Flattening - changing the shape of the arches of the foot, accompanied by the loss of its cushioning( spring) functions. Depending on which particular arch of foot is flattened, the transverse and longitudinal flat feet are distinguished. Also distinguish congenital and acquired flat feet. About 45% of all adults suffer from various forms of flatfoot. Pathology is more common in women. Flat feet are the cause of foot pain that occurs during walking. Often when flat feet on the sole are formed calluses and corns, the deformation of Hallux valgus. In addition to radiographic examination, flatfoot diagnostics include planography and sub-metering. Treatment consists in the constant wearing of insteps or orthopedic shoes, periodic passage of massage courses, exercise therapy and physiotherapy.
Flattening - changing the shape of the arches of the foot, accompanied by the loss of its damping( spring) functions. About 45% of all adults suffer from various forms of flatfoot. Pathology is more common in women.
The foot restrains the body weight, prevents the person from falling during walking, plays the role of shock absorber and lifting mechanism. In carrying out all these functions, the arches of the foot are of great importance-rigid and at the same time elastic formations, which include the bones of the foot, its ligaments and muscles.
There are two arches of the foot: transverse( an arc from I to V of the metacarpal bone, which becomes visible if the arm is taken by the hand from the sides and squeezed in the transverse direction) and longitudinal( arc in the region of the inner edge of the foot).The purpose of the arches of the foot is to keep the balance and prevent the body from shaking while walking.
With the weakening of the musculoskeletal structures, the muscles and ligaments of the foot stop coping with the high load, the foot is flattened, "settles".Her cushioning function is reduced. Concussions during walking are transmitted to the higher parts( spine and joints of the lower limbs), in which degenerative changes develop due to constant overload( osteoarthrosis, posture disorders, osteochondrosis).
Classification of Platypodia
When flattening the transverse arch, the feet are referred to as transverse flat feet, while flattening longitudinal - about longitudinal flat feet. In the case when both arches are flattening, a combined flatfoot develops.
Probably acquired and congenital platypodia. Congenital flat feet - a rare pathology( 2-3%), caused by a violation of the development of the foot in the intrauterine period. In children, a congenital flat foot is usually diagnosed at the age of 5-6 years, because at an early age the arches of the foot are not yet sufficiently developed, and the signs of flat feet are normal in all children.
Acquired platypodia can occur at any age. Depending on the causes of development in traumatology and orthopedics, it is divided into:
- Static flat feet. A common form of flatfoot( more than 80%).The cause of the development of pathology is the weakness of the bones, muscles and ligamentous apparatus of the foot and shin. There is a hereditary predisposition to the development of flat feet due to inherited weakness of the ligaments. The risk of flatfoot development increases with increasing body weight, insufficient physical activity in people sitting in occupations, "standing work"( sellers, hairdressers, pickers on conveyors, weavers, etc.), wearing uncomfortable shoes, aging. Static flat feet can develop and due to the constant wearing of shoes with high heels( due to excessive load on the forefoot).
- Traumatic platypodia. It develops after a fracture of the bones of the foot, calcaneus and ankles.
- Ricky flatfoot. Occurs after rickets. The cause of development is a decrease in the strength of bones and a violation of the formation of the skeleton of the foot.
- Paralytic platypodia. Develops after poliomyelitis. The cause of flatfoot is the paralysis of the tibial muscles and the plantar muscles of the foot.
Transverse flatfootThe proportion of transverse flat feet according to various data is from 55% to 80%.The disease usually develops in middle-aged people( 35-50 years).Women suffer from transverse flatfoot 20 times more often than men.
This type of flatfoot is characterized by a decrease in the length of the foot, a fan-shaped divergence of the bones of the metatarsus, a deformation of the 1st finger( Hallux valgus), which in everyday life is commonly called a "bone", and hammer-shaped toes of the foot.
Normally, the transverse arch of the foot, formed by the heads of metatarsal bones, has the shape of an arch. The main support during standing and walking lies on the heads of V and I metatarsal bones. With the development of flatfoot weaken support structures of the arch of the foot: plantar aponeurosis, which carries the main burden of retaining the arch, the interosseous fascia and the muscles of the foot.
The support is redistributed to the heads of all metatarsal bones, while the load on the metatarsal head I decreases, and the load on the head II-IV of the metatarsal bone sharply increases. I finger deviates to the outside, the metatarsal I head and I finger form an angle. In I metatarsophalangeal joint, osteoarthritis occurs. There are pains, the volume of movements in the joint decreases.
The increased pressure of the metatarsal heads causes thinning of the subcutaneous fat layer on the plantar surface of the foot, causing a further decrease in the damping function of the foot. On the soles in the region of the heads of metatarsal bones are formed.
Depending on the severity of the angle between the first finger and the I metatarsal bone, the following degrees of transverse flatfoot are distinguished:
- I degree. Angle is less than 20 degrees. Slightly flat feet.
- II degree. The angle is from 20 to 35 degrees. Moderate flat feet.
- III degree. The angle is more than 35 degrees. Sharply pronounced flat feet.
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot
As a rule, patients with transverse flat feet consult a doctor about a cosmetic foot defect, less often - for pain during walking, on the soles of the soles, rough skin growths or inflammation in the area of the I metatarsal( Hallux valgus).
