Types of disorders of posture and ways of their treatment
Beautiful, stately posture is a pledge not only of attractive appearance, but also excellent health. After all, on how healthy your spine is, the condition of all internal organs also directly depends. So it turns out that people with impaired posture have many additional pathologies, they are unsuccessfully treated, and the cause of most problems comes from childhood. It is during childhood that the development and correct formation of the spinal column takes place. If you analyze the results of annual medical examinations of preschool children and schoolchildren, it should be noted that the diagnosis of "violation of posture" is often found and with tremendous speed is getting younger. Today we will consider the causes of various disorders of posture, types and methods of treatment of this pathology.
If you think that posture violations are not inherited, this is not the case. If similar pathologies were observed in the family of the unborn child, the probability of developing disorders in him grows at times. It is also important how pregnancy takes place - congenital pathologies of the spinal column also occur.
For each age period of the child, its spine structure is typical, which is considered the norm. In a newborn baby, the backrest is even and remains so for almost a year. As soon as the child begins to walk, physiological curves are formed in the spine, ensuring the correct shape of the spine and performing a cushioning function. The process of forming a correct posture ends by 12, and even by 14 years, so parents should constantly remember and make every effort to prevent violations of posture in children.
Formation of vertebral bends in children
Now let's look at how a healthy spine should look normal, and what kinds of posture disorders exist.
A healthy spine has 2 bends anteriorly. They are called lordosis. Distinguish the physiological cervical and lumbar lordosis.2 bend posteriorly located in the thoracic and lumbar regions. They bear the names of kyphoses. Both lordosis and kyphosis normally have a certain deflection angle, any increase or decrease in angle is considered a pathology. Depending on the magnitude of the deviation from the norm, the degree of violation of posture is determined.
About varieties of pathologies
The most common violation of posture is the curvature of the spine sideways. In the medical language, this pathology is called scoliosis.
On pathological kyphosis, if the spine strongly bends backward, the pathological lordosis is characterized by too strong a deflection forward. Now consider the listed violations of posture in detail.
Disorder of posture according to the type of scoliosis happens, both congenital and acquired. If such a change observes defects of the vertebrae, scoliosis is called structural. If the integrity and structure of the vertebrae is not compromised, there is an unstructured scoliosis.
Scoliosis 1 - 2 degrees
Classification of the disease is represented by three degrees:
- 1 degree - a slight curvature that is amenable to correction;
- 2 degree - scoliosis can only be corrected by stretching;
- 3 degree - a violation of posture, which includes not only a persistent curvature of the spine sideways, but also a change in the location of the ribs. The thorax strongly deforms, which leads to respiratory pathologies.
Most often, a scoliotic disorder of a posture of 1 degree is revealed in preschool children during annual medical examinations. Parents may not notice the onset of the disease, because changes in the spine are very slow and at 1 stage are almost invisible. Diagnosis of violations of posture 1 degree does not require any complicated medical manipulations, the doctor can establish such a diagnosis on the basis of visual inspection. Here are some criteria for assessing correct posture, by which you can easily determine whether your baby's back is correctly formed. A healthy child is as follows:
- When viewed from the front, the toddler's shoulders are not protruded forward, the ribs are symmetrical;
- When viewed from the side, the thorax does not look convex or hollow, the head is slightly raised, the abdomen slightly protrudes forward, the legs are straight;
- When viewed from behind, you can see that the vertebral spines are flat, not deviating sideways. The blades are slightly protruding and symmetrical.
Exercise from an early age - a pledge of correct posture
What causes scoliosis in preschool children? If the child was born healthy, without signs of cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome or other pathologies that can cause congenital disorders of the posture in children, the following can cause spinal defects:And we recommend reading:
Treatment of the thoracic spine kyphosis
- Traumatic back injuries;
- A sedentary lifestyle. Here you can object to us, arguing that your child is restless and runs a lot, but believe me, the need for a child's body in movements is much greater than you imagine. Pay attention to how your child plays, watching TV.If you notice that he has a habit of rounding his back when sitting for a long time - prevention of posture disorder should be carried out regularly. It is not difficult to do this. Teach your child to play lying down - you can conveniently sit not on the couch, but on the floor, with the load on the spine will be minimal. Learn the massage techniques. Massage plus daily exercise is an excellent tool for healing the spine. If the massage for you is akin to art, and you do not want to learn it, visit the child with the pool. Swimming and a variety of water exercises are the best prevention of posture disorders.
