flatfoot
Although these symptoms are quite obvious and they can be recognized by everyone, it's not worth hurry to draw conclusions. Only an orthopedic professional trauma technician should make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment. Typically, this requires a specialist examination, examination of the foot using X-rays and an analysis of the patient's gait. In some cases, the diagnosis spectrum can be significantly expanded, but basically this is quite enough.
To diagnostics it is necessary to be taken seriously, as on the quality and results, the choice of the therapeutic method depends, and hence the recovery. Having become a specialist, you need to describe your complaints, painful feelings, etc., in the most precise and detailed manner.
It is recommended, for some time before going to an orthopedic traumatologist, to observe your feet: to determine at what time of the day the pains increase, how quickly the legs get tired, whether it is convenient to walk in the old shoes, etc. Clear and detailed answers will help the doctor as quickly and correctly determine not only the presence of transverse flatfoot, but also to identify the stage before which this disease managed to develop.
Radiography - bone on the big toe
The transverse flatfoot most often occurs due to a prolonged and tedious stay of the patient on his legs. This may be due to the peculiarities of work and lifestyle. Therefore, if possible, correctly form your daily routine, giving your legs a periodic rest. Especially this applies to women who crush their feet with daily high heels.
Another common cause of this pathology is overweight. Excessive completeness leads to a significant increase in the load on the feet, which leads to undesirable deformations, which then have to be combated for years.
It should be noted that if a person is too sedentary, this can also lead to the development of transverse flatfoot. In this regard, we can conclude that in order to not detect symptoms of transverse flatfoot, it is necessary to lead a mobile lifestyle, enough to rest and eat properly. In this case, even the onset of old age will not cause problems with stops.
If you do not consult a doctor in a timely manner, you can "deserve" not only full-scale deformation of the foot, but also a number of other consequences that can greatly reduce the patient's quality of life. Diseases of the pelvis, slowing of blood flow, irreversible changes in posture, ugly gait, etc.- all this can become an integral part of life, if you do not take care of your health.
Video - Transverse flatfoot symptoms
Longitudinal and transverse flat feet: symptoms and treatment, photo. Flat-footedness - what is it?
The foot is one of the main links of the body's support. Its area is about 1% of the entire surface of the body. However, it is the main load that is equal to the mass of the human body. The foot performs several functions: cushioning, supporting, balancing. Under the influence of certain factors, its arch is deformed, a disease such as flat feet develops. As a result, the sole loses its damping features, which is accompanied by unpleasant complications.
Flat-footed - what is it?
The human foot consists of 26 bones. They are interconnected by joints and ligaments, the movement of which is controlled by tendons and muscles. In a healthy person, the foot has 2 arches: transverse and longitudinal. They are located in the base of the fingers and the inner edge of the sole. When walking, a person does not fully rely on the foot. As a rule, three points are involved: the calcaneus, the region of the base of the little finger and the thumb. If the ligaments and muscles of the foot are weakened, its shape begins to change. It gradually becomes flat. When walking, a person has to rely on the soleplate on the surface. As a result, the damping properties deteriorate, flat feet develop. A photo of a leg deformation is presented in this article.
Vaults function as springs or levers, providing comfortable movement with minimal consequences for the body. Damage to this link entails a disruption to the operation of the whole system. The organism, as is known, is a single whole. Any changes in the operation of one system necessarily affect the functioning of the other. Flattening can lead to damage to the femoral and knee joints, deformation of the spine. If the stop does not cope with its functions, they go to the structures above. The spine, knee and hip joints are not adapted to such a load, so they quickly fail.
Classification of the disease
The foot has two arches. Therefore, it is quite justified to isolate the forms of the disease - longitudinal and transverse flatfoot. Symptoms and treatment of each are discussed below. There is also a mixed( combined) variant of the disease.
Classification of the disease by type also provides for the allocation of acquired and congenital flat feet. The first case is extremely rare and is the result of abnormal fetal development. Acquired flat feet can occur at any age. It, in turn, is subdivided into several subspecies:
- is static( arises from a decrease in muscle tone);
- is ricky( as a result of deficiency of vitamin D in the body, the muscular apparatus is weakened);
- paralytic( develops against the background of the transferred poliomyelitis);
- is traumatic( occurs as a result of injuries and fractures of bones).
Symptoms of flatfoot
What signs need to be paid attention to prevent flat feet in time? Symptoms of this disease appear gradually. The very first sign of it is severe pain in the legs at the end of a day's work. By the evening the soles and shins swell, cramps appear. It becomes difficult for women to walk on their heels. Because of the increase in foot from the old shoes, you have to give up and buy a new one, but a larger one. Gradually, the pain syndrome spreads higher, passes to the knee and hip joints. Such signs are characterized not only by flat feet. Symptoms of a similar nature are observed with varicose veins. But treatment for this disease requires a completely different.
To calm yourself, you can conduct a simple test at home. For this, place the soles of your feet with a coloring agent( for example, greenery or iodine).Then leave a print on the sheet of paper so that the load on the foot is uniform. After this, draw a line parallel to the plantar notch from the heel to the fingers. Place the perpendicular in the deepest part to the outer edge of the foot. If the print of the bottleneck of the sole occupies not less than half of the perpendicular to the first line, you have a flat foot. A photo of the example scheme is presented below.
Causes of pathological process
Flattening is a serious disease characterized by foot deformation. In ordinary life, no one pays attention to this defect. Know the features of the disease is in order to take timely measures to correct it. Causes of ailment can be both external and internal. Given the rhythm of modern life and a disparaging attitude towards one's own wardrobe, sometimes flat feet have a mixed aetiology. Even everyone's favorite sneakers can trigger deformation of the foot. Why? The sole of the sneakers is equipped with excellent shock absorption. They take on all the load, fixing the heel. As a result, muscles relax, all conditions are created for the development of such a problem as flat feet. What is a flatfoot, how it arises, is now clear.