However, the survey usually shows that the patient with flat feet for a long time worried more or less pronounced burning or aching pain in the foot while walking. Upon examination, the deformity of the foot is revealed: flattening of its transverse arch, characteristic deformation of the metatarsophalangeal joint, with pronounced flat feet - hammer-shaped toes of the foot.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot
Conservative therapy is effective only at the first stage of flatfoot. The patient is recommended to reduce body weight, choose comfortable shoes without heels, reduce static loads on the foot. It is shown wearing special insoles and rollers.
With flat feet II and III degree, surgical treatment is performed. There are many methods for correcting the deformation of the 1st finger, however, no operation eliminates the cause of transverse flatfoot - the weakness of the ligaments and the muscles of the foot. Perhaps isolated surgical intervention( resection of Hallux valgus - the protruding part of the bone) and surgical treatment, including resection of the bone site in conjunction with the plastic capsule of the joints and the transplantation of the tendons. In the postoperative period, a flat-footed patient is recommended constant wearing of insteps or shoes with special insoles.
Longitudinal flatfootThis flatfoot flattenes the longitudinal arch of the foot. The foot lengthens, spreads out and comes in contact with the support almost the entire sole. The proportion of longitudinal flat feet is 20 to 29%.The disease often develops in young patients( 16-25 years).
Bones, muscles and ligaments of the foot and lower leg are involved in the process. The bones of the foot are moved in such a way that the heel bone unfolds to the inside, and the front parts of the foot deviate to the outside. The tension of the tendons of the peroneal muscles increases, and the sinews of the anterior tibial muscle - decreases. The middle part of the foot expands. The patient's walk becomes awkward, when walking, he strongly breeds socks to the sides.
There are four stages of longitudinal flatfoot:
- stage of pre-illness( prodromal stage);
- intermittent flatfoot;
- flat stop;Planar pectoral foot.
At the stage of pre-sickness of the patient with flat feet, worried about fatigue during walking, pain in the upper part of the arch of the foot and the muscles of the shin after prolonged static loads.
In the stage of intermittent flatfoot pains appear not only towards the end of the working day, but after a long standing or prolonged walking. The tension of the calf muscles is revealed, sometimes their temporal contractures develop. The longitudinal arch of the foot has a normal shape in the mornings, but by the evening it becomes flattened. To assess the severity of flat feet use special techniques( dermatology, planography, radiography).
During the development of a flat foot, the pains appear even after small static loads. The foot expands and flattenes, the height of its arch decreases. Gradually, the gait begins to change.
There are three degrees of flat foot:
- I degree. The stage of the beginning of formation. The height of the arch of the foot is less than 35 mm;
- II degree. The height of the vault is 25-17 mm. In the joints of the foot, osteoarthritis begins to develop;
- III degree. The height of the vault is less than 17 mm. The anterior parts of the foot are unfolded and flattened. The deviation of the first finger outward is detected. In this case, the pain in the foot is temporarily reduced.
In the absence of treatment in the future develops ploskovalgusnaya foot, at which pains appear at the slightest static load. The valgus deformation( a sharp turn of the foot by the plantar side to the inside) is revealed and the flattened arch of the foot is expressed.
Treatment of longitudinal flatfoot
In the stage of pre-illness, the patient is advised to develop the correct gait( without breeding socks), walk barefoot on sand or uneven surface and regularly unload the muscles of the arch of the foot, while standing periodically transferring the load to the external surfaces of the feet. Patients with flat feet are prescribed exercise therapy, massage and physiotherapy: magnetotherapy, CMT, hydromassage, etc.
In the stage of intermittent flat feet, a recommendation is added to the listed activities to change working conditions to reduce the static load on the feet.
With a flat foot to the complex of therapeutic measures, orthopedists are assigned to wear orthopedic shoes and special insoles. With further progression of flat feet, surgical treatment is indicated.
In the stage of flat-footed foot conservative methods are ineffective. Various plastic operations are performed: resection of bone sections, transplantation of tendons, etc.
Flat feet - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF
Flattening is the most common deformity of the feet. Directly the foot performs the function of human support, movement and depreciation due to a complex structure. In a normal physiological structure, the foot has two arches - a transverse( between the bases of the fingers) and a longitudinal( along the inner edge of the foot).Vaults carry the function of shock absorbers and soften shaking when walking. The bone-ligamentous apparatus of the foot works well when the load that falls on the foot is completely balanced. With the weakening of the muscles and ligaments that connect the 26 bones of the foot, subsidence of the arches and flattening occur, which leads to loss of the spring function. With flatfoot this function goes to the spine, knee, ankle and hip joint. These joints are not designed to perform this function and cope badly with it, and they quickly fail.
Causes of flatfoot formation.
There are a lot of conditions that lead to flat feet, here are some of them.
- Congenital flat foot is a fairly rare pathology found in 11.5% of the total number of foot diseases. The cause may be various pathologies of intrauterine development of the fetus, due to ionizing radiation, harmful habits of the mother.
- Children with rickets develop a rachitic foot, as a result of decreased production of vitamin D, the strength of bones decreases under mechanical stress, the musculoskeletal apparatus is weakened.
