Transverse flat foot 2 degrees

Longitudinal and transverse platypodia and its treatment

Flattening is a deformation of the arch of the foot, viz. Lowering of the arch. As a result of this deformation, the foot almost completely loses its damping properties, which leads to a number of unpleasant consequences and complications. In this article, we will try to understand as much as possible what is a flatfoot - treatment, symptoms, causes and complications.

General information

In a healthy state, the human foot has two distinct arches - transverse( located under the bases of the fingers) and longitudinal( located along the foot).These arches fulfill the most important function - they enable the person to maintain balance and absorb shock during walking. It is clear that the foot itself, and specifically these arches of the foot are under serious load, because they weigh on the weight of the human body. And if the ligaments and muscles of the feet stop working normally and for some reason weaken, the shape of the foot begins to change - the arches of the feet decrease, it gradually becomes flat, as a result of which the main function of the foot - the spring one - is lost.

general information about flatfoot

Healthy feet - a healthy body

If the foot ceases to absorb the load, then this function will be forced to perform other joints( ankle, knee and hip), and "get" and the spine. But they cope with such a function not too well, because they are not designed for this. In addition, such a peculiar load leads to an accelerated "wear" of the joints.

This is why flat feet are often the cause of pain in the legs and back of the , although at first glance the person simply does not see such a connection. So it is worth remembering that it is as a result of the development of flat feet that pain can appear in the feet, hips, knees and lower back, rapid fatigue when walking. In this case, the pain appears at a time when the body can no longer provide normal movement, and is forced to "redistribute the load."As a result, joints of the legs and hip joint suffer, posture disorders or problems with intervertebral discs may occur. The final result of the effects of flat feet on the body can be the development of scoliosis and arthrosis, often the development of varicose veins.

Another interesting fact is that quite often this disease occurs in people with "sedentary" work, and not only in the category of workers who are forced to spend the whole day on their feet. This is due to the fact that the muscles and ligaments weaken without load( too large loads can also lead to flatfoot development), so it is very important to maintain a certain motor activity.

Many young people are wondering whether they are taking to the army with flat feet. On our site there is already an article that can answer this question.

The causes of flatfoot

The reasons for the development of flatfoot can be quite a lot, we will try to list the most "popular" ones:

  • bad or unsuccessfully matched shoes. It means shoes with a high heel or platform, narrow shoes, etc.;
  • increase in body weight, which can occur for various reasons( pregnancy, obesity, etc.);
  • hereditary predisposition. In this case, we are talking about defects in the development of the muscles, ligaments and bones of the foot;
  • various injuries( trauma to the foot, fracture of the calcaneus or ankle, cracks or severe bruising of the cartilage, damage to the muscles and ligaments of the foot);
  • diseases( for example, rickets, as a result of which the bones weaken and become soft, so they can easily deform, and the complication of poliomyelitis can arise - the leg and foot muscles paralysis);
  • sedentary work and sedentary lifestyle. In this case, the muscles and ligaments of the foot become weaker, since they do not receive the necessary loads;
  • excess load - running and jumping sports, standing work.

There are quite a few reasons, as you can see.

Platypus types

The human foot has two main arches, so it is quite logical that there are two types of flatfoot - longitudinal and transverse flat feet. Accordingly, with a decrease in the arch, the foot may increase in width or length. There is also a combined flatfoot, in this case we are talking about the simultaneous flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. This situation is also called longitudinal-transverse flatfoot.

Both basic types of flatfoot are quite common, but the most common is the transverse one.

Also, when classifying by species, the acquired and the congenital are often divided. Congenital flat feet are rare, it is the result of malformations of the fetus. Treatment of flat feet in this case begins with the first days of the child's life.

Types of flatfoot

But with the acquired flatfoot the situation is somewhat more complicated - it can appear at any age and can be of several types:

  • static;
  • is ricky;
  • is paralytic;
  • is traumatic.

Traumatic - occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the ankle and foot, or with severe damage to ligaments and soft muscle tissue that strengthens the arch of the foot.

Paralytic - occurs as a result of poliomyelitis, or because of paralysis of the tibial muscles and foot muscles.

Rickets - occurs as a result of rickets. This disease disrupts the normal formation of foot bones, they do not have the necessary characteristics in this case and can quickly deform.

But the most common form is static flatfoot. Approximately 80% of all cases are related to this species. Causes in this case may be overweight, uncomfortable shoes, prolonged excessive stress on the feet, weak muscles and ligaments of the foot, etc.

Degrees of disease

There are 3 degrees of development of this disease.

Longitudinal flatfoot is less common, but with this disease the change in the shape of the foot is gradual and almost invisible to the patient.

  1. Longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the legs. This degree is very poorly expressed, the patient can only experience discomfort when pressing on the foot or while dressing the shoes. In some cases, swelling may appear in the evening.
  2. Longitudinal flatfoot of the 2nd degree is already manifested by constant pains, which can be quite intense and spread to the region of the shins and ankles. With this degree of disease, the gait is already losing its smoothness, walking becomes heavier.
  3. Platypodia of the third degree is manifested by persistent severe pains that cover not only the foot, but also the lower leg, and in some cases even low back pains appear. Deformation of the foot with this degree of disease is already pronounced and very noticeable, often there are swelling in the joints of the foot. Walking to a person at this stage of the disease is difficult, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to move around.