Returning to the internal causes of the disease, it is worth noting a number of provocative factors. First of all, this is the presence of concomitant ailments. Rheumatoid arthritis is among them. It affects not only the cartilage, but also the ligaments that are responsible for supporting the foot. Injuries and mechanical injuries to the foot also contribute to the development of a foot defect.
The impact of external factors is easily prevented if you take care of your own health and carefully approach the choice of shoes. Exogenous causes of flatfoot include the following:
- excessive physical load;
- insufficient activity due to work;
- hormonal disorders, pregnancy;
- wrong shoes.
With this form of the disease, the length of the foot increases due to the lowering of the longitudinal arch. As a result, the sole completely touches the floor. In the role of the main sign of deformation is the narrowing of the gap between the inner edge of the foot and the surface of the floor itself. In patients with this diagnosis, clubfoot develops over time.
Three degrees of longitudinal flattening are distinguished:
- At the first stage of the disease development, there is no visible deformation. Discomfort in the legs appears after prolonged exertion. When pressing, pain occurs.
- The second degree is characterized by a change in the arch of the foot. Painful discomfort intensifies and spreads to the ankles and legs. Muscles gradually lose their elasticity.
- The third degree of the disease is marked by pronounced deformation of the foot. Painful sensations in the legs do not pass even by evening. There is discomfort in the lower back, decreased ability to work. A person with the diagnosis "longitudinal flatfoot of the third degree" is difficult to walk in ordinary shoes.
With this form of the disease, the length of the foot decreases, the thumb is deflected, and the middle one is deformed. It takes on a hammerlike appearance. At the base of the first finger appears a small seal in the form of a cone.
There are three degrees of transverse form of flatfoot. Their differences are due to the angle of the deviation of the big toe.
- The first degree is a slightly outlined transverse flatfoot. Symptoms of the disease manifest themselves as it progresses. The deviation of the thumb does not exceed 20 degrees. After exercise, painful discomfort appears. On the foot there are clearly visible papillae in the area of 2-4 fingers.
- At the second degree, the deflection angle is already 35 degrees. With a load, a burning sensation occurs in the area of the sole, the pods increase in size.
- The third degree of ailment is characterized by constant pain. The deflection angle exceeds 35 degrees. Some patients develop bursitis. This disease, accompanied by inflammation of the periarticular bag.
Separately consider mixed platypodia. What is the longitudinal and transverse platypodia, we have already considered, and this pathology is accompanied by the symptomatology, which is typical for both species. The manifestation of features of a mixed form differs in a greater degree of their expression.
What is the difference between flat feet in children?
The leg of a child under five years old is a fragile structure that is in the formation stage. Therefore, the parents are given a great responsibility. They must prevent the disease, recognize it in time and begin treatment.
Children rarely talk about health problems. If they try to hint, the parents do not pay attention to them. Children lead an active lifestyle, are in constant motion, which is usually accompanied by fatigue. But there are certain points that parents should pay attention to:
- flattening of the arches of the feet;
- unevenly worn shoes;
- complaints of a child to leg pain after moving games.
If the gait of the child has changed, it has become less moving, it is necessary to consult an orthopedic doctor. An experienced specialist can recognize flat feet at an early stage. Symptoms and treatment of this disease in children practically do not differ from those in adults. Its unique feature is the reversibility of the pathological process. Gradual maturation of the child is accompanied by a natural release from the disease. The foot is formed up to 13 years. During this period it is necessary to focus on physical activity( running, walking).As a result, the muscles will begin to develop harmoniously, and the foot will acquire the right outlines.
Flattening in adults and children can be determined on the basis of clinical symptoms of the disease. To assess the degree of the pathological process requires a serious examination of the patient. It includes several items. These are:
- Plantography allows you to determine the severity of the pathological process with the help of prints. For this, a solution of methylene blue is applied to the feet. Then make prints on a blank sheet of paper. The plantography gives approximate data on the state of the arches.
- Friedland's method of submetry makes it possible to estimate the percentage ratio of the height of the foot to its length.
- The clinical method is based on the construction of a special triangle. Its base is equal to the distance from the metatarsal head to the heel of the heel. The vertex of the triangle is located in the center. The first leg extends to the highest point of the calcaneus, the second - to the head of the metatarsus. Normally, the height of the arch should not exceed 60 cm.
- The X-ray method is also based on the construction of a triangle, but in this case the vertex angle is measured. This parameter should not exceed 130 degrees.
Based on the results of the examination, the orthopedic doctor can confirm the diagnosis and give advice on treatment.
With flat feet take in the army? This issue worries many young men who have reached adulthood. If the deceased is diagnosed with a deformation of a foot of 1 or 2 degrees, he is subject to service in the ranks of the armed forces. In the longitudinal or transverse flatfoot of the third degree, the youth is freed from the army. He is issued a military ticket with the mark "limited to go."
Principles of treatment
Many people do not pay attention to flat feet, ignore the first symptoms. In fact, this is a fairly serious and rapidly developing pathology, which practically does not lend itself to therapy. Completely cure it can only be in childhood, when the foot is not yet formed to the end. In adults, therapy is aimed at slowing the development of the disease and preventing complications. Treatment of the pathological process is complex. The patient is strengthened by the muscles, eliminates the pain syndrome, stops the progressive longitudinal / transverse flatfoot. Symptoms and treatment of these types of disease are practically the same. Now we will dwell in more detail on modern methods of therapy.
Drugs combined with physiotherapy help to eliminate pain syndrome. Patients are prescribed systemic analgesics( Ibuprofen, Aspirin), as well as ointments for topical application( Dolgit, Voltaren).
The basis of therapy is therapeutic gymnastics. The complex of exercises is selected by the orthopedist taking into account the stage of the disease and the age of the patient. A good therapeutic effect gives a foot massage. Regular procedures help to normalize blood circulation, increase muscle tone. Unfortunately, all listed methods of treatment are effective only at the initial stage of the disease. With strong deformities of the foot, only one option helps - surgery.
