Flattening 3 degrees of treatment

Longitudinal flatfoot

Longitudinal flat feet

Longitudinal flatfoot is a pathology in which flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot is observed. The foot spreads out in the longitudinal direction, slightly elongates and contacts the support not only with the outer edge, as in the norm, but practically with the entire surface. This leads to disturbance of the shock-absorbing functions of the foot, causes fatigue and pain in the legs and provokes the development of pathological changes in the overlying parts of the musculoskeletal system( in the spine and lower limbs).Diagnosis is made on the basis of sub-metering, planography and radiography. Treatment is often conservative.

Longitudinal flatfoot

Longitudinal flatfoot is a fairly common pathology that occurs in approximately 20% of patients with flattened foot. In other cases, there is either a transverse or a combined flat foot( a combination of longitudinal and transverse flatfoot).Usually it is acquired, congenital forms are rare and, as a rule, are accompanied by more pronounced anatomical abnormalities and clinical symptoms.

Longitudinal flatfoot can be detected at any age, but is especially common in children. Moreover, all children are born with imaginary flat feet, and the arches of the foot are formed only by the age of 3, so before this age it is impossible to diagnose this pathology. Among the adult patients suffering from this disease, people who are forced to spend long periods on their feet in connection with the performance of professional duties prevail. Orthopedics treat longitudinal flatfoot.

Anatomy of the foot

The human foot consists of 26 bones, many joints, ligaments and muscles. All listed anatomical elements are interrelated and represent a single entity providing the functions of support and walking. Correct functioning of the feet allows optimal distribution of body weight when moving in space, maintain proper posture and physiological position of ankle, knee and hip joints. When walking, the foot absorbs shock to the ground, thereby reducing the load on the overlying parts of the musculoskeletal system.

Joint elements form two arches of the foot, having the form of arcs. The longitudinal arch is located at the outer edge of the foot, the transverse - at the base of the fingers. Due to such a complicated arcuate shape, the foot does not touch the support with the entire sole, but with certain points: in the calcaneus, the bases of the I and V fingers. With longitudinal flat feet, the height of the longitudinal arch is reduced, the foot begins to touch the support almost the entire surface.

All of the above results in incorrect distribution of the load, deterioration of the damping qualities of the foot, impaired posture and the development of perverse motor stereotypes. As a result, progressive pathological changes develop not only in the feet, but also in other parts of the musculoskeletal system. The probability of coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis, osteochondrosis and other degenerative-dystrophic diseases increases.

Causes of longitudinal flatfoot development

In approximately 3% of cases longitudinal flatfoot is a congenital pathology that occurs as a result of intrauterine disruption of the formation of bones and ligaments of the foot. In addition, the cause of the development of this condition can be trauma, including - incorrectly fused fractures of the tarsus of the tarsus and metatarsals and fractures of the ankles. There is also a paralytic flat feet arising from paralysis or paresis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg and rachitic flat feet due to deformation of the bones due to their excessive softness.

However, the most common static longitudinal platypodia, due to the weakness of the ligamentous and muscular apparatus of the distal parts of the lower extremities. Predisposing factors contributing to the development of static flatfoot are excessive body weight, pregnancy, excessive physical activity, activities associated with prolonged standing( sellers, receivers, turners, etc.), wearing uncomfortable substandard shoes, and loosening of the ligaments and muscles of the footdue to aging or lack of sufficient physical exertion.