Do you happen to have such symptoms?

It is worth paying attention to the appearance of such symptoms:

  • shoes trampled on the inside;Flattening is for every third person in our country

    Flat feet have every third person in our country

  • very quickly get tired feet while standing or walking;
  • appears pain in the foot after physical exertion;
  • at the end of the day feels pain and fatigue in the legs, there is a feeling of heaviness, puffiness;
  • swelling in the ankles;
  • walking on heels becomes very hard;
  • leg increases in size, resulting in buying shoes for size larger.

Many of these symptoms correspond not only to flat feet, but also varicose veins, so that when they occur, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Symptoms of longitudinal flatfoot

  • fatigue in the legs, with pressure on the middle of the foot or sole appears pain, by the evening the back of the foot swells;
  • persistent and severe pain both in the feet themselves, and in the region of the shins and ankles, it becomes difficult to find comfortable shoes;
  • together with pain in the feet begins to appear pain in the lower back, outwardly becomes invisible longitudinal arch;the foot swells, the ankle joint is inactive, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to walk.

Symptoms of transverse flatfoot

  • disappear the transverse arch of the foot, as a result of which the deformation of the fingers develops;
  • appear pain and skin pigmentation in the forefoot;
  • appears hammer-shaped fingers.

What should be the treatment?

First of all, it should be noted that the treatment of transverse and longitudinal flat feet is in principle the same in terms of measures applied. In addition, it must be remembered that if an adult is treated, there will still be no complete recovery, only certain improvements are possible. But the children are fully recovered because the child's leg is just being formed and correction is possible.

Treatment of flatfoot in adults

Since complete recovery of an adult with such a disease is impossible, the treatment is designed primarily to stop the progression of the disease, and then create the necessary conditions for foot correction. That is why is very important to diagnose the disease as early as possible .

Since the conservative therapy is the preferred method of treatment of the disease in the early stages of its development, the treatment involves the removal of pain and the improvement of the condition of the muscles and ligaments of the foot, thereby stopping the development of the disease.

The video, which you can see below, shows one of the methods of diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot:

For the removal of pain, medications are usually used in combination with physiotherapy procedures.

The basis of the same treatment is therapeutic gymnastics. at flatfoot is determined by the orthopedic physician , and the exercises are selected for a specific patient, taking into account the form and extent of the disease.

A good therapeutic effect with flat feet gives a foot massage, including a hydromassage. Thanks to such procedures, blood circulation is normalized and the muscle tone of the shin and feet is increased.

At the initial stage, a good effect gives the use of special orthopedic insoles, which again are made individually.

But, unfortunately, the above procedures will have a serious effect only in the early stages of the disease. With strong deformations of the foot, which occur in the late stages of the development of the disease, there is only one method of treatment - surgery.

Treatment of flatfoot in children

Most often, children develop longitudinal flat feet, and it is successfully treated fully without surgery, since the bones, muscles and ligaments of the child are quite susceptible to conservative methods of treatment.

If you have to deal with an innate type, then it begins to be treated from the first days of the child's life, for which special langets and bandages are used. But this type of disease is rare.

In most cases, the causes of flatfoot are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as fragile bones. That is why the treatment has a toning effect - mainly therapeutic exercise and massage. Also, contrast baths for feet are often helpful. It is also necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes, and you should take care of the child's gait very carefully.

The most important factor in the treatment of this disease in children is time - the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the greater the chances of complete recovery of children. For the same reason, it is important to prevent flat feet in childhood.

Flat feet: symptoms and treatment, longitudinal, transverse 1, 2, 3 degrees, orthopedic insole with flat feet |Orthopedics

Flattening is the deformation of the foot and its arch. In the overwhelming majority of cases, this acquired disease, which develops due to prolonged "standing" work, when wearing shoes with heels or with a narrow toe, when weight is set, when the bones and muscles of the foot begin to "press" an increasing number of kilograms. Among women, flat feet are found 3 times more often than men. The photos below show how the foot is deformed. Flattening leads to the development of other diseases, so it is important to conduct timely prevention and follow all the recommendations of the doctor if you are diagnosed with this.

Photographs and types of flatfoot

If the flat feet are clearly expressed, this is noticeable even visually when examining the foot.

Doctors speak of such symptoms of flatfoot:

  • pain in the foot;
  • frequent cramps of the fingers and muscles of the foot;
  • shoes wear out more strongly from the inside;
  • the foot in the area of ​​the fingers becomes wider, so you have to change your shoes;
  • "buzz" in the legs after a long walk.

Doctors orthopedists distinguish the following types of foot deformities:

  • Rickets flat feet, arises from lack of vitamin D,
  • traumatic, appears as a consequence of fractures of the ankles, bones of the foot and the like,
  • paralytic - the result of paralysis of limbs and foot muscles;
  • longitudinal( the inner arch of the foot changes);
  • transverse( deformed toenails).