Treatment of this disease in children requires a different approach. Most often in small patients diagnosed longitudinal flat feet( that such deformation can not be ignored, should be known to all parents).Pathology is perfectly treatable when it is detected in time. The bones, ligaments and muscles of the child are susceptible to conservative therapy. A positive therapeutic effect is provided by exercise therapy and massage. If a child has a congenital flat foot, it is treated from the very first days of life. To do this, use special bandages and langets.
What is the danger of flat feet?
The human body works as a whole. Between all organs there are not only anatomical, but also functional connections. With flatfoot there is a displacement of the center of gravity. To maintain balance, a person must constantly deviate in the opposite direction. With time, deformation increases, and the back is markedly rounded. Violation of posture and flat feet have similar causes of development. It is the weakness of connective tissue, muscles, and obesity. In a healthy person, the arch of the foot acts as a shock absorber. With flatfoot, it is lost. As a result, the increased load on the spine and knees. This leads to an even more severe curvature of posture, scoliosis.
Deformity of the foot can provoke the development of other specific complications, among which:
- ingrowing of nails;
- bending of fingers;
- heel spurs;
- dystrophic changes in the legs;
- club foot.
Children with this diagnosis are also disturbed by foot shock absorption. As a result, the vibration of the body during movement is transmitted to the lower leg and the spine. Constant irritation of joints leads to inflammation, arthrosis develops. The effect of flat feet on the spine is reflected in its curvature. The child is constantly tormented by pains in the legs and head, his ability to work and progress in school is declining.
Prevention of disease in children and adults
To prevent the development of flat feet, periodic prophylaxis should be performed. First and foremost, doctors recommend paying attention to shoes. Today, in almost every shop, you can buy special orthopedic shoes and insole. The assortment of similar children's products amazes with the variety. Do not forget that shoes and insoles can not correct the deformation of the foot. They only prevent its development.
To strengthen muscles it is useful to make contrasting baths. It is necessary to dip your legs alternately in basins with cold and hot water. In addition, the strengthening of muscles contributes to the regular intake of vitamins in kind( A, E, C, D) and trace elements( such include copper, selenium, calcium).
Prevention of flat feet in children can begin with increased physical activity. It is useful to engage in martial arts, skiing and horse riding. In summer you can walk barefoot on mown grass, pebbles. Such daily walks have a positive effect on the motor skills of the small muscles of the foot.
Symptoms and treatment of transverse platypodia - treatment methods, exercises LFK
Transverse platypodia, its features
In this type of deformity and flattening, the arch of the forefoot is exposed. Pressure is redistributed and begins to act not only on the heel and marginal metatarsal bones.
The load falls on all metatarsal bones, which provokes their divergence in the form of a fan, deviation of the thumb from the correct position, bulging its metatarsal bone and changing the shape of the central fingers to the hammer-shaped one.
Cross-flatfoot women are especially affected after 35 years of age.
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot
- Shoes wear mainly on the inside
- Very rapid onset of fatigue sensation in the legs
- Formation of the transverse spreading of the foot
- Deformation of the first toe, the appearance of the so-called.bones on the head of the metatarsal bone
- Formation of the corpuscles
- Central fingers deform and acquire a hammerlike form
- Pain sensations in the feet
- Shin cramps, edema of the legs
- Back and knee pain that may appear in the late stages of the disease
Transverse flatfoot divide into three degrees independing on the angle of the first finger from its anatomically correct position.
With the first degree of disease, the deflection angle is not more than 20 degrees, at the second degree it reaches a value of 35 degrees, and at the third degree the fold of the thumb is already very significant.
In the last two stages, only surgical intervention is possible. Video pro Transverse platypodia and bones on the legs
Methods of treatment
Flattening is almost not treated, so the later treatment is initiated, the less likely that the disease will recede. Diagnosis consists of examining the orthopedist, gait analysis and radiography.
Treatment is, as operative, in severely neglected cases in the last two stages of the disease, and conservative. Non-surgical treatment is aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal system, which helps to halt or slow the progression of flattening of arches, reduce the severity of pain and reduce the traumatic consequences of the disease.
With a slight deformation of the arches in the first stage of the disease, the basis for treatment is the wearing of orthopedic insoles and rollers. In advanced cases, custom-made orthopedic shoes are needed.
Also actively used for the treatment of massage, physiotherapy, warm baths, relieving pain, and special sets of exercises.
If the disease is accompanied by arthrosis or bursitis of the joint of the metatarsus of the finger, prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics.
Foot massage with flatfoot does not require a mandatory visit to specialists, it can be performed independently by laying the massage mat on the floor.
And also make self-massage with simple massage movements - rubbing with your fist or fingers, stroking the back of your hand, squeezing. Hydromassage also has a good effect.
It normalizes blood circulation and muscle tone. It must be remembered that it is extremely harmful to walk barefoot on a hard floor, the cover must be thick and soft.
For relief of pain and relaxation of muscles, it is useful to make foot baths with sea salt, decoctions of medicinal herbs, for example, sage, lime, chamomile or essential oil of lavender.
Exercises to strengthen the muscles of the footExercises for transverse flatfoot should be devolved for at least 10 minutes daily, but when the complex is performed 2-3 times a day, the effectiveness of the treatment will increase. It should be borne in mind that with the transverse type of flatfoot effect of gymnastics is minimal and they will help only in the early stages. Nevertheless, they will be able to slow down or suspend the process, to serve as an excellent prevention.
- Very slowly bend and then unbend your fingers. The duration of the exercise is not less than a minute.
- Grasp your fingers several times with various small objects: pencils, designer parts, finger batteries. You can do this exercise in another way by replacing solid objects with a sponge.
- Place a piece of cloth on the floor, for example, a diaper or a small towel, and then hesitate and then spread the fabric with your toes. Do this exercise several times.
- Walk along the floor first on tiptoe, and then on the outside of the feet, bending your fingers.
- Without cutting off the toe of the foot from the floor, reduce and dilute the heels.
- Bend and unbend the foot with the maximum possible amplitude.
- Squeeze the rubber ball.
- Slip feet on the floor with your fingers forward and back.
- Roll around with a round stick, rolling pin.
In order not to face long treatment, which does not always lead to success, it is necessary to prevent the disease from childhood, especially if there is a predisposition to flatfoot.
