What orthopedic insoles and arch supports are required for longitudinal-transverse flat feet?
Do I need to buy orthopedic insoles with longitudinally transverse flat feet? Certainly, it is necessary. Flatfoot can affect a person's health, because of him, there may be problems with the spine, and this is serious. Still, because of flat feet, venous diseases can occur, which is extremely difficult to cure.
Features and pathophysiology of the disease
This ailment consists in changing the shape of the foot, which consists in lowering its arches. The human foot is supported by two arches - transverse and longitudinal. The transverse arch passes under the toes of the foot, the longitudinal arch runs along the edge of the foot along the inner side. This form of foot realizes the task of maintaining balance when walking and muffling the shaking that occurs during walking.
Throughout life, the muscles of the foot, and also its ligaments, weaken, the foot assumes a flat form, in which it can not serve as a person's spring.
Therefore, people with this disease often complain of pain in the joints and in the back, not knowing the cause of these pains. If you run out of energy for that. To maintain normal walking parameters, your joints - hip, knee and ankle suffer. Because of this, scoliosis and arthrosis can begin. Flat-footedness can begin in people who move a lot, and in people who do sedentary work day in and day out. This happens because those who move a lot, weaken the ligaments of the foot due to heavy workload, and in sedentary people due to the lack of load on the feet.
Flattening is of various types - transverse, if the transverse arch of the foot is lowered, and longitudinal, if the longitudinal arch of the foot is lowered. Another flatfoot is called a combined longitudinal-transverse when the two vaults are lowered. The most common cases are cases of a transverse type.
Ploskostopiya by genus of origin are divided into congenital and acquired. Acquired flatfoot can become sick for various reasons, both the child and the adult. The acquired is divided into traumatic platypodia, rachis, paralytic and static.
Traumatic platypodia occurs due to fracture of the foot in the ankle joint or fracture of the foot bones, and also because of various injuries to the muscle tissue. To him leads and trauma of ligaments.
Ricky flatfoot often occurs as a complication after suffering rickets. Because of rickets, the bones of the foot are made fragile. The leg does not hold loads, which leads to its deformation.
Paralytic platypodia is sometimes caused by a previous history of poliomyelitis, and paralysis of the muscles on the foot.
Like any disease, flat feet can be identified by specific symptoms.
Where can I go for medical help?
If you have these symptoms, you should consult an orthopedist or surgeon. Especially it is necessary that similar symptoms occur with varicose veins on the legs.
Symptoms of flatfoot have their own specifics for different types of flatfoot. With longitudinal flatfoot there is increased fatigue of the legs, when pressing on the foot in the middle there is a painful feeling, there may be pain in the lower back. Finding comfortable shoes becomes almost impossible.
With transverse flatfoot there are pains in the upper part of the foot, the fingers change their shape, become crooked.
If we talk about the most frequent causes of flatfoot, then we can note the increase in weight, including during pregnancy, uncomfortable shoes, various injuries to the feet, poor heredity, diseases, including rickets, too much and too little strain on the legs. Since very many people in our time lead a sedentary lifestyle, it is necessary to do exercises for the feet. Complexes of exercises can be taken from a doctor or on the Internet.
Flattening in a child can be cured. In the toddlers, the feet are completely flat, but they do not have flat feet. It's just that the foot has not yet formed. By the four years of the stop is formed. To avoid flat feet in children, it is often easier to let the child walk barefoot. The child must move, walk, run a lot to train the feet.
If the child still acquired a flatfoot, in childhood it can be cured. Treatment can be conservative or surgical. For conservative treatment, therapeutic exercise and massage are suitable. If you still go to a polyclinic for a massage, take the child to the room of physiotherapy.
What is prescribed by a doctor?
With the described illness the doctor will necessarily write to you or your child orthopedic insoles for flat feet. How to choose them correctly? Now on sale there is a huge number of ready-made insoles. They are much cheaper than insoles made to order, and, strangely enough, better quality. Ready-made insoles are manufactured at the factory, and not on the knee of a dubious master. Insoles for flat feet for children are made using the same techniques as for adults.
Insoles are equipped with an arch support that will support the weakened arch of your foot. On the type of flat feet, the arch supports are longitudinal, supporting the longitudinal arch, transverse, supporting the transverse arch, and longitudinally transverse. Insoles-arch supports improve blood circulation not only in the foot, but also in all joints of the legs, help to avoid fatigue in the legs.
Very often, the wearing of insoles, made at the factory and sold in the orthopedic salon, is shown to women who prefer high-heeled shoes.