Symptoms and classification of longitudinal flatfoot

In orthopedics and traumatology, three degrees of longitudinal flat feet are distinguished, differing as a degree of anatomical changes and clinical symptoms:

  • 1 degree of or mild platypodia. The height of the longitudinal arch is reduced to 25-35 mm, the angle of the arch of the foot is 131-140 degrees. There is no visible deformation of the feet. Patients report a feeling of fatigue after prolonged running, walking or physical activity. There may be a slight disruption in the smoothness of the gait. By the evening sometimes swelling of the distal parts of the lower extremities is noted. When pressing on the feet, discomfort or inconspicuous soreness appears.
  • 2 degree of or moderately pronounced flat feet. The height of the longitudinal arch is reduced to 24-17 mm, the angle of the arch of the foot is 141-155 degrees. A visible flattening of the feet is revealed. Arthrosis changes in the talon-navicular joint are possible. The pain syndrome is more pronounced and can occur even after minor exertion or at rest, the pains spread to the area of ​​the ankles and shins. Gait smoothness is broken. Palpation of the feet is painful.
  • 3 degree of or pronounced flat feet. The height of the longitudinal arch is less than 17 mm, the angle of the arch of the foot is more than 155 degrees. Patients are concerned about persistent pain and swelling of the feet and legs. Along with deforming arthrosis of the foot joint arthrosis of the knee joints arises, pains appear in the lower back, osteochondrosis develops. Walking is difficult, there is a decrease in working capacity. The use of ordinary footwear is impossible, special orthopedic footwear is needed.

Diagnostics of longitudinal flatfoot

The main methods used to diagnose and determine the degree of longitudinal flatfoot are the proximity, planometry and radiography of the feet. The simplest and most affordable way is to calculate the sub-metric index by the Friedland method. To do this, measure the height of the foot from the top of the arch to the floor and the length of the foot from the edge of the heel to the end of the 1st finger. Then, the height of the foot is multiplied by 100 and divided by the length. The resulting figure is a sub-metric index, which should normally be 29-31.When the index is reduced to 27-29, it is possible to suspect the initial degrees of flatfoot. If the index is about 25, we are talking about a pronounced defect.

To determine the degree of pathological changes, planography and radiography are used. Plantography is a study in which the plantar surface of the feet is covered with a coloring material, and then the prints are examined on a paper sheet. X-rays are performed in the lateral projection, after which they are sent to the radiologist for description, which measures the distance and angles between the individual bones of the foot.

Treatment and prophylaxis of longitudinal flatfoot

For longitudinal flat feet of 1st degree, the main attention is paid to preventive measures. The patient is advised to avoid prolonged standing and walking. If this is not possible due to professional or household activities, the patient is advised to control that the toes of the feet are parallel to each other. It is useful to strengthen feet in natural conditions, including walking barefoot on rocks and sand, on logs and on various small objects( of course, making sure not to injure the soles).

Of great importance is the selection of suitable for the size of comfortable shoes with a small heel and a spacious toe. With a slight pronounced longitudinal flat feet, special insoles are used, with a moderate expression - they equip the patient with custom-made orthopedic footwear. Preventative measures are combined with foot massage, physiotherapy and physiotherapy. With ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, flat feet of 3rd degree and severe pain syndrome, surgical treatment is indicated.

Surgical interventions are performed in a planned manner, under conditions of the orthopedic department. Various methods are used, which can be divided into three groups - operations on ligaments and tendons, operations on bones and combined interventions. Operative methods are chosen taking into account the causes, severity and nature of the pathology. The most commonly used is the transplantation of the tendons of the calf muscles. With traumatic and rachitic flat feet, osteotomy is performed. At the end of the operation, gypsum boots are put on the feet for a period of 1-1.5 months. Then the plaster is removed, LFK, massage and physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.

Longitudinal flat feet in children

A distinctive feature of children's flat feet is more pronounced long-term effects. The child's organism grows and forms, under such conditions, a disturbance of amortization and an incorrect load distribution can lead to the development of gross violations of posture, scoliosis and early arthrosis. The main methods of correcting this pathology in childhood are the use of quality footwear, foot baths and special exercises. Shoes should have a small heel height of 0.5 cm, hard back and insoles with insteps. In addition, the patient is offered to walk barefoot on sand and stones, roll stones or special wooden rollers.


Cross-longitudinal flatfoot of the third degree: photo, causes, symptoms, treatment

Flat-foot longitudinal and transversely located, is a fairly serious disease. It requires treatment, which will help to get rid of it quickly, since pathology has the ability to rapidly progress. If you do not carry out treatment, it will develop until you become a disabled person.