- Paralytic platypodia develops after a previous polio, and the degree of flatfoot is directly related to the degree of paralysis.
- Traumatic platypodia develops in fractures of the foot bones or with improperly fused fractures.
- Static flat feet - one of the most common types of flatfoot. The main reasons for it are reduced muscle tone, excessive fatigue due to prolonged stay on the legs.
Symptoms of flat feet.
Usually a person who spends a lot of time on his feet does not notice the development of flat feet, and the appearance of pains and unpleasant sensations in the legs and feet is associated with fatigue. There are several basic signs on which you can suspect the development of this terrible disease in yourself.
• Your legs begin to swell by the end of the day, marks from your socks appear, you may experience a feeling of heaviness and cramps that may not be long and pass after the massage • You begin to notice that the length of the working day remains the same and the legs are fatigued much faster.• Shoes start to wear out much faster than before, mostly on the inside.• Periodically creates the feeling that the leg has increased in length, and because of this, you have to buy shoes for a size larger.
There are several stages of foot deformation, the passage of which leads to complete clinical flat feet. The prodromal stage, the stage of alternating flat foot, the stage of development of the flat foot, the stage of flat-footed foot and the contractual flatfoot are distinguished.
The first stage of flatfoot is manifested by pain in the foot and gastrocnemius muscle after a long load on the foot, of a statistical nature, a pronounced feeling of fatigue appears.
In the , the intermittent flatness stage is characterized by pain intensification towards the end of the day, pain arises from overexertion of the ligamentous foot apparatus which maintains the optimal position of the foot. Increased fatigue often appears in the middle of the day, and people with flat feet have to change their activities or more often rest. The longitudinal arch of the foot at the end of the working day visually flattened, but after rest, especially in the mornings, the height of the vault is restored.
The stage of development of flat foot occurs when, due to further fatigue of the leg and foot muscles, the longitudinal arch of the foot is not restored to rest after rest. The patient quickly develops fatigue due to fatigue of the muscles. The pain becomes permanent and aching due to overstretching of the ligamentous apparatus. The height of the longitudinal arch decreases due to the elongation of the foot and the expansion of its longitudinal part. The gait changes, the amount of movement in the foot joint is limited. In this stage of the disease there are three degrees.
Diagnostic measures for flat feet.
In addition to clinical signs, there are several methods that can determine the severity of this pathology. These include planktonography, the analysis of the face line, the dodging and clinical and radiographic methods of diagnosis.
Plantography - a method that allows the determination of the expression of flat feet with the help of prints. The feet are smeared with methylene blue solution, then the footprints are made on a blank sheet of paper, working on the feet evenly with all the weight.
The Friedland method is a definition of the percentage of height of the foot and its length.
The clinical method of measurement consists in the construction of a triangle with a base equal to the distance from the metatarsal head I to the heel of the calcaneus. The top of the triangle is at the top of the inner ankle, one leg extends to the apex of the calcaneal angle, the other to the head I of metatarsal bone. Normally, the height of the vault is 55-60 cm.
The X-ray method is based on the construction of a triangle on the lateral radiograph of the foot that connects the apex of the heel of the calcaneus with the head of the metatarsal bone, and the vertex of the triangle falls on the lower edge of the scaphoid bone, the apex angle is normally 120- 130 degrees.
Determination of the degree of flatfoot by X-ray.
Flat-footedness is one of those diseases with which young people are not called to military service( service in the army).II and III degrees of the disease are an absolute contraindication for service in the armed forces. This is due to the large power loads that a man with a flatfoot can not bear. Otherwise, the pain syndrome may increase, and in the future, with the preservation of this load, go to one of many complications.
Flat feet in children.
Newborns are characterized by well-defined arches of feet, but the children's foot is filled with fatty tissue, and when viewed it seems flat. Since 3 years, there has been a significant strengthening and development of the ligamentous apparatus, due to which there is a significant increase in the height of the arch and the foot begins to acquire the appearance of the foot of an adult person. The older the child, the more pronounced the vaulted structure. Thus, the external flat feet of a child can not be taken as a true disease.
The development of flat feet in children is promoted by congenital disorders of the ligamentous apparatus, muscle weakness, obesity, endocrine diseases, improperly selected footwear. Due to its anatomical features, the definition of flat feet in children by the fingerprint method is not always informative and can give a false result.
Very often, children can not complain about leg pain or discomfort, so periodic examination by an orthopedic doctor is an integral part of the annual medical check-up. Treatment of flat feet in children is reduced to rest, temporary prohibition of exercise, massage of the plantar part and walking barefoot on uneven surfaces, it is possible to design orthopedic insoles.
Treatment of flat feet.
Treat flat feet is difficult, and it will not be possible to say with certainty after a period of time that this is a disease in the past. Completely get rid of this pathology can only be in childhood, because the ligamentous apparatus and the bone system is pliable enough. In adult patients, this disease can only be stopped with the help of special rehabilitation measures.
Parents need to remember - "the earlier the symptoms of flatfoot, the more favorable conditions for stopping the progression."
Treatment should be combined and include the removal of the pain syndrome, strengthening of the ligamentous apparatus and the muscles of the foot. To relieve the pain, you need to use anesthetic ointments with a relaxing effect and physiotherapy.
