Osteochondrosis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 degrees - a description of all stages and species
Osteochondrosis is a degenerative-dystrophic disease affecting the intervertebral disks and causing their destruction with further progression and the appearance of neurological complications( disc protrusion, intervertebral hernia,etc.).
Much more often pain syndrome causes spondylarthrosis( arthrosis of the joints of the spine, for example, facet, uncovertebral), spondylolisthesis( displacement of the vertebrae relative to each other) and nonspecific pain in the back. Therefore, most often in everyday life, osteochondrosis is understood as a set of different types of degenerative changes in the spinal column, includingjoints of the spine and ligaments.
How to recognize osteochondrosis
In patients with osteochondrosis and other degenerative diseases of the spinal column, the following complaints are most often found:
- feeling of fatigue and discomfort in the spine( in the initial stages);
- paroxysmal pain in the neck, back and extremities in the form of "lumbago";
- limitation of mobility and volume of movements in the spine, depending on the affected department;
- pain in the heart, simulating an attack of angina pectoris;
- weakness in muscles, their atrophy or the appearance of spasms or cramps;
- impaired sensation in the arms and legs( decrease or increase), paresthesia( numbness, "goose bumps", tingling sensations);
- headache, dizziness due to impaired blood flow to the brain;
- swelling of the extremities, stiffness in their joints;
- dysuric and sexual disorders( decreased potency, impaired urination);
- shingles along the ribs;
- sleep disorder, decreased appetite.
When examined by a neurologist, the symptoms of prolapse or weakening of reflexes( depending on the level of lesion and the presence of compression) can be added to the clinic, the muscle strength in a particular muscle / muscle group decreases.
In the modern medical literature there are many classifications of osteochondrosis depending on various signs: localization, stage of lesion, clinical manifestations.
Species on the localization of pathology
Given the area of the lesion, local and widespread osteochondrosis is isolated. The local is localized within one anatomical and physiological area, the prevalent covering more than two areas.
Local process happens:
Classification of disk degeneration
There are 4 stages( degrees) according to Osna, 1971( currently not used to assess the clinical picture and the formulation of the diagnosis):
- Osteochondrosis of the 1st degree - the stage of the shift of the nucleus pulposus within the discus intervertebralis, is characterized by asymptomatic course. In certain cases, symptoms of discalgia( pain sensations in the region of the disc) associated with involvement of the nerve fibers surrounding the vertebra in the pathological process and reflected pains corresponding to the localization of the affected spinal nerves( limbs, internal organs) may occur. Treatment does not require.
- Osteochondrosis of the second degree - the stage of vertebral dystopia - is characterized by the appearance of cracks in the discus intervertebralis, the weakening of the fibrous ring and the lesion of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The main symptoms are constant fatigue, discomfort in the spine, protrusion of the discs, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, subluxations of the vertebrae. It lends itself well to conservative treatment( chondroprotectors, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants, vascular and other groups of drugs).
- Osteochondrosis of the third degree - the stage of complete rupture of the intervertebral disc - is determined by the appearance of severe irreversible vertebrologic complications( intervertebral hernia, infringement of nerve roots, deformation of the spine).The main method of treatment is surgical intervention.
- Osteochondrosis of the 4th degree - the stage of progression of degenerative processes - is characterized by the spread of destruction to the structures surrounding the vertebra: vessels( microangiopathies, vascular thrombosis), spinal cord( myelitis, dura mater), ligamentous apparatus( destruction of the interosseous and yellow ligaments);formed ankylosis of the spinal column.
Stages of unstable osteochondrosis( characterized by the emergence of destabilization of the spinal column):
- Discogenic - only discus intervertebralis is involved in the pathological process.
- Discoartrogenic - dystrophic changes affect intervertebral joints and ligaments.
- Discoartroosteogenic - the process progresses, which is accompanied by the defeat of bone structures and the development of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.
Degrees of destruction of intervertebral discs by Sachs, 1987( currently reclassified):
0 - no changes detected;
1 - destruction of 1/3 annular plates of a fibrous ring;
2 - only the outer fibers of the disc retain their integrity, preventing the formation of hernias;
3 - complete destruction of discus intervertebralis and rupture of longitudinal ligament, marked clinical symptomatology.