It is for this reason that it is so important, if you have the very first signs, to seek help from specialists. They will not only determine the presence of the disease, but will also establish its degree and develop a method for its correction, that is, they will conduct quality treatment.

Important! Treatment, perhaps, will not help to completely eliminate pathology, but to leave the process of its progression, and also to reduce the overall pain syndrome is quite realistic.

The flattening, located transversely, as well as longitudinal, can be classified according to the degree of development into three main levels. The most difficult to treat and prevent all possible consequences is the third degree of development. If after the examination a specialist puts it exactly, it is required to immediately start a qualified treatment.

The majority of forms of this disease is on the third degree can be treated exclusively through surgery. Despite this, there are certain forms of flatfoot, such as are located transversely and longitudinally. When this level is reached, the feet can be cured by a non-surgical method.

Treatment of such a plan is made through a qualitatively developed comprehensive prevention, manual massage therapy, and often the specialist advises to purchase COMFORT and SOFT TECH insoles, which at the third degree are simply irreplaceable.

What is included in the process of treatment of

So, what usually enters the process of treatment of the disease by a non-surgical method? Professional manual therapy is very popular. According to experts - this is the main method for the effective elimination of such pathology. After a while all symptoms of the disease completely disappear.

Important! Exclusively, this technique without the use of other methods is not able to provide the most effective result for the complete restoration of the appearance of the foot and its basic functions. Also, you can not expect rapid elimination of all manifestations of the disease.

Massage is recommended to be supplemented with such procedures as :

  • Daily curative and preventive gymnastics;
  • Physiotherapy;
  • Application of insoles GRAND, as well as ELEGANCE.

Do not be superfluous and diet in the treatment of such a disease, as longitudinal and located transversely flat feet. It is important to include in the nutrition of each day vitamins, which will restore bone and cartilaginous tissue.

It is recommended to remove from the menu a variety of high-calorie meals, which usually cause an increase in the weight of the patient. Compliance with the diet will help reduce symptoms such as :

  • Load on legs;
  • Pain decreases;
  • The foot regenerates.

It is worth knowing that whichever healing power modern techniques do not possess, in a large number of cases it is possible to cure only through surgical qualitative intervention. Only in this way does the longitudinal flat foot completely go away.

Need for treatment of

If the patient allowed the development of his disease to the extreme, if the movement process brings a lot of problems, will have to go to surgery. To tighten with the process of treatment is strictly not recommended, as the faster the process associated with recovery is started, the faster it will be possible to get the most positive result, that is, getting rid of the transversely located pathology.

Important! If you start such a serious disease as longitudinal flat feet and what is located, transversely, there is a possibility that a person will sooner or later face a disability and with all the unpleasant moments that result from it.

Features of surgical treatment of

If conservative methods are useless due to neglect of the disease, an experienced doctor usually decides to act by means of special surgery.

The most common procedure is resorted to if the flat feet severely restrict mobility. In other words, everything depends on the degree of damage, as well as on the presence of various complications of the disease.

After a certain examination and examination of the pictures, the patient is referred for surgery. It consists of the following manipulations of :

  1. The valgus deformity is eliminated, that is, the displacement of the affected finger.
  2. Quality artificial substitutes are implanted in the place of ligament patients.
  3. The deformation of the talus and calcaneus is absolutely necessary.

People of advanced age very often have to prescribe and perform an operation that is known as arthrodesis. This is a certain intervention, associated with the removal of a strong bone displacement. If there is a transverse thickening, the operation makes it possible to eliminate very quickly such phenomena as pain, as well as severe swelling.

Important! Conservative methods to eliminate the flat arch, reached the third degree for the most part is impossible.


Plane-footstep treatment of 1, 2, 3 degrees

Flat-footedness is a very, very common problem, which many consider to be frivolous, letting everything go wild. But in fact such disease harms to all organism as a whole! And how to treat flat feet in adults and children? And is it treated, in general?

