Flattening in the child 1 year

Flattening in children

Flat feet in children Flat feet in children - a change in the configuration of the skeleton of the foot, associated with the flattening of its arches and leading to a violation of the mechanics of walking. Flattening in children is manifested by fatigue, pain in the legs during movement and static load, edema and deformity of the foot, change in gait, difficulty walking. The diagnosis of flat feet in children is established on the basis of clinical examination, data of planktonography, podometry and radiography of the feet. For the treatment of flat feet in children conservative methods are used( massage, therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy, application of plaster dressings and orthoses);operative intervention is carried out in extreme cases.

Flat feet in children

Flat feet in children - the most common orthopedic pathology in pediatrics, manifested by a decrease in the height of the arches of the foot. Flattening can be detected in the child from birth( in 3% of cases);to 2-4 years it is observed in 24-32% of children, by 7 years - in 40%, by 12 years - in 50% of adolescents.

Active formation of the arches of the foot in children occurs gradually, with the appearance and increase in the load on the legs. The critical moment in the development of flat feet is the age period from 8 months to 1.5 years, when the child begins to get up and learn to walk. At an early age, all children have a physiological flat foot, due to age-related anatomical and functional features: the cartilaginous structure of bones, more elastic and elongated ligaments, weak muscles. With the right development with increasing strength and endurance of muscles, this condition in children independently normalizes to 5-6 years. With certain violations in children, flat feet develop, leading to a sharp decrease in the damping capacity of the foot, an increase in the load on other elements of the musculoskeletal system with damage to the knee and hip joints, deformation of the spine, disruption of the internal organs.

Classification of flatfoot in children

The foot has longitudinal and transverse arches supporting muscles and ligaments, providing balance of the body, distribution and mitigation of shock load during walking, running and jumping, and also increasing endurance to the axial load. According to the anatomical sign in orthopedics, longitudinal, transverse and combined flat feet are distinguished. Children often encounter longitudinal flat feet with a flattening of the longitudinal arch and an elongation of the foot that touches the floor with the entire surface of the sole. With transverse flat feet in children, the length of the foot decreases, its front section rests on the heads of all metatarsal bones.

Flattening in children can be congenital and acquired. The congenital form is rare enough and is associated with malformations of the bone structures and the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot. Acquired platypodia in children depending on their origin can be static, traumatic, rachitic, paralytic. The most common static flatfoot is more common in school-age children when there is a discrepancy between static and dynamic load on the foot and muscle tone.

Causes of flatfoot in children

Flat feet in children can develop for various reasons. Congenital flat feet in children is observed in utero underdevelopment of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons of the shins and feet. Acquired flat feet in children also develops against the background of congenital insufficiency of connective tissue and can be combined with an additional chord in the heart, bend of the gallbladder, myopia, etc. In the formation of flat feet in children, the hereditary factor - the presence of this pathology in close relatives - is of great importance.

Flattening in children can be caused by the weakness of the musculoskeletal foot apparatus that does not withstand heavy loads;defeat of the musculoskeletal system in rickets;incorrectly fused fractures of the ankles, metatarsals, heel and talus bones;paralysis or paresis of the muscles of the lower leg and foot( including after poliomyelitis);neurological pathology( encephalopathy).

The appearance of static flat feet in children is promoted by wearing incorrectly picked up shoes( cramped, dissimilar, on a thick sole), overweight and obesity, prolonged continuous walking or standing. Often flat feet develop in children with flat-foot deformities of the feet.

Symptoms of flat feet in children

In most cases of congenital flatfoot, one foot is affected in children, which looks like a rocking chair or a "paperweight" with a convex sole and a flattened, even concave back. There is heel instigation of the foot, a sharp pronation with the removal of the fingers outwards. With the advent of static load, congenital flat feet are aggravated and fixed.

In children 6-7 years of age, flat feet are manifested by rapid fatigue when walking and standing, by trampling the shoe along the inner edge of the sole and heel. Clinical symptoms of acquired flat feet in children are aching pains in the foot area, which increase after a long stay on the legs;puffiness of the feet in the evening, fatigue when walking.

There are three degrees of longitudinal flat feet in children, determined by the degree of deformation of the foot. At I degree, the height of the arch of the foot is 25-35 mm, there is no visible deformation of the foot. At II degree - the height of the arch is from 25 to 17 mm, flattening of the foot is visible to the naked eye;flat feet in children is manifested by the increase in pain in the foot, ankle and calf muscles, difficulty walking. The shape of the foot changes - its length increases, the middle part widens, the gait becomes heavy and clumsy;children have a rapid overall fatigue. Flattening of the third degree is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot, a decrease in the height of the arch less than 17 mm, constant pain in the legs and lower back, headaches, the impossibility of walking in ordinary shoes.

Flattening causes the curvature of the toes of the foot, the appearance of calluses, the formation of disorders in the child's posture( scoliosis) and spine diseases( osteochondrosis, herniation of intervertebral discs), deforming arthrosis, meniscal inflammation, etc.