- Incorrect height of children's furniture also causes violations of posture in preschool children. Tables and chairs, both in children's institutions, and at home should be matched in accordance with the growth of the child.
More common is a violation of posture in schoolchildren. The reason is the habit of stooping the back during classes and a prolonged one-sided load on the spine, which occurs when the portfolio is constantly worn in one hand. Pathological kyphosis, like scoliosis, has three degrees:
- 1 degree is diagnosed if the spine is bent backward by more than 30 degrees;
- 2 degree - the bend of the spine back is 30 to 60 degrees;
- 3 degree - above 60 degrees.
This is the pathological kyphosis of the thoracic part of the
. If your child has difficulty keeping his or her back straight, he constantly stoops, additional diagnostics are required. Do not neglect the reference to the doctor, because the higher the degree of violation of posture, the more difficult it is to treat. You should contact a surgeon or orthopedist, they will send you with a child to X-ray to clarify the diagnosis. To identify violations of posture, the child will make 2 X-rays - lying and sitting, this will help determine the types and extent of this or that curvature of the spine.
Defects of bends anteriorly in children of all ages are extremely rare. Violation of posture in a teenager by the type of lordosis can be a compensatory reaction to pathological kyphosis or scoliosis. Lead to pathological lordosis may be overweight or a trauma to the lumbar spine.
Disorder of posture in the lumbar part of the lordosis type
Treatment of posture disorder is complex. Here are the main activities that will be appointed by the doctor:
- Therapeutic physical training. The doctor will refer you to a specialist in exercise therapy, which will teach the child how to properly perform the exercises. Only after the child is well mastered the technique of physical therapy, you can continue to study at home. At 2 - 3 degrees the curvature of the spine, parents can offer to transfer the child to a special kindergarten or school, where the children are taught lying down. Exercises for the spine should be included in the daily morning exercise complex, this will help avoid the curvature of the vertebral column.
- Massage in violation of posture is recommended several times a year. When choosing a massage therapist, do not use questionable recommendations from friends. Only a medical specialist should massage. And where to find a true professional, you will tell the doctor.
- The doctor selects medications, methods of stretching the spine, if necessary. It is better to conduct complex treatment in an osteopathic children's center, where all conditions for the treatment of posture disorders are created. The trouble is that finding a professional center for the treatment of children is not easy, and there are only in large cities. But the pool is easier to find. And if you teach the child to swim at an early age, he will not have problems with the spine.
- Operative treatment. It is used only for congenital disorders of posture and severe degree of curvature of the spine.
And finally, a few tips:
- Do not allow children to sit for a long time at a computer or TV;
- Instead of a briefcase for a student, buy a backpack;
- Do not overfeed the children, watch the body weight;
- Ensure that the child is physically active.
In the age of sedentary civilization, the violation of posture is not uncommon. And the main risk group are children. The main thing is to pay attention to the problem in time and do everything to eliminate it. The main condition for the recovery of babies is massage with a violation of posture.
Causes of posture disorder
The most common cause of curvature of the spine in a child is a rapid growth spurt. But other factors also stand out:
- Hypodynamia. In other words, a decrease in activity. Before school, the child spends his day very actively. Then he has to sit more. Often parents send their child to a lot of abstruse circles, where he also has to sit without moving. The result is a decrease in the strength of muscle contractions, muscles weaken and the spine bends under the weight of the body.
- Injury of the spine and back muscles.
- Birth defects. If an intrauterine development failure occurs, there may be a defect in the structure of the spine. Fused vertebrae, absence of a fragment, etc. Massage, with a violation of this type of posture is indispensable. To completely get rid of the problem, surgical intervention is necessary, conservative methods can only relieve the pain.
- Vision and hearing impairment of may also be a cause. Because the child takes a forced position.
- Psychological problems. When a child feels uncomfortable in society, he may stoop, which becomes a habitual position of the body in the future.
