Treatment of joints

Rehabilitation period after knee replacement

Instead of a broken joint, a metal artificial implant

is placed in the knee. Endoprosthesis( arthroplasty) is a surgical operation, as a result of which the patient is replaced by a damaged or completely destroyed joint on the prosthesis. The replacement of joints by artificial prostheses is recommended for patients in whom conservative treatment( use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, exercise therapy, wearing orthoses, etc.) has not yielded results, and the damaged joint is not able to function normally.

Most often, prosthetics are performed in severe forms of arthrosis or after joint trauma. The cartilaginous lining between the bones of the joint, which allows the knee to work normally, wears out. Other causes of osteoarthritis: rheumatism, metabolic disorders in the body, chronic infections, etc.

The aim of the operation is to reduce the pain syndrome and restore the function of the joint. The structure of the prosthesis practically repeats the natural structure of the human joint. Modern prosthesis, made of ceramic or metal, can serve 15-20 years, with the wear of the joint it can be replaced with a new one. In order to return to a full-fledged lifestyle after the replacement of the hip or knee joint, only a successful operation is not enough. An important factor on the way to recovery is postoperative rehabilitation.

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First days after successful operation of

endoprosthesis replacement. If prosthetics has been successful and there are no individual contraindications, then within a few hours after the operation the patient is allowed to sit down, but legs can be hung from the bed only on the 2nd day, as well as getting up. It should be ready for the fact that the entire rehabilitation period will take at least 3 months. This period is purely individual and depends on such factors as age, weight, general health and so on.

To avoid the formation of a thrombus, the patient should always wear special elastic stockings or use an elastic bandage. For a speedy recovery, you must follow all the doctor's recommendations and perform a set of exercises that is specifically designed for people after knee replacement.

In order to get out of bed after the operation for the first time, you must follow certain rules:
  • should always stand on the side of a healthy leg;
  • before rising from the bed with the knee joint endoprosthesis, the leg is pulled forward and does not bend;
  • when climbing out of bed, you need to rely on a healthy leg and crutches( for the first time it is better to conduct this procedure under the supervision of a doctor and stand up, relying on another person);
  • it is important that the floor is not slippery( to exclude the possibility of falling and damage to the operated leg).

The first steps should be as cautious as possible. You can not rely on an operated leg, it is only allowed to touch the floor lightly. Every day the load on the joint is gradually increased.

After the endoprosthesis of the knee, the patient is still in hospital for a few more days.

During this period, doctors monitor the general condition of the patient and teach him the necessary gymnastic exercises, which in the future will have to be done at home on his own. In addition to independent exercises, the patient is prescribed a course of exercise therapy( curative and preventive physical training).


Exercises after knee replacement

Restoring the normal functioning of the knee requires daily exercise. After surgery, the patient is prescribed pain relievers for several days, and only the doctor deals with the development of the feet. In the future, any gymnastics should be performed without the use of painkillers. Their action reduces sensitivity, and this can lead to involuntary knee damage.

Complex of exercises:

  1. Flexion-extensor movements of the ankle joint. The number of exercises begins with 5 repetitions and gradually increases them to 20( as they recover).
  2. The anterior femoral muscles are strained and held in a tone of 2 to 5 seconds. The same is done with the hind femoral muscles.
  3. For 5 seconds, the gluteal muscles are held in tension.
  4. In a lying position, straight legs are raised at an angle of 45 degrees and held for 5 seconds.
  5. Hip to the side.
  6. Retraction of the straightened leg( prosthetized) back.

It should be noted that all procedures aimed at restoring the knee joint, including exercise therapy, will be accompanied by discomfort and painful sensations. But this should not be the reason for rejecting them. Sometimes exercises can provoke the appearance of an edema of the operated leg, it can be removed by a cold compress.

In process of recovery, therapeutic exercises are supplemented by other physical activities, such as cycling, walking, swimming and massage. All this will stimulate the muscles and enrich the blood with oxygen, which promotes the rapid healing of tissues. But you can not overstress the prosthetic leg too much.


Contraindications and inhibitions of

After endoprosthetics of the knee joint and full rehabilitation course in most people life returns to the usual course. The main thing - to adhere to some rules that will help quickly recover and extend the life of the endoprosthesis.

It is recommended to return to the usual activities shortly after the operation: drive a car, do simple housework, walk the stairs, and the like.