What is it?

Flattening is a condition in which the arch of the foot is flattened and deformed. Because of this, the foot can not perform its damping functions and distribute the load. In the normal state of the support, only the outer side of the foot should touch. This position is provided by the longitudinal and transverse vaults. As a result, it turns out that the load is distributed, all other bones perform their functions. But with flat feet, the weight of a person's body presses almost on the entire skeleton, including the spine. Because of this, the vertebrae can move, the cartilage and joints are subjected to compression( squeezing), may fail.

Everyone knows that with such a disease young people are not taken into the army. Now you must understand that this is quite true, because the entire locomotor apparatus can easily fail if a person will expose it to heavy loads.

What causes the disease?

Before you figure out how to cure, correct and prevent flat feet in a child or adult, it is worthwhile to find out the reasons for its development, since their elimination is an important point of getting rid of the problem and prevention. So, let's list the negative factors:

Excess weight. Excess weight is a huge load on the bones, which are a kind of skeleton for the whole body. The most difficult work is performed by feet, pelvic bones and spine. The legs of the feet will certainly flatten.
  • The second reason is a profession. In particular, people who are forced to work on their feet all day, often suffer from this ailment. If necessary, you should give your feet a rest. Heeled shoes or very narrow. It turns out that the main load from the heel goes to the phalanx of the fingers and the transverse arch of the foot, because of this the arch will flatten, the flatfoot will develop.
  • Age changes can also have a negative impact. The fact is that the muscles weaken with age, the bulk goes exactly to the feet, because of what happens their deformation.
  • Injuries can also affect the structure of the bones.
  • Some diseases( for example, poliomyelitis or rickets) lead to deformities.
  • Also, some doctors believe that there is a hereditary factor. In this case, the signs of the disease can appear already in childhood.
  • Species, forms

    There are several types, forms and degrees of disease.

    Depending on which foot arch is subject to changes, two types are distinguished:

    • Transverse. With this form it is the transverse arch of the foot that falls. The load falls on the metatarsal bones of the fingers. Because of this, the length of the foot decreases, the fingers can diverge in different directions. In a third or even half of patients, along with such a disease, there are other deformities of the feet.
    • With longitudinal form, the longitudinal arch is deformed. The foot touches the support almost all over its surface, its length increases.

    But both types can occur simultaneously, which worsens the situation.

    If you study the specific causes and nature of the disease, then there are several types:

    • Traumatic. In this case, the shock for the development of the disease was a foot injury( for example, fracture of the ankle or calcaneus).
    • Child. The reasons for it are still unclear. The baby is already born with deformities of the foot. But to reveal changes it is possible only to 5-7 years as at an early age a foot in any case will be completely concerned to a floor( it yet did not have time to be generated).
    • Ricky. With rickets, the bones become brittle because of a lack of vitamin D and calcium. As a result, a huge load falls on the leg bones, which they do not always withstand.
    • Paralytic. With paralysis of the lower limbs, the vaults and bones will also deform.
    • Valgus. It is characterized by deformation of the longitudinal arch, observed along with clubfoot.

    There are several degrees of disease:

    1. First degree. With this form, the angle of the arch is about 130-140 degrees. And the height of the foot can be reduced to 25-35 millimeters. Treatment of flatfoot 1 degree is not so difficult.
    2. The second degree is characterized by an increase in the angle of the arch to 140-150 degrees and a decrease in height to 17-24 millimeters.
    3. The third degree entails serious changes and deformations. In this state, the arch of the arch of the foot will be more than 155 degrees, and the height will be less than 17 millimeters.

    The stages of longitudinal flatfoot were listed above. But four stages of transverse are also distinguished. Each degree of flatfoot is determined on the basis of two parameters: the angle of the deviation of the thumb from the other( it will increase), as well as the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones( it also grows).