To begin treatment it is necessary with gymnastics, which can be performed daily at home. The therapeutic form of gymnastics is used to achieve correction of the arch of the foot, strengthens the muscles, trains the ligament apparatus, forms the correct type of gait. There is a large number of exercises that are selected individually and depend on age, complaints, position of the foot and its shape. All exercises and their intensity to you will be picked up by an orthopedist.
Treatment in the stage of flat deformation of the foot should be strictly differentiated, along with exercise therapy and massage it is necessary to wear insoles that support the relief of painful areas and correct the deficiencies in the initial stage of the disease and orthopedic footwear at grade II, and at grade III it is often shownsurgical treatment.
With congenital planovalgus deformation of foot of easy degree, children are treated with foot and shin massage, physiotherapy exercises. When a child begins to walk, it is necessary to make orthopedic shoes for him. With insufficiently effective treatment and late treatment, surgical treatment is indicated.
The correct choice of shoes is of great importance in the treatment of flatfoot. Beautiful shoes with high heels, of course, decorate the legs of any fashionista, but do not wear them all the time. Otherwise, after a short time you will only need to wear orthopedic shoes. When choosing shoes, pay special attention to the flexibility and comfort of the sole, the height of the heel( not more than 3-4 cm), it is better to avoid shoes on the platform and excessively wide or narrow.
Complications of flatfoot.
• Strabism in walking, spinal curvature, unnatural posture • Pain in the knees, hips, back and feet • Dystrophic changes in the muscles of the legs and back • Disease of the feet themselves( deformation, curvature of the fingers, calluses, spurs, neuritis) • Diseases of the spine(herniated intervertebral discs, osteochondrosis), hip and knee joint diseases • Growth of nails.
Flat feet prevention.
To prevent the development of flat feet, it is necessary to conduct preventive measures every week. The priority that needs to be done is to choose the right footwear, exclude the wearing of shoes with high heels, the optimal height is 3 - 4 cm. Periodically conduct an examination with an orthopedic doctor, at least once a year. People who have any problems with their legs should be examined more often. It is also necessary to do gymnastics and do physical exercises for the feet. Foot baths and massage will help relax the muscles and relieve tension after a hard day. It is necessary to get rid of excess weight, as it contributes to an additional burden on the spine and legs.
Doctor therapist Zhumagaziev E.N.
Causes, symptoms and methods of flatfoot treatment
Disease, in which the transverse and longitudinal arches of the foot are deformed, flattened and lowered, is called flatfoot .There are transverse, longitudinal forms of flatfoot, as well as combined. More than half of all reported cases are transverse flatfoot. The longitudinal form of the disease occurs in about 30% of cases.
What happens with flatfoot?
With a transverse deformation of the foot, a flattening of its transverse arch occurs. The anterior part rests on the heads of the metatarsal bones, which, with flat feet, diverge like a fan. In this case, the thumb is deflected outward, and the middle one is deformed( contracted and bent).As a result, the length of the foot decreases, and the width, on the contrary, increases. The transverse flat feet are more often found in patients aged 35-50 years.
With longitudinal flat feet, the longitudinal arch of the foot flattenes. It is characterized by a full contact of the sole with the floor and an increase in the length of the foot. It is noted that this form of the disease is more common in women than in men. The reasons may be "standing" work and excess weight. Excess body weight leads to an increase in the load on the feet, which, in turn, promotes longitudinal flat feet. The age at which this form of the disease is most often diagnosed is 16-25 years.
The main causes of platypodia
The causes of the disease depend on its etiology. Congenital deformities of the foot are rare. Much more often orthopedists have to deal with the acquired flatfoot, namely: rachitic, static, traumatic, paralytic.
This form of the disease occurs in approximately 3% of cases and is due to the abnormal course of pregnancy, unbalanced nutrition of the expectant mother, resulting in a lack of connective tissue in the foot of the newborn. However, the diagnosis of congenital flat feet in early childhood is difficult, becausein toddlers 4-5 years old, the foot has a fat pad and signs of a flat foot.
Flattening as a consequence of trauma can develop due to fractures of the ankle, ankles, tarsus bones. The cause of the traumatic form of the disease can be damage to soft tissues, designed to strengthen the arches of the feet.
One of the reasons for the appearance of paralytic platypodia may be transferred poliomyelitis, as a result of which paralysis of the muscles of the foot and tibial muscles develops. The final is a paralytic flat foot.
Ricket is a serious disease, as a result of which the normal formation of the bone system is disturbed. In the foot also pathological changes occur;fragile bones can not withstand the weight of the body. This is facilitated by weak muscles and ligaments. The result is a deformation of the feet and the appearance of flat feet.
This is the most common form of flatfoot, over 80% of cases of clinical practice. The reasons for it are the weakness of the muscles of the shank and foot, the ligament apparatus. Factors of development of the disease are a sedentary lifestyle, "standing" work, overweight, the lack of regular physical activity. Fashionable shoes with a stud with a narrowed toe are also a common cause of the development of static flat feet.
Degrees of flatfoot
The disease is characterized by several degrees of severity. At the very earliest, the incompetence of the ligamentous apparatus is noted, in which the patient feels pain when walking. The shape of the foot is not changed. Painful sensations appear mainly at the end of the day or after long walks. Disappearance of pain is facilitated by a night's sleep or prolonged rest.