At present, the X-ray classification of Zeker is often used to determine the stage and extent of osteochondrosis:
- The first stage is characterized by minor changes in lordosis in one or more segments.
- The second stage is established when on the roentgenogram the smoothness of lordosis + thickening of the disc, moderately expressed exostoses in front or behind, deformation of the hook-shaped processes is determined.
- The third stage is characterized by the appearance on the background of previous changes in the narrowing of the intervertebral foramen.
- The fourth stage( degree) is established with a significant narrowing of the intervertebral openings and the spinal canal.
Clinical classification of osteochondrosis manifestations used by neurologists:
- Cervical spine:
- reflex manifestations( cervicalgia, cervicocranygia, cervicobrachialgia with myotonic, vascular circulatory and neurodegenerative symptoms);
- radicular syndromes( compression lesion S1-S8, characterized by paralysis of the upper limb);
- is a radicular-vascular manifestation.
- Thoracic spine:
- reflex manifestations;
- radicular syndromes( compression of intercostal nerves Th1-12).
- Lumbosacral spine:
- reflex manifestations( lumbago, lumbalgia, lumboschialgia with myotonic, vascular circulatory and neurodegenerative symptoms);
- radicular syndromes( compression lesion L1-5, S1-5);
- is a radicular-vascular manifestation.
The main methods for diagnosing pathology are ray methods( radiography, computed tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging.
Stages of osteochondrosis with contrast computed tomography:
- The contrast introduced into the pulpous core does not penetrate its boundaries.
- Contrast substance spreads to the inner third of the fibrous ring.
- The contrast agent extends to two-thirds of the fibrous ring.
- Contrast substance penetrates up to the outer plates of annulus fibrosus, which are well innervated;it is at this stage of the disease that the first symptoms appear.
- Contrast spreads around the circumference of the disc to 30º.
- Contrast substance is outside the disk and penetrates into the epidural space.
Degrees of osteochondrosis with magnetic resonance imaging:
M0 - pulpous nucleus not damaged, normal shape.
M1 - local decrease in luminescence and destruction of the gelatinous nucleus, cicatrical changes in the disc.
M2 - complete cessation of luminescence of the gelatinous nucleus.
How and how much to fight with osteochondrosis
|Medication( usually 2-3 weeks)|
|Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs|| Reduce pain, swelling of tissues, relieve inflammation, improve blood supply. A particular feature of this group is a wide choice of forms of drugs: |
for external use - ointments, creams, gels, aerosols, patches - Voltaren, Diclofenac, Diclac, Diklovit, Diklogen, Dorosan, Orthofen, Nyz, Nurofen, Ketonal;
• for oral administration - tablets, capsules, powder - Movalis, Nurofen, Nyz, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Ketonal, Dexalgin, Aertal and others;
• for injection - Dexalgin, Ketanov, Diklak, Ketorol, Diclofenac, Ketonal, Movalis, Revmoxicam
|Muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants|| Relieve painful spasm of muscle tissue, prevent the development of seizures. |
The muscle relaxants are: "Sirdalud", "Tizalud", "Tizanil", "Midokalm", "Tolperizon", "Lyrics", "Algerika", "Pregabalin"
|Antidote preparations||"Furosemide", "Torasemide"from the body, reduce swelling of the inflamed muscles and nerves, thereby relieving pain|
|Neurotropic substances|| Complex preparations of B group vitamins restore the myelinated nerve membrane, improve the blood supply of nerve fibers. |
The main drugs: Neurorubin, Milgamma, Vitaxam, Vitagamma, Kombilipen, Neurobion, Neuromultivit
|Chondroprotectors|| They promote the restoration of cartilaginous tissue, prevent further destruction of the interchondral tissue. They have chondroitin and glucosamine in their composition. |
Chondroprotectors usually recommend: Teraflex, Arthra, Glucosamine Maximum, Artradol, Dona, Mukosat, Chondroxide, etc.