If the heel is larger than five centimeters, the foot support point located on the heel of the foot does not perform its functions, and its work has to take over the foot around the toes. Naturally, any insoles will not work. They take up too much space in the shoes. For model shoes, special thin insoles are needed. For such shoes half insole are invented. You can also buy heels. They occupy much less space in shoes. In any case it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Insoles are different in appearance. The transverse insole has a cushion in the middle of the foot, and the longitudinal insoles have a thickening along the inner edge of the foot. That is, the structure of the instep supports is different for them. Often the insoles are made and shock absorber for the heel, to relieve the load. The more complex your type of flatfoot, the more difficult it will be to design the insoles that you need to invest in shoes. The most complex structure has insoles for longitudinal-transverse flat feet.
When choosing insoles, it is difficult to determine how convenient it will be for you to walk, just by trying on the insole, putting it in the shoe. Convenience can be assessed only with prolonged walking. The size is also difficult to choose the right model, because all the toes have different lengths, and the insole cushion can not get to the part of the foot, which is necessary. Experts advise to measure any ruler or square from the heel edge of the insole to the front edge of the cushion on the insole. In orthopedic salons there should be a table of correspondence of the size of this distance to the size of the foot.
The material from which the insole is made is of great importance. Do not recommend choosing artificial leather insole. In them the foot will sweat. If you chose an insole made of silicone, it should be trimmed with natural material on top.
The best thing is to buy an insole made of genuine leather. You can also consider buying a cloth insole, which has a liner inside of the latex, cork or a coal layer.
It will be fairly easy to determine if the selected insoles help you. If you become comfortable, your legs are not tired, you can be congratulated on the right choice. If there is pain and discomfort, then you either chose the wrong insoles, or you need to put on another, looser shoes, so that you do not shave the shoe with the insole.
Many people ask, during what time should I wear orthopedic insoles? If you have a flat foot, it will not go anywhere. Insoles must be worn constantly throughout your life.
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Purchasing shoes of poor quality, we do not think about the fact that this harms the health of our legs, they have feelings of heaviness and pain. These symptoms do not have the best effect on our gait. Individual orthopedic insoles are able to prevent foot diseases and return ease to the gait.
Who needs to wear insoles
Behind the state of the legs should be watched from the very childhood. Pathological changes in feet can be prevented until the age of seven. The most common problems are flat feet, valgus and varus deformities of the feet. To establish the correct diagnosis and get recommendations on how to choose orthopedic insoles, you need to contact an orthopedic surgeon.
In an adult, leg problems occur after 40 years and can lead to serious consequences, such as joint arthrosis and osteochondrosis. In a special zone of risk are women, because they like to wear high heels, as well as men whose work is associated with excessive stress on the joints. All this causes the development of flat feet, which is longitudinal, transverse and combined.
In addition, the cause of the disease can become overweight, paralysis of the muscles of the arch of the foot, fractures of the foot bones. In any case, this condition requires treatment. Orthopedic insoles are able to prevent the development of pathology in childhood. For adults, they will help relieve tension in the muscles, reduce the stress on the feet, relieve pain and heaviness in the legs.
How orthopedic insoles look like
All products have a supinator, located in the area of the inner arch, a groove is modeled under the heel. During movement, the central part of the insole rises and falls. Additional fixation is provided with a metatarsal pad.The front part of the insole( knuckle) is designed for the correct positioning of the fingers. There are models and only this part( semistellar), which does not interfere with the correct distribution of weight throughout the length of the product.
The most important part of the insole is the wedges, which make it possible to change the angle of the foot. If the weight distribution is incorrect, the heel shifts. Wedges help keep the foot in the correct position, which is the prevention of pain and swelling. Insole for correction of foot pathologies consists of two wedges: under the heel and in the front part of the product. It is desirable to choose models from soft materials with a gel inside the pads, which, evenly distributed, assumes the optimal shape.
What are the insoles
Orthopedist-traumatologist will advise how to choose orthopedic insoles depending on the diagnosis and the purposes for which they are purchased.
There are two types of insoles from flat feet. Some are designed to prevent disease, others correct the existing pathology, they are made on an individual order. The best brands on the European market of insoles for the prevention and correction of foot pathologies are the companies GRISON, COCCINE, TARRAGO.
Insoles for prevention of foot pathologies
Preventative models are used to prevent flatfoot formation. In their manufacture, gel substance is used, which makes the insoles very soft and flexible, capable of adjusting to the anatomical features of the human foot.
The representatives of the fair sex who do not want to give up high heels, but at the same time take care of their feet, get orthopedic insoles. Reviews about them are only positive. Specially designed products made of foam or leather, which can be worn under the model shoes, support the foot in excellent condition. But it is necessary to take into account that when longitudinal flat feet wear heels more than 4 cm, even with insole is recommended no more than two hours.