Flatness of the I degree( mild platypodia) makes itself felt by the feeling of fatigue of the legs, arising as a result of physical exertion. The picture can be supplemented by minor changes in gait and the appearance of swelling in the area of the feet and legs. The pressure on the foot feels pain.
Flattening II degree( combined flat feet) is characterized by flattening of the foot. At the same time, it looks flat, without lifting, its vaults disappear. The pain in the foot area becomes stronger and more frequent, spread to the lower leg, can reach the knee joints. Patients with combined flatfoot have difficulty in prolonged walking, "standing" work.
Flatness of the third degree( pronounced flat feet) causes most patients to consult an orthopedist. He does not give rest to severe pain in the legs and feet, pronounced swelling of the legs, pain in the back, lower back. To them can join and headaches. The ability to work declines, every opportunity to exercise is lost, walking leads to pain and discomfort throughout the body. There is a need for special orthopedic footwear. This degree of flat feet is characterized by rapid progression. The toes are deformed, and calluses are formed on them. Patients hesitate to wear open shoes.
Symptoms of Flatfoot
What are the first signs of flatfoot? How to prevent a strong deformation of the feet? To answer these questions, the first thing to pay attention to is how to wear out shoes. The wear on the inside of the inside is an alarm. Do not be lazy to inspect your old shoes. If there is a strong deterioration at the inner edge, a visit to the orthopedist is simply necessary.
One of the frequent symptoms of flatfoot is the rapid fatigue of the feet as a result of walking, the appearance of fatigue, swelling and pain, right up to the cramps. Edema often spreads to the ankles. Women can suspect a flat foot if it becomes difficult for them to wear shoes with heels. The foot lengthens, the old shoes start to reap, you have to buy shoes for a bigger size. To the above symptoms can eventually join pains in the knees, hips, back and waist, headaches. There is a tendency for nails to grow on toes. The gait changes, which becomes more tense and unnatural.
When studying the symptoms of flatfoot, it should be borne in mind that some of the symptoms are also characteristic of other diseases, for example, for varicose veins. Therefore, do not make a diagnosis and prescribe yourself a treatment yourself;this should be dealt with by doctors. The final diagnosis is made on the basis of examination of the patient by an orthopedist and holding a radiograph of the feet.
Methods of treating flatfoot
Many people are not serious about flatfoot, considering it a simple disease. Nevertheless, it is an insidious disease that can quickly progress. In addition, it is difficult to treat, especially in neglected cases. If you take it in childhood, you can completely get rid of the pathology.
As for the treatment of adults, the efforts of doctors are mainly aimed at slowing the development of the disease and excluding too fast and early transition to subsequent stages. In other words, the earlier the platypodia is diagnosed, the more likely the patient will have a favorable outcome of correction and treatment. Platypodia therapy is complex in nature and consists in arresting the pain syndrome, correcting the deformity, strengthening the ligaments and muscles of the foot.
Drug relief from the patient is helped by medication and physiotherapy. The treatment of flat feet is largely based on special gymnastics. The complex of exercises recommended by an orthopedist must be performed daily. This is not just an exercise, but an individual complex, selected in view of the form and extent of the disease, the age, weight, lifestyle of the patient.
In any form of flatfoot massage is recommended, stimulating the muscles and normalizing blood circulation in the feet and legs. The same purpose is served by therapeutic and contrasting foot baths. To correct the deformed foot, orthopedic insoles are used. In cases where there is a strong deformation and curvature of the thumb, doctors perform surgical treatment.
Treatment of flat feet with gymnastics
The most important role of therapeutic gymnastics in the fight against flat feet is marked by both official and traditional medicine. It is gymnastics that perfectly strengthens ligaments and muscles, stimulates blood circulation in the feet. Below is a list of exercises that patients can perform at home.
1) Do not lie down, alternately pull off socks;execute 10 times for each foot.
2) In the lying position alternately bend and unbend the foot at an average tempo;perform at least 50 times.
3) Lie down on the back, rotate around the clockwise and counterclockwise, 25 times in each direction.
4) In the lying position, with legs bent at the knees, alternately tearing off the heels from the floor;perform 50 times.
5) Sitting on a chair, grab and lift your toes with small objects scattered on the floor.
6) Sitting on a chair, roll on the floor a tennis ball;grab it with clenched feet and lift it over the floor( do not bend the legs in the knees).
7) Place on the floor a circular wooden stick or gymnastic hoop in a section;stand on him with both feet and do sit-ups.
8) Run 20-30 jumps in place, first on one leg, then on the other.
9) Walk on toes, on the heels, on the outside, then on the inside of the foot.
10) Walking in place, standing on a rubber studded mat.
Therapeutic foot baths
Among the recipes of folk medicine for the treatment of flat feet, one of the first places is occupied by foot baths with sea salt. Regular procedures strengthen the bones, relieve pain and promote muscle relaxation.
In a basin with hot water it is necessary to dissolve sea salt at the rate of 1 tablespoon per liter of water. The duration of the procedure is 15 minutes. At the end you need to dry your feet, massage your feet and lubricate them with a nutritious cream. By the way, such baths are an excellent remedy for insomnia.