    Symptoms and Diagnosis

    It is quite easy to identify flat feet. There are several symptoms:

    • Pain in the foot. First they arise when putting on shoes( especially narrow, uncomfortable or on the heel), and also after physical exertion. But in the absence of necessary measures, the pain may be permanent.
    • Keep track of your fingers. Large will be rejected first, then changes will affect all others.
    • Deformation of the foot. At the first stage they are not so noticeable, but on the second they are already obvious.
    • Measure the distance between the bend of the foot and the floor. With such an ailment, it decreases.

    In any case, at any slightest manifestations, you need to see a doctor. If you do not know which doctor is treating flat feet, then this is an orthopedist.

    What should I do?

    So, you went to the doctor. He will examine you and determine the nature and extent of the changes that have occurred, and also tell you how to get rid of flat feet. It should be noted right away that it is impossible to completely get rid of an ailment in an adult person. Unfortunately, deformations have already occurred, and it is not possible to eliminate them. In this case, all measures should be aimed at stopping the changes and keeping the foot structure that is already there. A person will have to change his way of life and some habits. So, it is necessary to wear orthopedic shoes with special insoles, perform special therapeutic exercises from flat feet, avoid increased loads and periodically undergo certain procedures. This will avoid even more serious problems.

    Treatment of flat feet of 1 or 2 degree in children is quite possible both in a hospital and at home. The bones, ligaments and joints of the child are only being formed, so that, until adolescence, measures to eliminate the problem will be quite effective. The chances of getting rid of the disease are increased, if we reveal it already at the earliest stages. Then there will be enough special gymnastics, proper shoes and massage. In more complex cases, procedures, massage, special adaptations are shown. But the treatment of flat-footedness of the third degree is complicated, since deformations in this case will be serious. But all the same efforts, an integrated approach and continuity will achieve success. And in some cases, surgical treatment is indicated. And now about everything in more detail.

    The right shoes and orthopedic insoles

    What shoes should I wear when I'm flat-legged? Certainly orthopedic. It must necessarily have a supinator, which provides the foot with the necessary physiologically correct bend. Heel should be no more than 3( maximum 4) centimeters, otherwise the foot will be deformed. But a completely flat sole is also harmful. Shoes or shoes should not be pressed, but they can not be too free. Pay attention to comfort and convenience when walking.

    Now about the insole. They differ from conventional ones, since they have special bends and convexities, which ensure the correct position of the foot during movements.

    How to choose insole from flat feet? They are all alike. So, in place of the inner curve of the foot, a supinator is provided. The rolling zone is slightly elevated, and where there is a heel, there is a small depression. In the back, the insole thickens, providing the necessary leg lift. Also, there are wedges that help to regulate the position of the foot relative to the support. There are special children's insoles, soft for patients with diabetes, as well as for the elderly. The materials used are different, for example, polymers. But the real leather is more preferable.

    It is better to ask a doctor for an individual footbed. He will take measurements to take into account all the features. This option is most effective.

    Insoles can be purchased at pharmacies or specialty stores. The cost of such products can range from 400-500 rubles to 1500. But if you decide to manufacture to order, you will have to give more, namely a minimum of 2-3 thousand. But health is priceless.

    Massage and procedures

    Massage with flat feet is very effective. Among its main tasks such as improving the blood supply and circulation of lymph, strengthening the muscles, tendons and ligaments, removing the load from the most strained parts, as well as restoring some important functions of the foot. In addition, this procedure will help to relax and get rid of the pain. But it's important to trust only the professionals of your business!

    On average, one session lasts from 5-7 to 10-15 minutes. The masseuse should also pay attention to the legs. In addition, the effect on the lower back will also be effective. The course of treatment includes an average of 13-15 procedures, but if necessary, their number can be increased.

    There are many different techniques, techniques and approaches. They are selected individually, taking into account the degree of disease and features of the structure of the limb. But usually the specialist moves from the toes to the calcaneal part and from the lower leg to the knee. There are also a lot of tricks: kneading, squeezing, rubbing, stroking, patting, squeezing, rubbing, smoothing, pressing and so on. During the procedure, you can use a variety of rollers, balls, rollers and so on. Remember that massage has its contraindications!