For people with excess weight hard braces are suitable, made of steel, special plastic or graphite. When wearing such products, the arches of the foot are in the correct position, this prevents pain and tension.
Models for adjusting the existing pathology with an individually selected supinator and metatarsal pillows, as well as a groove on the heel help reduce the load on the foot and maintain the normal location of its bones.
Products with heeled, similar to the horseshoe, are designed to treat the calcaneal spur. Thanks to a special form, a permanent friction of the soft tissues of the heel is prevented. According to customers, wearing such insoles reduces the burden on the heel area and eliminates pain. It happens that when walking, the foot is turned up and the ankle is stretched, in this case the semi-rigid insoles of flexible plastic will help. Such products are very comfortable for the feet.
Orthopedic insoles for children
Children's models, except for massage and preventive gymnastics, help to form the right foot in a child, positively influence the development of the musculoskeletal system, ensuring a correct gait. The reviews of many moms suggest that the improvement becomes noticeable after several months of using insoles.
What to look for
How to choose orthopedic insoles for a child, so that their wearing would benefit? Several things should be considered: the
- product should not be rigid so as not to interfere with the natural movements of the foot;
- material from which orthopedic children's insoles are made, should differ not only strength, but also flexibility. This will ensure a stable position of the foot and will not interfere with the age-related changes in its arch;
- the optimal length of a child's insole is three-quarters( not taking into account the surface of the fingers);
- the product is made only on an individual impression, in order to avoid the development of other deformities of the foot.
Selection and manufacture of
How to choose orthopedic insoles and whether it is possible to do it yourself? Of course, you can buy products to adjust the condition of the foot in the pharmacy, but there is no guarantee that their wearing will be useful. The structure of the foot of each person individually, and when using insteps without selection, an additional pathology may be formed or the already existing disease may be aggravated. Therefore, the selection of insoles can only be done by a qualified specialist, and by manufacturing - a technician-prosthetist.
Manufacturing of orthopedic insoles occurs in several stages. On the first, a diagnosis is carried out, which helps to determine the degree of flatfoot, then a gypsum imprint is made. The next step is sequential fitting. After the product is delivered to the hands, the patient receives advice from the doctor on the care of the insole. At the final stage, the product is corrected during the wearing process. As with the wearing of the insoles, the foot is gradually straightened, then after a while, it may be necessary to choose another model. Prophylactic insoles should be made of genuine leather, which allows them to stay in shape for a long time. The service life of such models does not exceed two years.
Orthopedic insoles with flat feet - this is the best way to correct deformities of the foot, without them it is impossible to correct this pathology. Products contribute to the correct redistribution of the load on the sole( depending on the physiological characteristics of each person).Correctly selected insoles will help to eliminate such unpleasant phenomena as pain, fatigue and swelling of the legs. Regular wearing of such models will prevent the development of foot pathologies, will make you feel comfortable, even if you spend all day on your feet.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot: surgical treatment, LUTS, massage, orthopedic insoles.
The question of the treatment of transverse flatfoot is one of the most frequently discussed issues in orthopedics, as this pathology affects both children and adults, and the process starts always leads to joint and spinal diseases, so it is so important to develop a comprehensive treatment plan for this disease. For each patient, this plan will be individual, depending on the risk factors( obesity, congenital connective tissue pathology, the profession associated with prolonged stay on the legs) and the presence of concomitant pathology.
Methods for determining flatfoot
When examining the foot, attention is drawn to its expansion and flattening. The thumb is deflected outwards. On the thumb, a "bone" is formed, the second and third fingers are hammer-shaped deformed.
- quickly get tired of the legs after moving or after work associated with prolonged standing.
- by the evening the legs swell, "get heavy" and hurt.
- when examining the shoe - the heel is flat on the inside.
- stops become wider, and favorite shoes - narrow and tight.
- pain spreads from the foot above to the knee and hip joint, sometimes rendered into the spine and combined with headaches.
All these symptoms and complaints in the complex are an indication for a more thorough examination.
Diagnosis of flatfoot can be done in a medical institution and at home on their own. How to determine flat feet at home? To do this, there is a fairly simple method. It is necessary to smear the feet with a fat cream and stand on a white sheet of paper directly with support on the entire foot. Now it remains to estimate the imprint. Normally, the notch on the inner edge in the middle of the foot should occupy slightly more than half the foot. If it occupies almost the entire foot or vice versa, too much space, then one can think of flat feet. This method is called platnography. Doctors use Lugol's solution as a dye.