A good effect is guaranteed by contrasting baths. One basin should be filled with hot water, the other - with cold water. In the first basin, you need to keep your feet 2-3 minutes, in the second - 15-20 seconds. Actions alternate. Treatment is conducted in courses of 10 days at intervals of one month. Women during critical days this procedure is contraindicated.
A good result can be achieved with the help of trays with herbal decoctions and infusions. For example, such a recipe: in a saucepan with 5 liters of boiling water, fill 1 kg of oak bark and allow to pour for half an hour. Cool, drain and use a decoction for foot baths.
Also for the treatment of flatfoot successfully apply infusion of sage( 100 grams per 2 liters of boiling water), peppermint( 100 grams per 1 liter), lime-colored( 100 grams of raw materials per 1 liter).You can prepare an alcohol tincture of immortelle flowers, which is also recommended for joint and radiculitis pain.
Treatment of flat feet with foot massage
Foot massage is the simplest and accessible to everyone the method of flatfoot treatment. Everyone can perform it themselves, in order to rid themselves of unpleasant symptoms, such as puffiness and pain. The sequence of actions when performing a massage can be as follows:
- intense rubbing of the soles, from the fingers to the ankle, for one minute;
- kneading the base of the toes with both hands;the same actions should be performed with the heel;
- intensive ankle massage in the direction from the ankle to the knee joint and back;movement should be repeated at least 10 times for each leg;
- careful thigh massage in the direction from the knee joint to the groin and back.
Patients with flat feet should direct any free minute to strengthen the muscles and arches of the feet. To do this, you need to turn your feet, sitting at the table, turning them alternately on one side and the other, pushing and sliding your toes, sliding one foot on the other's leg, and so on.
Gadgets and Compresses
Traditional medicine recommends as an effective remedy for flatfoot lotion from wormwood. The leaves of the plant are washed and completely applied to the sick feet, covering with food film or cloth. The remedy will be useful also for dislocations, bruises, sprains.
The following prescription helps to relieve the pain in flatfoot.3% iodine solution should be mixed with an equal amount of freshly squeezed lemon juice, add 2 crushed tablets of acetylsalicylic acid. Prepared gruel must be applied to a sore spot, wrapped in film and on top - a warm kerchief. Duration of treatment - no more than 3 days.
All about flatfoot and its treatment - Polysmed
Types of flatfoot.
There are several basic types of flatfoot, these include:
- Static flatfoot is the most common type of flatfoot, the development of which is associated with muscle weakness and sprain, which leads to the omission of the inner edge of the foot and the development of flatfoot. The causes of muscle weakness in static flatfoot include an increased body weight, hereditary factors( muscle tone disorder and weak ligamentous apparatus), overload of feet, wearing poor-quality footwear( tight, rubber shoes, too high heels or lack thereof).
- Congenital flat feet develops during the intrauterine period and is associated with abnormalities in the development of the musculoskeletal system.
- Ricky flatfoot. Rickets is a disease characterized by a decrease in vitamin D levels in the child's body and is one of the reasons for the development of flat feet in childhood.
- Traumatic platypodia. Trauma of the foot, including incorrectly fused fractures of the foot bones, lead to the development of flat feet.
- Paralytic flat feet( paralytic flat foot) can develop after a history of poliomyelitis, which leads to paralysis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg.
What are the types of flatfoot?
Depending on which arch of the foot is flattened, three types of flatfoot are distinguished:
With longitudinal flat feet, the foot touches the floor with its entire surface, resulting in an increase in the length of the foot. The main symptom of longitudinal flat feet is the shortening of the distance between the inner edge of the foot and the floor surface. With longitudinal flat feet, clubfoot develops, which leads to wear of the footwear along the entire length of the sole and heel from the inside.
The degree of flatfoot depends on the degree of deformation of the foot. There are 3 degrees of flatfoot:
- With the first degree of flatfoot( slight longitudinal flatfoot), there is no visible deformation of the foot. Feeling of fatigue in the legs appears after physical exertion, long walking or running. When pressing in the foot area, painful sensations appear. By the evening, stops can swell, the smoothness of the gait is disturbed.
- The second degree of flatfoot( moderately pronounced longitudinal flatfoot) is characterized by the disappearance of the arch of the foot. Pain at 2 degrees of flatfoot is stronger, frequent, spreading from the feet to the ankles and lower legs. The muscles of the foot lose elasticity, the smoothness of the gait is disturbed.
- The third degree of flatfoot is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot. There is constant pain and swelling in the feet, legs, knee joints. At 3 degrees of longitudinal flat feet, pain in the lower back and painful headache. Decreased work capacity, even short walking is difficult. A man with a 3 degree of flatfoot can not walk in ordinary shoes.
With transverse flatfoot, the length of the foot decreases as a result of discrepancy of the foot bones, deviation of the thumb from the outside and deformation of the middle finger, which acquires a hammer shape. At the base of the thumb appears a painful osseous thickening in the form of a cone.