|Novokainovaya blockade||Introduction of local anesthetic Novokain 0.5%( 5-10 ml) to the near-vertebral or epidural space for pain relief|
|For patients with significant intervertebral hernia, doctors recommend the following operations:|| • Discectomy( removal of the damaged intervertebral disc); |
• microdiscectomy laser and ablative, chemonucleolysis;
|Non-pharmacological treatment methods( lasts up to six months)|
|Discharge of the spine||During the exacerbation, the patient is often recommended bed rest: lie on a hard surface, under the head - an orthopedic pillow. This is important in the presence of a disc hernia against the background of degenerative changes. In the absence of compression syndrome, maintaining normal physical activity( keyword - normal, normal, moderate) contributes to a faster recovery|
|Physiotherapeutic procedures|| The procedures include: |
• UFD in erythemal doses;
• Novocaine, hydrocortisone, lidase electrophoresis;
• diadynamic currents;
• cryotherapy of reflexogenic zones;
|Manual therapy||Manual therapy consists of flexing and extension of the spine, tilting, short-term application of force in different directions|
|Massage||Patients during the recovery or remission period are recommended to undergo 10-15 sessions of classical gentle massage|
|LFK||Complex of specially selected physicalexercises that help restore normal muscle tone, eliminate contractures|
- Kornilov N.V.- Traumatology and orthopedics.
- Orthopedics. National leadership Mironov SP, Kotelnikov GP, 2008.
- Traumatology and orthopedics. Kavalersky G.M.
- Epifanov VA- Osteocondritis of the spine.
- Shvets V.V.- Lumbar osteochondrosis.
- Altunbaev RA- "Osteochondrosis" or "Radiculitis"?(experience of approach to the terminological dilemma).
Osteochondrosis of 1 degree of lumbar department
Osteochondrosis is a serious disease of the spine, which affects about half of the world's population. Many people rush to the neurologist, as soon as they begin to feel discomfort in the lower back. In these cases, the most common diagnosis is osteochondrosis 1 degree of lumbar spine. An early visit to the doctor increases the patient's chances of a speedy recovery. The initial stages of this ailment are more readily amenable to treatment. First of all, we note the types of this disease:
- Cervical type. Affects several vertebrae in the cervical spine. It is considered the most unpredictable and dangerous for human health and even life.
- Thoracic osteochondrosis is not so common, and has characteristic features in the symptomatology.
- The lumbar variant is the most common phenomenon, since it is the loin that experiences the main burden of the whole body.
- Sacral osteochondrosis.
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar region, due to its prevalence deserves special attention. In the presence of this disease in the vertebrae of the lumbar region, degenerative degeneration takes place. Because of this, a person can experience a number of unpleasant symptoms.
Disease of the lumbar zone of the first degree is the initial stage of lumbar osteochondrosis, at which the active destruction of the intervertebral space began. Damaged cells of connective tissue are not so many, but their numbers are rapidly increasing. In the absence of treatment, after a month, the disease will go to the second stage, and then to the third.
Symptoms of the disease
Osteochondrosis has a vivid symptomatology, in view of what it is difficult to confuse with any other disease. Despite this, the disease requires a serious diagnosis. It is conducted to determine the stage of the disease and the extent of the damage.
Lumbar osteochondrosis of 1 degree suggests the following symptoms:
- Pain in the lumbar region.
- Shoots in the leg, which can seriously impede movement.
- Sound of crunch and stiffness in the lumbar joint. Characteristic for the morning, immediately after awakening.
Thus, the symptoms of osteochondrosis 1 degree are exclusively orthopedic. With the passage of time, soreness in the lower back only increases and, at some point, becomes simply intolerable. In case of adequate treatment at the first stage, the symptoms will leave the patient within a couple of months from the beginning of therapy. It will take several months to restore the body.
This disease can be caused by several reasons. First of all, a sedentary lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle significantly reduces the risk of osteochondrosis. Regular walks in the fresh age, charging in the mornings and, if possible, hiking in the pool are simply necessary as preventive measures.
Not a comfortable bed can also cause the development of low back osteochondrosis. Many orthopedists advise not to save on mattresses and pillows. Orthopedic products for the device of a bed allow to remove a load from a back and all other parts of a body during a dream. Such products are very expensive, so not everyone decides to buy them.
Incorrect posture is the most common cause of a dystrophic disorder in articular cartilages. It is especially relevant for school-age children who can also face osteochondrosis.
Lumbar osteochondrosis of the 1st stage requires a certain diagnosis. As a rule, it involves research using a tomograph and an X-ray. You will also need to take a blood test for biochemistry. It will reflect the shortage of certain trace elements. With the development of osteochondrosis - this is not uncommon. If such deviations are found, the doctor will add vitamin complexes to the general treatment regimen, which will replenish the reserves of all vitamins and trace elements.