Longitudinal flatfoot

Normally, the foot touches the floor with the calcaneus, thumb and little finger, so on its inner side there must be a pronounced bend - the arch of the foot. The smaller the distance between the inner side of the foot and the floor, the greater the degree of longitudinal flat foot. Podologies( physician dealing with foot problems and flat feet) distinguish three degrees:

  1. there are no obvious visual signs of changes in the foot, but with prolonged walking there is fatigue and pain in the foot, swelling is possible;
  2. disappears the inner arch of the foot, while walking the pain extends to the ankles and lower legs;
  3. deformation of the foot is clearly pronounced, resulting in a change in the position of the bones in the shin and knee, so there are pains in the shins, knees, lower back, there is a headache. Normal shoes with this degree of longitudinal flat feet is not suitable.

Cross platypodia - symptoms and treatment

This type of flatfoot is characterized by a decrease in the length of the foot due to the divergence of the foot bones, as a result of which it is deflected towards the thumb and the middle one is significantly deformed. Often on the thumb appears "lump" - a painful thickening.

Degrees of flatfoot

Like longitudinal, transverse flat feet have several degrees. They differ in the level of curvature of the thumb and the appearance of corns.

flatness of 1st degree. A longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is diagnosed if the first finger is deflected by an angle of less than 20 degrees. In this case fatigue occurs with prolonged walking or stress. Under 2-4 fingers appear seals - natoptyshi.

Flatness of 2nd degree

The second degree of transverse flatfoot is called moderate and is characterized by a deviation of the finger by 20-35 degrees. Usually, pain and burning in the foot area become frequent, especially for a long time to walk in shoes. The nattoids occupy a large surface.

Flatness of 3rd degree

The first toe of the foot deviates by 35-50 degrees, which looks like a dislocation. The pain is permanent, on the foot of the foot, more and more. Often the third degree is accompanied by the development of bursitis - inflammation of the periarticular bag.

If the finger deviates more than 50 degrees, diagnose a 4 degree.

To determine flat feet in a domestic environment, you can apply a solution of the colorant to the feet, and then stand on sheets of blank paper the way you normally stand. If the inner bend is poorly expressed or the imprint differs from those listed below, it is worthwhile to see a doctor. This method of diagnosis is called planktography. The doctor will measure the angle between the two lines, one of which is drawn from the middle of the heel to the thumb, and the second from the same point to the second interdigital space. The final diagnosis is made based on X-ray images of the foot, performed in different positions.

In addition to longitudinal and transverse, there is a mixed flatfoot, combining the characteristics of the first two.

Is the army taking a flat foot?

This question excites both conscripts who suffer from this ailment and their parents. Indeed, at 3-4 degrees of flatfoot walking causes painful sensations, and ordinary shoes are not suitable for the patient.

So, if the draftee is diagnosed with flat feet of 1 or 2 degrees, he is subject to service in the ranks of the armed forces. If it is longitudinal flatfoot 3 or transverse 3-4 grades( there is pain syndrome, finger contracture, arthrosis of joints and other serious deviations from the norm), then the boy or man is released from the call. However, he is given a military ticket and he is credited to the reserve with the record "limited to go."

With a flat-footed second degree, the recruit is given a B-3 fitness category, usually a non-combat service: a cook, a janitor, a builder.

Flattening in children treatment

Infants have imaginary flat feet due to subcutaneous fat in the foot. When the baby begins to walk, the muscles develop and the foot eventually assumes the correct outlines. Only by the age of three does the formation of the foot end. It is very important that the baby at the time wear the right shoes: with a rounded toe, firm back, on the heel to 1cm, inside is desirable insole insoles, which helps to form the arch of the foot. Categorically, you can not walk barefoot on a firm, level surface.

If during the intrauterine development the developmental defects of the foot were observed, the baby may have a congenital flat foot.

Children can also develop acquired flat feet. Its causes:

Various factors influence the development of flatfoot. In comparison with the initial stage of flatfoot, the second degree is characterized by the presence of a noticeable deformation of the foot, which affects the gait of the patient and the state of the higher parts of the musculoskeletal system.

1, 2, 3 and 4 degrees of flatfoot

Signs of the disease

One of the main clinical signs of flatfoot of the second degree is the presence of pain in the legs. Most often, the pain appears on the arch of the foot, ankle, sole, and on the calcaneus.

Pain sensations occur even at the first degree of flatfoot, but they are unstable and most often occur in the evening( pass after rest).For this disease of the second degree is characterized by a constant pain syndrome: the legs hurt both at rest and under physical exertion.

Unlike the first degree of flatfoot, the second degree of the disease is characterized by the appearance of pains not only on the sole, but also in higher departments. Often the muscles of the lower leg and knees ache, the muscles of the back and front surface of the thigh can ache.

Among other symptoms of the disease - heaviness in the legs, swelling of the foot. By the end of the day, as well as after physical exertion, the pain becomes pronounced. Flattening can lead to convulsions of calves. With this disease appears clubfoot, and there are difficulties in walking.

When examining the foot, you can identify the deformation of the foot. A flat arch of the foot is noticeable, and its width is enlarged. With transverse flatfoot this is noticeably stronger than with other species. Because of the transverse and longitudinal flat feet, it may be necessary to purchase shoes for a larger size, since the leg varies in size. The presence of the disease can be guessed by the state of the shoe: there is a large wear on the inside.



In order to confirm the diagnosis, anthropometric studies of the foot parameters are carried out: the angle of the arch is compared, the height is checked, the Friedland index is checked. For this, an X-ray is also taken.