Massage for childrenIt is best to prevent the disease, than to treat it. With the help of massage in violation of posture, you can not only get rid of distortions, but also prevent their appearance.
The first rule is that massage should be prescribed by a doctor. At the birth of a baby, each mother can turn to a specialist, and he will show her how to properly perform the procedure, and what movements are permissible. Massage is necessary not only in the prevention of curvature, but also helps to strengthen the muscular corset. This will help crumbs easily master the coups, sitting and walking.
Massage in violation of posture
Massage with curvature of posture
Posture deviations are extremely individual. Posture is straightened, scoliotic, kyphotic, lordotic and stooped. With each curvature, you need to focus on different segments.
Therefore, the disease must be performed by a professional. This will help the child recover and avoid increasing curvature. The procedure is performed several times a week, or every day for serious violations. The whole body is involved in the process, from the neck to the feet.
If the child's age exceeds 4 years, then in addition to the massage, physical exercises are added. They will accelerate the process by strengthening the muscles.
In any case, remember the main thing - do not self-medicate the child. Call your doctor as soon as you notice something is amiss.
Posture disorder in children - what to do
Posture disorder in children
The violation of posture in children is noticeable to the naked eye not only to a qualified orthopedist traumatologist, but also to parents. Bent back, asymmetric shoulder girdle, protrusion of the abdomen - classical manifestations of pathology. In approximately 30% of cases, the displacement of the vertical axis of the trunk is due to the presence of scoliosis( lateral deviation of the spinal column).
Causes of posture disorder arise due to:
- poor development or underdevelopment of the musculature;
- the muscles that hold the spine in the correct position develop asymmetrically;
- as a consequence of the transferred disease( rickets), as a result of which there is a change in the shape of the chest( chicken breast);
- lack of correct mode in the child;
- furniture, does not match the growth of a schoolboy;
- the desktop is poorly lit;
- uncomfortable clothing - squeezing the chest, waist-pulling belt.
Disorders of posture consequences http: //pozprof.ru/snk/ narushenie-osanki.html # t8.
Among other things, to determine the treatment, you still need to understand the types of this violation. There are several of them and all of them are divided into two large groups:
1. Disturbance of posture in the curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane.
2. Disturbance of posture in the curvature of the spine in the frontal plane.
Consider these types of posture disorders:
1. In the sagittal plane.
- Posture with a stoop or round back.
The most common disorder, which is characterized by a strong deflection in the thoracic region, an outstanding head and a very small bend in the lower back.
- Posture with flat back.
From the name it is clear that there is almost no bending of the spine with a forward displacement of the chest.
- Posture with a flat-concave back.
Is a kind of flat back. There is a protrusion of the buttocks due to a large deflection in the spine.
- Posture with a round concave back.
Reminds the usual stoop. Characterized by a large deflection in the thoracic and lower back, with the chest tilted back and its lower edge, on the contrary - forward.
2. In the frontal plane.
Types of violations of posture in the frontal area are due only to the curvature of the spine and therefore they are determined by the degree of curvature. This type of violation is called scoliotic. Often scoliosis and violation of posture, especially in their early stages, are confused, but the main difference between scoliosis is the presence of twisting of the spine around its axis.
To check the child's posture, you need to carefully inspect his back, stripping the baby to the swimming trunks. Ask him to stand in the usual pose, distributing the load on both legs, and lean forward slightly. Knees should be straightened, heels brought together, and socks apart. The chin should be pressed to the chest, and the hands are connected in front of him.
When viewed from the back, the spine should look straight, and the spinous processes - form an even line. Even minor distortions indicate deviations from the norm.
On the correct posture is spoken not only by the straight backbone. It is also determined:
the same level of height of the shoulders, the angles of the shoulder blades, the nipples;
the same depth of triangles of waist - corners, which are formed by a freely lowered arm and a recess of the waist;
symmetry of the reliefs of the lumbar region and chest when tilted forward.
Physiological curves of the spine when viewed from the side should be expressed evenly, and correspond approximately to the thickness of the palm of the child.