Osteochondrosis 1 degree
Physicians around the world are very concerned about such a wide spread of the disease. Particularly worried about the fact that the disease is increasingly affecting the young able-bodied population of the planet, although before the spine disease developed mainly in people over the age of forty. Recently, people are turning less and less attention to the first signs of such a disease as osteochondrosis, especially if it is an osteochondrosis of the 1st degree.
It should be noted that osteochondrosis is a serious disease of the spine, constantly progressing, even when performing treatment. It is impossible to get rid of him forever, you can only slow down his further development.
The main thing about the disease of the first degree
Not always patients turn to the doctors at the first symptoms of diseases. So it happens with osteochondrosis. In addition, the soreness of the spine of the 1st degree does not have pronounced symptoms. As a result of such careless attitude to the problem, the disease is aggravated, complications develop. As a rule, in case of severe pain, a person takes painkillers and is not particularly in a hurry to the doctor. And only when the pain becomes unbearable, the patient goes to the doctor.
The most effective treatment is at the first stages of the disease, that is, during the 1 st degree of osteochondrosis, which manifests itself in the form of constant, aching, not intense pain. Periodically, there may be lumbago. In addition, the first degree of health problems can be accompanied by such pain syndromes:
- Shoulder-scapular in case of involvement of the cervical spine;
- Pyriform muscle syndrome and gastrocnemius contraction syndrome in lumbar type;
- Painful tingling in the region of the heart, and it is also possible soreness in the kidneys, stomach or liver with osteochondrosis of the thoracic region.
Changes in the cartilage tissue cause pain. During this period, the disc is displaced, the changes affect the fibrous capsule.
The main symptoms of osteochondrosis of the first degree are manifested in tenderness in the back area, lumbago, headaches, difficulty of movement, etc. If such signs begin to bother you more and more often, you should definitely see a doctor in order to diagnose the disease in time and start treatment.
Manifestation in different departments of the spine
The disease can choose its location anywhere in the spine, and in each case it has its own symptoms:
- Cervical osteochondrosis 1 degree manifests itself in the form of severe headaches that can become stronger during sharp movements of the head,dizziness may occur. This is due to pressure on the blood vessels and brain damage to the brain.
- The first degree of chest osteochondrosis is a pain in the chest, in the region of the heart, possibly a tingling or creepy. There is absolutely no pain in the back.
- Osteochondrosis of the lumbar region is characterized by pain in the lower back and legs.
Osteochondrosis of 1-2 degree arises from incorrect metabolic processes in the human body, unfavorable environmental conditions, as well as during aging processes. Despite the fact that any person can suffer from osteochondrosis, there is still a certain group of people most susceptible to the disease. These are people with excessive body weight, with bad habits, not involved in sports, as well as those who daily experience strong physical activity.
What is cervical osteochondrosis of the first degree?
Doctors say that the osteochondrosis of the neck also has different stages. Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 1st degree is accompanied by acute painful sensations in the occipital region. It is called lumbago or chamber. Strong painful sensations arise due to the fact that in a certain segment of the spine there is irritation of the nerves and muscles, or their individual elements.
During heavy physical exertion, the capsule of the intervertebral disc is torn. A man whose spine is bound by a sharp pain in the neck region feels that an electric current has passed through the spine column. The pain does not disappear, the functionality of the cervical vertebrae decreases.
Osteochondrosis 1, 2 and 3 degrees: causes, symptoms, treatment
The initial stage is characterized by the following features:
- Clinically, osteochondrosis of the 1st degree is manifested as lumbago - acute pain of a piercing character that occurs after a sharp rise in heavyobjects or high physical activity. The pain is so acute that some patients compare it to the sensation of passing current through the spine.
If you find the first symptoms of osteochondrosis, immediately consult a doctor! Consequences may be irreversible
Morphologically there is a sudden rupture of the capsule of the intervertebral disc during a high load on the spine. Traumatic damage to the capsule leads to irritation of nerves and the appearance of pain.
- At the first degree of osteochondrosis, a pronounced muscle tension is observed( lumbar lordosis is smoothed).This leads to a redistribution of the load and to an even greater compression of the intervertebral disc. There is his edema, which only intensifies the painful sensations.