Flat-footedness is not a cosmetic defect, which simply affects the walking of a person and can cause pain. This is a dangerous disease that affects the condition of the musculoskeletal system and can lead to serious complications. In the normal vault, the load is evenly distributed, therefore the knees, spine and hip joints are protected. Since the stop for this disease does not perform a spring function, the load on the overlying joints increases, which leads to the development of other diseases. Patients at risk of acquiring an intervertebral hernia, osteochondrosis, etc. Due to flat feet of the second degree, arthrosis of the second degree may develop.

Causes of

  • Congenital pathology. Symptoms of flatfoot can be detected at an early age. It occurs in 3% of children.
  • Injuries. Various injuries can lead to the development of this disease. For example, in case of damage to the ankle, calcaneus, ankle, tarsus, soft tissue injury, which are responsible for the condition of the arch.
  • Ricky flatfoot. Deformity of the foot develops due to rickets - a disease in which the normal formation and development of the bone system does not occur. They remain fragile, which helps to loosen the ligaments and muscles.
  • External factors. Platypodia often develops due to poor condition of ligaments and muscles, which contributes to the uneven distribution of the load. This can happen because of excess weight, the constant need to stand and exercise. Low-quality footwear plays a significant role. Flat feet are also caused by wearing shoes with a high heel or with a too narrow toe. The second degree of the disease can occur when wearing shoes with a four centimetric heel, as the transverse arch is in a stressed state, which affects the condition of the metatarsal ligament.

Platypodia of the second degree in children

Probability of flat feet in children is low. Identifying the disease is difficult, as children are just beginning to walk, so an incorrect gait will not be a sign of the disease. Most often flat feet of the second degree is diagnosed already in adolescence. For the prevention of flat feet, children are prescribed to wear orthopedic shoes or orthopedic insoles( only with the appointment of a specialist).Doctors do not recommend that children should wear footwear that was in use, because at an early age the foot only begins to strengthen, the former owner of shoes can have foot disorders, so worn shoes can lead to deformity of the foot in another child.

Longitudinal flat feet of the second degree

Longitudinal flat feet are present in 20% of patients with this disease. Most often, the development of this type of flatfoot is affected by the poor condition of muscles and ligaments, and the wearing of improper( unsuitable) shoes. With longitudinal flat feet, both the length and width of the foot increases. The code becomes lower, the patient suffers from constant pain, they spread not only to the feet, but also to other parts of the legs.

The second stage of longitudinal flatfoot is characterized by the fact that the foot after rest wants to recover. The compaction of the foot is especially noticeable in the evening. If it ceases to restore its shape, then an irreversible deformation of the foot occurs.

In this disease, the main weight is transferred to the anterior part of the calcaneus. There is a turn of the foot inside. Without treatment at this stage, valgus deformity of the finger occurs.

Transverse flatfoot of the second degree

Disease occurs in 75% of cases. Visually, the second degree of transverse flatfoot is characterized by a change in the position of the first toe and expansion of the foot in the anterior regions. The foot becomes shorter. There is a deviation of 1 finger, 2 and 3 fingers can deform. The thumb is bent under the other fingers, the patient experiences constant pain in the region of the bone of this finger, and convulsions may also occur. Because of the increased load on the foot due to its deformation, the corns and calluses are formed. The angle of folding the first finger under the other can be 20-35 degrees. During physical exertion, there is a burning sensation and aching pain in the region of the first finger and the entire foot. The second degree of transverse flatfoot causes the growth of the head of the first metatarsal bone.

Combined flat feet of the 2nd degree includes signs of transverse and longitudinal flatfoot. Both arches of the foot are changed. The height of the vault decreases in its middle part. Since in this part there are important nerves and vessels, it is fraught with the development of diseases. The metatarsus of the metatarsal bone goes down, the first finger can be displaced. The correct functioning of the ligament apparatus of the fingers is broken, the bone is deformed, it is noticeable on the functions that the interphalangeal joints cease to perform. The step becomes difficult to turn.

The second degree of transverse longitudinal flat foot is most common in people after 35 years, mainly in women with excess weight. Accelerates the development of flat feet wearing narrow shoes.

Treatment of

People who have this disease can often wonder how to cure a flat foot of the second degree. The methods of treating flatfoot are determined by an orthopedic physician. Each case requires an individual approach. If measures were not taken at the initial stages of the disease, conservative methods are used to prevent the further development of pathology. The initial stages can help physiotherapy, physiotherapy and therapeutic massage - actions that strengthen muscles. At the second stage of the disease development it is necessary to wear special insoles and orthopedic shoes that control the position of the foot. If longitudinal flatfoot was diagnosed, the use between the fingers of the inserts is appointed, in particular with longitudinal flatfoot with a thumb displacement.

The use of orthopedic insoles and liners is prescribed only for a certain time, so that the foot can not finally get used to them - this is fraught with weakening of the muscles and worsening of the condition of the foot. Treatment involves a systematic approach.