Despite the fact that gymnastic exercises, walking and exercise therapy are considered as the key to a speedy recovery, such physical activities as jumping, running, aerobics, and some sports( skis, tennis, football, etc.) are strictly prohibited. For any type of endoprosthesis, whether knee or hip joint, the patient is not allowed to lift heavy objects.

Pain after arthroplasty of the knee joint is quite normal. In the postoperative period, it is not recommended to abuse pain medication, pain will help to remove an easy relaxing massage or compress. The main thing to remember is that the development of the knee joint is the best means for the body to get used to the prosthesis.

The leg will cease to hurt only when the body completely restores muscle activity.


Complications after prosthetics

Each organism is individual, therefore it is possible that complications may occur after joint replacement. There are situations when, after replacement, the joint remains unstable and requires an additional operation to correct it. After the operation, infection of the wound is possible, in such cases, the patient is prescribed antibiotics.

For 6 weeks after surgery, there is a risk of blood clots and swelling, so you need to wear special stockings and use drugs to dilute the blood. LFK after the operation will allow faster normalization of blood circulation in the limbs, and a special massage will relieve swelling.

After surgery, a fracture or a bone fracture around the artificial implant is possible. In the process of healing, excessive scar tissue can form, which will cause limited mobility of the joint. It is removed surgically.

There is a risk of displacement of the patella, which can only be replaced surgically. In addition to all of the above, there is a risk of destruction of the implant itself. It is expected that the postoperative scar and the skin around him for a period will be insensitive, numb.

Endoprosthesis of the knee joint and rehabilitation is a serious and long process, but if you follow all the recommendations of the doctor and conscientiously perform the prescribed exercises, the prosthesis will allow you to lead a full life( no joint pain and the ability to move independently), although it will impose certain limitations inmovements.


Disability after joint replacement

In diseases that damage bone tissue and joints, patients are entitled to disability benefits. To receive it you need to provide all the necessary documents, pictures and a doctor's opinion, which confirms that a person is not capable of full-fledged independent movement.

Rehabilitation after knee arthroplasty may also be a reason for receiving a disability benefit if the patient is unable to move to the extent necessary to perform the work required of him. Social assistance is provided for a period of one year. To extend it in a year, you need to undergo a second examination and provide all the necessary documents of the disability commission.

Disability after endoprosthetics is not prolonged if a person is able to stand upright for 2 hours a day. It is believed that such an indicator allows a person to perform sedentary work without prejudice to one's health.

MoiSustav.ru

Arthroscopy of the knee joint: recovery after surgery, reviews, exercises

Today, there are many diseases that can be dealt with by minimally invasive methods. This article will consider such a procedure as arthroscopy of the knee joint: recovery from surgery, as well as the most important rehabilitation measures that will help a person to get to their feet as quickly as possible.

Terminology

Initially, you need to determine the terms that will be used in this article. Consider the concept of "arthroscopy."Like most medical terms, it is of Latin origin. So, the first part( arthro) in translation is a joint, and the second( skopien) means "to look".If you translate verbatim the name itself, you can understand that arthroscopy is "looking at the joint".

Medicine gives a more precise and detailed definition. Thus, arthroscopy is a modern, minimally invasive method of surgical intervention, in which specialists examine the internal structure of the knee joint, as well as the content of a special joint cavity.

The main thing about the procedure

We consider further such procedure as arthroscopy of the knee joint. Recovery after surgery will not be as long as it used to be. And all because the operation itself, as already mentioned above, is minimally invasive. And although the surgical intervention itself occurs with the help of surgical instruments, they are so compact and small that the size of the incision will not exceed 10 mm( an average of 5 mm).

So, an arthroscope is introduced into the knee joint, due to which the image of the knee joint will be displayed on the monitor screen. In this case, the joint itself is filled with a special liquid, by means of which the image quality will be improved several times, and the information obtained will become as complete and reliable as possible. Further through the incision, fine surgical instruments are introduced, which cope with the task in hand.

It is also important to note that such an operation is carried out so carefully that sometimes patients do not even need to take painkillers, they can go home just a day after the operation.

Recovery time after operation

What is the end of arthroscopy of the knee joint? Recovery after surgery, namely the period until complete recovery, in each individual case may differ. And there are no exact figures here, because everything depends on many factors:

  • , how extensive and serious were the changes in the knee joint;
  • what measures were taken immediately after the operation.

The process of recovery can also proceed in different ways. However, for everything to go smoothly, you need to follow certain rules of behavior from the very beginning, immediately after the operation. So, doctors advise in the first time after the procedure to not use excessively and not to load the operated joint, so you will have to give up physical activities and long walks. After all, all this can cause puffiness, which, naturally, will provoke painful sensations.

If to speak in general, then people can get behind the wheel of the car in about 7 days. At the same time, you can return to work if it is "sedentary."However, it is possible to fully use the operated joint at the household level not earlier than in 4-6 weeks. And only a couple of months after surgery, a person can exercise without discomfort and pain. As a small conclusion, one can say: the stronger the manifestations of arthrosis, the longer the recovery period will be.

Visits to doctors

If a procedure such as arthroscopy of the knee joint was performed, recovery from surgery begins with the first visits to the doctor. It should be noted that after such manipulation, the person will have stitches. In time, they will have to be removed. Also, the doctor will have to observe the patient to avoid all kinds of complications. Precautions will be needed for dressings, you may need a puncture( if swelling is severe).However, it is most important to observe the following rules:

  • For the first 2-4 days after the operation, the patient needs rest. At this time, the foot is strictly forbidden to load. You may need crutches or a cane to ease the load on the aching limb. It is also important to remember that when walking in the knee pain may occur - this is normal.
  • It is recommended to apply cold to ease discomfort to the knee joint. For example, ice can be used about 4-5 times a day for 15-20 minutes. This first of all will help to cope with the edema, which exactly will arise( only the intensity of its manifestation will differ).
  • Restoration after arthroscopy of the knee joint will not work without applying a pressure bandage. However, in this case, you need to know that you need to bandage your leg with an elastic bandage from the foot to the middle of the thigh.
  • And, of course, during rest the leg should be slightly above the level of the heart. It will have to be placed on a small hill( for example, a pillow).

But this is not the most important thing. The necessary recovery after arthroscopy of the knee joint is an exercise that a person must do daily and as hard as possible. It's the only way to shorten the period of full recovery.

Complex of exercises for the first week of

. As already mentioned above, it is necessary to start studying from an early date, however, only under the supervision of the attending physician. What kind of exercises will be important in the first time after the operation?

  • Training of the hind muscles of the thigh. You need to lie down on the floor and try to bend your knees as hard as you can until the pain appears. So it is necessary to do 10 times.
  • How should recovery after arthroscopy of the knee joint take place? Exercises - that's very important. The next lesson: you need to lie on your stomach, and put a platen under your feet. The essence of the exercise is to press the feet on the roller and "tear off" the knees from the couch.
  • The following exercise is also performed in the prone position. A healthy leg in the knee is bent, the patient is not. The operated limb should be "torn off" from the couch, without bending.
  • Now you need to hold the lesson in the standing position. So, the diseased leg will need to be lifted by 45 °, keeping it on weight for about 5 seconds.

The next set of exercises

The man had arthroscopy of the knee joint. Recovery after surgery, exercise and maximum zeal will help in the shortest possible time to return the former health. After all, from the fact that a person does everything honestly, the rehabilitation period depends. So, the next couple of weeks will need to perform such actions:

  • In the supine position on the back( under the knees lies the roller of the towel) you need to try to gradually bend the aching leg in the knee.
  • In the course of this exercise, the operated limb will have to be lifted in the forward position, keeping it on the weight should not be more than 15 seconds.
  • Now I have to get up near the back of the chair. Holding onto her, you'll have to start squatting a little. In the lowest position, you should linger for 10 seconds.
  • Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the knee joint will not do without stretching the front of the thigh. So, it is recommended that the injured leg be bent at the knee and grab the foot with the hand. So you need to stand about 5 seconds.

Final Exercises

What is most important after arthroscopy of the knee joint has been performed? Recovery after surgery. The patient's testimonies indicate that even after a certain improvement, you should not leave the class. You need to train up to the eighth week after surgery. For a quick recovery you will need the following exercises:

  • A little crouching on one leg, lingering in the lowest possible position for 5 seconds.
  • Slowly climb the small steps.
  • The next exercise is carried out in the sitting position. We put the operated leg on a chair, maximally at the same time straightening it.
  • Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the knee joint also includes stretching the posterior group of hamstrings. In this case, you need to grasp the sick leg with your hands, alternately bending and unbending it in the knee.
  • It is important to note that at this stage you can already use an exercise bike. The maximum amount of time spent on the bike is 10 minutes.
  • What else should include rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the knee joint? Patients' recommendations are recommended at this time not to be lazy, but as much as possible to walk. Not for long, but often. It is important to remember that after such walks, the leg should not hurt or sweat.

Here, in principle, and all permissible exercises that can be performed without fear, but with the permission of the treating doctor. This is the ideal recovery after arthroscopy of the knee joint. The patients' testimonies indicate that it is not necessary to run about 8 weeks after the operation. So you can only harm your own health. This is also not tired of reminding and doctors, because you must avoid too much strain on the operated cartilage.

Important

What else is important to remember after arthroscopy of the knee joint was performed? Recovery after surgery( patient feedback - the first confirmation) should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. Also, all loads should not cause pain or discomfort in the leg. Training should be directed at improving, but in no way worsen the condition of the operated knee joint.

Complications of

However, this is not all that you need to know about such a procedure as arthroscopy. If an operation was performed on the knee joint, there may be a variety of complications. But here it is important to note that the frequency of their occurrence is very low. What post-operative problems can bother? Most often these are infections, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism, when there is a blockage of the veins or arteries. It is necessary to immediately seek medical help in such cases:

  • There is a fever or chills, the body temperature has significantly increased.
  • In the operated knee joint, there is pain, there is redness.
  • The patient does not pass or gradually develop pain.
  • Strong puffiness in the area of ​​the operated joint.
  • There was a pain in the chest, shortness of breath, breathing became difficult.

Remember: the earlier a person turns to qualified help, the faster he will receive effective treatment.

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Rehabilitation after knee replacement

Replacement of the knee joint with an endoprosthesis is a very complicated operation in technical terms conducted by top orthopedic surgeons. But nevertheless, whatever the skill of the doctors and the quality of the artificial implant, the patient necessarily needs a rehabilitation period. Restorative procedures are needed to ensure that in the future correctly, excluding traumatic risks, to ensure the optimal motor activity of the operated leg.

The main objectives of

Rehabilitation after knee replacement for the patient is as follows:

  1. to independently rise from the bed and lie down on it;
  2. master the safe seat posture;
  3. stand with the help of improvised means;
  4. selection of crutches, walking on them;
  5. do daily special physical exercises.

Important:
To achieve the fastest recovery, and the tissues around the endoprosthesis quickly heal, do not ignore the advice of the attending physician and physiotherapist.
Pay attention to such moments:

  • control pain. Pain syndrome should be prevented when the first signs of anesthetics appear. If the pain is increasing, tell the doctor definitely;
  • observe the edema of the knee joint. A small puffiness around the operated site is normal. After a certain period of time such a symptom will gradually be eliminated. Removing puffiness and relieving pain is helped by orthopedic rollers or pillows placed under the foot;
  • take care of your lungs. Do breathing exercises several times a day. Since after the operation the patient spends most of the time lying down, the lungs are in a squeezed position. Therefore, the circulatory system is not saturated with oxygen. This can lead to poor wound healing or to pneumonia.

The first days after the operation

If there are no complications, you can sit in bed. The ascent should be started gradually and very slowly. Raising themselves, rest on the elbows first, then on the palms of both hands. On the second day you can lower your legs from the bed. You can sit down in two ways:

  1. grasp the operated limb with your hands and, in parallel with the healthy one, lower it to the floor;
  2. lean his hands on the bed, bring the second leg under the foot of the sore leg and slide down with progressive movements.

Important: : To eliminate the risk of blood clots in the vessels, an elastic bandage should be applied to both legs. The best way is to purchase special stockings.
On the second-third day the patient is allowed to stand near the bed. It's very difficult to make the very first climb. As a rule, such manipulations are performed only with the attending physician or rehabilitation specialist, since dizziness and instability may occur. To be afraid of unpleasant sensations it is not necessary. The sooner you overcome them, the sooner you will start walking.

How to get up?

There are a number of rules that must be adhered to in the strictest order:

  1. If the right leg is operated, it is necessary to get up in the opposite direction, and vice versa.
  2. Before you lower your aching leg, keep it all the time in the straightened position.
  3. Before lifting, the operated limb should first be straightened and, relying on a healthy one, should be raised with crutches.
  4. The surface of the floor must be dry and not slippery.

Special nuances:
The first few days you can not step on the aching leg, it can only touch the floor. In the future, physical activity gradually increases.

Walking distance

Movement restrictions are strictly individual. Here it is necessary to take into account the patient's age, general health, clinical indices, degree of puffiness.
If the swelling in the knee endoprosthesis area after walking is pronounced, the load should be reduced.

Complex of daily exercises

Therapeutic exercises help to restore muscle tone, improve the mobility of the endoprosthesis and the joint of a healthy leg. They must be performed at home every day for a minimum of two months.
Basic exercises of exercise therapy:

  • flexion and extension movements of the ankle joint( 5-7 approaches);
  • strain and hold in this position the muscles of the thigh( a few seconds);
  • to lift alternately straightened legs, try to keep them in a tone( 2-3 seconds);
  • bend and unbend knees. The angle of flexion of the operated leg should not exceed 90 degrees;
  • standing position straight leg should be withdrawn only to the side or back.

What is contraindicated during rehabilitation

  1. Make sharp, jumplike, rotational movements with your foot.
  2. Do dance, big, small tennis, volleyball, basketball, football and other sports.
  3. Only one knee can not be rotated. Turn left-right must be done completely by the whole body, otherwise there is a risk of dislocation of the implant.
  4. If possible, limit descent and climb stairs. Do not allow the abutment of the operated limb.
  5. Contraindicated sitting in deep soft armchairs, on low sofas. Only sitting on a hard chair is allowed. Knees do not reduce together, do not toss one leg to the other. Keep them at a distance of shoulder width.
  6. Not only during rehabilitation, but also during the entire period of wearing the endoprosthesis, weight lifting should not exceed more than 3 kg.
  7. If scheduled or emergency surgery is indicated by the dentist, ophthalmologist, etc., the medical team should be informed about the inserted implant.

Additional recommendations of

Two months after endoprosthetics, a control X-ray is taken and, according to indications, short walking sessions without improvised means become possible. During the entire rehabilitation period, specialists monitor each patient: they give advice on correcting the gait, the correct distribution of muscular load, and much more. When the patient stops using the cane, it is useful to visit the swimming pool once a week, to practice swimming, to hold regular massage courses twice a year.

LechenieSpiny.ru

Arthroscopy of the knee joint is a modern surgical method that allows to carry out low-traumatic operations on the damaged joint. The incision for arthroscopy is significantly less than with open joint surgery. With the operation of the knee joint, the surgeon can visually inspect all the internal parts of the knee, as well as conduct the necessary treatment. After the operation is completed, a special aseptic dressing is applied to the incision site, and the patient is transferred to the postoperative ward.

Features of operation

This manipulation takes place with minimal pain, and the wound that remains after the introduction of the arthroscope heals within two to three days. Restoration of joint mobility takes from two weeks to several months. After discharge from the hospital, the patient receives from the attending physician a whole list of recommendations aimed at the most rapid and complete restoration.

The length of hospitalization for the operation depends on the existing pathology of the knee joint. The stationary stage of treatment usually takes from several hours to several days, if arthroscopic plastic of cruciate ligaments is performed, it can be increased to three to five days.

Features of the initial recovery period

During inpatient treatment, patients undergo intraoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, which involves the introduction of a broad-spectrum antibiotic. In addition, with the use of compression knitwear, thromboembolic complications are prevented. In the postoperative period, cryotherapy is considered effective, which consists in applying a compress with ice to the site of the incision.

Restoration after arthroscopy of the knee joint at the initial stage passes in the prone position, if necessary, the joint is fixed with a detachable bandage. The patient also undergoes anesthesia with anti-inflammatory and non-steroid drugs.

Rehabilitation after arthroscopy of the knee joint in the first days provides for the restriction of the weight load on the operated limb. At this stage, the use of a special device called orthosis is recommended. It is able to fix the damaged knee joint in a completely immobile state. The patient can then move only on crutches.

The doctor explains in detail to the patient what exactly loads on the operated joint should be completely avoided, and also tells what physical exercises are recommended for an early recovery.

The specially developed medical gymnastics with a certain set of exercises, aimed at strengthening the muscle tone, helps to restore the knee joint to the previous mobility.

So after a day after the operation, it is possible to carry out isometric tension of the hip muscles, and also to make easy movements in the ankle joint. After removing the drainage from the wound, this usually occurs on the second day after the operation, passive movements of the knee joint are added in the most sparing and painless range.

The patient's actions after discharge from the hospital

During the period of outpatient treatment for one to three weeks, dressings are performed with a change of aseptic dressings. If there is swelling of the knee joint, then the puncture necessary to drain the accumulated fluid is carried out. Sutures are removed after seven to ten days, with compulsory examination of the surgeon and traumatologist. Further elastic bandage of the limb is carried out for three to five days. Also, the patient at this time takes effective vascular and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Exercises after arthroscopy of the knee should be directed to flexion and extension of the thigh, rotation of the foot and tension of the gluteal muscles. Gradually add more active movements of the knee joint, which are carried out with constant contact of the heel with the surface. It is allowed to slowly lift a sick leg and keep it on the weight for five to seven seconds. In addition, patients are recommended complexes of aqua aerobic exercises, while classes are held several times a day.

The first month after operation

Arthroscopy of the knee aftercare period involves several stages of recovery. So a month after the surgical intervention, walking is allowed with full support on the aching leg. The knee joint is already allowed to bend and unbend by 90 degrees. At this stage, the formation of the right gait is of great importance, for this purpose unhurried walking is advised in small steps, without limping on an operated limb.

Physical exercises should be aimed at further strengthening the leg muscles. Classes should be supervised by the physician of the exercise therapy, taking into account the possible reaction of the joint to the proposed load.

Exercises to strengthen the damaged joint

Two months after the operation, walking in the functional orthosis, but with the full volume of necessary movements, is still allowed. Certainly the patient should continue strength training. Excellent at this stage, the bike has proven itself. You can do shallow and slow sit-ups, and also load the muscles of the front group of the thigh.

People who have suffered arthroscopy of the knee joint are contraindicated sharp bending and extension of the leg, therefore avoid jumping, flailing exercises with legs and twisting exercises.

Complex of loads in the third month after surgical intervention

In the third month after the operation, walking is allowed without restrictions and various aids. It is recommended to continue sports training, to go in for swimming, cycling, doing exercises with a platform. Jogging is possible on an even surface.

How to behave to people who have undergone knee joint surgery?

Patients who underwent the described surgery, doctors advised to avoid professional sports loads during the first half of the year. They also recommend limiting the use of gaming and contact sports to nine to twelve months.

It is important that the choice of an individual rehabilitation program should be carried out only by an experienced specialist, taking into account a variety of attendant factors. Only in this case it is possible to fully restore and achieve maximum results from treatment.

Below is a video with exercises after arthroscopy of the knee joint:

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Rehabilitation after the endoprosthesis( total) knee joint includes exercises of exercise therapy, massage, swimming and mud treatment.

Endoprosthetics is an actively developed and promising area. Due to the operation to introduce into the knee implants, thousands of patients got rid of the pain and returned mobility to their limbs. The percentage of successful surgical interventions is constantly growing and now amounts to about 90%.A significant role in restoring mobility is played by the correct course of rehabilitation after prosthetics of the knee joint.

Types of knee arthroplasty and indications for operation

Endoprosthetics - a complex and expensive operation associated with the introduction into the human body of foreign material. Therefore, for her appointment, you need serious testimony. It is performed with such diseases as arthritis, arthrosis, necrosis, untreated dislocation, tuberculosis of bones. Rehabilitation after the replacement of the knee joint is also a difficult and long process. Indications for knee arthroplasty are the following:

  • limb mobility impairment;
  • a strong pain symptom interferes with a patient's normal life;
  • lack of opportunities for conservative treatment.

There are several types of partial or full joint replacement.

  1. Total knee arthroplasty .This type involves the replacement of surfaces on both bones of the knee - femoral and tibia, if the surfaces and meniscus themselves are completely damaged. At the same time, metal structures are fixed on the bones, and the knee cap is replaced by a plastic-metal implant.
  2. Single pole prosthesis provides for the replacement of only one of the knee sections. This may be a side front or middle compartment. This operation is considered more sparing compared to the previous one, but later, with the progression of the underlying disease( eg, arthritis), it may be necessary to repeat it. These two types of surgery are primary.
  3. Revision( secondary) prosthetics of bone surfaces are made to replace worn out prostheses with new ones. In this case, the risk of complications is higher, the amplitude of movements and the shortening of the limb may decrease.

Postoperative period

In the hospital, the patient spends up to 2 weeks, after the removal of the sutures and in the absence of complications he is discharged home. In the first day, bed rest is prescribed since the third one can get up. Postoperative period of knee arthroplasty is extremely important for further recovery. In a hospital or clinic, the patient receives medications - antibiotics and pain medications. Also, the doctor gives advice on the recovery period and gymnastics.

At home it is important to continue daily exercises to strengthen the muscles of the thigh and lower leg for speedy rehabilitation. For 4-12 weeks it is necessary to wear a compression knitwear. When walking, you need to use an additional support - walkers, crutches, in time you can go to the cane. This will limit the load on the operated leg in the first weeks and reduce the risk of complications.

With special care you need to take a shower, use a car and public transport. For the rest of the next life, after knee arthroplasty, one must avoid actions that overload the operated operation. These include:

  • running and related sports;
  • lifting and carrying heavy loads;
  • long walking on the stairs;
  • unwanted is a set of excess weight.

Quite often, after surgery, many patients experience a minor edema of the operated zone and a pain symptom. But do not worry about it. With edema, you can cope with the cold( apply a cold compress for 5-10 minutes), and a moderate pulling pain is well-stopped med.preparatami, and goes through 10-12 weeks.

The reason for immediate contact with a specialist should be a plentiful edema and acute pain after knee replacement, accompanied by fever and redness.

Unfortunately, the complications after the replacement of the knee joint, especially the total, a phenomenon is not rare. The most common problems include:

  1. Blood clot formation. This is caused by stagnation of blood in the veins of the lower leg, and also, perhaps, against the background of receiving blood thickening drugs and physiological predisposition.
  2. Infection. The risk of infection is about 2%, for prevention, it is necessary to take medication prescribed by a doctor, avoid colds and other diseases, and prevent their protracted course.
  3. Osteolysis is a process where the tissue begins to break down at the points where the bone meets the prosthesis. This is due to the body's reaction to the metal structure, subsequently osteolysis can lead to the need for repeated surgical intervention.

A successful implant placement operation assumes the appointment of a group III disability in the following cases:

  • endoprosthetics of both legs;
  • replacement of bone surfaces not only of the tibia but also of the femur;

If the operation was unsuccessful, disability is put on an individual basis, depending on the severity of the consequences. Lifetime disability after knee replacement is prescribed if rheumatoid arthritis is the cause of the disorders.

Features and objectives of rehabilitation

The rehabilitation program has two objectives:

  • mobility recovery;

The development of the knee joint after endoprosthetics should include the following types of movements:

  • muscle tension of the thigh and lower leg;
  • flexion and extension of the thigh, knee and ankle joint;
  • walking.

The total time of gymnastics is 10-15 minutes. Exercises should carry a moderate load.

Terms, stages and methods of restoring the function of the knee

The recovery period after prosthetics is 10-12 weeks on average. At this time, you need to slowly and smoothly move with the support, gradually build up the strength and amplitude of movements. Any exercise or movement must be stopped when feeling pain, fatigue or overstrain in the muscles. Recovery after knee replacement can be accelerated if all the doctor's recommendations are followed.

After the operation, a fluid is accumulated in the joint bag, which is removed by means of a drainage system. Lymphatic drainage or apparatus massage of the knee joint after endoprosthetics is included in the complex of mandatory measures in the first day. Physioprocedures( warming up and mud cure) the ratio among orthopedists is ambiguous. In German clinics, they are actively practiced and, according to local experts, accelerate the recovery period. Domestic doctors treat these methods skeptically, believing that they increase the risk of infection.

It should be remembered that the endoprosthesis is not a new healthy joint, but a mechanism that allows you to move and live without pain. Like any other mechanism, it gradually wears out.

Therapeutic physical training, recommended by domestic specialists, is a combination of static and dynamic exercises with a lack of rotation of the operated knee. The difference between LFK after knee arthroplasty and other methods is that most of the movements are performed from a lying or sitting position.

Video: "Exercises after arthroplasty of the knee joint"

There are many types of rehabilitation gymnastics. For example, neurophysiological exercises Brugger designed to correct painful sensations due to movements performed in an upright position. Another kind of complex of neurophysiological exercises can be called the gymnastics offered by Milligan. Western clinics also practice swimming and swimming in the pool and hippotherapy. When choosing the method of recovery, it is important to build on the availability of specialists in this area. Without observing the doctor, exercises can cause irreparable harm to one's health.

Endoprosthetics can significantly improve a patient's life. However, it must be understood that this operation is not a panacea, and it will impose certain restrictions on the rest of life.

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