There are three degrees of transverse flatfoot, depending on the degree of curvature of the first toe:
- First degree( slight transverse flatfoot).The angle of the deviation of the first toe is less than 20 degrees. After a long walk or standing, fatigue appears. On the foot in the area of 2-4 fingers appear on the skin( thickening of the skin), as well as redness and insignificant soreness in the area of the first toe.
- At 2 degrees of flatfoot( moderately pronounced transverse flatfoot), the angle of deviation of the first toe is 20-35 degrees. When the load appears, pain and burning in the area of the foot and in the first finger, especially in the shoes. Appearance spreads in the area of the toes. Hemorrhages increase in size.
- Third degree of flatfoot( pronounced transverse flatfoot).The angle of the deviation of the first toe is more than 35 degrees. When the load is marked strong, persistent pain in the foot. The spreading of the forefoot is pronounced. On the foot in the area of the fingers are formed significant burrs. The first finger is in the dislocation position, it is possible to develop bursitis( inflammation of the periarticular bag), severe deformation of 2-4 toes( hammer-shaped).
Mixed flat feet includes longitudinal and transverse flatfoot and has more pronounced symptoms.
Flattening in adults.
Adults usually develop static flat feet( longitudinal, transverse, or combined).In men, flat feet usually develop after injuries to the ankles or fractures in the foot, as well as professional flat feet, which is associated with prolonged standing on the legs, lifting weights. Women often cause flat feet to wear high-heeled shoes. The fact is that during the wearing of high heels, the center of gravity of the body shifts, which leads to an increase in the load on the front part of the foot and the turn of the foot inside.
Diagnostics of flatfoot.
If you have the main symptoms of flatfoot, it is recommended that you visit an orthopedic doctor. The doctor will examine you and conduct special studies:
- Podometriya - measuring the height of the arch of the foot from the floor.
- Plantography is the study of a footprint left on paper.
- To determine the degree of flatfoot, the doctor will prescribe the X-ray of the foot in the lateral projection
Treatment of flat feet in adults.
There are 2 main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically and conservatively.
Conservative treatment of flat feet includes foot massage, foot baths, electrophoresis, therapeutic gymnastics, wearing orthopedic shoes, special insoles, etc., and is prescribed in the first and second stages of flatfoot development. In some cases, conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, and therefore require surgical treatment.
Also surgical treatment is required for the treatment of the third stage of flatfoot. There are several types of operations with flat feet, but the main goal of surgical treatment is shortening of ligaments, correction of the arches of the foot and elimination of the effects of flat feet( for example, deviation of the first toe of the foot).
Flat feet in children.
All children are born with imaginary flat feet, which is explained by the abundance of subcutaneous fat in the foot. A peculiarity of imaginary childish flat feet is that as children grow older, they naturally get rid of flat feet: with the development of walking and running, muscles develop and the child's foot takes on the usual outlines. The full formation of the arches of the foot is completed by 3 years. In this regard, a flat foot in children under three years can not be attributed to a true flat foot.
In childhood there is congenital and acquired flat feet. The cause of congenital flat feet are the developmental defects of the foot in the intrauterine period.
Acquired flat feet in children, usually due to the following factors:
- Walking on a log, climbing a rope © - Using information without a hyperlink to the source is prohibited.
Reviews about "All about flatfoot and its treatment":October 7, 2011 12:54 Anel well helps walk on the mop, especially on wooden Soviet, as well as walk in the position of a bearded bear, is also very good April 18, 201210:01 the searcher would like to know who is the author of this article? Who can I ask questions?who can reasonably explain why this is so, and not on another need to correct flat feet?on what are its conclusions based? May 29, 2012 12:02 Love I also have a transverse flatfoot, it's hard to walk. The feet of my feet are burning with fire, I probably will not be able to give up my legs at all. I always worked physically, the load on my legs was huge, now I'm suffering,narrow shoes with heels. Now it is difficult to pick up shoes. I have a big problem. July 13, 2012 02:13 Natali With longitudinal flat feet, a child of 6 years old can be engaged in ballroom dancing?13 July, 2012 10:59 MedKollegia_Polismed Hello. Ballroom dancing can both improve, so to harm your child's condition. It depends on the degree of flat feet. That's why, before you give the child to the dance, be sure to consult an orthopedic doctor. August 22, 2012 08:42 Zuhra Hello. My son is 6 years old, found a plane 3-4 degrees. Now we go to the treatment to the instructor LFK, massage, SMT.Question. This diagnosis is curable? August 22, 2012 11:11 MedKollegia_Polismed Hello. When flat feet of 3-4 degrees with ineffectiveness of conservative measures( LFK, massage, etc.), an operation is prescribed. In any case, the chances of a full recovery are high.03 september, 2012 21:57 Denis Hello, I am 18 years old, flat feet 3 degrees or higher, the joints have recently started to hurt( Muscles in the knee, shin and bones), although before that I was engaged in cycling, tourism generally ledactive way of life, not paying attention as any other teenager, a flat-footed hostile, what and how do I do?tell me please, insoles ordered what else do I need to do? ?I do not want to lose interest in all my hobbies because of such "Trivia". .. Thank you in advance!12 October, 2012 18:02 Dina good evening! To the son 6j year, have diagnosed a flat-valgus feet. But I do not understand who to believe, one orthopedist scared that the transverse-longitudinal plane.and almost