  • A therapeutic massage is prescribed for the removal of the pain syndrome. It helps to normalize muscle tone, improve blood circulation.
  • Therapeutic exercise is prescribed. Constant performance of exercises leads to strengthening of muscles and ligaments, they control correct distribution of load and correct incorrect gait. Exercise is advisable to perform in the morning, gradually increasing the load.
  • Physiotherapy helps reduce pain syndrome. It is prescribed, with a marked violation of joint mobility and severe pain. It also improves blood circulation.

If all of the above treatment methods are ineffective and the patient complains of intolerable pain, the orthopedic doctor can decide on a surgical procedure. To such a decision it is necessary to come in the most extreme case. More than 500 types of operations have been developed. They are carried out both on soft structures, and on bones. Some operations involve the intervention of bone and tissue systems. With a successful operation, the probability of deformation of the foot is low. However, the patient must constantly work and prevent this disease.

Many people, by virtue of their medical illiteracy, believe that the flat feet of the 2nd degree - this is a completely innocuous condition they will not be, but it is far from the case. As the development of the disease in addition to pain can bring a lot of concomitant diseases.

The border state in this issue is the second degree, which gives a pronounced clinical picture, but does not set a significant damage to the state of health. Therefore, now it is important not to allow the 2nd degree to transform into the third or fourth, which will require a person more radical measures of treatment.

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The main difference of this corrector inThe fact that its action is directed not only to straighten the thumb, but also to combat transverse flatfoot. Thus, the socks of ValgoSocks are struggling not only with the "bone", but also with the cause that causes its appearance.

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It should be noted that scientists have demonstrated only longitudinal flat feet.

Some scientists also distinguish transverse flatfoot "> transverse flatfoot, but this is far from the case, and the error was related to the anatomy of corpses in which the degree of tonus of tissues is reduced or completely absent."

X-ray studies of live humans confirmed longitudinal flatfoot and completely disproved the transverse. Although discussions on this issue continue to this day, because flat feet are quite relevant, for example, longitudinal or transverse flat feet has its opponents and supporters. There are complaints

When you come to see a doctor, a person who has a flat-foot 2 degree says that he feels pain in his legs, the arch of the foot is a typical place of pain, especially for children who are difficult to walk in this regard, alas, butThe area of ​​the sole, inner or outer ankle, or heel bone is also worrisome

The clinic is especially manifested at grade 2. This disposition of pain can be observed even at 1 degree, but everything passes after rest or sleep, but 2 is characterized by constancypain syndrome in both an adult and a child. Pain, which gives a flat foot, occurs both during physical work( walking or standing), and at rest. In this case, it is best to show the child to a specialist, because flat feet, regardless of what degree it is, should be immediately treated.

During the 2nd degree of flatfoot, the pain ascends the leg. For example, during the first degree, the pain sensations are limited only to the foot area, but the 2nd degree leads to the fact that they can reach the knee joint.

Accompany the ailment as swelling of the ankle area, heaviness in the legs, fatigue. Particularly concerned about these symptoms in children. Children make clear complaints, regardless of the complexity, an adult on them may not pay attention because of employment or other reasons.

All can be accompanied by cramps calf muscles, as well as a violation of the child's gait, can develop clubfoot, and in this case it is necessary to suspect flat feet. Even if the doctor simply looks at such a patient, he will easily find the curvature that characterizes the longitudinal flat foot( whether there is a transverse is not yet proven).


In order to diagnose grade 2 and diagnose platypodia, a large number of a wide variety of techniques are used. This and the measurement, which includes a variety of indicators, such as height, angle, all sorts of indices, they all help to identify the disease regardless of what it has a degree. But the main diagnostic method, helping to identify flat feet, remains radiologic.

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For a child, it is completely safe, but on an equal basis with this, it is effective, which can be used to examine flat feet in a group of children.

Diagnosis was made - now we treat

If 2 degrees of flat feet are exposed, it is worthwhile immediately contacting a specialist. There are several approaches, correct methods will prompt the orthopedist, but there is no doubt that combined treatment is applied. And each degree will require its methods, which are most effective.

So how to cure a flat foot 2 degrees? For this it is important to have patience, because the process is long and it can take time, especially the 2nd degree. It is not difficult to treat grade 2, it is important not to take breaks, to comply with all recommendations, since the process will be lengthy. The main thing in this case is to endure this period, and as a reward for patience, the pain will go away, and the flat feet will not progress.

Combination treatment includes massage. It can be done by a specialist, and you can also produce it yourself, following the instructions of an orthopedist. This is especially important for children, since their foot is only being formed. Foot massage promotes normalization of blood circulation, and also strengthening of ligaments.

With flat feet of 2 degrees, water procedures help to fight. An example can be contrasting trays, which contribute to the restoration of blood circulation and increase metabolic processes in tissues. That's only an obstacle to such procedures can become cardiovascular diseases of any severity.

At home, gymnastics is used, especially it is shown with flat feet of the 2nd degree. A banal example can be walking barefoot around the room, it will also help to become a prevention for a flat foot of the second degree. But gymnastics works best when walking on an uneven surface, for example, on pebbles or sand or a special rug that helps to overcome flat feet. It will also be useful, especially for children, to roll balls of different diameters, mainly at grade 2.

Gymnastics provides for the collection of the fingers of the legs of various objects and it can be used regardless of the degree.

It is useful for a child with flat feet to walk on toes, as well as on the heels, stretch socks, perform circular movements in stops. All this will help the child's foot to effectively overcome the disease.