At home, you can also calculate the sub-metric index( the sub-metric method of Frinland).To do this, measure the height and length of the foot. The height of the foot is the distance from the plantar surface to the upper edge of the scaphoid bone. The length of the foot is the distance from the tip of the thumb to the edge of the heel. The height of the foot is multiplied by one hundred and divided by the length. Normally, this indicator should not exceed the range of 29 -31.With a sub-metric index of 27-29, flat feet are spoken of.
Confirm diagnosis by X-ray examination of both feet in a straight and lateral projection and under load. Then, based on the analysis of the radiograph, the severity of the changes is determined.
Video "Transverse Flatfoot"
How to treat the flatfoot
Straighten the foot completely only in childhood, when the bones have not yet grown stronger, and the ligamentous apparatus is quite plastic. But up to five to six years to talk about flatfoot early, since the pediatric foot may seem flat due to the fat pad, performing a protective function in relation to the bone base. Therefore, all children with a preventive goal should be examined by an orthopedist once a year.
Treatment of flat feet usually begins with conservative methods, which include massage, physiotherapy exercises and special relaxing foot baths. Orthopedic shoes or insoles are of particular importance.
Foot and foot massage with flatfoot removes fatigue, stimulates blood circulation and reduces swelling. Basic tricks:
- soles the soles of the back of the hand;
- rubbing with finger pads, performing circular motions;
- rubbing with the fist, while slightly pressing on the foot;
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Basic principles of exercise therapy
When preparing a complex for patients with flat feet, the doctor usually uses the basic exercises for breeding - mixing, flexing - extension, sliding, performing a variety of moves. All these exercises contribute to strengthening the arch of the feet and maintaining the tone of the muscles of the feet.
To remove tension from the muscles of the feet apply baths with broths of lime, chamomile, plantain or with sea salt, as well as with aromatic oils( lavender, rose).The water temperature should not exceed 37 degrees.
Orthopedic footwear, inlays and insoles
For the prevention of flatfoot and with a small degree of deformity of the foot, special tabs and insoles are used. They are sold in specialized stores or made to order. In advanced cases, wearing orthopedic footwear is appointed, which is always made strictly individually, to order. Such shoes are made of high quality materials and help addictive feet to the right position.
If nothing helps
If conservative measures are not effective, usually, in the adult age, corrective operations on the foot are performed to eliminate flat feet.
Transverse Platypodia: Surgical Treatment
To date, orthopedics has more than 300 methods of surgical correction of transverse flatfoot, the main advantage of which is the absence of relapses. The essence of all interventions with flatfoot is reduced to restoring the correct anatomical shape of the foot due to correction of the transverse arch and changing the angle between the bones of the foot. The choice of technique depends mainly on the severity of the changes and the presence of concomitant deformation of the toes. Surgery is performed under general or spinal anesthesia. After the operation, special orthopedic footwear is prescribed, which allows you to get up on the feet the day after the operation.
Orthopedic insoles for transverse flat feet
Maximum damping during the foot - this is the main characteristic of the correctly selected orthopedic insole. In this case, such an insole should exactly match the size of the foot of the patient and the footwear into which it is embedded. It absorbs a static and dynamic load on the feet and indirectly restores blood flow. In children, the orthopedic insole contributes to the correct formation of the arches of the feet. Many parents buy their children shoes with orthopedic insoles for prevention.
For fashionable modern women, more often men suffering from various deformities of the feet, special half-stems are designed - insteps for model shoes with high heels and for shoes with low heels, as well as special insole shoes for closed shoes.
All insoles should be selected only with a specialist who can advise the most optimal option.
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Gymnastics with flat feet
Treatment of flat feet is the main method of correcting and correcting flat feet. Performing these simple exercises can be an adult and a child under the supervision of parents.
Exemplary set of exercises:
- Grasping the ball with stops and lifting.
- Turning stops clockwise and counterclockwise.
- Sliding feet with your fingers.
- Rolling gymnastic stick.
- Skating gymnastic hoop with toes.
- With your toes, grab and lift small objects( pencil, sponge)
- Fold and unbend fingers.
- Rolling from the socks to the outer edge of the foot and back in the standing position.
- Walking on sand barefoot.
Begin training with five to six exercises, and after 10 days begin to add one exercise. The whole lesson should take about 20 minutes. Perform gymnastics for a better effect should be twice a day.
Video "Physiotherapy with flat feet"
In addition, it is useful for adults and children on a warm summer day after rain to mix dirt and bare feet and walk around in puddles barefoot.
Biomechanics of the foot
Biomechanics call the ability of the foot to perform certain movements, as well as withstand loads, the number of which is determined by the shape and position of the vaults. For example, the transverse arch can be normally wide and narrow. A wide arch is capable of withstanding increased loads, and the shape of the foot resembles a square. A narrow foot is more suitable for dancing( ballet).