Diagnosis of flatfoot in children

children up to 5-6 years of age are quite problematic. The diagnosis of severe flat feet in children can be made by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon during a clinical examination that allows to detect changes in the length, width and volume of foot movements, a violation of the state of its arches, and the wear of footwear.

Objective methods of assessing flat feet in older children are planography - obtaining a footprint of a footprint on paper and a subgrade - measuring the "sub-metric index" of the arch of the foot. Clarify the diagnosis of flat feet in children I help the results of radiography of the feet with the load performed in 2 projections.

Flat feet treatment in children

Flattening in children is a progressive disease, and the earlier treatment is started, the more effective the results. The treatment of congenital flat feet begins with the first weeks of the child's life, which allows eliminating all the components of the foot deformity. With congenital flat feet, children undergo special therapeutic exercises, massage the muscles of the foot and lower leg;the foot is held in the correct position by means of bandaging, the imposition of stage plaster casts, and night orthoses( from the age of 6 months).With aggravation of flat feet in children, a subartar arthroesis is performed.

Treatment of static flat feet in children, aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot, includes massage, physiotherapy and exercise therapy. Young children are excluded from soft shoes( felt boots, rubber boots, Czechs);It is recommended to wear shoes with a firm sole and a small heel, which fix the ankles well. When flat feet in older children shows wearing orthopedic shoes with a foot-instep, raising the lowered arch and returning the foot to the correct position.

To eliminate flat feet in children, hydromassage, contrasting foot baths, paraffin, ozocerite and mud applications on the foot area, magnetotherapy contribute to the elimination of flat feet. In the absence of the correction effect, gypsum dressings and longi are used;in severe cases of combined flatfoot surgery is possible on the bones and soft tissues of the foot and lower leg. The optimal age for surgical treatment of flat feet in children is 8-12 years.

Prognosis and prophylaxis of flatfoot in children

Weak and moderately pronounced flatness in children with timely correction is completely curable;The neglected cases are difficult to correct. In the absence of treatment, flat feet in children leads to severe deformation of the foot, joints and spine.

The prevention of flat feet in children is the wearing of properly matched shoes;physical education, game sports( basketball, football) and swimming;walking barefoot on uneven ground, sand, pebbles;normalization of calcium-phosphorus metabolism;control of body weight.

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Disease forms, degrees and their signs

The following types of disease stand out:

  1. longitudinal
  2. combined
  3. plosco-valgus stop - X-shaped curvature of the ankle joint. Usually this is not an independent form of pathology, but the last stage is the longitudinal form of flatfoot.

The compilation of the arches of the foot has such stages:

  1. Predilezny. Muscles of the lower leg and the top of the foot ache only after prolonged exercise.
  2. Intermittent flatfoot( 2nd stage).The muscles of the lower leg and the feet tighten and hurt by the end of the day. Lowering the lift of the foot can be seen visually, in the evening. In the morning, the foot looks normal.
  3. At this stage, the final development of the flat foot is noted. The symptoms are as follows: legs become tired even after a short standing;there is a visual flattening of the foot, there is a need to choose shoes at once 1-2 sizes larger. In addition, the thumb is pushed aside.
  4. The stage of valgus curvature of the foot: the ascent is flattened simultaneously with the turn of the foot by the sole of the inside.

There are several degrees of transverse and longitudinal flat feet;they are evaluated according to different criteria. Diagnosis is carried out either according to the footprint( in children up to 7-10 years old), or by X-ray( after this age).The degree of transverse flattening is judged by the angle of the deviation of the thumb, and also by the angle between the thumb and forefinger:

  1. is normally the first indicator - less than 14 °, the second - less than 9 °
  2. at 1 degree - 15-20 ° and 10-12° between I and II fingers
  3. 2nd degree is characterized by the figures 21-30 ° and 13-15 °
  4. the transverse flatfoot of the 3rd degree is characterized by the digits 31-40 ° and 16-20 °
  5. 4th degree - more than 41 ° and more than 21 °.

The degrees of longitudinal flatfoot are estimated from the radiograph data:

  • 1 degree: arch 2.5-3.5 cm high, arch angle 131-140 °
  • 2 degree: 1.7-2.4 cm, 141-155 °
  • 3degree: less than 1.7 cm, 156 ° or more.

Home check

How to determine flat feet at home? This will help to make a simple test, which can be performed in a child over 5 years old( before this age - only medical diagnosis).To do this, you need to smear the baby's feet( especially painting the inside of the foot and thumb) with watercolor paint or oil, and then put it on a landscape sheet that can absorb your dye. The child is entertained for 30-60 seconds, so that he stands on the sheet calmly and in his usual pose. Next, the prints are evaluated( scientifically, the plottogram):

  • , the normal notch in the middle of the print leaves half the width of the foot
  • at the I degree - slightly more than 1/3
  • at the II degree - less than 1/3
  • at the third degree there is no excavation at all
  • atflattening of the transverse arch between the heel and the metacarpal heads there is no generally shaded gap
  • the valgus foot leaves a wide and deformed trail( resembling a bear's paw).