Preventive measures include moving games, long walking, wearing comfortable right shoes, walking barefoot on sand and pebbles.
What is transverse platypodia and its causes
Flatfoot is a disease of various etiologies, characterized by a progressive flattening of the anatomical arches of the foot.
Depending on which of the arches are involved in the process:
- Transverse platypodia
- Combined flatfoot
Independent types of flatfoot are quite rare, mainly in patients there is a combined flat-foot - longitudinal-transverse.
Flattening refers to polyethological diseases. This means that there are many reasons for its development. The hereditary nature of this disease is most often traced. Among the acquired types of flatfoot are distinguished:
- static flatfoot is the most common type. They suffer about 80% of all patients. It is led as a hereditary predisposition( " aristocratic foot "), and professional harm( long static load on the limbs or physical inactivity).Another prerequisite is endocrine diseases, overweight, systemic connective tissue diseases, etc.
- rickety flatfoot - occurs when the foot is deformed due to a lack of vitamin D, is rare.
- paralytic platypodia is observed after paralysis, most often in poliomyelitis due to paralysis of muscles supporting the arch of the foot and tibial muscles.
- traumatic platypodia - is observed as a result of the transferred traumas( a fracture of the tarsal bones, ankles of the calcaneus, etc.).
Congenital platypodia is a rather rare form, preventive examinations help to reveal this kind of flatfoot. An accurate diagnosis can be made no earlier than 2 years of age( since all young children have a flattened foot due to physiological reasons).
Symptoms of transverse platypodia
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot are the most common: pain in the feet, burning sensation, convulsions in the leg muscles, fatigue in the feet towards the end of the day. In far-reaching stages, complaints of pain in the knee are added.hip joints.pain in the back, which can cause the development of arthrosis of these joints.
Visually the front part of the foot increases in size, - the so-called transversely-spreading foot is formed. As a result of incorrect load distribution, due to flatfoot, often appears the deformation of the first finger in the form of its valgus deviation. In the area of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, an exophyte is often formed, called " bone" patients, or "cone " on the foot.2-3-4th fingers, which are carried a large load, take a hammer-shaped form. Thus, during the progression of the disease, the changes acquire a persistent character in the form of a deformation of the anterior part of the foot, leading to disruption of the biomechanics of all links of the musculoskeletal system involved in walking.
Diagnostics of flatfoot
Diagnostics of flatfoot includes the examination of a specialist physician - traumatologist-orthopedist. X-ray examination of the feet. And analysis of the patient's gait. If necessary, the survey spectrum can be expanded.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot
Treatment of transverse flat feet should be performed by a trauma doctor after an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Treatment depends on the degree of flat feet. Treatment of transverse flatfoot can be both operational and conservative( without surgery).
Conservative treatment of transverse flatfoot is complex and involves limiting the load on the feet, selecting orthopedic shoes, using orthopedic devices to normalize biomechanics, reducing excess weight. In the presence of a bursitis clinic or arthrosis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents are used to stop inflammation. In some cases, immobilization, physiotherapy, and massage are used, which helps to reduce the increased muscle tone, and as a result - to reduce pain. Conservative treatment is aimed at reducing pain, as well as slowing down the progression of transverse flatfoot
Surgical treatment of transverse flatfoot is used for severe and persistent pain in the feet and with inefficient conservative treatment. In the center of traumatology and orthopedics, the whole range of operations is performed in the treatment of static deformities of the forefoot. The most modern surgical techniques are used.allowing to minimize the negative impact of operational stress on the patient and to shorten the rehabilitation period after the operation, without using immobilization plasters and crutches.
It can be interesting
User questions about transverse flatfoot
it( hygroma, fibroma), what can it be and how to get rid of? On the other leg all is well.
Changes in the shape of the foot, which may have the character of flattening and reducing the relief of the surface of the sole, are called flat feet.
that ailment has negative consequences not only for the foot, but for the whole musculoskeletal system as a whole. The severe degree of flat feet is even a medical contraindication to military service.
that the disease has varieties. Doctors distinguish such forms of flatfoot:
The lateral flatfoot appears due to flattening of the transverse arch of the foot. The disease is not often independent, usually this variety of flat feet develops against the background of the already existing longitudinal flattening that appeared in childhood.
In the medical literature, transverse flatfoot often occurs under the name of a transversely spreading foot with a deviation to the outside of 1 finger.
Predisposing factors of disease occurrence are:
- professional activity associated with prolonged standing,
- excess weight,
- reduction of muscle elasticity and strength with prolonged sedentary lifestyle or aging.
In the emergence of the disease an important role is played by the condition of a special tendon, plantar aponeurosis, with its insufficiency associated with the direct occurrence of the disease.
The transverse flattening of the foot can be both congenital and acquired.
The cause of congenital flat feet is genetically caused disorders in the structure of the skeleton of the foot or the pathology of the tendons and fixative ligaments.
The most common congenital weakness of the arched arch muscles, this disease is also known as the "aristocratic foot".
To exclude the progression of the disease and its associated health problems, one can lead a healthy lifestyle. It is necessary to eat rationally, give orgagna sufficient, but not excessive, physical activity and choose high-quality footwear.
Congenital pathologies in the ligamentous and muscular apparatus of the foot lead to the fact that the phalanges of the fingers acquire a fan arrangement, although normally should be located in parallel. With age, they "creep" in the sides, resulting in the development of a transverse flatfoot.
In addition, the final formation of the foot is completed only to six years, so any childhood injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system are potentially dangerous from the point of view of flatfoot development.
The roots of acquired transverse flatfoot should be sought in the patient's lifestyle. The main reasons are:
- Excess weight. Bone, muscular and ligamentous arches of the arch of the foot are designed for functioning only with normal weight. In the event that the mass of the body exceeds the limits of the norm, the load placed on the foot increases, resulting in a flattening.