- With the localization of the disease in the cervical region, cervicalgia arises - cervical pain during movement and palpation of muscles. During an exacerbation, cervico-cranialgia is often a concern - a marked intense headache near the occipital region. There may be an ear noise, dizziness, floating flies before your eyes and even a toothache.
Treatment of the first degree is aimed at healing the rupture of the capsule. It is necessary to carry out qualitative analgesia with tableted medicines or injections of Analgin, Promedol or Novocain. Removal of edema is achieved by daily intravenous injection of a solution of Lasix and sodium chloride for five days.
You do not have to go to the gym to keep fit. On any playground you can find a horizontal bar that will replace the professional projectile
. As an aid to the development of osteochondrosis, it is very useful to stretch the spine along the axis. To do this, just once a day hang for several minutes on the bar. As a result, the load from the cervical, thoracic and lumbar discs is well relieved.
Classification of medicines in the treatment of osteochondrosis is as follows:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Ibuprofen, Voltaren, Metindol, Indomethacin);
- antihistamines( Suprastin);
Also during the period of treatment is mandatory bed rest for 3 weeks and physiotherapy treatment, for example, UHF.
Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree develops if treatment of the first period of the disease has not been performed or was not effective enough. The characteristic signs of the second degree of osteochondrosis are:
Self-massage during the day will help relax the muscles and relieve the pain!
persistent pain of the affected spine;
- there is a narrowing of the intervertebral foramen;
- this period is often accompanied by arterial hypotension;
- there is abnormal mobility of the motor segment of the spine( this should not be);
- capsule becomes thinned and folded, which leads to even greater mobility of the false joint;
- because of the instability of the spine develop a different kind of scoliosis;
- in case of lesion of the thoracic region, there may be a syndrome of a small pectoral muscle - the appearance of pain when trying to get your hands behind your head;
- is gradually affected by the vessels of the spinal cord.
The second period of the disease can last several years, with alternating episodes of exacerbations and remission. When the thoracic and cervical region is affected, in severe cases, the symptom of a falling head develops, when a person after a long fixation of the head in one position is forced to hold it with his hands to relieve pain.
Treatment of the 2nd stage of osteochondrosis should be carried out together with manual therapy. Conduct a course of massage with blockade of the damaged area( for example, thoracic department).Good traction helps with fixation of the vertebrae with the help of waist corsets, the collar of Shantz. Daily gymnastics is useful.
Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree is characterized by fragmentation of the fibrous ring and its complete destruction. Fibrous ring during this period can crack and tear. All this significantly worsens the fixation of the vertebrae. Due to the increase in their mobility, different displacements occur. Disease of the cervicothoracic spine is accompanied by a slight dislocation of the vertebrae. Poor treatment of this period can lead to the development of a herniated disc, and a running process can cause disability.
Treatment of a hernia requires surgical intervention. Do not bring the disease to such a stage when it is impossible to achieve recovery with the usual means.
The classification of the clinical manifestations of this stage is very extensive. Cervical localization is characterized by intense sharp or blunt pain, which intensifies after physical exertion. Also often there are pains of the back of the neck with irradiation in the forearm and shoulder. The thoracic region is characterized by pains of varying severity near the abdomen and back, intercostal neuralgia, especially pronounced during coughing or laughing. Also, the third degree of osteochondrosis of the thoracic region can be manifested by pain in the heart, dyskinesia of the bile ducts and signs of pancreatitis.
Treatment should be prescribed strictly by a doctor, at grade 3 it is aimed at improving the patient's condition. Actively used hormonal drugs prednisolone. During this period, surgical treatment is indicated.
The above classification of degrees of osteochondrosis is applicable throughout the world, as the most simple and understandable. It shows that osteochondrosis is a serious ailment. Therefore, in order to prevent the progression of the disease, try to seriously approach the prevention of osteochondrosis.
The lumbar spine is one of the most problematic areas in the human musculoskeletal system. With excessive physical exertion, osteochondrosis of the lumbar region may develop. And at the same time, this disease occurs with absent or low activity, since the muscles of this part of the spine lose their elasticity and strength, thus causing the development of osteochondrosis. With careless or untimely treatment, the disease can progress, causing various kinds of complications and pinching.