Also look at the thumbprint.

Medical diagnostics

Diagnosis of newborns and infants until the year is not put: if you suspect a flat foot recommendation for a set of passive exercises, the regime of the day, massage, wearing shoes and food.

In children older than 1 year, a survey is conducted, such as a swelling - measurement of the foot with subsequent calculations of the indices of the longitudinal and transverse arches.

Pre-school children also spend:

  • podrafiyu - the study of the phases of walking, load distribution on the foot. A test is carried out in special shoes, in which the child is asked to pass on the metal track
  • electromyography - examination of the activity of the calf and foot muscles
  • determination of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood
  • computer tests in which the programs count biomechanics walking.

If the diagnosis is confirmed by these methods, X-rays of the feet are taken, which gives the most accurate result.

Treatment of flatfoot

The disease is chronic, that is, if left untreated, it will progress, causing all the consequences listed above with time.

How to correct flat feet: the nature of the therapy will depend on the stage of the disease and the age of the child. In early childhood, the foot has even more cartilage than bones, and if you give them the right position, then there is a great chance that their ossification will occur in the right position.

So how do I heal I-III stages of flatfoot? Everything starts with conservative methods.

Drug treatment

Preparations for flat feet are prescribed when the disease is accompanied by severe pain or swelling of the legs. In these cases, tablets or syrups with pain medication can be used: Nurofen, Analgin. To eliminate edema, local medications that strengthen the venous vessels( Troxevasin-gel) and dilute blood( heparin ointment) can be used. A teenager can safely apply these drugs, but the parents of a baby should first consult a doctor.

For medicamental flatfoot therapy, drugs that affect the cause of the disease should be used: vitamin D for rickets, muscle relaxants and antibiotics for the treatment of the paralytic foot.

Antibiotics for the treatment of flatfoot itself are not used. They are used if there are symptoms of rheumatism or other bacterial diseases that are not related to flattening of the arches of the foot, even in the infant.

Healers recommend

At home, but only in combination with other therapies, folk remedies can be used:

  1. Leaves of wormwood are washed, dried, applied to the soles of the feet and after bandaging are also fixed with socks
  2. Trays with sea salt( 1 tbsp.per 1 liter of water)
  3. Contrasting baths: the feet must first be unzipped for 1-2 minutes, then rinse 15 seconds with cool water. In warm water, you can add decoction of the bark of oak
  4. Warm baths with broth of mint
  5. Baths with sage.

Recall, this method is ancillary. The main effect of treatment is achieved with the help of exercise therapy, physiotherapy methods, massage, wearing orthopedic shoes or insoles.

Massage

This method of treatment is applied at all stages of children's flatfoot. The mother makes a small child massage, the teenager uses self-massage with the help of hands, orthopedic rugs, rollers, balls. You can also make an orthopedic mat with your own hands, if you paste on and paste pieces of rough puzzles, buttons, pebbles, lids from plastic bottles. A good effect is also provided by the Plant simulator - insole, laid out with massage elements, which are worn for a while.

Manual massage enhances blood circulation, restores muscle tone. Performed such techniques as stroking, rubbing, tapping, kneading. The elements of vibration are necessarily included. Using finger pads, we draw a number 7 on the foot, drawing from the thumb to the little finger, leading the line to the heel.

Complex of exercises

LFK is selected by an orthopedist, performed first with an instructor, then repeated at home and in kindergarten. With a child in 1 year passive medical gymnastics is performed - when the movement of the legs of the baby is performed by the mother.

These exercises are used:

  1. Sitting on a chair and putting feet on the floor, press your fingers several times. The heels thus firmly stand on the floor
  2. When sitting on a chair, collect cloth, roll a rolling pin, grab small objects
  3. Perform in the same position. It is necessary to use the thumb of one leg to slide the legs of the other on the shin, then change the legs
  4. Standing on the toes 5-10 times
  5. Walk on the inner and then the outer edge of the foot
  6. When charging, always walk on bars, along the ropes.

Orthopedic insoles and shoes

These devices are prescribed only by an orthopedic physician from the first stage of the disease. If at I-II stages it is possible to use footwear purchased at specialized stores that will be sold by the orthopedist's prescription, then at stage III shoes and sandals are ordered already at special plants.

Orthopedic insoles:

  • support arches in anatomically correct position
  • improve blood circulation
  • reduce stress on leg joints and spine
  • improve stability when standing
  • improve overall well-being.

Reviews about this type of treatment - only positive. You need to wear these insoles in your home and in street shoes, but periodically you need to give them rest, it is desirable that the child at this time was barefoot.

Physiotherapy

To relax the pathologically stiffened muscles of the foot and improve circulation in them, the following are used:

  • electrophoresis
  • applications with paraffin and ozocerite
  • magnetotherapy.

shock wave therapy is used to soften the ligaments. Operation

Surgery is performed in the orthopedic clinic if, in spite of conservative treatment, flat feet led to the formation of valgus flattening of the foot.