This gymnastics is effective for adults, it can be performed simply for the purpose of prevention. In fighting the disease, flexion or extension of the foot in the ankle joint will help. Such exercises can be performed in children with a prophylactic goal, or they can supplement the set of exercises recommended by a specialist with flat feet.

Consultation specialist in any case should be preceded by any treatment methods, this is especially important for the child. After all, it is necessary to first calculate the load that comes from individual parameters of a person, such as age, height, weight, as well as general health indicators of the organism as a whole. Flattening of the second degree for the child provides for combined treatment, especially for children.

Flattening of the 2nd degree is a borderline condition that has a vivid clinic, but does not pose a significant threat to health. Treat it for a long time and only with the help of a specialist.

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  • Cured transverse flatfoot
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  • Avoided surgery and walking by doctors
  • I was able to wear my favorite shoes

My name is Oksana Fedorova. In 2002, I received the title "Miss Universe", and after only a couple of years the bones on my legs deprived me of the opportunity to even put on shoes. As I then thought - the career is over. .. However, I managed to find a solution that turned out ridiculously simple and accessible to everyone who faced such a problem. As I did, you can read in my sensational interview to an online magazine that is on this link ( it is worthy of attention, believe me). Read the interview. ..

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My sister has a flat foot of the second degree. Of course, this is not deadly, but it's not pleasant. She can walk without pain only in orthopedic shoes.



Flat-footed hereditary scourge of our family. Therefore, when the doctors determined that my son had a second degree, I tackled his treatment stubbornly. There were tears and moods. But the time passed, the pain receded. At the next examination, the doctor said that the flat feet did not progress. It was our little victory! The main thing is to have patience for the period of treatment, and it is long.

Types and stages of flatfoot

  1. Diagnostics

Flat feet call flattening of arches with partial loss or complete loss of its cushioning function. There are several types and degrees of the disease. This division is necessary for choosing the right treatment. For example, flat feet of the 2nd degree can still be corrected with the help of conservative methods, and at 3 degrees the main type of treatment is surgery.


  1. The following forms of flatfoot are distinguished by the nature of deformation:
  2. longitudinal,
  3. static flatfoot( most frequent).
  4. By degree - 1, 2 and 3 degrees of flatfoot.

The longitudinal form of the disease is the flattening of the longitudinal arches of the feet, and the transverse form is the spreading of the anterior part of the foot. With the combined version, there are simultaneously two types of deformation. Progression of longitudinal flat feet leads to an increase in the length of the foot due to a gradual flattening of the longitudinal arch. In the transverse form, the length of the foot, on the contrary, decreases, since the metatarsal bones fan out in a fanlike manner, the thumb is turned outward, and the hammerlike deformation of the third finger occurs.

Longitudinal flatfoot

The frequency of this form is approximately 20% of all cases of the disease. Most often the longitudinal flatfoot is static and develops as a result of weakness of the muscles of the legs and feet, as well as the ligament apparatus. This leads to a decrease in the height of the inner longitudinal arch, while the calcaneus rotates inward, and its tendon moves outward. The tension of the tendons of the peroneal muscles is combined with the stretching of the anterior tibial muscle. The appearance of feet changes. They extend, widening in the middle part. The longitudinal arch is lowered, the feet are turned to the inside. Through the skin of the inner edge of the foot, you can see a protruding scaphoid bone. The patient's walk becomes awkward, when walking, he excessively breeds socks to the sides. During the longitudinal shape of flatfoot, 4 stages are distinguished:

  • prodromal,
  • flat foot development,
  • stage of flat-footed foot.

The prodromal stage( predbolezn) is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the feet after prolonged static loads. There may also be pain in the muscles of the shins and in the upper part of the vaults. In the stage of alternating flatfoot, the pains in the shins and feet become more pronounced by the end of the day, they also appear during prolonged walking, especially on high heels. There is a muscular tension, sometimes a temporary contracture of the muscles of the shins and feet. Longitudinal arches become flattened in the evening, but after rest they again take a normal form.

Tip: if your profession is associated with a long standing, then from time to time to reduce the painful sensations in the feet in the initial stages of flatfoot it is necessary to unload the muscles of the arch. To do this, you need to stand a little on the outer edges of the feet. In the evening, to reduce pain, warm baths are recommended.

When the arch of the foot loses the ability to recover, the flat foot arrives. At this stage, pain and a sense of tension develop after minor static loads on the feet. Painful sensations are of a permanent nature and can disturb even in peace. At this stage, gait changes become noticeable.

Flat foot degrees

  1. Flattening of 1st degree - the beginning of a firm flattening of the arch: its height is 25-35 mm.
  2. 2 degree: the height of the arch of 17 to 25 mm. Increased stress and deterioration of the blood supply lead to the development of osteoarthritis of the joints of the foot.
  3. At 3 degrees of flatfoot, the arch height is less than 17 mm.

The last 3 degree of flatfoot is characterized not only by a significant deformation of the foot, but also by other disorders of the musculoskeletal system. This can be osteochondrosis, intervertebral hernia, arthrosis of the joints of the lower extremities, scoliosis. The third degree of flatfoot makes it impossible to engage in sports and causes difficulties in moving even in everyday life. Because of the change in the shape of the feet, most of the body weight falls on the anterior part of the calcaneus and the talus bone. There is a turn of the foot inside and simultaneous spreading of its anterior parts. At 3 degrees the big finger deviates laterally. Absence of full-fledged treatment can lead to the development of the next stage of flatfoot - the stage of flat-footed foot. At this stage, the foot turns even more inward, its valgus deformation occurs. At this stage, surgical intervention is indicated.

Distinctive features of longitudinal flatfoot

  • pain in the area of ​​the plantar surface of the feet during palpation;
  • gait violation( clubfoot or, conversely, spaced socks, uneasy when walking);
  • longitudinal flat feet of 2 degrees differs by the spreading of pain to the shins and ankles;
  • with a third degree of flatfoot pain localized, except for the feet, ankles and lower legs, in the knee joints, lumbar spine and even headache, edema of the shins;
  • have to buy shoes larger than before.

Transverse platypodia

In transverse flatfoot, flattening of the transverse arch of the foot occurs, and its anterior part rests on the heads of all metatarsal bones, whereas normally it is only on I and V. As a result, the bones of the metatarsal divide, the finger deviates outward, and the middle fingerthe finger is deformed hammer-shaped. The transverse flat foot is approximately 75% of the cases. In the development of this form of foot deformity, the insufficient function of the ligament apparatus is of primary importance. More often this type of flatfoot develops in people with excessive body weight, and also with frequent wearing of high heels or simply uncomfortable shoes( with a narrow nose, tight, bought not in size), a long static load. Longitudinal and transverse flat feet are several times more common in women than in men, which may be associated with footwear.

Signs of

  • stop extension in the front departments;
  • shortening of the feet;
  • valgus deviation of 1 finger, hammer-shaped deformed 2 and 3 fingers;
  • skin hypnosis under the bones of the bones of the metatarsus;
  • tension of the extensor tendons of the fingers.

Externally, the thumb is at a different angle over the second toe. The movement is difficult and there is pain in the joint between the main phalanx of the big toe and the head of the first metatarsal bone, which is explained by the development of osteoarthritis. The mechanism of longitudinal flattening is due to the weakness of the plantar aponeurosis. Since the load on the metatarsals increases, corns and corns appear on the skin below them, bone-cartilaginous growths appear along the inner edge of the head of the first metatarsal bone. The appearance of the feet with transverse flatfoot is quite typical: the widened anterior parts, protruding, enlarged head 1 of the metatarsal bone( "bone"), the outermost thumb, hammer-shaped 2 and 3 fingers. Patients can complain not only of pain and quick fatigue while walking, but also the difficulty in selecting shoes.


  • The first( weakly expressed) degree: the angle of deformation of 1 finger is less than 20 degrees.
  • The second degree is a transverse flatfoot of moderate severity: the angle of deformation is between 20 and 35 degrees.
  • Transverse flatfoot 3 degrees( pronounced form) - the angle of deformation is more than 35 degrees.

Important: if you feel pain in your feet and notice the deviation of the first finger outward with an increase in the "stone", be sure to consult a doctor.

The earlier the treatment of flat feet has begun, the more visible the result will be.

Combined platypodia

This form of flatfoot in the occurrence is the third after the transverse and longitudinal. A longitudinal-transverse or combined flat foot is a simultaneous flattening of the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot.

Plane-foot types depending on the causes


This is a rare form of flatfoot, which is most often represented by flattening of the longitudinal arch and by pronation of the foot( flat-footed foot).The reason - congenital inferiority of the ligaments, muscles and bones of the foot. To treat this form of the disease from the first days of life, the child is impregnated with gypsum dressings, later uses orthopedic footwear, and massages and curative gymnastics are widely used.


Paralytic flat foot develops as a result of any transferred neuroinfection( eg, poliomyelitis).Paralysis of the calf and foot muscles may also occur with damage to the tibial nerve. The degree of flatfoot depends, in this case, on how pronounced the paralysis of the musculature supporting the arches.


It develops as a result of rickets born in early childhood. Rickets cause weakness of bones, ligaments and muscles, so the arches of the feet flatten under the weight of the body.


This kind of flatfoot arises after fractures or other injuries of the foot bones( tarsus, metatarsal, heel bone) and ankles. Usually this happens when the fractures are not matched properly, therefore, with pronounced flat feet, surgical treatment is preferred.


Static loads are the most common cause of flatfoot. Factors predisposing to the occurrence of static flatfoot are the following:

  • overweight,
  • long static load associated with occupational activity( for example, surgeons).


Diagnosis of flat feet is based on the analysis of complaints, external examination and palpation of the feet. Clarify the diagnosis using X-ray. When analyzing the radiograph, the degree and stage of flatfoot is determined. A simple way to assume the degree of flatfoot is the planogram. For this study, the patient's foot is smeared with a harmless dye and a footprint is made on clean paper in a standing position. According to the shape and shape of the print, one can judge the degree of the disease. It is also important to know the cause of the flatfoot, for this patient it is necessary to ask in detail about the work, about what he usually wears shoes, etc. It is especially easy to spot a valgus flat foot when examining the first finger outwardly and overlapping the second finger.

Important: When referring to a doctor, be sure to tell about the injuries of the lower limbs, as well as infectious diseases and rickets in childhood.

1 comment
  • Vasya 15.07.2014

    I have a third degree of flatfoot, about 15 years ago, the doctors identified this. The most interesting thing is that I'm on my feet for 12 hours at work and everything is fine. In general, I do not feel any discomfort and pain. True, there is one thing: I always buy expensive, quality shoes! But in a cheap I can not walk for a long time, my legs start hurting after an hour.

Add a comment

is taking in the army with a flat-footed second degree with arthrosis change?

Inspector No. 108

In accordance with clause "d" of article 68 of the disease schedule, approved. RF Government Resolution No. 123 of February 25, 2003( flatfoot and other foot deformities in the presence of objective data without disrupting functions)
With longitudinal or transverse flattenes of I or II degree with deforming arthrosis of the first stage of the joints of the middle part of the foot in the absence of the contracture of its fingers and exostoses, the citizenANNIVERSARY TO THE MILITARY SERVICE WITH MENTAL RESTRICTIONS and is called up for military service on general grounds.
Longitudinal flatfoot and hammer-like calcaneal deformation of the calcaneus are assessed by profile radiographs in the standing position under load. On the X-ray diffraction patterns, the angle of the longitudinal arch and the height of the arch are determined by constructing a triangle. Normally the angle of the arch is 125-130 degrees, the height of the arch is 39 mm. Flattening of I degree: the angle of the longitudinal internal sole of the arch is 131-140 degrees, the height of the arch is 35-25 mm;flat feet of II degree: the angle of the longitudinal inner vault is 141-155 degrees, the height of the vault is 24-17 mm;flat feet of the third degree: the angle of the longitudinal inner arch is more than 155 degrees, the height of the arch is less than 17 mm.
To determine the degree of posttraumatic deformation of the calcaneus, calculate the angle of Beler( the angle of the articular part of the calcaneus calcaneus), formed by the intersection of two lines, one of which connects the highest point of the anterior angle of the subtalar joint and the apex of the posterior articular facet, and the other passes along the upper surface of the buttock pitbones. Normally this angle is 20-40 degrees. Its reduction usually accompanies posttraumatic platypodia. The most informative for assessing the condition of the subtalar joint is its computed tomography, performed in the coronary plane perpendicular to the posterior joint facet of the calcaneus. The transverse flatfoot is estimated from the radiographs of the anterior and middle parts of the foot in a straight projection, made under load. Reliable criteria for the degree of transverse flatfoot are the parameters of the angular deviations of the first metatarsus and the first finger. On X-ray patterns, three straight lines are drawn corresponding to the longitudinal axes of I-II metatarsal bones and the main phalange of the first finger. At I degree of deformation, the angle between I-II metatarsal bones is 10-12 degrees, and the angle of deviation of the first finger is 15-20 degrees;at the second degree, these angles respectively increase to 15 and 30 degrees;at the third degree - up to 20 and 40 degrees, and at the IV degree - exceed 20 and 40 degrees.
Deforming arthrosis of the first stage of the foot joint radiographically characterized by a narrowing of the joint gap by less than 50 percent and marginal bony growths not exceeding 1 mm from the edge of the joint space. Arthrosis of stage II is characterized by a narrowing of the joint gap by more than 50 percent, marginal bone growths exceeding 1 mm from the edge of the joint gap, deformation and subchondral osteosclerosis of the articular ends of the articulating bones. With arthrosis of the III stage, the joint gap is not radiographically determined, there are pronounced marginal bone growths, gross deformity and subchondral osteosclerosis of the articular ends of the articulating bones.
Longitudinal flat feet of I or II degree, as well as transverse flat feet of the first degree without arthrosis in the joints of the middle foot, finger contractures and exostoses are not grounds for applying this article, they do not prevent the passage of military service, admission to military schools and schools.

Uncle Fedor

With the positive conclusion of the VVD

Igor Igorek Igor

can now take with anything.try to point out your sores and say that they cause you inconvenience.maybe it will carry.


category "B" is given in the case of flat feet of 2nd degree and arthrosis of the 2nd stage. Or without arthrosis, but with a flat-foot 3 degrees.
Art.68 schedules of diseases.

Cvetlan Igin

I have a son the same diagnosis as you have, took as a dear! Chased to swear and in the tail and in the mane, lay 5 days in the medical unit. After that again, they drove the leg, swollen, was taken to the hospital-7 days later, lying down, now it's easier to go to the guard, strong-
but do not drive. I went to the military registration and enlistment office, said about the reasons that the diagnosis does not allow wearing military-style shoes, asked why they did not write off-they are not supposed to be! So you will have to knead army boots with your diagnosis!

Sergey Guryanov

You do not have to crumple anything, if you act! If Flat-foot 2 degrees + arthrosis 2 degree. Everything is documented, makes a bunch of pictures! And put pressure on the military enlistment office. Do the same examination on the back! Make an MRI.Just so no one will put you a category B!
If you have just started, then prepare for a year of brainstorming.
If you really have problems, then you should often go to the doctor, what would be the so-called medical history in your card. This is a big plus. If nothing happened, but by law you are not fit, go to court.

Ivan Karpov

look what is said about your illness in the disease schedule: http: //

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