The longitudinal arch can be high and low. High - indispensable for sports, and flat - for long hiking. Normally, when walking, the load first falls on the heel, then moves to the toe, and then repelled with the thumb. If there is a flattening of the arches, the consequence of this process is a flatfoot, which leads to a violation of the damping properties of the foot.
Usage of insoles
Before selecting insoles from flat feet, you need to know what they are for. The theme of orthopedic corrective insoles in the light of advertising is surrounded by prejudices and delusions. So, orthopedic correctors help restore the natural biomechanics of the feet and return their functions.
Therefore, only the doctor can recommend wearing insoles, following the following steps.
- Inspection of the patient and diagnosis of the type of flatfoot, which takes into account the natural biomechanics.
- Individual manufacturing of the main components or selection from pre-fabricated models. Manufacturing is carried out on a cast, footprint or computer image.
- Fitting the finished product and issuing it.
- Correction in use( quality insole can last from 2 years or more).
All orthopedic insoles for flatfoot consist of the following parts:
- arch support( at the location of the longitudinal arch);
- cavity in the calcaneus;
- flat( metatarsal) pillow in the area of the toe;
- wedges( additional accessories), which help to correct the insoles. There are two( external and internal) wedges for the anterior and posterior parts of the foot;
- foot area( elevated area).
In some cases, such devices do not have a front part( metatarsal pad), which is called a semi-stem.
Features of selection
Treatment of transverse flatfoot without using orthopedic insoles is difficult to conduct. They are a necessary stage of treatment, and their uniqueness is achieved by diagnosing the shape of flatfoot or the degree of deformation of the foot. There are indications in which these correctors are used.
- All types of flatfoot in adults.
- Flat feet in young children.
- Valgus deformity( joints and feet).
- Valgus deformation of the thumb.
Orthopedic insoles for flatfoot
Contrary to the many misconceptions - orthopedic insoles are an exceptionally curative remedy, there is no model for flatfoot prevention. Any pads or specialized shoes should be used as directed by the doctor, and only after a complete examination of the patient. The thing is that there are a lot of insoles, and each is designed to address specific violations.
Types of orthopedic insoles
The main task of any orthopedic insoles is to support the arches of the foot and correct the existing deformation. Orthopedic insoles with flat feet normalize blood circulation in the feet, help to correctly distribute the load, thereby reducing pain when walking and prolonged standing. Also, when using medical pads, the load is correctly distributed to the hip and ankle joints. Regular use of orthopedic insoles minimizes the likelihood of progress of the disease and the occurrence of complications in the musculoskeletal system. With regard to the classification of insoles - they are divided according to their intended use: to correct longitudinal or transverse flat feet. In general, their device is similar: It is the arch support for the inboard arch of the foot, and the groove in the heel zone. Also, the insole can have one or more wedges that adjust the inclination of the foot relative to the floor and a metatarsal pad in the region of the transverse arch.
How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?
For the most effective correction of existing disorders, individual selection of any orthopedic means is necessary. The prescription with accurate measurements of the deformities available to the patient should be made by a doctor. To make insoles, foot print or plaster cast is often used. The most modern means of selecting means of correcting flatfoot is the creation of a computer 3D image of the foot. This method is the most accurate, however, not all clinics and pharmacies have the necessary equipment. Orthopedic insoles with transverse flat feet can be made of modern polymers or genuine leather. Choosing the stiffness of insoles is based on the weight of the patient. If the body weight exceeds 100 kg, preference should be given to hard models made of steel, graphite or special plastic. With a weight of less than 100 kg, you can choose from semi-rigid insoles( leather, rubber, plastic) and soft silicone options.
How to use orthopedic insoles?
The therapeutic effect of wearing insoles will not be complete if they are mis-positioned in the available shoes. You may even need to pick up shoes or shoes for the available insole. In the event that the shoes already have regular insoles, they should be removed, after which you need to place orthopedic products inside. Check to see if the insole will crawl with transverse flat feet while walking? If a similar effect is observed, glue them to the shoe with a universal glue or a double-sided adhesive tape. In order to determine how much the chosen flatfoot correction tool is suitable for a particular patient, one should walk slowly, quickly, and run. Does discomfort occur during movement, are legs comfortable? Normally, in severe stages of flatfoot, unpleasant sensations are possible, but they should be much less palpable than in normal footwear. Orthopedic insoles for transverse flatfoot need special care. They need to be washed with soiling and dried at room temperature. In order for this treatment to work, you should walk in shoes with insoles constantly.