Surgical intervention can consist both in creating an artificial fusion between the calcaneus and navicular bone, and in the gradual, step-by-step plastering of the foot with additional fixation with its spokes.

Rehabilitation after arthrodisal surgery is carried out in multidisciplinary or orthopedic clinics( for example, CM-Clinic, Family Clinic, Medical Center Olympus in Moscow).It consists in temporary plastering of the foot to a third of the shin with the subsequent performance of massage, physiotherapy, therapeutic gymnastics.

The diet after the operation is to eat a balanced diet that includes enough protein, calcium, vitamins( especially group B) and phosphorus.

Prevention

Prevent flat feet is much easier than curing this chronic process. To do this, you must follow these rules:

  1. Do not try to put the baby before 7-8 months, and then with support. The optimal option - when the child himself becomes on the legs
  2. Carry out the prophylaxis of rickets
  3. Buy an orthopedic mat or make a mat with your own hands. On it, the child will become during the game, charging, cleaning teeth
  4. At home, it is necessary to perform therapeutic exercises: walking on the side edges of the foot, picking up the tissues and objects from the floor
  5. The first and subsequent shoes are chosen so: there should be a hard and long back, a small heel. Keds can not be worn categorically. Slippers and flip-flops - for a short while, only with
  6. heat. Walking barefoot on different surfaces
  7. . Folk remedies used for the prevention of the disease are successfully used for its treatment.
  8. Attend kindergarten: the kindergarten will be performed by daily gymnastics that aims to prevent flat feet
  9. The diet contains enough meat and fish, as well as fruits and vegetables, fresh juices.
Doctor recommends Skinblades in childhood, discovered at early stages, very well treated: ligaments are still malleable, bone growth zones are not yet closed, muscles grow. If you do not engage in self-treatment, and you turn to a competent orthopedist who will appoint a complex of rehabilitation measures to the child, there is a very high chance that you will forget about this problem to the adult age.

The advice is simple: do not look on the Internet how to fix the flat foot that you found, but look for a specialist who:

  1. will pay attention to all aspects of the life of the child and family that will help cope with the disease( that is, it will tell you about the diet and vitamins,and pick up a set of exercises)
  2. will be busy not only with the treatment of the investigation - flat feet - but also with a search for its cause
  3. will tell you about the possible consequences of the disease and how they manifest so that you know when to sound the alarm.
Thus, flat feet in children - bone-ligament pathology, which is easier to prevent than treat. It can be found even in an infant, but more often it manifests itself at an age after a year - under the influence of various factors and diseases. For its treatment is applied complex - physiotherapeutic, medicamental, gymnastic - therapy. The tablets alone will not help you, no matter how good you read about them. Our recommendations

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Flat-footed child: causes, consequences, methods of treatment. Massage and gymnastics with flat feet

Flat feet in the child - a very common disease of the musculoskeletal system. In fact - this deformation of the foot of the child with the flattening of its arch. Usually deformed in the children longitudinal arch of the foot, because of this the sole becomes flat and begins its entire surface to touch the floor. The consequences of flat feet of children can be very bad for their health and development of the body.

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• HOW TO IDENTIFY PLANSKY STOP IN THE CHILD?

It is possible to determine exactly whether there is a flatfoot in the child, it is possible only when he is five or six years old. Why is it so, because it is desirable to fight with flat feet in children from the smallest age, the earlier, the better? Firstly, up to a certain age in children, the bone apparatus of the foot is not strengthened, in part it is a cartilaginous structure, the muscles and ligaments of the foot are weak, easily subject to stretching, therefore it is impossible to determine the flat feet of the child. Secondly, the soles of the small child seem flat, as the recess of the arch is filled with a soft fat pad, and masks the bone base of the foot.

In the case of normal development of the musculoskeletal system, the arch of the foot acquires the necessary shape for correct functioning by the age of 5-6 years. But in some cases, there is a deviation in development, and flat feet appear.

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  • How to determine the flat feet of a child, or to make sure that everything goes well, if the baby is not yet five years old?

To determine the flat feet in a child can be as follows: lubricate the baby's feet with watercolor paints or conventional sunflower oil and place it neatly on a sheet of white paper that absorbs oil well. Distract the attention of the baby for a minute and a half so that he stands still. Then remove the child from the paper and carefully look at the footprints obtained.

If the traces are printed in the form of a "bean" - you can not worry, it's quite normal. In healthy children, this is how it should be: the arches of the children's feet are slightly raised, while moving and walking they carry a spring function.

If the entire footprint is imprinted entirely - you have something to worry about, there is a predisposition of the child to flat feet, pay attention to it until it's too late. And if your child is 6 years old you often hear that he is tired with long walking, complains of frequent pain in his legs, then you just need to consult an orthopedic doctor.

If we consider the ratio of the narrowest part of the track to the widest, the arch of the foot is considered normal when it is 1: 4, flattened, at a ratio of 2: 4, and flat at 3: 4.

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• REASONS FOR FLAT, FACTORS AFFECTING ITS DEVELOPMENT

Factors influencing the development of flatfoot are

  • 1. heredity( when someone in the family had or has this disease, it is necessary to be especially careful: the baby should be regularly taken to the orthopedic doctor for examination and take preventive measures),
  • 2. wearing "wrong" shoes( at allheel on flat soles, too wide or narrow shoes),
  • 3. excessive load on the feet( for example, with increased body weight or frequent weight lifting),
  • 4. excessive hypermobility( flexibility) of the joints,
  • 5. paralysis of the calf muscles andfeet( poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy),
  • 6. rickets,
  • 7. trauma to the feet.

The existing causes of flatfoot often lead to serious health complications.

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• WHAT IS DANGEROUS FLOATING?CONSEQUENCES OF FLATSHIP OF CHILDREN

Sometimes, parents are completely unaware of the seriousness of the disease, because at first it is not noticeable at all and does not seem to have a significant negative impact on the baby at first glance. It would seem that this is just such a feature, how dangerous is the flatfoot? However, this error can lead to serious consequences of flat feet of children and lead to a sad development of events.

The presence of flat feet disrupts the "spring" functions of the foot, the depreciation practically disappears altogether, and all the "recoil"( shake) when walking is on the shin and hip joints, which can lead to arthrosis. That is why the flat feet of a child must necessarily be prevented, if possible, and treated without fail.

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• TREATMENT OF FLAT SCHOOL IN CHILDREN

To combat flat feet in children, apply gentle methods of therapy. Physiotherapeutic treatment of flat feet in children, manual therapy, physiotherapy, special massage and gymnastics with flat feet in a child are preferred. Medication is prescribed in extreme cases, as an anesthetic and drugs to treat the effects of flat feet children. In therapy, in addition to many side effects and an inability to remove the cause of the disease, it can only aggravate it.

  • Shoes with flatfoot

To a child suffering from flat feet, the orthopedist always appoints special footwear for wearing: suitable for size, made of natural materials, necessarily with a hard back and clear fixation on the leg, and, of course, with a small heel. Individual insoles are selected for the insoles, taking into account the specific shape of the baby's foot.

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• TREATMENT OF FLAT SCHOOL IN CHILDREN: MASSAGE AND MANUAL THERAPY

The first methods to combat flatfoot in children are soft tissue massage techniques and manual therapy. Use special techniques that are aimed at strengthening the muscles that tighten the arch of the foot, and improve its blood supply. Massage with flat feet of the child should also have a mild effect on the ligamentous apparatus and joints, and correct the foot and ankle of the child resulting from the deformity.

In view of the fact that the flat feet of a child has a negative effect on the bones, joints of the legs and lower parts of the spine, it is advisable in the process of treating flat feet in children to pay attention to the condition of the spine and the musculoskeletal system. Massage and gymnastics with flat feet in a child must use these systems of the body.

Often the disease provokes the development of scoliosis( curvature of the spine).In case of detection of other pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, the physician should prescribe a therapeutic massage with flat feet of the child, special gymnastics and exercises with flat feet in the child, and in some cases a course of manual therapy is necessary. The techniques of manual therapy will help the doctor to act directly on the suffering spinal column from the absence of depreciation, relieve tension in it and eliminate the asymmetry of the sacrum, which sometimes occurs with flatfoot and can become the root cause of curvature of the spine.

• How to do a massage with flat feet of a child?

With flat feet, the massage is carried out on the legs of the baby directly, as well as on the buttocks 1 time every 1.5 months, and in combination with additional measures of violation of the child's posture - once every 3-4 months, focusing on the back, waist and abdomen.

Massage with flat feet of a child should be carried out as follows:

  • Foot massage

To begin with, rub palm or palm to rub the plantar part, from the heel to the fingers. We knead fingers and the whole foot with the thumb. Then with the thumb pad "draw" the figure 7 on the foot, from the base of the thumb to the base of the little finger and then along the outside of the foot in the direction of the heel.

Then rub the interdigital intervals of the foot on its back surface and circular movements of the condyles( in the lower part of the tibia the bony protuberances).

Next, you need to make a turn of the foot: we fix the leg with one hand for the condyles, grasping it from behind, and the second hand move smoothly along the inner side of the foot, starting from the heel to the fingers. In the process, we unfold the foot outward and slightly raise the zone of the thumb of the baby's legs upward.

  • Shin massage

Now you can carry out a shin massage. With palms, stroke, rub and knead both sides of the shin, focusing on its inner surface, pinching and flicking with fingertips. Massage the lower leg from the ankle in the direction of the knee joint.

  • Massage of thighs and buttocks

Massage of hips and buttocks do without special accents: stroke, rub and knead the muscles of the thigh along the bone, and massage the buttocks in any direction. The only supplement is the mandatory inclusion of vibration elements( pinch, flick with the edge of the palm, shake).