goes deformations.thorax, and the other is flat-valgus feet and everything is not so scary. . now I see that my daughter's legs go inside when walking, although half a year ago( in 2d) they said all the normal. What do I do not understand, here's to buy shoes, but I do not know what to take. Maybe somehow comment. . thanks! October 30, 2012 11:17 Katia Hello, my name is Catherine, today I went to see a surgeon and found out that I have a combined flat foot( transverse 2 degrees, longitudinal 2 degrees), advise what to do and what method to be treated? December 04, 2012 12:12 Sergey I'm 31 years old. When walking 4 km.the knee aches a day. What advise to do? April 18, 2015 23:03 Rimma Good evening. I'm 55 years old. I'm sick of feet on both feet.it is difficult to walk. on the left leg is a swollen ankle joint.sometimes it hurts a lot.when pressing a finger, a hole remains. I ask advice 05 May, 2015 12:56 nastya to which doctor you need in this case you need? May 06, 2015 18:47 The medical school Nastya in case of flat feet should consult an orthopedic doctor. June 27, 2015 17:17 Tatiana Up to what age can a child have a flat foot in a conservative way? June 28, 2015 08:03 Tatiana, the treatment of flat feet in a child depends on age, type of flat feet, the presence of concomitant diseases, hereditary factor, the type of conservative therapy. Of no less importance is the perseverance of ongoing activities. Conservative therapy is used not only in the treatment of flat feet in children, but also in adults. September 19, 2015 19:30 Natalia When treating longitudinal flatfoot with SMT therapy, it is necessary to arrange gaskets on the tables 12 January, 2016 09:12 Leo All this method of treating flatfoot is not effective. Existing and persistently recommended orthopedic parents orthopedic shoes, does not have a preventive function.treatment, and rehabilitation. This, in fact, is a prosthesis.which helps, relieves pain with active life, but no more. The prosthesis does not heal. And here.money from their parents is good. The same function is carried by all kinds of orthopedic insoles. There is a completely unique domestic patented technology for the prevention and treatment of flatfoot. It has no analogues in the world. Only, our health care system is not needed. The Ministry refused to introduce it. What for? Extra worries. February 04, 2016 08:54 Xenia Leo! And what kind of technique? Where can I get acquainted with it? What does it give? I'm not asking from curiosity, but from necessity.
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- Skate on the floor with a foot of a rolling pin or a small ball.
- A napkin is placed on the floor, which is suggested to be crushed with the help of a foot.
- The child is offered to collect his toes and move from place to place the objects scattered on the floor.
- Circular movements with feet out and inside.
- Standing on socks, reduce and spread the heels, without taking your fingers off the floor.
- Grasp the ball with both stops and lift it, keeping it between the feet.
- Alternately walk on toes, on the heels, on the outer edges of the feet.
- Rolling from heel to toe.
- Walk on the ribbed surface( massage mat, sand, pebbles).
- Overweight child
- Wearing substandard shoes( too soft or too hard sole, rubber shoes, too high heel or missing)
- Rickets and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the child
- Incorrectly fractured
- Prolonged bed rest for serious illnesses
- During the periodpuberty hormonal changes cause prolonged spasm of muscles and can lead to flat feet
- Excessive mobility of joints
- Weight lifting( for example, when worn on handss younger brothers or sisters)
- Reinforced ballet classes
What consequences resulting flat in a child?
Children with flat feet are disturbed by an important function of the foot - depreciation. As a result, the vibration of the body during walking and running is transmitted to the shin, hip joints, spine, etc. Prolonged irritation of the joints leads to their inflammation - arthrosis. The effect of flat feet on the spine is the development of curvature of the spine, or scoliosis in children. Such symptoms of flat feet, such as leg pain, fatigue, headaches lead to reduced school performance.
How to determine whether there is a flatfoot in a child?
You can determine the presence of flat feet in your child's orthopedic doctor, but at home you can conduct a simple test for the presence of flat feet in the child. To carry out the test( planotography), it is necessary to lubricate the sole of the baby's foot with vegetable oil and put it on a blank sheet of paper. The result is a footprint of the child, from which you can determine the state of the arch of the foot. Normally, the cut on the foot is 2/3 of its width. With flat feet, there is not a small cutout. If you notice a change after this test, you should show your child an orthopedic doctor.
How to choose the right shoes for a child?
To properly form the arches of the foot in a child, you need to buy quality shoes. The child's shoes must have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less), and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.
Treatment of flat feet.
The main goal of flatfoot treatment is to eliminate pain in the foot, strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and restore the functions of the foot. There are two main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically( surgery) and conservative way.
Among the conservative methods of flatfoot treatment is allocated therapeutic gymnastics, massage, foot baths, physiotherapy, wearing the right orthopedic footwear or insoles.
Treatment of flat feet in a child at the earliest stage of the disease, with the inconsistency of the ligament of the foot is reduced to the appointment of rest, the temporary cessation of sports. We recommend warm foot baths and massage. An effective method of treatment at an early stage of flatfoot development is the foot bath, the bottom of which is packed with river pebbles. The child is offered to roll stones in the water with his feet.
Plane prophylaxis in children.
For the prevention and treatment of flat feet in children, the following set of exercises can be applied: