Flattening in childrenFlat feet in children - a change in the configuration of the skeleton of the foot, associated with the flattening of its arches and leading to a violation of the mechanics of walking. Flattening in children is manifested by fatigue, pain in the legs during movement and static load, edema and deformity of the foot, change in gait, difficulty walking. The diagnosis of flat feet in children is established on the basis of clinical examination, data of planktonography, podometry and radiography of the feet. For the treatment of flat feet in children conservative methods are used( massage, therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy, application of plaster dressings and orthoses);operative intervention is carried out in extreme cases.
Flat feet in children
Flat feet in children - the most common orthopedic pathology in pediatrics, manifested by a decrease in the height of the arches of the foot. Platypodia can be detected in the child from birth( in 3% of cases);to 2-4 years it is observed in 24-32% of children, by 7 years - in 40%, by 12 years - in 50% of adolescents.
Active formation of the arches of the foot in children occurs gradually, with the appearance and increase in the load on the legs. The critical moment in the development of flat feet is the age period from 8 months to 1.5 years, when the child begins to get up and learn to walk. At an early age, all children have a physiological flat foot, due to age-related anatomical and functional features: the cartilaginous structure of bones, more elastic and elongated ligaments, weak muscles. With the right development with increasing strength and endurance of muscles, this condition in children independently normalizes to 5-6 years. With certain violations in children, flat feet develop, leading to a sharp decrease in the damping capacity of the foot, an increase in the load on other elements of the musculoskeletal system with damage to the knee and hip joints, deformation of the spine, disruption of the internal organs.
Classification of flatfoot in children
The foot has longitudinal and transverse arches supporting muscles and ligaments, providing balance of the body, distribution and mitigation of shock load during walking, running and jumping, and also increasing endurance to the axial load. According to the anatomical sign in orthopedics, longitudinal, transverse and combined flat feet are distinguished. Children often encounter longitudinal flat feet with a flattening of the longitudinal arch and an elongation of the foot that touches the floor with the entire surface of the sole. With transverse flat feet in children, the length of the foot decreases, its front section rests on the heads of all metatarsal bones.
Flattening in children can be congenital and acquired. The congenital form is rare enough and is associated with malformations of the bone structures and the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot. Acquired platypodia in children depending on their origin can be static, traumatic, rachitic, paralytic. The most common static flatfoot is more common in school-age children when there is a discrepancy between static and dynamic load on the foot and muscle tone.
Causes of flatfoot in children
Flat feet in children can develop for various reasons. Congenital flat feet in children is observed in utero underdevelopment of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons of the shins and feet. Acquired flat feet in children also develops against the background of congenital insufficiency of connective tissue and can be combined with an additional chord in the heart, bend of the gallbladder, myopia, etc. In the formation of flat feet in children, the hereditary factor - the presence of this pathology in close relatives - is of great importance.
Flattening in children can be caused by the weakness of the musculoskeletal foot apparatus that does not withstand heavy loads;defeat of the musculoskeletal system in rickets;incorrectly fused fractures of the ankles, metatarsals, heel and talus bones;paralysis or paresis of the muscles of the lower leg and foot( including after poliomyelitis);neurological pathology( encephalopathy).
The appearance of static flat feet in children is promoted by wearing incorrectly picked up shoes( cramped, dissimilar, on a thick sole), overweight and obesity, prolonged continuous walking or standing. Often flat feet develop in children with flat-foot deformities of the feet.
Symptoms of flat feet in children
In most cases of congenital flatfoot, one foot is affected in children, which looks like a rocking chair or a "paperweight" with a convex sole and a flattened, even concave back. There is heel instigation of the foot, a sharp pronation with the removal of the fingers outwards. With the advent of static load, congenital flat feet are aggravated and fixed.
In children 6-7 years of age, flat feet are manifested by rapid fatigue when walking and standing, by trampling the shoe along the inner edge of the sole and heel. Clinical symptoms of acquired flat feet in children are aching pains in the foot area, which increase after a long stay on the legs;puffiness of the feet in the evening, fatigue when walking.
There are three degrees of longitudinal flat feet in children, determined by the degree of deformation of the foot. At I degree, the height of the arch of the foot is 25-35 mm, there is no visible deformation of the foot. At II degree - the height of the arch is from 25 to 17 mm, flattening of the foot is visible to the naked eye;Platypodia in children is manifested by an increase in pain in the foot, ankle and calf muscles, difficulty walking. The shape of the foot changes - its length increases, the middle part widens, the gait becomes heavy and clumsy;children have a rapid overall fatigue. Flattening of III degree is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot, a decrease in the height of the arch less than 17 mm, constant pain in the legs and lower back, headaches, inability to walk in ordinary shoes.
Flattening causes the curvature of the toes of the foot, the appearance of calluses, the formation of disorders in the child's posture( scoliosis) and spine diseases( osteochondrosis, herniation of intervertebral discs), deforming arthrosis, meniscal inflammation, etc.
Diagnosis of flatfoot in children
children up to 5-6 years of age are quite problematic. The diagnosis of severe flat feet in children can be made by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon during a clinical examination that allows to detect changes in the length, width and volume of foot movements, a violation of the state of its arches, and the wear of footwear.
Objective methods of assessing flat feet in older children are planography - obtaining a footprint of a footprint on paper and a subgrade - measuring the "sub-metric index" of the arch of the foot. Clarify the diagnosis of flat feet in children I help the results of radiography of the feet with the load performed in 2 projections.
Flat feet treatment in children
Flattening in children is a progressive disease, and the earlier treatment is started, the more effective the results. The treatment of congenital flat feet begins with the first weeks of the child's life, which allows eliminating all the components of the foot deformity. With congenital flat feet, children undergo special therapeutic exercises, massage the muscles of the foot and lower leg;the foot is held in the correct position by means of bandaging, the imposition of stage plaster casts, and night orthoses( from the age of 6 months).With aggravation of flat feet in children, a subartar arthroesis is performed.
Treatment of static flat feet in children, aimed at strengthening the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot, includes massage, physiotherapy and exercise therapy. Young children are excluded from soft shoes( felt boots, rubber boots, Czechs);It is recommended to wear shoes with a firm sole and a small heel, which fix the ankles well. When flat feet in older children shows wearing orthopedic shoes with a foot-instep, raising the lowered arch and returning the foot to the correct position.
To eliminate flat feet in children, hydromassage, contrasting foot baths, paraffin, ozocerite and mud applications on the foot area, magnetotherapy contribute to the elimination of flat feet. In the absence of the correction effect, gypsum dressings and longi are used;in severe cases of combined flatfoot surgery is possible on the bones and soft tissues of the foot and lower leg. The optimal age for surgical treatment of flat feet in children is 8-12 years.
Prognosis and prophylaxis of flatfoot in children
Weak and moderately pronounced flatness in children with timely correction is completely curable;The neglected cases are difficult to correct. In the absence of treatment, flat feet in children leads to severe deformation of the foot, joints and spine.
Prevention of flat feet in children is the wearing of properly matched shoes;physical education, game sports( basketball, football) and swimming;walking barefoot on uneven ground, sand, pebbles;normalization of calcium-phosphorus metabolism;control of body weight.
Having carefully examined the foot of a small child, it is easy to see that it is almost flat. But this does not mean that the baby has a flat foot. Just stop before the end is not formed. In the process of growth, when the child begins to walk, it will change, gradually to 3-4 years of taking the desired form. The arches of the foot, not visible at an early age due to a layer of subcutaneous fat, will also form later. Flattening in children is detected only by an orthopedic physician. What are the causes of the disease and how to treat it properly?
Causes of the appearance of flatfoot
There are very few cases of congenital flatfoot, about 3%.The disease is mainly acquired in the process of life if the following rules are not observed:
- Children should walk barefoot more often than in shoes. The formation of the arch of the foot is better in natural conditions.
- Do not overweight.
- If children do not move much during the day, due to insufficient loading of the foot, they develop incorrectly.
- Shoes for a child need to be selected with a small heel and soft instep. The back is preferable to hard.
- Do not allow children to wear other preterm footwear, it does not correctly distribute the load on the feet.
- A child should get vitamin D and calcium in plenty.
- The foot should be constantly trained on foot barefoot walks. Feet let them run along the grass, along the relief soil. This is the guarantee of leg health!
In childhood, the bones, muscles and ligaments of the feet are not yet strong. It is very important to create conditions for their proper development in order to maintain health.
Types of flatfoot in children
Flattening in its origin is divided into congenital and acquired. Types of acquired flatfoot:
- Paralytic. It is formed due to the transferred poliomyelitis against the background of muscle paralysis. The stronger the paralysis, the more pronounced the flat feet.
- Ricky. It occurs as a result of rickets. The child who has suffered rickets, incorrectly formed bones, including the bones of the foot. They are weakened and under pressure of body weight are deformed. Promotes the bending of the bones of a weak muscle-ligament apparatus.
- Traumatic. Develops as a result of fractures of feet and ankles.
- Statistical. They suffer the greatest number of people. It arises because of weak muscles and ligaments of feet and legs. It is characteristic for people with overweight, who prefer shoes with too high heels or uncomfortable shoes, spending a lot of time on their legs, with a hereditary predisposition to the disease.
The foot has two arches:
- Longitudinal - from heel to metatarsal bones.
- Cross - under the toes.
Depending on the damage to one or another vault, the flatfoot is longitudinal and transverse. It is not excluded and the combined version.
Longitudinal flat feet are more common in children with excessive body weight. The bones of the child are still soft, and under the weight of the body spread out.
For transverse flat feet, the anterior part of the foot is characterized, the fingers unfurl "fan", take the form of hammers, the thumb deviates outwards. Characteristic of the appearance of the stone.
To understand what are the features of the development of flatfoot and how to choose the right footwear for the child, see the program "The School of Doctor Komarovsky."
Symptoms of flat feet
Parents themselves can identify some signs of flat feet in their children.
- Sometimes we notice that the child is clumsy, that is, the toes of his foot are turned outward. It happens when the muscles of the foot are relaxed and do not support its correct position. This flat foot is called valgus.
- There is an occasion to think about flat feet, when walking a child comes to the inner edge of the foot.
If you notice such symptoms in your children, you should definitely visit an orthopedic doctor to determine the exact diagnosis.
A child under 1 year of age must be shown to the doctor at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The next visit will be when he starts walking. At the age of more than 1 year, children should visit the orthopedic doctor once a year.
Flattened 1st degree
This is a weak degree of the disease. Visually it can not be determined, the shape of the foot does not change. The patient very much gets tired after physical exertion, as there is not sufficient amortization of the musculoskeletal system. The patient changes his gait and by the evening his legs swell. If you press on the foot, there is a lot of pain.
First of all, you need to remove the pain, then strengthen the muscles and ligaments. For this, orthopedic shoes or insoles are used. Daily curative gymnastics is well combined with a massage of the back and feet. A positive effect is provided by swimming and physiotherapy( magnetotherapy, electrostimulation, pearl and air-water foot baths).
Carefully select children's shoes: necessarily presence of a low heel, flexible sole, shoes should not strongly compress a leg.
Flatness of 2nd degree
The foot is reduced. It flattened, poorly performs the spring function, the legs hurt constantly and very hard to the knee. The patient is difficult to move. The gait becomes heavy, the clubfoot is noticeable.
Flatness of 3rd degree
The foot is so deformed that it is noticeable even to a specialist. The feet are constantly aching, swelling, people can not walk in the usual shoes. Because of the violation of the foot functions, the spine and head begin to ache. The posture can change, there are such diseases as osteochondrosis and a hernia of the spine, scoliosis, arthrosis of the joints.
The transverse flatfoot( also congenital and acquired) has three degrees of development:
- The first degree - the big toe deviates approximately 20 degrees outwards and hurts, the legs become very tired when loaded, the skin reddens on 2-4 fingers.
- The second degree - the big toe deviates already by 20-40 degrees, with loads on the foot there is a lot of pain and burning sensation covers the entire foot. Characteristic of the appearance of corns.
- The third degree - the last one, is expressed more brightly than others. The big toe deviates by 35-40 degrees, the front part of the foot is completely flattened, the foot is unbearably sore even with small loads. A large number of corns give unbearable pain. The shape of the legs changes, bursitis starts - inflammation of the periarticular bag.
The cause of transverse flatfoot can serve as a narrow, clenching shoes and a high heel.
How to treat
Flat-footedness is treated with two main methods - surgical and conservative.
If a child is born with a flatfoot, correction of the shape of the foot is made with specially adapted langings or plaster bandages.
In case of acquired flatfoot, which is finally revealed at the age of 5 years, doctors advise using orthopedic insoles. They not only allow the leg to feel comfortable in the shoes, but also contribute to the proper formation of the foot.
With a disease of 1 degree, foot and shin massage is effective. Exercise therapy and physiotherapy with flat feet in children help to strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot, and also remove the pain.
Only by procedures in a hospital setting, therapy should not be limited. For the treatment of flat feet in children at home, the doctor develops a set of exercises that must be performed at home regularly, every day.
With flatfoot it is absolutely necessary to walk barefoot on sand, grass, small pebbles. After bathing, it is recommended to rub the feet well with a towel to improve blood circulation. Widely used methods such as manual therapy, the use of mats from flat feet( as in the photo below).
Drugs in childhood are not used due to a large number of side effects. Surgical methods of treatment are also not used.
Treatment is important to carry out in a timely manner and finish up to 13-14 years. The older the child, the more difficult it is to fight the disease.
Only regular application of foot massage will give the desired result( at least 12 sessions).The procedure lasts usually about 10 minutes. Begins a massage from the waist, because from there comes the innervation of the legs. Then the calf muscle is massaged, then the Achilles tendon, the outer side of the shin, the back of the foot, the sole, again the calf muscle and the sole. The hands of the massage therapist usually move from the fingers to the heel and from the ankle joint to the knee.
In the massage of the foot can be used a variety of devices: massage balls, rollers and massage mats. These products do not treat better than human hands, but their impact is exerted.
Massage is contraindicated for people suffering from skin diseases and diseases of the vascular system. For young children, the entire surface of the foot is massaged.
It is almost impossible to get rid of flat feet in children without special physical exercises. This is an integral and indispensable part of the treatment. Individual exercises are used in physical education classes in educational institutions. In the complex there is nothing difficult, every mom can perform exercises at home with the child. The main thing is to do them every day, and, if possible, 2 times a day, repeating each exercise up to 15 times.
- Walk along with the baby on your toes, on the heels, on the outside and inside of the foot, on a level floor and on the relief massage mat.
- Sit the child on a chair, legs together. Ask him to pull his toes up.
- Then let it bend and unbutton your toes.
- Ask the toddler to bend his fingers and simultaneously deploy the feet inwards.
- Turn the legs to each other so that the fingers meet, and then turn the other way.
- We scatter small toys to the right of the chair and ask the child to grab them with their toes and shift to the left side. Then vice versa.
- Under the feet of the child a sheet, let her fingers try to crush her.
- We stroke the right leg with the left, rise from the fingers up to the knee. Then stroke the left foot with the right foot.
- We perform the exercise with the ball. Let the child rolls the ball clockwise with each foot in turn. Then ask him to grab the ball with his feet and maximally raise it, lower it back to the floor.
- Place a pipe in front of the chair, ask the child to roll it with his legs back and forth.
Schematically the exercises are shown in the photo below.
Gymnastics with flat feet in children significantly strengthens the muscles and ligaments of the legs, they better support the arch of the foot. Improves blood circulation in the legs and accelerates the lymph drainage. Also, physical education promotes the best development of intraarticular fluid, which improves the mobility of joints, makes movements free, removes inflammation and pain in the joints.
Much more interesting for the child exercises will take place in nature, where he can roll different stones, sticks. Praise him more often, and the usual occupation will turn into an exciting pastime.
Insoles from flat feet
Orthopedic insoles are used not for the prevention of flatfoot, but only for the treatment of illness. In addition, the patient is recommended to choose comfortable shoes.
All models of orthopedic insoles are made on the same principle - where the inner arch of the foot is located, the instep is modeled. The heel deepens, the overflow zone is made higher, in the zone of the transverse arch there is a metatarsal pillow.
If necessary, under the insole, "wedges" are placed to give the correct position of the foot at various deviations from the norm.
Orthopedic insoles are sold in a pharmacy or a specialized store, but they do not take into account the individual characteristics of the foot of a particular person. Therefore, it is better to produce them individually to order.
So that in the future flat feet do not give children a lot of trouble and trouble, it is important from early childhood to prevent disease.
- Pay more attention to the baby's shoes. It should fit tightly and fix the ankle joint, have a hard back and a small heel about 0.5 cm. Do not buy children shoes on flat soles and without backs.
- After bathing, pour the legs of children alternately with cool and warm water, then rub well with a towel.
- If the child of the house walks barefoot, try to shoe it for at least 10-15 minutes per hour.
- Play with children in games in which you need to act with your feet - grab and rearrange small items, pick up toys from the floor.
Acquired flat feet indicates that the parents did not pay proper attention to the child and allowed the occurrence of the disease. In adulthood, it is much more difficult to cure, even surgical intervention is not always effective. It is easier to prevent pathology than cure.
For more information on the causes, prevention and treatment of pediatric flatfoot, see the video below.
If you know any other methods of getting rid of flat feet in children, tell about it in the comments. Your advice will be useful to other parents.Like the article? Tell your friends:
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Flattening in the child: causes, consequences, methods of treatment. Massage and gymnastics with flat feet
Flattening in the child is a very common disease of the musculoskeletal system. In fact - this deformation of the foot of the child with the flattening of its arch. Usually deformed in the children longitudinal arch of the foot, because of this the sole becomes flat and begins its entire surface to touch the floor. The consequences of flat feet of children can be very bad for their health and development of the body.
• HOW TO IDENTIFY PLANESHIP IN THE CHILD?
It is possible to determine exactly whether there is a flatfoot in a child, it is possible only when he is five or six years old. Why is it so, because it is desirable to fight with flat feet in children from the smallest age, the earlier, the better? Firstly, up to a certain age in children, the foot bone apparatus is not strengthened, in part it is a cartilaginous structure, the muscles and ligaments of the foot are weak, easily subject to stretching, therefore it is impossible to determine the flat feet of a child. Secondly, the soles of the small child seem flat, as the recess of the arch is filled with a soft fat pad, and masks the bone base of the foot.
In the case of normal development of the musculoskeletal system, the arch of the foot acquires the necessary shape for correct functioning by the age of 5-6 years. But in some cases, there is a deviation in development, and flat feet appear.
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- How to determine the flat feet of a child, or to make sure that everything is going well, if the baby is not yet five years old?
Determine the flatfoot in a child can be as follows: lubricate the baby's feet with watercolor paints or conventional sunflower oil and place it neatly on a sheet of white paper that absorbs oil well. Distract the attention of the baby for a minute and a half so that he stands still. Then remove the child from the paper and carefully look at the footprints obtained.
If the traces are printed in the form of a "bean" - you can not worry, it's quite normal. In healthy children, this is how it should be: the arches of the children's feet are slightly raised, while moving and walking they carry a spring function.
If the entire footprint is imprinted entirely - you have something to worry about, there is a predisposition of the child to flat feet, pay attention to it until it's too late. And if your child is 6 years old you often hear that he is tired with long walking, complains of frequent pain in his legs, then you just need to consult an orthopedic doctor.
If we consider the ratio of the narrowest part of the track to the widest, the arch of the foot is considered normal when it is 1: 4, flattened, at a ratio of 2: 4, and flat at 3: 4.
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• REASONS FOR FLAT, FACTORS AFFECTING ITS DEVELOPMENT
Factors influencing the development of flatfoot are
- 1. heredity( when someone in the family had or has this disease, you need to be especially careful: the baby should be regularly taken to the orthopedic doctor for examination and take preventive measures),
- 2. wearing "wrong" shoes( at allheel on flat soles, too wide or narrow shoes),
- 3. excessive load on the feet( for example, with increased body weight or frequent weight lifting),
- 4. excessive hypermobility( flexibility) of joints,
- 5. paralysis of the calf muscles andfeet( poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy),
- 6. rickets,
- 7. trauma to the feet.
The existing causes of flatfoot often lead to serious health complications.
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• WHAT IS DANGEROUS FLOATING?CONSEQUENCES OF FLATSHIP OF CHILDREN
Sometimes, parents are completely unaware of the seriousness of the disease, because at first it is not noticeable at all and does not seem to have a significant negative impact on the baby at first glance. It would seem that this is just such a feature, how dangerous is the flatfoot? However, this error can lead to serious consequences of flat feet of children and lead to a sad development of events.
The presence of flat feet disrupts the "spring" functions of the foot, the depreciation practically disappears altogether, and all the "recoil"( shake) when walking is on the shin and hip joints, which can lead to arthrosis. That is why the flat feet of a child must necessarily be prevented, if possible, and treated without fail.
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• TREATMENT OF FLAT SCHOOL IN CHILDREN
To combat flat feet in children, apply gentle methods of therapy. Physiotherapeutic treatment of flat feet in children, manual therapy, physiotherapy, special massage and gymnastics with flat feet in a child are preferred. Medication is prescribed in extreme cases, as an anesthetic and drugs to treat the effects of flat feet children. In therapy, in addition to many side effects and an inability to remove the cause of the disease, it can only aggravate it.
- Shoes with flatfoot
To the suffering flatfoot child, the orthopedist always appoints special footwear for wearing: suitable in size, made of natural materials, necessarily with a hard back and clear fixation on the leg, and, of course, with a small heel. Individual insoles are selected for the insoles, taking into account the specific shape of the baby's foot.
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• TREATMENT OF FLAT SCHOOL IN CHILDREN: MASSAGE AND MANUAL THERAPY
The first methods to combat flatfoot in children are soft tissue massage techniques and manual therapy. Use special techniques that are aimed at strengthening the muscles that tighten the arch of the foot, and improve its blood supply. Massage with flat feet of the child should also have a mild effect on the ligamentous apparatus and joints, and correct the foot and ankle of the child resulting from the deformity.
In view of the fact that the flat feet of a child has a negative effect on the bones, joints of the legs and lower parts of the spine, it is advisable in the process of treating flat feet in children to pay attention to the condition of the spine and the musculoskeletal system. Massage and gymnastics with flat feet in a child must use these systems of the body.
Often the disease provokes the development of scoliosis( curvature of the spine).In case of detection of other pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, the physician should prescribe a therapeutic massage with flat feet of the child, special gymnastics and exercises with flat feet in the child, and in some cases a course of manual therapy is necessary. The techniques of manual therapy will help the physician to work directly on the suffering spine from the absence of depreciation, relieve tension in it and eliminate the asymmetry of the sacrum, which sometimes arises with flat feet and can become the root cause of curvature of the spine.
• How to do a massage with flat feet of a child?
With flat feet, the massage is carried out on the legs of the baby directly, as well as on the buttocks 1 time every 1.5 months, and in combination with additional measures of violation of the child's posture - once every 3-4 months, focusing on the back, waist and abdomen.
Massage with flat feet of a child should be carried out as follows:
- Foot massage
To begin with, rub palm or palm to rub the plantar part, from the heel to the fingers. We knead fingers and the whole foot with the thumb. Then with the thumb pad "draw" the figure 7 on the foot, from the base of the thumb to the base of the little finger and then along the outside of the foot in the direction of the heel.
Then rub the interdigital intervals of the foot on its back surface and circular movements of the condyles( in the lower part of the tibia the bony protuberances).
Next, you need to make a turn of the foot: we fix the leg with one hand for the condyles, grasping it from behind, and the second hand move smoothly along the inner side of the foot, starting from the heel to the fingers. In the process, we unfold the foot outward and slightly raise the zone of the thumb of the baby's legs upward.
- Shin massage
Now you can carry out a shin massage. With palms, stroke, rub and knead both sides of the shin, focusing on its inner surface, pinching and flicking with fingertips. Massage the lower leg from the ankle in the direction of the knee joint.
- Massage of thighs and buttocks
Massage of hips and buttocks do without special accents: stroke, rub and knead the muscles of the thigh along the bone, and massage the buttocks in any direction. The only supplement is the mandatory inclusion of vibration elements( pinch, flick with the edge of the palm, shake).
- Back massage
The back massage with flat feet of the child is practically no different from the massaging of other parts of the body, the nuance here is a more thorough and long grinding of the muscles of the back and waist, kneading( especially the sacral "triangle") and the use of vibratory techniques( percussion techniques in the fieldbacks should be done without affecting the kidney area of the child).
An important element for treating flat feet in children is gymnastics exercises.
Parents should understand that flat feet is an ailment which, in the absence of adequate therapy, a full-fledged treatment of flat feet in children with massage, gymnastics, and other methods, leads to serious complications of health and considerable deformation of the foot bones, and in addition to diseases of the musculoskeletalapparatus. Modern and timely therapy, treatment of flat feet in children at home, prevention of the disease, restore the health of the child and confidence in their own attractiveness.
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• TREATMENT OF FLAT SCHOOL IN CHILDREN: EXERCISES
The treatment of flat feet exercises involves the muscles of the legs, as strengthening them, we do not allow it to develop. Actually exercises and massages at kids in very small age, are able to prevent the manifestation of flat feet in the future.
From an early age, it is necessary to identify and carry out the prevention of this disease. For preventive purposes, use many different means:
- 1. Strengthening the whole body in general, including through proper nutrition of the child,
- 2. Physical activity, physical exercise,
- 3. Sufficient stay in the open air,
- 4. Special exercises forflat feet in the child.
• How to perform exercises with flat feet in a child?
The most important is the correct selection of the child's shoes. She should sit on the leg clearly. She should have a small heel( 5-8 mm), well, of course, an elastic insole inside, and a strong, hard back.
However, the exercises will be more useful if they are performed barefoot, and if possible, several times daily. One lesson can be done in the morning, immediately after lifting and carrying out the morning procedures, the next - after lunch.
In addition, there are recommendations, every day before going to bed, to keep 3-5 minutes of foot in water at room temperature. The main thing is do not overcool and do not chill the baby, but it's better to accustom gradually to such procedures, first just pour your feet with room water, and then day after day, build up a little time.
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• Playing exercises with flat feet in a child
Of course, try not to miss the summer: on good days, let the child run barefoot on the ground, water, sand, sharp pebbles. Excellent preventive benefit will be from walking barefoot legs on a special therapeutic mat with pebbles.
For the purpose of prevention, you can teach your child various games containing elements of correction, and presented in an interesting form. This approach will help the child to have a good posture. In particular, you can use the following games.
- "Who is more skilled?"
With the baby, who has grown up to 1.5-2 years old, you can start the game exercises, such as, for example, "who carries a pillow on his head longer".The pillow should be selected approximately 10x10 cm in size, and sew in it peas, lentils or any other cereals. Wearing a pillow on your head can help fix your posture or support the correctness of its formation at any age.
- Spots with a vise
Kids run to the sides. The one who leads them runs, trying to stain someone. But you can not stain someone who can and will have time to sit down on your toes, straightening your back, bending your arms in your elbows, squeezing your fingers, and pointing upwards. Very useful position.
- Sideways with a sipping
Babies run up, as usual. But now from the guide you can "save yourself" by standing on your toes and raising your arms, as if stretching. The one who is stained is a new one.
• Therapeutic exercises: flat feet in a child
Exercise No. 1. Walking on socks. Correct posture is required: hands on the belt, head straight, slightly bend.
Exercise # 2. Walking on the outside of the foot: press inside your fingers, put your feet while walking parallel to each other.
Exercise # 3. Walking on any ribbed surface( "washing" board, for example).Stamping on the ribbed board is very useful. Place the board at a slope of 30 degrees on some support.
Exercise # 4. Walking on the spot without taking off socks from the floor. At the same time you need to try to raise the heels higher.
Exercise # 5. Walking on a stick sideways, or just over a thick cord.
Exercise No. 6. Rolls from the toe to the heel, while it is better to stand on a stick or cord, but it is possible and simple on any hard surface.
Exercise # 7. Walking with rolls made from the heel to the toe. Keep the body straight, do not lower your head. It is very important to make a recovery with a heel.
Exercise No. 8. Riding a stick forward and backward with stops. The stick should be about 3 cm in diameter. The exercise should be carried out sitting, but with an emphasis on the legs.
Exercise No. 9. Raise the body to the toe with full-foot drop. In this case, the feet stand so that the big toes together, and the heels apart.
Exercise No. 10. Squats with feet on toes. You can hold on to the support for balance.
Exercise No. 11. Very good gymnastics with flat feet in a child in a sitting position. You need to sit on the floor, make emphasis with your hands behind, and then grab your toes with some small objects( sticks, cord, balls), and shift them left and right. Then you can grab items larger than the inner arches stop - pin, ball, pull them to yourself, pass next to the seated.
Third trimester of pregnancy: 7 months of pregnancy, 8 months of pregnancy, 9 months of pregnancy.
It is recommended that the child after the sleep knead the feet before standing up: sitting, unbend and bend the toes of the feet, raise the legs,stop, massage the lifting of one leg of the other.
Will help to strengthen the arches of feet, lasagne with bare feet on the gymnastics ladder, the rope. Walking on a board, a log, a rocking bridge not only develops the arch of the foot, but also has a good effect on preventing flat feet and clubfoot development in children.
Climbing barefoot on a gymnastic or rope ladder will help to strengthen the ligaments and muscles of the feet, ankle joints, toes, and to develop in the child dexterity, courage, determination. Above all, do not overestimate the capabilities of your baby, take into account his individual abilities. And then he will be healthy and happy!
According to statistics, more than 65 percent of children already acquire a flat foot for school age. Even more patients are leaving school. What is a flatfoot? Flat feet in children - is a deformity of the foot. Often parents do not even understand the seriousness of this disease, they think that it will pass - after all, the child is not disabled. But the flat feet never pass. In the neglected form, treatment becomes more complicated and expensive, even surgery is possible.
Flat-footed children is the loss of all the spring functions of the foot - it's like riding a car with working springs and a car with faulty ones. In the first car, even significant pits will be invisible, but in the second it will shake even on a small one. That's how the spine and the hip joint shake when walking in children suffering from flat feet. This can lead, first of all, to the curvature of the spine, as well as pain in the head, legs, back, or even some serious illnesses.
What is the danger of flat feet?
Flat feet rapidly progressing and can lead to scoliosis, osteochondrosis, sciatica, arthritis, arthrosis, varicose veins and other diseases. Flattening accelerates the wear and tear of the whole musculoskeletal system! That is why at the first signs of flat feet it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor!
The baby's feet are formed before the age of 5 years. The earlier flat foot is detected, the easier it is to cure it. After five years of life, it is already more difficult. But, having begun treatment, it is possible to improve the condition of the foot, to stop the development of flat feet and to prevent the deformations of the spine. It is necessary to show the orthopedist of a child who quickly gets tired of walking and asks for his hands. Treatment flat feet in children is very difficult, so it is better to start as early as possible, and it is best to do preventive maintenance. Consider the factors that trigger the appearance of flat feet in children .These factors weaken the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot: clubfoot( congenital condition), severe infections with complications, trauma to the foot, rickets, lifting weights, overweight, and incorrect shoes.
Of all these factors, one conclusion can be drawn that flat feet in children may appear in a healthy child, and parents can provoke it. According to statistics, 80% of flat feet are static, that is, arisen with excess weight, loads or irregular shoes. Very often flat feet become the result of a whole bunch of incorrect actions. First of all - substandard footwear. You can scoff at tasteless and scary Soviet children's shoes, but the medical requirements were strictly enforced in them.
To properly form a growing baby foot, shoes must necessarily have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less) and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.
And now look at the modern shoes for kids, which offer us merchants. Slippers, slippers on "carnations", slippers on absolutely flat soles. Socks from deliberately stupid to supersaturated. The other extreme is modern running shoes: they are so springy when walking and running, which completely free the foot from this function, and it, like any muscle construction, begins to "lazy."
Like that, and the other shoes described above, maybe, and will instill a good taste for your child( and, most likely, will simply amuse your own vanity), but it will really reward him with flat feet. To finish the theme of shoes, I will note that some doctors advise not to let babies wear other people's shoes, since the shoe, which is worn by someone else's foot, is essentially a footprint of someone else's foot and incorrectly distributes the load on the feet.
Before putting on shoes for a child, you need to take into account that for 2 or even 3 sizes larger than its own size, the shoes will only hurt him. Free shoes will not help the tired muscles of the foot to keep it in the right position, and the tight will disturb the blood circulation and the legs will not recover after the loads. Be sure to have a heel, since its absence can lead to deformation of the foot. So remember, putting on your child's shoes from your older sister or brother is not always a cost saving, you can earn a sore like children's flat-footed .
shoes The "Culprit" of the acquired flat-foot may have incorrectly matched shoes. As soon as the child starts to get up, it's time to buy his first boots. Usually it occurs in the period from 7-8 months. The criteria for "correct" children's shoes are indicated quite clearly. The first shoe should:
Tightly fix the foot and ankle with lacing or Velcro, but never squeeze the foot and be too loose.
Have a minimum number of internal seams so that the toddler does not rub the skin around the ankles.
In its manufacture( including insoles), natural materials should be used.
The backside should be high, rigid, reaching the border of the lower or middle third of the shin. This is necessary in order to avoid lateral curvature in the ankle joint.
It's better if the surface of the boots is perforated so that the legs can "breathe".
The sole should be stable and non-slip, with a small heel. In addition, it must be rigid. This prevents re-flexion in the joints of the foot and overgrowth of the ligaments. And for the baby, the toddler on the leather soles is quite suitable.
In shoes for children under 2 years there should be no instep, because the function of the shock absorber is the same "fat pad", otherwise it will interfere with the normal formation of the arches of the foot. True, everything is very individual. Perhaps some babies will have to choose shoes without a supinator and at an older age. This issue is better discussed with the doctor.
When fitting, it is necessary to take into account that the shoes were stocked, not interfering with the child's walking - about 1.5 cm.
After walking, pay attention to the foot of the baby: if the skin is imprinted with the relief of tights or internal seams of the shoe - shoes need to be changed. This will allow the small legs to relax from the usual position, and if the child's feet sweat, - how to dry the raw shoes without affecting the next walk. To properly form a foot, children need not only good shoes. The power is also important for the .The connective tissue in its composition is somewhat similar to bone tissue. And in exactly the same way it suffers from rickets, that is, the wrong phosphoric-calcium metabolism in the body. With a lack of calcium, as is known, bones become soft and deformed under the influence of weight and muscles, and the connective tissue of the foot ceases to be elastic and elastic, and similarly obeys the pressure of body weight.
So even if your baby does not have signs of rickets, do not forget about flatfoot - another consequence of calcium deficiency. So, keep in the daily diet of the child a sufficient amount of rich in phosphorus and calcium products. Do not forget about a sufficient number of sunbathing or preventive intake of vitamin D in the winter.
There is a misconception that flat feet in children up to six years is physiological and does not require correction. This is not correct, it is up to 5-6 years, when the ossification points are not closed, it is easier to correct or prevent the development of deformation of the feet and to form the correct gait. And after that, only treatment will help, which is much more difficult.
Independently treatment of a child is not recommended, it is better to constantly visit an orthopedist, it is better to conduct preventive maintenance. Such prevention will be running on hillocks and hills, exercises, on balance, leaning on one foot, climbing along a rope or pole, walking on a log. Stop is not suitable for surfaces such as asphalt, concrete, linoleum, laminate and other hard coatings. On such surfaces, the muscles do not work, and therefore, atrophy and sag. Prevention is considered the best fight with flat feet in children !At the initial stage and children under 5 years of age, it is not recommended to wear felt boots, soft slippers and open-toed heels. It is not necessary, aspires to parents that the child has started to walk earlier, also it is necessary to stop the desire of girls to wear high heels with a narrow toe. A useful prevention will be swimming in the water, and you need to work as much as possible with your feet.
Like any other muscular function, the formation of an elastic arch of the foot requires development and training. The best thing for this is the "barefoot life". Let the child at least occasionally walk on pebbles, sand, earth, grass bunches - everything that causes his legs to constantly strain, transfer the weight of the body from one surface to another, from the heel to the toe. At home, this exercise can be successfully done with small cubes, balls, small playful toys, peas, beans, beans, the word of any uneven sex. However, it can be in thick socks, but not in shoes( even on a thin sole).Very important is therapeutic exercise. Such physical culture can be done while playing with the child, walking on a rolling pin, getting objects with the help of legs, climbing on the Swedish wall. The most common signs of flat feet in children are aching legs when walking, fatigue of the feet, by evening, the swelling of the foot, which by morning passes, the inner side of the sole wears out quickly. Children with such a diagnosis walk with their legs apart, bending their knees, thus the foot becomes wider.
A very simple flat-foot test can be performed at home. It is enough just to moisten the cotton wool with paint and to anoint the baby's feet and put it on a blank sheet of paper. If there was only an imprint of the heel, the front part with the fingers and the contour means everything is in order. And if the entire foot or its middle part is visible, then this is a flatfoot. It is not necessary to do such experiments at an early age, since the fat pad causes a flat-footed contour and the result will not be correct. In this way it is good to check how the treatment is going.
If you think that flat feet - only a slight deviation from the norm, which does not require treatment, you are very wrong!
The main thing in solving the flatfoot problem is to really evaluate the problem and turn to the right specialist in time.
In childhood, a complete cure for flat feet is still quite realistic. Daily exercise for the "lazy" muscles of the foot is done with the help of massage, contrasting baths and special gymnastics. In the evenings, soak the child's legs in a hot bath with a tonic infusion of chamomile, pine extract or sea salt. Stroke the steamed feet, and then forcefully pound them with your thumbs or fist. Especially energetically puzzle out the outer edge of the foot - it should be the strongest. After kneading, pour your feet with cold water or wipe it with a piece of ice.
For a special gymnastics from a flatfoot a child will have to spend at least 10 minutes a day. Where can I get these ten minutes? Buy a massage mat and put it in the bathroom. While the child is washing and brushing his teeth( twice a day), let him stand on the mat with his bare feet, rise on his toes, roll from toe to heel, stands on the outer edge of the soles.
When to go to the doctor
It is not necessary to treat the child independently. Massage, physiotherapy, corrective devices( orthopedic insoles), therapeutic exercises are prescribed by a doctor who takes into account the age, severity of pathology, and also takes into account the main cause of flatfoot development.
Perhaps all parents understand that preventive examinations of specialists are not a whim of doctors, but a necessary measure. The main thing is not to miss the time of visiting the doctor. An orthopedist's examination is carried out:
in the first month of life, this is necessary to exclude congenital deformities and diseases of the skeleton, including congenital platypodia;
at 3 and 6 months of age, when rickets can be detected;
in 1 year. This is an important stage in the life of the child, when he sits alone, crawls, walks. At this time the doctor checks the correctness of the natural curves of the spine, the volume of movements in the joints;
in 3 years. The orthopedist checks the posture, gait, measures the length of the limbs, examines the condition of the feet. Ideally, at this age, an orthopedic with a child should be visited every year - in order not to miss the development of flat feet. Parents need to be prepared for the fact that the orthopedist( if he doubts the final diagnosis) will send a small patient to an additional examination in a consultative and diagnostic center.
See also Gymnastics with flat feet
Oksana I have flat feet. I am 23 years old. Apparently at a time when I was little, no one bothered about the flat feet of the child. My father also had a flat feet, everyone thought "into him" and even no one tried to treat him. Plants in the garden and the school wrote flat foot, but no treatment was prescribed. Only at the university on a medical examination I was told for the first time that in the future there will be problems and wondered why they were not treated as children. After that, I tried to do something, I rolled a tennis ball, but hardly anything would help, the bones were formed. Sometimes I feel the consequences. Often the back and legs are hurting during walking, I think with age the problems will intensify(
Lily At the very flatfoot since childhood, heaps of problems. In childhood, my legs ached so much that I climbed on the wall. By the way, barefoot never could walk, it was very painful stopI also run very badly, constantly stumble and fall, I often dislocate legs when walking fast, and I also have a lot of work to do. I'm afraid that I'm waiting in my old age. "
Olga Very informative. Now we are 3, let's go to the orthopedist. .. Empty
Olesya My daughter was diagnosed with flat-valgus feet at 3.5 years old, was prescribed a massage, electrostimulation of the muscles of the feet and exercise therapy. . At home, pencils and buttons were raised with the fingers of the feet while they were waiting for our turn to massage,we do all the prescribed 2 times a year, we registered for choreography, we wear orthopedic insoles, the improvement is observed. As the doctor told me, the main thing is to fix everything before 7 years, until the skeleton is formed. Then all bones become strong and all these measures can be useless. Before the massage, the legs hurt very much, especially at night or after a load( trampoline, a long walk, etc.).So do not delay with treatment. It is very important!
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Flat-Far from being a trivial problem, as it may seem at first glance. If you do not pay attention to it, sooner or later it will start to interfere with your child. We will tell you what you need to know about it.
Pink and plump legs, as well as strong immunity in the child, cause, as a rule, positive emotions in parents, but in no way anxiety. However, a family trip to the sea will give a natural opportunity to leave marks on the sand. ..
Small - it means another
Traces of adults are partially hollow, meanwhile as a kid, running on the beach, leaves even dimples. Often parents after returning from vacation ask the pediatrician if their child has flat feet.
Most often it just seems so. The muscles of the feet of a one-year-old or two-year-old baby are still too weak to carry the entire body.
In addition, the child can have a properly formed arch of the foot by well-developed longitudinal and transverse arches, but under the weight of the body, the entire foot can fully adhere to the ground. In addition, in young children, the normal arch covers the fat pad, which disappears only at 3-4 years of age. Then the foot takes a more beautiful shape. When you look at it from the side, then on the inside of the foot there should be a noticeable groove, even when the child is standing( the nature of the foot can also be seen on the printed track).
If the feet of a 3-4 year old child continue to be flat, then try a test. Ask the baby to stand on tiptoe, and try to see a pronounced arch on the feet. If this is so, then there is no deformation, but only the heels under the influence of gravity move to the center and hide the formed arch. We are now talking about static flatfoot( as opposed to congenital, which will be discussed at the end of the article).
A sign of flat feet can also be the erasure of the heels of the shoe and the inner side of the foot, as well as on one side.
What harm does flatfoot bring?
Flattening is a fairly common ailment in both children and adults. Correct formation of legs depends on the first years of life.
- suppression of normal leg movements by wearing tight socks and shoes.
- forcing the child to walk while his muscles are not yet developed enough to withstand the weight of the whole body.
- badly selected, uncomfortable shoes.
- obesity in children.
- clumsy gait. When the baby has already learned to walk well, make sure that he puts his feet parallel to each other, and not inwardly, like a duck( this negatively affects the longitudinal arches of the legs).
How to prevent flatfoot, how to recognize it and how to treat it
This ailment is often hereditary, but it also appears in children without negative genetic load. It does not bother children on a daily basis, and therefore they and parents often do not pay attention to it.
Unfortunately, flat feet can become an unpleasant acquired disease many years later. It can occur during work, which requires long standing or lifting weights, when gaining weight, as well as during pregnancy. It makes itself felt in the pains in the feet and spine. In women, flat feet can also provoke the formation of cellulite, because with this disease slows the circulation of lymph.
Exercises that are recommended for flatfoot
The gymnastics of the feet not only prevents flat feet, but also is the best therapy from it. To prevent the formation of a similar defect in the baby, or to correct it, perform simple exercises with the child. Namely:
♦ in infancy, a child can freely chatter legs in non-restraining clothes( baby's feet can also be tickled).
♦ let the child walk on an uneven, natural surface - grass, sand. In the winter, such walking can be arranged with a mattress stuffed with hay.
♦ excellent effect gives walking and bouncing on tiptoe.
♦ let the kid sometimes do the charging by walking in circles on the inside of the feet.
♦ helps the movement when the child alternately rests on the heels, then on the socks, as if rolling the feet and changing the center of gravity.
♦ it will be good to lift various small objects from the floor - pens, spoons, pencil, sandbag - everything that can be caught with your toes.
♦ let the child try to roll the towel with his toes( before the baby starts the exercise, put a magazine or another towel on the edge of the towel - let him try first to pull off the interfering thing with his fingers).
♦ you can spin the wheels of a large toy car.
♦ While riding a bicycle, let the child twist the pedals with finger-nosed fingers, not a paddle. To do this, you need to set the seat to the appropriate height.
♦ put in a box a pair of tied pouches with sand or salt, and let the child alternately each foot then takes these bags out of the box, then puts it back. Exercise is performed in a lying and standing position.
- it will be useful to roll a small ball feet, and also roll it on the wall up and down.
All these exercises make sense when performed regularly, at least twice or thrice a week - preferably in the form of fun.
Although flat-footed exercises do not give a 100-percent guarantee that this ailment will disappear, they nevertheless strengthen muscles and ligaments, and help the foot to form properly. This is also facilitated by sports( of course, in well-chosen shoes!).
Footwear for feet. .. or flatfoot prevention
. .. and not feet for shoes!- this principle is distributed among patients all orthopedists. Boots of your baby should not be the most fashionable, but, of course, that they should be comfortable and protect the legs from injuries.
Good shoes have:
- wide sock - so that it can be freely moved with your toes. - the right size - before the thumb should be about a centimeter of free space, and the foot should not be strongly clamped. - a fairly stiff heel -so that the leg does not move back - not a very high bootleg - to prevent the movement of the ankle - soft, elastic but not sliding sole - a soft insole to avoid rubbing the feet - a suitable heel: for a baby who is just learning to walk the soleand must be perfectly flat, for a child of three years - 1/2 inch heel, for children older - 1 centimeter.
Orthopedist after examining the legs of the baby can recommend wearing a shoe that has the so-called Thomas heel. It rises a little to the middle of the foot( it has a wedge shape), so that the foot does not fall to the center and does not become heavier. A similar function is performed by the insoles with a bulge on the inside. Nevertheless, do not use any orthopedic appliances or insole without consulting a doctor, as you can seriously harm your baby.
Sometimes( fortunately, it is rare), it happens that the arch of the foot is completely invisible, because it did not develop as a result of an incorrect arrangement of bones. Then we are talking about congenital platypodia. In such cases, it is necessary to have an operation intervention, by which the foot is given the correct shape.
It is necessary to consult a doctor when:
- the child is already three years old, and you still think that he has flat feet. - The baby complains of pain in the legs. - The child limps or clumps. - Despite regular exercises, the flat feet do not pass.
Our feet are usually subjected to a heavy load. To move our body, to adapt to an uneven surface, besides doing it all neatly and easily, the feet should have the right design. Any deviation from the norm complicates the process of movement in space.