  • Back massage

The back massage with flat feet of the child is practically no different from the massaging of other parts of the body, the nuance here is a more thorough and long grinding of the muscles of the back and waist, kneading( especially the sacral "triangle") and the use of vibratory techniques( percussion techniques in the fieldbacks should be done without affecting the kidney area of ​​the child).

An important element for treating flat feet in children is gymnastics exercises.

Parents should understand that flat feet is an ailment which, in the absence of adequate therapy, a full-fledged treatment of flat feet in children with massage, gymnastics, and other methods, leads to serious complications of health and considerable deformation of the foot bones, and in addition to diseases of the musculoskeletalapparatus. Modern and timely therapy, treatment of flat feet in children at home, prevention of the disease, restore the health of the child and confidence in their own attractiveness.

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• TREATMENT OF FLAT SCHOOL IN CHILDREN: EXERCISES

The treatment of flat feet exercises involves the muscles of the legs, as strengthening them, we do not allow it to develop. Actually exercises and massages at kids in very small age, are able to prevent the manifestation of flat feet in the future.

From an early age, it is necessary to identify and carry out the prevention of this disease. For preventive purposes, use many different means:

  • 1. Strengthening the whole body in general, including through proper nutrition of the child,
  • 2. Physical activity, physical exercise,
  • 3. Sufficient stay in the open air,
  • 4. Special exercises forflat feet in the child.

• How to perform exercises with flat feet in a child?

The most important is the correct selection of the child's shoes. She should sit on the leg clearly. She should have a small heel( 5-8 mm), well, of course, an elastic insole inside, and a strong, hard back.

However, the exercises will be more useful if they are performed barefoot, and if possible, several times daily. One lesson can be done in the morning, immediately after lifting and carrying out the morning procedures, the next - after lunch.

In addition, there are recommendations, every day before going to bed, to keep 3-5 minutes of foot in water at room temperature. The main thing is do not overcool and do not chill the baby, but it's better to accustom gradually to such procedures, first just pour your feet with room water, and then day after day, build up a little time.

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• Playing exercises with flat feet in a child

Of course, try not to miss the summer: on good days, let the child run barefoot on the ground, water, sand, sharp pebbles. Excellent preventive benefit will be from walking barefoot legs on a special therapeutic mat with pebbles.

For the purpose of prevention, you can teach your child various games containing elements of correction, and presented in an interesting form. This approach will help the child to have a good posture. In particular, you can use the following games.

  • "Who is more skilled?"

With the baby, who has grown up to 1.5-2 years old, you can start the game exercises, such as, for example, "who carries a pillow on his head longer".The pillow should be selected approximately 10x10 cm in size, and sew in it peas, lentils or any other cereals. Wearing a pillow on your head can help fix your posture or support the correctness of its formation at any age.

  • Spots with a vise

Kids run to the sides. The one who leads them runs, trying to stain someone. But you can not stain someone who can and will have time to sit down on your toes, straightening your back, bending your arms in your elbows, squeezing your fingers, and pointing upwards. Very useful position.

  • Sideways with a sipping

Babies run up, as usual. But now from the guide you can "save yourself" by standing on your toes and raising your arms, as if stretching. The one who is stained is a new one.

• Therapeutic exercises: flat feet in a child

Exercise No. 1. Walking on socks. Correct posture is required: hands on the belt, head straight, slightly bend.

Exercise # 2. Walking on the outside of the foot: press inside your fingers, put your feet while walking parallel to each other.

Exercise # 3. Walking on any ribbed surface( "washing" board, for example).Stamping on the ribbed board is very useful. Place the board at a slope of 30 degrees on some support.

Exercise # 4. Walking on the spot without taking off socks from the floor. At the same time you need to try to raise the heels higher.

Exercise # 5. Walking on a stick sideways, or just over a thick cord.

Exercise No. 6. Rolls from the toe to the heel, while it is better to stand on a stick or cord, but it is possible and simple on any hard surface.

Exercise # 7. Walking with rolls made from the heel to the toe. Keep the body straight, do not lower your head. It is very important to make a recovery with a heel.

Exercise No. 8. Riding a stick forward and backward with stops. The stick should be about 3 cm in diameter. The exercise should be carried out sitting, but with an emphasis on the legs.

Exercise No. 9. Raise the body to the toe with full-foot drop. In this case, the feet stand so that the big toes together, and the heels apart.

Exercise No. 10. Squats with feet on toes. You can hold on to the support for balance.

Exercise No. 11. Very good gymnastics with flat feet in a child in a sitting position. You need to sit on the floor, make emphasis with your hands behind, and then grab your toes with some small objects( sticks, cord, balls), and shift them left and right. Then you can grab items larger than the inner arches stop - pin, ball, pull them to yourself, pass next to the seated.

Third trimester of pregnancy: 7 months of pregnancy, 8 months of pregnancy, 9 months of pregnancy.

It is recommended that the child after the sleep knead the feet before standing up: sitting, unbend and bend the toes of the feet, raise the legs,stop, massage the lifting of one leg of the other.

Will help to strengthen the arches of feet, climbing bare feet on the gymnastics ladder, the rope. Walking on a board, a log, a rocking bridge not only develops the arch of the foot, but also has a good effect on preventing flat feet and clubfoot development in children.

Climbing barefoot on a gymnastic or rope ladder will help to strengthen the ligaments and muscles of the feet, ankle joints, toes, and develop in the child agility, courage, determination. Above all, do not overestimate the capabilities of your baby, take into account his individual abilities. And then he will be healthy and happy!

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When rest, massage and other methods do not help to eliminate the pain, you can resort to medical therapy. Systemic analgesics: aspirin, flugalin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol, etc. Topical application: indomethacin ointment, Dolgit cream, voltarenic gel, etc. Special therapeutic procedures : Novocain electrophoresis, hydrophotocyrosine hydrocortisone,paraffin-ozocerite applications, etc.

Exemption from conscript army with flat feet( according to RF norms).

Based on the Regulation on Military Medical Examination No. 123, dated 25.02.2003, military service and admission to military schools and schools does not prevent people with the following disabilities:
  • I-II longitudinal flat-foot
  • Transverse flatfootI degree, in the absence of arthrosis in the joints of the foot( middle section), exostoses( bone-cartilaginous sprouting in the form of a spine) and contractures( restriction of joint mobility).
For liberation from an army with a flatfoot, the following conditions must be met:
  • Longitudinal or transverse flatfoot II degree c, presence of severe pain syndrome, deforming arthrosis of the II stage of midfoot joints, contracture of the fingers;
  • III-degree longitudinal flatfoot, transverse flatfoot III-IV degree
Conscripts with such types of violations fall into the category - limited to go( "B"), that is, they will only be called in wartime. They get a military ticket on their hands, and they go to the reserve.

Flatfoot prevention

  • The formation of the right gait, not to breed socks when walking - this overloads the inner edge of the foot and its ligaments.
  • With a predisposition to flat feet to choose the right place of work( work not related to long loads on the legs).
  • Correctly matched shoes, on a thick and soft sole, heel not more than 4 cm.
  • Wearing insoles for long loads.
  • In his spare time, give rest to his legs, at least 30 seconds, 3-4 times a day to stand on the outside of the feet.
  • After work it is recommended to take warm baths for feet, with their subsequent massage.
  • Walking barefoot on an uneven surface, over pebbles, along the sand, walking on the heels, the inner surface of the feet, tiptoe, moving games.
  • Maximum limit the wearing of shoes with high heels
  • Correctly dose physical exercise, avoid excessive stresses
Healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, take food rich in vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium.

Why does postural stiffness disturb the posture?

The human body works as a whole. Between bodies there are not only anatomical, but also functional interrelations. With flatfoot, the center of gravity is displaced backward. In order to maintain balance, the spine has to deviate forward. Over time, deformation increases, posture is formed - round back .The normal arch of the foot works like a shock absorber. With flatfoot this function is violated. As a result, the spine and knees have increased loads. This leads to an even more severe violation of posture, scoliosis, herniated discs. Knee joints can develop arthrosis .Flattening and problems on the part of the spine have some common causes: weakness of connective tissue, ligaments and muscles, obesity, increased physical activity.

What kind of mats can I use for flatfoot? How to choose them correctly?

Special massage mats have on their surface a variety of pebbles, ledges, "pimples".They are widely used for the prevention and treatment of flat feet. Effects of massage mats :
  • effect on reflexogenic foot points;
  • improvement of blood circulation and lymph drainage( due to this there is a decrease in edema on the legs);
  • strengthening of muscles and ligaments;
  • elimination of cramps, pain;
  • elimination of stresses, increase of general tone.
Massage mats from flat feet are prophylactic and therapeutic .Usually preventive are made of softer materials, and therapeutic ones are made of more rigid materials. One-component massage mat is a single unit. The modular consists of several parts that can be interconnected. They can be marked with "pimples" of different sizes and shapes. Materials from which massage mats are made may also be different. Most often there are rubber( usually based on natural rubber), plastic, made of foamed polymers, on a silicone base. Many models have inserts from stones, for example, river pebbles. Rugs from the Altai birch are very popular. The correct choice of a massage mat with flatfoot will help the advice of :
  • First of all - check with your doctor .The expert will tell you which model of the rug is best to buy in your case.
  • It is best to buy a mat in the orthopedic salon .Before you buy the product, be sure to deploy it, stand with your bare feet and try to walk. If it causes pain or severe discomfort, it is better to choose another model.
  • For a child under 3 years old, a mat made of rubber is best. Later you can buy a model on a silicone base. Adults often recommend rugs from the Altai birch.
  • Try to choose a rug, which is not one, but several different types of relief .This will provide different types of impact on the sole. For example, in addition to the "stones" on the surface may be villi for soft massage soles.
  • Inspect the mat before buying .Make sure that all the protrusions and "pimples" are strong enough. Think about how convenient it is to wash, store the selected model.
How to use a massage mat for the prevention and treatment of flat feet? Begin with a daily walk on the rug for 3-5 minutes, gradually increase the time. Usually 5-10 minutes is enough. It is worth remembering that the massage mat can not be used as the only method of treating flatfoot - the effect will bring only its use in combination with other techniques. To whom it is recommended to use massage mats:
  • for children and adults diagnosed with flat feet;
  • for children, in order to prevent flat feet;
  • to people, leading a sedentary lifestyle, to those with sedentary work;
  • to women, who often walk in shoes with stilettos.