Depending on the complexity of the course of the disease, 3 conditional degrees are divided, which at each stage have individual symptoms and various methods of diagnosis and treatment. If 1 degree is manifested by minor changes, then the last 3 degree is characterized by complex pathological processes, which are rather difficult to treat through their neglect.
1 stage of the disease is the least dangerous, compared with the following. Osteochondrosis 1 degree, as a rule, is manifested by intervertebral disc seals in the lumbar region. The main symptoms at this stage are minor pain when turning or tilting. Sometimes the symptoms are more acute and short-term because of sudden movements or significant stress.
1 degree is most pronounced with a long sitting in the wrong posture( most typical for office workers), since the lumbar zone is under constant tension, which leads to minor stretches and painful aching symptoms. Stage 1 does not require any special treatment. Sufficient is the course of specialized massages, the use of orthopedic bed. Quite often, they prescribe a course of exercises in curative gymnastics, which directly affects the increase in elasticity and deprivation of pain in the lumbar region. With a slight exacerbation, prescribe light preparations for external use( ointments, compresses) or weak analgesics.
1 degree is the most insidious, because if you neglect the symptoms and try to engage in self-treatment leads to complications and the transition to stage 2 of the disease with osteochondrosis. Therefore, after diagnosing the disease, it is necessary to consult a doctor or vertebrologist. If the advice and recommendations are followed in a conscientious and precise manner, the disease will not progress, thereby there will be no transition to the 2nd degree.
At the second stage of the disease development, osteochondrosis is characterized by a decrease in the lumen of intervertebral disks, thereby causing permanent characteristic pains and numbness of the extremities and inguinal area. The main cause of the appearance of stage 2 is the so-called destruction of the fibrous ring, as a result of which the vertebrae lose their properties, decrease and cause the nerve pincers.
If at 1 stage there is enough use of massages and exercise therapy( exercise therapy), then at the 2 stage this will not be enough. It is necessary to medicate the intervention to eliminate the symptoms. To medicines for osteochondrosis carry several groups, such as:
- painkillers and vasoactive drugs( to reduce pain and inflammation in the affected department);
- antihistamine group of drugs( to prevent the development of osteochondrosis);
- medicines with calcium content( for the restoration and development of bone tissue).
Sometimes in 2 stages, as an addition to the main treatment, acupuncture( acupuncture) or influence on the affected department with electric and magnetic fields is used. All these procedures should be used strictly under medical supervision, since even minor deviations from the course of treatment will negatively affect the rehabilitation period.
3 and the last stage of the development of the disease is the most dangerous and difficult in treatment, since its appearance is characterized by the appearance of intervertebral hernias or protrusions. This occurs in connection with the complete destruction of the fibrous ring and the flow of its contents into the intervertebral region. Symptoms of grade 3 are clearly expressed, accompanied by acute spasmodic or persistent pain. Mobility decreases, there are problems with internal organs, urination increases. At this stage, therapeutic exercise and massages will not help. Use only medicamental methods. If the drugs do not cause positive dynamics, then the only way out in this situation is surgical intervention. If you do not react in time to the above symptoms, then the stage of osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine can develop into a chronic type, which eventually leads to disability of the patient.
Osteochondrosis 2 degrees, symptoms, treatment
- Therapeutic tactics
Every day our spine receives a tremendous load. We bend, unbend, turn the trunk, lift weights, jump and do not feel painful sensations. This is due to the intervertebral discs, which, due to their elasticity, provide amortization and mobility of the spine.
Osteochondrosis is a chronic progressive disease of e, which is caused by degeneration and thinning of the intervertebral discs, characterized by the formation of bone growths, arthrosis of the articular processes, the formation of disc hernias that cause compression of the spinal cord and its roots. This is one of the most common problems in vertebrology, the solution of which has not been found by doctors until now. More than 90% of the population over the age of 50 years is confronted with manifestations of this ailment. The worst thing is that young people and even children began to suffer from it. Prevalence among physically working men is higher than among women.
For ease of understanding the essence of the pathological process, the choice of the optimal tactics of the treated activities conditionally distinguish three degrees of the disease. Let's take a closer look at the clinic of osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree and the principles of its treatment.