- Violation of the regime of work and rest, excess loads on the foot by virtue of the type of activity. High loads disrupt the balance of the foot. Occupations in which a person spends almost the entire working day on his feet are included in the zone of increased risk of flatfoot. First of all, they are teachers, lecturers, factory workers and other specialists, occupations are considered "standing".
- Injury of the foot. May cause pathological abnormalities in the foot and cause a progressive flat foot. Doctors call injuries the most common cause of flat feet in men.
- Walking in non-physiological footwear. Long wearing of high-heeled shoes, uncomfortable shoes with an inappropriate shoe and other abnormalities of foot hygiene are one of the most common causes of flatfoot in adulthood.
If the footwear is non-physiological, instead of harmoniously distributing the load throughout the support, the weight of the whole body is transferred to the front of the foot. Constant pressure on the bone with time causes them to deform.
- Doctors say that shoes with heels and a hereditary transmission on the female line of predisposition to the disease have caused that for two men suffering from this ailment there are 8 women.
Indirectly provoke a transverse flatfoot can:
- paralysis of the legs;
- muscular weakness of the lower limbs;
- hereditary factors;
Symptoms of transverse flattening of the feet are most often:
- sensation of burning sensation in the foot,
- feeling of extreme fatigue in the legs by the end of the day.
If the disease progresses and reaches grade 3, intense pain can occur in the knee and hip joints, even if the movement is not associated with a supportive leg.
Symptomatic increases with the flattening of the transverse arch and expansion of the forefoot.
Against this background, with flatfoot progression to the 2 nd and 3 rd degree, the valgus deviation of the thumb arises. It is easy to diagnose visually - a kind of cone grows in the region of the metatarsophalangeal articulation of the thumb.
In this case, the test load is redistributed between the remaining fingers. The load becomes excessive, the biomechanics of the foot work undergoes enormous changes, as a result of which the fingers become hammer-shaped.
Especially negatively the disease affects in childhood, because the calcium content in the bones of children is small, they consist mainly of cartilaginous tissue. And in the case of excessively strong pressure on the front of the legs and fingers, the deformation process of the bones starts very quickly.
In this case, children do not have varus or valgus deformities of one finger, the remaining symptoms are similar to those of flat feet in adults. .
A characteristic clinical picture of flattening of the transverse arch:
- swelling in the ankles;
- increased fatigue of the legs by evening;
- when walking a pronounced pain syndrome;
- discomfort when wearing narrow shoes;
- difficulty walking.
- increased the length and width of the foot.
The orthopedic traumatologist is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot. Diagnosis is carried out using a number of conservative and instrumental methods.
The doctor collects an anamnesis, performs gait analysis and visual examination of the feet( from the second stage of the disease, its presence can be determined visually) and appoints additional studies.
In particular, in the diagnosis of flatfoot use data:
- Plantography. This method is used to obtain imprints of the plantar surface.
- Podometriya( Friedland method).With its help, the percentage of the height of the foot to its length is determined.
- Radiography. With its help, the degree of transverse flat foot is determined. In the analysis, the angle of the lateral deviation of the first finger is taken into account. In order to determine the degrees of flatfoot, the results of the X-ray patterns of both feet, made with a load in the straight and lateral projections, are necessary.
It is the radiography data that is the main in the establishment of the final diagnosis.
The disease develops on a growing basis. Doctors distinguish three degrees of transverse flatfoot development.
- For the first degree, the deviation of the angle of the thumb is 20 or more degrees. In this case, the following symptoms are observed:
- reddening and thickening of the skin of the 2nd and 4th fingers,
- fatigue of the legs after prolonged standing and walking,
- pain in the thumb.
- The second degree is characteristic of the transverse flatfoot of medium severity, characterized by the deviation of the first finger by 20-40 degrees. Symptoms are as follows:
- , with loads on the leg, there is severe pain and burning sensation, covering the entire foot as a whole, not just the fingers,
- skin rending,
- appearance of the burrs.
- The third, last, degree is clearly expressed transverse flattening, the thumb is rejected by more than 35-40 degrees. Symptoms are specific, pronounced:
- intolerable pain at slightest load,
- pronounced flattening of forefoot,
- enlargement of the size of corns,
- thumb modification,
The clinical picture can be accompanied by bursitis and modification of the shape of the legs.
The doctor can appoint an effective treatment only after the establishment of all aspects of the disease - the stage, the cause, the general condition of the patient.
At the initial stage conservative methods of treatment can be used, in neglected cases surgery is necessary. In most cases, conservative treatment is used, including methods and manipulations aimed at reducing pain syndrome and stopping the progression of pathology.
Conservative treatment is mainly based on:
- Lowering the load on the foot y, in even more severe cases, even immobilization is possible.
- Individual selection of a physician orthopedic shoes. At the first signs of the disease the doctor can prescribe helium inserts and special orthopedic insoles. In severe cases, a special footwear is selected, which correctly fixes not only the foot itself, but also the shin. Special devices can be chosen that normalize the biomechanics of the feet.
- Activities designed to reduce weight, if it exceeds the limits of the norm. In the presence of obesity, weight loss is one of the most effective drugs in the fight against flatfoot.
- The selection of optimal restorative exercises , effective in the treatment of transverse flatfoot.
- The use of medications that stop pain and, if necessary, anti-inflammatory therapy.
- Selection of optimal physiotherapy techniques and massage .These activities help to relieve pain and relax the muscles of the foot. Also, in order to relieve tension in the feet, cool compresses, special ointments and foot baths, which include mint, menthol, medicinal camomile, lavender, linden, thyme, lemon balm and other herbs, are used to prevent seizures and reduce pain.
Patients need to understand that ointments and compresses can not be considered an independent treatment, they only temporarily reduce the pain syndrome! Platypodia is treated only by a doctor with a set of individually selected measures.
In cases where the disease develops against the background of the inflammatory process, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
The need for surgical intervention in the treatment of transverse flat feet is identified by a physician. Deformities of the forefoot are treated exclusively surgically.
Usually, the operation is performed if the flat foot is accompanied by an intense pain syndrome, and conservative methods do not give a result.
The main advantage of surgical treatment is its effectiveness - the disease will not exactly progress.