How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?

Orthopedic insoles can be used for preventive purposes or to combat flatfoot. Medical orthopedic insoles need to be selected together with a doctor. Usually they are made individually, according to one of three methods:
  • Computer modeling .A person stands on a special platform, which registers the pressure of various parts of the foot and transfers to the computer. An image is displayed on the monitor.
  • Manufacture of plaster casts .
  • Thermoforming . Insole is made of special material, which takes the form of a patient's foot.
  • Obtaining a print with a special bio-foam.
Orthopedic insoles are usually made of genuine leather or synthetic materials( flexible plastic, expanded polyethylene, microporous rubber).If a person has a lot of weight, more rigid materials are used: graphite, special plastics, steel. Also, the insole is made of silicone, but they are less comfortable, have a low elasticity, wear out more quickly. But due to its flexibility, silicone insoles adapt well to the relief of the sole. In the manufacture of insoles for athletes take into account increased loads and intense sweating. Orthopedic insoles for diabetics have additional protection.

How is flatfoot encoded in the ICD?

In the international classification of flatfoot diseases two codes are assigned:
  • M21.4 - acquired flat foot;
  • Q66.5 - congenital flat foot.

What gymnastics can I perform with flatfoot?

Gymnastics with a flat foot are selected individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot. Start classes only after you consult a doctor and find out what exercises are recommended in your case. Some exercises that can be performed with a flatfoot : In prone position : 1. With your legs slightly apart, squeeze and unclench your toes for about 2 minutes. 2. With your legs spread out, rotate the feet clockwise, then backwards. 3. Pull your foot socks on yourself. You can perform both legs simultaneously or alternately. 4. Detach the heels from the floor, leaning their toes. 5. Bend the legs in the knees, push them apart, simultaneously folding the soles together, so that they touch. Then "clap" your heels: dilute and reduce them, resting with your toes. 6. Place the right foot on the left ankle joint. Move the right foot along the left shin towards the knee, while trying to clasp her leg. Repeat with the left foot. In sitting position on a chair : 1. Squeeze your right hand into a fist and tightly hold it between your knees. Raise the inner parts of the feet, and the outer one is pressed harder against the floor. Repeat several times. 2. Detach the heels from the floor - at the same time with both feet, then alternately. 3. An exercise similar to the previous one, only this time you need to remove socks from the floor. 4. Place different small items on the floor. Grab their fingers with your feet and shift from one place to another. 5. Bend your fingers while pulling your heels forward, then straighten. The foot should "crawl" on the floor, like a caterpillar. In standing position : 1. Stand several times on your toes. Then alternately tear off the right and left heel from the floor. 2. Stand on your heels several times. In this case, the toes must be completely detached from the floor. 3. Perform several sit-ups and half-squats on your toes.

Is the release of physical education given to a child with flat feet?

This question is solved individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot, other factors. With severe deformity and violation of foot function, the child can be completely released from physical culture. In other cases, it is classified into one of four groups:
  • group LFK: children who have a disease requiring an individual program of study;
  • special group: for children, for whom the load in ordinary lessons is too high, restrictions are required;
  • preparatory group: no restrictions in physical activity, but the child is exempted from handing over the standards;
  • core group: no restrictions.

How does flatfoot differ from clubfoot?

Flat feet are any deformation of the foot at which its longitudinal or transverse arch falls. The reasons for this violation can be different. Clubfoot is a congenital disorder whose causes are not yet fully established. In this case, the foot is most often turned down and inward.

What kind of sports can you practice with flatfoot?

For flat feet, the following sports are recommended: :
  • Swimming by free style .It has a beneficial effect not only on the legs, but also on the spine column, the muscles of the back, helps to combat postural disorders and other pathologies. But with flat feet, you should not get involved in swimming with a crawl, as this increases the load on the muscles of the legs.
  • Skiing .In this case, the load on the legs should be small. Intensive skiing is contraindicated.
  • Equestrian sport . Horse riding helps to strengthen the muscles and tendons of the back, legs.
  • Some types of martial arts .Aikido, karate and kung fu do not assume an increased strain on the legs, but help strengthen the tendons and muscles.
When flatfoot are not recommended such sports as skating, dancing, weight lifting, weight training, jumping, figure skating, hockey, walking on the steppes. Specialty: Practicing doctor of the 2nd category

Published: 03.7.2013

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