Parents should be prepared for the fact that the process of treating posture disorders will last a very long time. And the strength and time from parents, he will require a lot - because it lasts almost around the clock, without any breaks and days off.
Treatment under the strict supervision of a doctor - orthopedist. Depending on the age of the child and his general state of health, the doctor will choose the best course of treatment and rehabilitation. To treat the violation of posture can be used therapeutic exercises, wearing special corrective corsets, manual therapy. Although, of course, most of the treatment is precisely in medical gymnastics and compliance with a certain number of requirements.
The main goal of gymnastics is to strengthen those muscles that are designed to keep the spine in a normal state - the muscles of the neck, shoulders, abdomen and waist. In no case can you independently design a gymnastic complex - very many exercises in scoliosis are strictly forbidden, since they can lead to the opposite effect and only strengthen the curvature of the spinal column.
The doctor will choose the most optimal exercises that will help each specific child. He will explain and show his parents how to carry them out. And the main task of parents is to ensure that the child correctly and regularly performs these exercises. Last, such a therapeutic gymnastics can be very, very long - up to a year. But the result will be worth it - the child will not only improve his posture, but the overall health will improve.
Separately I would like to mention the corset, designed to adjust the posture. Often the child flatly refuses to wear it. And his parents, unfortunately, go on about him. But you should not do this in any case - the doctor appoints wearing a corset only in really necessary situations.
Talk to the child. And do not just force it - be sure to explain why this is necessary, and what will happen otherwise. Although, of course, this measure is effective only in relation to a sufficiently adult child who is able to correctly understand you. If it's a kid, turn it all into a game. And in the most extreme case it is possible to resort to the power of the parent "It is necessary!".
For the correction of curvature of the back in children, the use of exercise therapy( LFK) is possible only after a thorough diagnosis of the child's condition. This helps the doctor choose the optimal complex of gymnastics in each individual case.
There are general principles that must be observed when performing gymnastic exercises:
Clothing should not restrain movements and squeeze organs;
Prolonged gymnastics makes breathing difficult for children, so it should be combined with a set of breathing exercises;
Physical exercise should be increased gradually and begin with easier classes;
During the charging, it is necessary to monitor the pulse. It reflects the activity of the cardiovascular system and suggests the degree of its "loading";
You can not make sudden movements so as not to form microcracks and ruptures in muscles and ligaments;
The maximum amplitude of movements is permissible only after a long "rocking".
Children's massage in violation of posture includes several types:
general massage of the muscles of the back and abdomen special massage aimed at specific muscle groups, determining the type and peculiarity of the pathological condition.
Massage is recommended for all forms and degrees of posture disorders in a child. Massage manipulations improve blood flow and lymph flow, and also contribute to strengthening the muscular framework by strengthening the tone of the muscles of the back and abdomen.
The formation of a good muscular frame allows to fix the normal position of the spine and eliminate the posture disorders.
Prevention of postural and scoliosis disorders should be complex and include:
a) sleep on a hard bed in the supine position or on the back;B) correct and accurate correction of shoes: elimination of functional shortening of the limb, caused by violations of posture;Compensation for foot defects( flat feet, club foot);
c) organization and strict observance of the correct regime of the day( sleep, wakefulness, nutrition, etc.);
d) constant motor activity, including walking, physical exercise, sports, tourism, swimming;E) rejection of such bad habits as standing on one leg, incorrect position of the body during sitting( at a desk, desk, at home in a chair, etc.);
e) control over the correct, uniform load on the spine while wearing backpacks, bags, briefcases, etc.;
Massage in violation of posture
Posture is the habitual position of a body of a person who is calmly standing, in which there is no excessive muscle strain. The posture of a person depends on the position and shape of the spine, the angle of the pelvic incline, the development of the musculature. The development of the muscles of the neck, back, abdomen, lower limbs, and the strength of these muscles, which determines how long they may be in static tension, have a very great influence on the posture. In addition, an important factor is the elastic properties of intervertebral discs, cartilaginous and connective tissue tissues of the joints and half-joints of the spine, pelvis and lower limbs. Normal is considered such a posture, when the body parts are located symmetrically relative to the spine. First of all, the posture of demented children is distorted, which have suffered from tuberculosis, rickets, colds and infectious diseases. Especially noticeable violation of posture, if the child is poorly developed physically. Negatively affect the posture of overloading children, improper sitting at a desk and desk, mismatch between furniture and child's growth, habitual carrying of weights in one hand, etc.
Deviations from normal posture are violations or defects caused by functional changes in the musculoskeletal system,at which the wrong position of the body is fixed, and the skill of correct posture is lost. Thus, postural defects are not diseases.
Asymmetric posture is a type of posture disorder in the frontal plane. The right and left halves of the trunk are asymmetrical. The spine is curved to the right or to the left. The triangles of the waist( the space between the lateral surface of the body and the inner surface of the freely lowered arm) are not the same. The shoulder and shoulder blade on one side are higher than the shoulder and scapula on the other.
Disorders of posture are not only ugly, but often lead to a disorder of the internal organs. Thus, with defects in posture, a decrease in the excursion of the chest and diaphragm, a decrease in the vital capacity of the lungs, a decrease in the oscillations of the intrathoracic pressure are noted. These changes complicate the work of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, reduce the physiological adaptive reserves of the child's organism, weakening it. Poorly developed abdominal muscles adversely affect the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. With flat back, when there is a decrease in the spring function of the spine, frequent micro-traumas of the brain occur during walking, running and other movements. As a consequence, there is rapid fatigue and even headaches. Reduction of physiological curves leads to other neurological disorders. In addition, the defective spine is easier to deform under the influence of external factors. Almost for all disorders of posture, muscles are weakened, with the exception of the round back, at which they are well developed, but the development of flexor muscles prevails.
Correct postural defects can be created when creating conditions for a healthy lifestyle and normal development of the child( nutrition, day regimen, personal hygiene).
Massage for defects of posture
Positive effect in case of posture disorder can be obtained with the help of differentiated massage. The effect is primarily on the back, including the lumbosacral region and buttocks, as well as the chest and stomach as needed.
In the place of thoracic kyphosis with round back and stoop, all energetic techniques, including grinding and kneading, should be used to achieve a more toned muscle. With a pronounced lumbar lordosis, massage techniques of stroking and vibration are used to help relax the muscles. With asymmetric posture, different techniques are selected for each half of the back. The half, toward which the child has a habit of leaning, is massaged using relaxing techniques. The other is stimulated by all possible techniques.
During the massage, corrective techniques are applied as necessary: pressure, pulling, etc., with the help of which the masseur strives to give the patient's body symmetry. Massage of the abdomen is indicated in cases when its protrusion is observed and the muscles of the abdominal wall are too weak.
Scoliosis is a severe progressive disease of the spine, which manifests itself in an arcuate curvature in the frontal plane and twisting of the vertebrae around the vertical axis - the torsion.
Scoliosis is not only a cosmetic defect, it is the numerous dysfunctions of the internal organs, especially the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Scoliosis is not just a violation of posture, but a disease. Very rarely, scoliosis can be congenital and caused by abnormal development of the vertebrae. Much more often scoliotic disease occurs between the ages of 5 and 15 when the spine is growing. Scoliosis is more common in girls.
The causes of this disease are usually congenital or acquired primary pathological factors that lead to disruption in the growth and development of the spine, as well as rickets, improper treatment of compression fractures of the spine, tuberculous lesions of the vertebrae. In adults, scoliosis can occur due to long asymmetrical loads on the muscles of the back - so-called.scoliosis of violinists, seamstresses, porters. In these cases, with the growth of the skeleton already complete, the curvature develops more slowly and rarely reaches the same degree as in children. Scoliosis is often formed in children weakened as a result of a serious illness or, for example, during puberty, when the balance of the endocrine glands is disturbed.
Preventing scoliosis is much easier than curing. Prevention of child, including school, scoliosis is provided by: an equal bed, proper sitting at the desk and desk, good and correct lighting of the workplace, outdoor activities, outdoor games, adequate nutrition, sufficient sleep, morning exercises, self-massage.
Favorable results in the treatment of scoliosis are possible with maximum efforts of doctors, parents and the most sick child. Complex treatment, which can be successful, includes orthopedic activities, therapeutic physical culture and massage, general therapeutic means, hygiene measures. Sometimes it is shown wearing a corset. The use of only one of the terms of treatment is ineffective. In severe cases, surgical intervention is sometimes undertaken.
With the help of therapeutic massage you can increase the efficiency of physical exercises. Without massage, it is impossible to treat paralytic scoliosis, as well as scoliosis in children who suffer from physical illnesses and for this reason can not withstand sufficient physical exertion. Massage improves the general tone of the body;normalizes the functions of the heart, blood vessels and respiratory organs;participates in the formation of proper posture;strengthens the muscles of the trunk and promotes the formation of a muscular corset.
Massage is performed taking into account its physiological effect. On the side of the spasmodically contracted muscles in the concavity of scoliosis, relaxation techniques( vibration, stroking) are used. On the side of relaxed muscles in the area of convexity of scoliosis, massage should raise the tone, all methods are used in a significant dosage. The method of massage is determined strictly individually. In the complicated case, when the curvature of the spine is S-shaped, the procedure for carrying out the massage is conditionally divided into 4 parts.
The duration of the procedure is 20-30 minutes. The course of treatment - 20-25 sessions.
Flattening is one of the most severe orthopedic disorders. It manifests as a deformity of the foot, in which the height of the longitudinal arches is reduced in combination with heel pronation and supination contraction of the forefoot.
Pronation is a turn of the foot in which the inner edge is lowered and the outer edge is raised. Supination is, on the contrary, a rise in the inner edge. Under contracture is understood as a persistent limitation of normal mobility. That is, with flat feet, the foot is twisted along the axis, and its arches noticeably decrease. Deformation of the feet leads to the fact that when walking and standing the main load falls on their flattened inner edge. In this case, the spring properties of the feet are almost lost. As a result, the normal function of the brain and other internal organs is disrupted. Developing flat feet causes common severe disorders of the body and ultimately leads to disability. The origin of flat feet is congenital, rachitic, paralytic and static( the latter is especially common).
Massage helps strengthen the muscles of the arch of the foot, relieve fatigue, reduce pain. With the help of massage( in complex therapy), it is possible to restore the function of the foot and its spring properties.
One of the congenital diseases of the musculoskeletal system is called clubfoot, which occurs quite often. It is characterized by reduction, supination of the foot and its plantar flexion. This deformation occurs as a result of contracture of the soft tissues of the foot and develops over the years. With a prolonged static load on the patient's foot, pathological supination and reduction of the foot is intensified, on the back surface of the foot are formed napotypes. If the clubfoot is diagnosed right after the birth of the child and the treatment is started in the first 3 to 4 weeks, you can get rid of it without resorting to surgical methods.
The main tasks of massage and exercise therapy in the treatment of clubfoot are to create physiological prerequisites for normal growth and development of the foot, restore the normal function of the foot and fix the correction results and, of course, the general strengthening effect on the body.
At the age of up to 3 months, a general therapeutic massage of the trunk and extremities is prescribed. From 3 months of age, after removing the gypsum, selective massage of the muscles of the shins and feet is performed. Massage of the anterior muscles of the lower leg is carried out using all methods in order to increase muscle tone. On the inner and back side perform stroking and vibration, seeking to relax the muscles.
Massage with curved
Crank-neck is called neck deformation, which is accompanied by an incorrect position of the head with the inclination of it towards the affected muscle and turning to the healthy side. This position of the head is caused by one-sided tension of the muscles and other soft tissues of the neck, curvature or disease of the cervical spine. Sometimes the head is also slightly pushed forward.
Conservative treatment of torticollis, which includes curative gymnastics and massage, begins with a month of age. Naturally, massage becomes one of the most important means of treatment. Since in children of 4 weeks of age the flexor tonus predominates over the tone of the extensors, a massage is performed that should affect the condition of the muscular system. Massage promotes improvement of lympho- and blood circulation in the sternocleidomastoid muscle, its relaxation and stimulation from the opposite side. Limitation of muscle mobility on the affected side can be reduced and gradually eliminated by stroking and vibration. On the healthy side, massage is done to increase the compensatory muscle tone, so all massage techniques are used here.