The main disadvantage of surgical treatment is the need to stop absolutely any load on the foot during the preparation for surgery and rehabilitation.
At the same time, modern methods allow not minimizing the effectiveness of the operation, as much as possible reducing the time necessary for preparation and rehabilitation of
. It is possible to prevent occurrence of transverse flatfoot in most cases and is not difficult. The main measures to prevent transverse flatfoot are:
- high-quality physiological footwear without high heels
- maintaining a normal weight
- adherence to a healthy work and rest regime,
- frequent changes in body positions for occupations associated with long standing.
Symptoms of the disease
Our stop is complicated. Its numerous bones are united by ligaments, tendons and, of course, joint joints. The metatarsal bones associated with the flanking toes of the legs should ideally be held in parallel by the ligaments. But often they diverge in a fanlike manner, often exceeding the limit allowed by doctors. The reason for this phenomenon is a weakened musculoskeletal apparatus.
A significant discrepancy of metatarsal bones leads to a deviation of the big toe from the rest. This situation creates in the foot a redistribution of muscle traction. There arises that is designated by the medical term hallux valgus. In this case, a strong pull of this finger outwards occurs due to the passage along the tendon, which has changed its location. In this case, there is a displacement, and the bulging of the metatarsal head. In this place, when contact with the shoes first of all, erasures are formed, and then a strong inflammation of the joint arises after it. As a result, the "bone", "cone", the so-called growth of the osteochondral type is formed. A large load on 2, 3, 4 fingers causes their "hammer-shaped" shape.
This is a common kind of flatfoot. However, the vaults can be deformed in different ways, causing longitudinal and transverse flatfoot, as well as its combined version.
When the transverse symptoms are characteristic: pain that occurs in the feet, cramps of the leg muscles, burning. In the evening, the day is associated with severe fatigue. The more severe cases are characterized by pain in joints such as the hip and knee, which is a direct threat of joint arthrosis.
Stages of transverse platypodia
When a transversely-spaced-type type occurs, there is a strong increase in the anterior part of the foot. Due to an incorrectly distributed load, the big toe is deformed, causing a so-called valgus deviation.
Degrees of longitudinal flat feet
It is recommended to undergo a physiotherapy if, in addition to the above, there are such symptoms as swelling of the feet, foot and ankle often suffer, and many problems with shoes. Its sole often wears and tramples from the inside of the foot. Fashionable shoes with high heels and pins cause pain in the legs and complicate the process of walking. The foot extends considerably, for this reason it is required to purchase shoes more for a size or two.
Normal and flattened
The most common type of such disease is combined or transverse-longitudinal flat feet. Independent types of it are much less common. There are many reasons for this polyethological disease. Basically one of the classic reasons for the appearance of a flat-footed transverse type is heredity along the female line.
Other reasons are the widespread "sedentary" lifestyle, which results in weakening of ligaments and muscles. To problems leads and excessive load in the form of sports cross-country and jumping classes, as well as long-term work in the standing position. There are different types of acquired flat feet. Among them:
- Statistical, which accounts for up to 80% of all diagnoses for this disease. In addition to the hereditary, sometimes called "aristocratic foot," it causes hypodynamia or long statistical stresses on the forefoot. This type causes such problems as overweight, diseases of the endocrine system and so on. A considerable contribution to the spread of this problem is made by uncomfortable shoes.
- Deformation of the foot occurs due to a lack of vitamin D and is called rachitic flatfoot. This type of disease is very rare.
- Also distinguish the paralytic appearance that occurs after the paralysis of the tibial muscles, as they support the vaults at the feet. This problem arises, as a rule, because of poliomyelitis.
- In men, a traumatic flat foot is diagnosed. The reason for its appearance is the consequences of fractures of the ankles, tarsal bones, heel bone.
- In young children, after two years during a preventive examination in very rare cases, they can identify congenital flat feet.
There are 3 degrees of development of transverse flatfoot.
- At 1 stage a small cone is formed, and the thumb is diverted to 20 0, which leads to the curvature of the toes on the legs and the formation of all known corns.
- At the 2nd stage, the angle of curvature is 35 0, the size of the corns is increasing, severe pains appear.
- The third degree is characterized by the bend of the thumb inside more than 35, the spreading foot in the region of the fingers, they bend downward. The pain increases, it becomes difficult to walk.
What can this disease lead to? To a number of very serious consequences for the body. It significantly accelerates the wear and tear of the musculoskeletal system. The consequences include:
- To arthrosis and osteoarthritis of the joints.
- To such pelvic diseases as coxarthrosis.
- The consequence of the deformity of the foot is "neurological disorganization", the effectiveness of movements of the whole body decreases, and problems with coordination and balance arise.
- Because of muscle imbalance, there are "trigger points".
- The gait is reduced smoothly. The person suffers because of lameness, stagnation of blood in the legs, varicose extension of the lower limbs.
- There may be a very painful heel spur, caused by plantar aponeurosis.
Deterioration of activity of the entire vascular system due to slowing of blood flow in its lower parts. With age, this will all be accompanied by pathological edema, ulcers on the feet and lower legs.
Treatment of the disease and operation
After the diagnosis is established by a trauma doctor, the required type of treatment is prescribed. It directly depends on the type and extent of this disease. Distinguish conservative and operative its kind of treatment. With a conservative treatment option, a number of complex measures are used, including: the selection of an orthopedic instep and a shoe, which allows you to redistribute the load on the entire foot. Specialists recommend to limit the load on the legs, reduce excess weight, to normalize the biomechanics to use a variety of devices.
- Indications for the appointment of analgesics and remedies for inflammation stop symptoms is the diagnosis of bursitis or arthrosis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
- By reducing the increased muscle tone and reducing pain can be achieved by such activities as foot massage, immobilization, physiotherapy, warm baths. For prevention requires the implementation of a number of exercises that allow you to strengthen the feet of turns turning them to the right, left, down, up, and also circling.
- Growth of cartilage is suspended with a 10% solution of iodine.