View from inside
For a simple layman, the diagnosis of "osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree" says little. Let's try to explain. In the case of progression of degenerative processes, the presence of certain realizing factors( whiplash injury, lifting of gravity, prolonged confinement of uncomfortable posture, overcooling), the compensatory mechanisms fail: the disc loses its elasticity, decreases, the equilibrium between the pulpous nucleus and the fibrous ring that clamps it.
disc protrusion may occur, causing compression of the nerve root when exiting the intervertebral foramen. The bodies and processes of adjacent vertebrae, intervertebral joints, ligaments and muscles are involved.
Because of a violation of vasomotor innervation, there are vascular disorders or venous congestion in the form of edema, fibrosis of connective tissue membranes around the spinal roots. Vertebrogenic ischemia of the nerves occurs by compression or irritation of the nerve plexuses and the corresponding vessels in the narrowed intervertebral foramen or compensatoryly strained muscles, which, depending on the level of damage, causes the corresponding symptoms.
At 2 degrees of osteochondrosis, symptoms of irritation and prolapse are added to the muscular-tonic. Most often the changes affect the lower cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, since they are loaded most.
The main symptom for cervical osteochondrosis of is pain. When stimulating the roots of C3-C4, the diaphragm stress increases, the liver may be lowered down, imitating angina attacks. In the case of compression of the spine C4, the pain of the zone of the forehearth, clavicle is observed, the muscles of the posterior surface of the neck are gradually atrophied. Compression of the root of C5 leads to weakness, hypotrophy of the deltoid muscle with irradiation of pain from the neck to the outer surface of the shoulder.
Compression of the root of C6 causes pain, and later hypoalgesia of the dermatome from the neck to the 1st finger of the hand, biceps malnutrition, and a decrease in reflexes from it.
In the case of compression of the spine C7 , pain , paresthesia, loss of sensitivity of the zone from the neck to the II and III fingers, scapula. The triceps suffer, its weakness, atrophy is determined. The compression of the roots of C6-C7 leads to a hypotrophy of the muscles of the forearm, a hand, mostly a tenar.
The growth of hook-shaped processes at the level of C4-C6 leads to compression of the sympathetic vertebral plexus, stenosis of the arteries of the spinal canal, blood supply to the occipital lobes, trunk, and cerebellum is impaired. In this case, there is a syndrome of the vertebral artery: headache, noise and ringing in the ears, dizziness, double vision, morning rising blood pressure, vestibular disorders with sudden movements of the head.
Thoracic osteochondrosis of 2nd degree is manifested by pain between the shoulder blades, chest, aching or shingles. There may be a feeling of constriction in the entire upper part of the trunk. The pain increases with pressure on the pectorals, corners of the body.
The radicular symptom is manifested by soreness in the Erb points( intercostal spaces along the near-vertebral, axillary, prichrudinnoy lines).Violated the function of the abdominal muscles, organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Reflex angina may appear, a feeling of heaviness in the right upper quadrant.
When the lumbar region suffers from osteochondrosis, chronic or acute pain occurs in the lower back( lumbago) with spreading to the limb( lumboschialgia).With a rootlet lesion at level S1, pain occurs when walking on toe socks, L5 - on the heels. The pain is worse when the leg is straightened. There are violations of urination, hipesthesia of the skin of the perineum.
Treatment of osteochondrosis of the 2d degree includes conservative measures aimed at fighting acute radicular pain, slowing down further degeneration of the intervertebral disc. With an exacerbation, steady-state monitoring is desirable.
A good effect of in the treatment of cervical osteochondrosis gives a short-term traction with the Glisson loop with small loads in a special chair. Assign a constant wearing of a semi-rigid collar of the Shantz type. When the aggravation subsides, underwater traction with a massage is effective.
For the treatment of chest osteochondrosis, orthopedists use active vertical traction under water, passive horizontal traction along the inclined plane using the Glisson loop, axillary straps. Exacerbation of lumbar osteochondrosis requires strict bed rest on a hard surface. In the future, walking with crutches, dry or underwater traction, massage is appointed.
Simultaneously, analgesics, paravertebral novocain blockades, neurotropic vitamins, chondroprotectors, sedatives are shown. In the elimination of exacerbation, various types of massage, therapeutic exercise, reflexology, balneotherapy are used.
It is possible to introduce biogenic stimulants like aloe, vitreous. Rational nutrition and adequate motor regimen will prolong the youth of your spine. Be healthy!