- Relieve inflammation of the joints and nourish the tissues of the legs with ointments prescribed by an experienced orthopedist.
- For flat feet, shoes with a heel up to 4 cm inclusive are required. It is very useful to have replaceable comfortable shoes at work.
It should be noted that conservative treatment is designed to reduce pain and slow the progression of the disease, but not cure.
The question arises: "How will be cured of this disease"?
In the case of the transformation of cartilage on the head of the metatarsal bone into the bone material, a surgical operation is required here. Indication for its conduct is considered ineffective classical treatment and constant pain in the legs. Conduct them in the centers of traumatology and orthopedics. They are characterized by the use of a variety of surgical techniques, which today there are more than three hundred. They make it possible to minimize the negative impact of operations and significantly reduce the rehabilitation period without using crutches and immobilization plaster bandages. One common type of technology is "reshaping" the foot, in particular its anterior section, where the cartilage is removed from the bone head, the bone is leveled and the tendon is pulled in such a way that the big toe can hold straight. From the inside of the foot it is fixed with a tape made of lavsan. The complexity of such an operation and a long period of rehabilitation is compensated by high efficiency of treatment without the appearance of repeated deformation.
The reason for the formation of flat feet is not least of all shoes. The risk of the onset of the disease depends on the time it is worn. To reduce the negative impact of shoes on the legs and prevent the appearance of flat feet, orthopedic insoles and various arch supports were created. Insoles and arch supports, ameliorate, correct the changes occurring in the feet, significantly ease the pain in the legs, the very well helping people with transverse and combined flatfoot. For their correct selection, you should consult an orthopedist for advice. Making an independent choice, there is a danger of aggravating the disease. When selecting orthopedic insoles, an accurate measurement of the foot strain is required. Pick up the insole is required, without waiting for the signs of this disease, thus trying to prevent the appearance of this disease.
Exercises for transverse flatfoot
There are a number of exercises to treat this disease. They are conducted barefoot for 16-24 weeks. Gymnastics includes 12 types of exercises, each of which is performed 10 times.
- Movement with the deployment of the feet is carried out while sitting. After it do standing, leaning on the back of the chair. The legs are set on the width of the shoulders. The feet unfold in a straight line, connecting the socks, then the heels.
- The feet are placed alternately on the ribs, external and internal. Do this movement, sitting, then standing.
- Sitting, rotate the feet then to the right, then to the left. After this, the exercise is done standing.
- Raising the foot on the outer arch is carried out on a chair, then on the floor. The feet are placed on the outside. The task is simple - to get up.
- Rise from heels to socks. The initial position is legs on the width of the shoulders, the feet are placed in parallel. Exercise is slow, first on both legs, then alternately on each.
- Raising the stop from the heel to the toe with one straight, heels are put together, socks - apart. After the exercise, the position of the feet changes. The heels are put apart, the socks together.
- Performing low kicks. When performing the exercise, the back should be straight. When changing the support leg, a 180 ° turn is performed.
Fast walking on site. Socks in this case, tear off the floor categorically impossible, knees slightly bend, the feet slightly tilted inside. Hips during gymnastics should be strongly swinging sideways. The back is straight, the shoulders are motionless. The lead time is 20-40 seconds.
- Sitting as high as possible, the leg rises in turn, while lifting it should be straight and fixed when lifting.
- Exercise, sitting with a lift of both feet.
- To walk on toes, heels, "to claw" on the inner and outer ribs for 30-50 steps.
- Goose step in( half crouching).In this case, the legs are dragged along the floor. This gymnastics improve the blood circulation of the legs. Remember, it's better to just warn the disease than to treat it for a long time!
Transverse flatfoot in children
The underlying cause for the manifestation of the disease in childhood is weak ligaments, bones and, of course, weak muscles. However, even congenital flat feet is not an indication for the operation. Treatment is carried out using gingival tapes or bandages. Treatment is carried out with the use of exercise therapy and massage. Improving the blood circulation of the body and increasing the tone of the muscles in the legs are due to special hardening procedures, one of which are contrasting foot baths.
In children, flat feet are not treated with
operations. Flat-footed children are treated with orthopedic insoles and shoes. Children with this diagnosis can not walk barefoot on the floor or asphalt, but it is extremely necessary to run through the sand, grass, gravel and other irregularities.
Pay attention to the gait of the child. When walking, his feet should be parallel and lean against the outer edge. Children should try to detect any disease as early as possible. Then they will have the opportunity to fully recover.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot and its prophylaxis
About flatfoot, we hear from childhood - even in school doctors smear children with feet of some kind of solution, and force them to stand on a piece of paper. Then this sheet is always in our medical record. What are the causes of this disease, is there a cure, and can you prevent its development - you will find out below.
Although everyone has heard of flatfoot, few know that there are several of its types.
- Transverse - the foot becomes flat across the width. In this case its length will decrease due to the divergence of the bones leading to the fingers( metatarsals), deformation of the second and middle finger, and the departure of the thumb outwards. This type of flatfoot often occurs after 30 years.
- The longitudinal flatfoot is characterized by a flat foot along its length - usually the rising middle begins to touch the floor due to what the leg lengthens. It is discovered in youth.
- Integrated - simultaneous flattening of the foot along the length and width.
Types of flatfoot depending on the origin:
- Congenital. It is caused by the developmental defects of the foot still in the womb. But this diagnosis is not immediately established, but closer to school, since it is impossible to say before that.
- Static. It occurs most often and is caused by a weakening of the tone of the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the feet, imposed on heredity and external negative factors, for example, standing work or high heels.
- Traumatic. It occurs after fractures of bones close to the foot( ankle, heel, tarsus), or after rupture of ligaments.
- Ricky. It is a consequence of the transferred disease - rickets, deforming bone of the foot.
In this case, the degree of expression depends on the weight of a person - the more it is, the stronger the load on the foot. Most often this dependence is found in women.
Thus, there are several types of flatfoot, different degrees of its severity, and it can arise not only because of excess weight, but also at birth.
Causes of transverse flatfoot
Transverse flatfoot appears most often due to functional imbalance of the ligamentous apparatus, but there are other causes.
- Overweight. The ligamentous and muscular apparatus of the foot and its arch are designed for a certain load. As the weight increases, it increases and the foot flatens.
- Injuries. This is the main factor in the development of this disease in men. Affects may stretch the muscles or ligaments, fractures of the foot bones, dislocations, disrupt the integrity of the heel bones. Disorders of the ligamentous and muscular apparatus of the feet. The phalanges of the fingers of healthy people run parallel to each other. But even an inconspicuous and slight disruption in the development of ligaments or muscles can lead to a fan-shaped arrangement of phalanges. Over time, they "creep" into the sides.
- Rickets. A common disease that occurs because of a lack of vitamin D in the body.
- Long-term inadequate static loads. For example, when a teacher or a factory worker is working. At the same time, the balance of the foot is disturbed and professional flat feet appear.
- Walking in non-physiological footwear( high heel, narrow nose, tight shoes, uncomfortable shoe).So, when wearing heels, the entire weight of the body is transferred to the front of the foot. It presses and deforms bones that are not ready for this load.
- Heredity is the inherent weakness of the muscles of the arched arch. But, if a person will lead a healthy lifestyle, receive moderate physical activity, eat right and wear good shoes, then the flat feet will not progress and cause inconvenience.
There are many reasons for the occurrence of transverse flatfoot both congenital and professional. Therefore, before starting treatment it is important to determine the true causes.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Not always the transverse flatfoot immediately disturbs a person. At first it can be manifested only by slight malaise and buzzing of the legs. But after the progression of the disease, intense intense pains emerge in the spine.
The following symptoms stand out:
- Strong fatigue in the legs, especially in the evening, and constant pain.
- Cramps and burning in the shin area, not related to external factors - hypothermia, uncomfortable position.
- An increase in the bone below the big toe.
- Permanent appearance of calluses and corns.
- Deformation and location of the second finger under the first.
- Disorder of posture, discomfort in the back, pain in the joints of the pelvis and knees with the progression of the disease.
An exact diagnosis is made by an orthopedic physician or traumatologist who reveals the degree of flatfoot and its appearance on the basis of examination, patient complaints and X-ray examination of both feet in the forward and lateral positions, and under load. But it can be determined at home on your own.
To do this, spread a foot of a layer of greasy cream( you can take paint), stand directly on a white sheet of paper, leaning on the entire foot. Now look at the result - on the inner edge of the notch in the norm should be slightly more than half the foot.
You can also calculate the sub-metric index for diagnostics. Measure the length and height of the feet. Height is the distance from the sole to the upper edge of the scaphoid bone. Length - from the edge of the heel to the top of the thumb. Height multiply by 100 and divide by the length. The norm is from 29 to 31.
Numerous symptoms will not let you miss the development of flatfoot, and it can be diagnosed not only by the doctor, but by yourself.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot
It is impossible to completely recover, therefore the main task is to relieve symptoms and ease the condition.
Doctors prescribe a number of procedures to increase the effect:
- Physiotherapy exercises and a special gymnastic program to strengthen the muscles of the foot. For example, such exercises as flexion-extension, mixing-dilution, sliding and various foot movements are suitable.
- Wearing orthopedic insoles and inlays that help reduce fatigue and pain. They can be bought in specialized stores or ordered individually.
- Massage, which improves blood circulation and reduces swelling of the foot. Suitable tricks: stroking the sole with the back of the hand, squeezing, rubbing with a fist with slight pressure, circular rubbing with the pads of the fingers.
- Wear only physiological shoes and individually selected insteps to facilitate walking. In neglected cases appoint individually manufactured orthopedic shoes.
- Baths for feet with a relaxing effect with the addition of sea salt, lavender, chamomile broth, sage, linden, plantain. The water temperature is not more than 37 degrees.
- Contrasting foot baths, lotions with bitter wormwood, a mixture of lemon and iodine, compresses, self-massage.
In advanced cases, surgery can also be used, in which the transverse arch is adjusted, and the angles between the bones of the foot change to the norm.
This helps to get rid of pain, swelling and fatigue of the legs. Thanks to the operation, you can again choose your shoes without problems and not be afraid of relapses. Usually the operation is carried out in adulthood.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot is more often conservative, but in very severe cases, surgery can be used.
How to prevent the development of flatfoot?
Prevention is to ensure high functional endurance of the musculoskeletal system with the help of a complex of general strengthening and special exercises, wearing comfortable footwear, proper nutrition, excluding a long load on the foot.
So, if you are forced to stand for a long time, then put the stops in parallel and periodically stand on their outer edges. And after - make a massage.
Choose the right footwear size, loose shoes can do no less harm than close. The heel should not be taller than 3-4 cm.
Forget about flip flops and shoes with a flat sole, but qualitative clogs that will make the toes move when walking. If you need to wear high heels at work, remove them as soon as you sit down.
Special attention to prevention should be given to people whose parents had this disease. In addition to the recommendations given above, you need to develop the muscles of the feet and fingers.
There are a lot of exercises for this, here are some of them:
- Sit on the edge of the chair, with the knees should be bent at right angles, and the feet - standing on the floor. Put a thick towel under your feet. Grab the towel with your fingers, move to yourself and away from yourself. Repeat this exercise several times a day, for example, working at a computer.
- Stand on the floor barefoot, spread your legs to the width of your shoulders. Raise the fingers of one of the legs, squeeze and unbend them, imagining that raking sand. Do this for 30 seconds, and then - repeat the same with the other leg.
The muscles of the feet will quickly get tired, as the physical load for them is rare, and during training they are always ignored.
Thanks to preventive measures, even people with congenital flat feet can never feel it because of this inconvenience.
Learn about what your footwear should be, that its wearing has not led to the development of transverse flatfoot.
Delivered as a child, the diagnosis of "flat feet" is not a verdict. Medicine has developed measures for its treatment and prevention, which will never again encounter this disease. Do not forget about good shoes and exercises, and in case of suspicion - take a cream and a sheet of paper or contact a doctor.