    Physiotherapeutic procedures favorably influence the regeneration and structure of tissues, therefore they are also effective, as are contrast baths( they improve metabolism).


    We offer several exercises:

    1. Place the feet first on the outside, then on the inside. First, do the exercise, sitting on a chair and leaning with your feet on the floor, then stand up and stand up. Repeat all 30-50 times.
    2. You can unfold your feet. To do this, sit on a chair and try to place your feet on one straight line. First, connect the heels, and then the fingers. Then get up and do the same. You must do at least 30 repetitions.
    3. Stand upright and place your feet shoulder width apart. Now alternately get up on your toes, then on your heels. Do smooth rolling, then change position faster. Repeat the exercise 40-50 times. Sit on a chair, lift your legs off the floor. Rotate your feet first into one, then to the other side. Make 20-30 turns in each.
    4. Walking on the spot without taking off the socks. Only the heels are raised, and as high as possible. Perform the exercise quickly for one to two minutes.

    Can I run with flatfoot? At the first degree a little is possible. With the second and even more so the third is better to be careful and consult with a doctor.

    Special tools

    There are various devices for treating this ailment: rollers, rollers, balls and so on. But the most effective mat from flat feet. It is a surface in the form of sections with different convex invoices: balls( imitation stones), villi( like grass) and others. You need to walk on such a rug 10-20 minutes a day( you can for a few tricks).This is easy and even pleasant. Take a device with you on your travels, do regular exercises, only then there will be a positive effect.


    If the case is complex and serious, then surgical treatment can be prescribed. It consists in removing the protruding part of the bone, as well as in the transplantation of ligaments and muscles. In addition, the joint capsule will be corrected.

    How to avoid problems?

    It is extremely important to prevent flat feet in preschool children in kindergarten and other pre-school children, as well as in adolescents at school and even adults.

    We list some preventive measures:

    • It is important to monitor your weight and avoid large and sharp increases.
    • It is necessary to lead an active lifestyle, but not to allow heavy loads on the feet.
    • Wear comfortable shoes.
    • The doctor can advise a special preventive complex of exercises.
    • You can do a light massage yourself.
    • It is also important to eat balanced and correctly.
    • If possible, walk barefoot more often( especially on stones and grass).

    Remember that health is the most important thing that a person has. Attentively and more seriously concern to it, do not forget about preventive maintenance of a flatfoot, in due time take measures.


    All about flatfoot and its treatment - Polysmed

    Types of flatfoot.

    There are several basic types of flatfoot, these include:

    1. Static flatfoot is the most common type of flatfoot, the development of which is associated with muscle weakness and sprain, which leads to the omission of the inner edge of the foot and the development of flat feet. The causes of muscle weakness in static flat feet include increased body weight, hereditary factors( muscle tone disorder and weak ligamentous apparatus), overload of feet, wearing poor-quality footwear( tight, rubber shoes, too high a heel or lack thereof).
    2. Congenital flat feet develops during the intrauterine period and is associated with abnormalities in the development of the musculoskeletal system.
    3. Ricky flatfoot. Rickets is a disease characterized by a decrease in vitamin D levels in the child's body and is one of the reasons for the development of flat feet in childhood.
    4. Traumatic platypodia. Trauma of the foot, including incorrectly fused fractures of the foot bones, lead to the development of flat feet.
    5. Paralytic flat feet( paralytic flat foot) can develop after a previous polio, which leads to paralysis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg.

    What are the types of flatfoot?

    Depending on which arch of the foot is flattened, three types of flatfoot are distinguished:

    Longitudinal flatfoot

    With longitudinal flat feet, the foot touches the floor with its entire surface, resulting in an increase in the length of the foot. The main symptom of longitudinal flat feet is the shortening of the distance between the inner edge of the foot and the floor surface. With longitudinal flat feet, clubfoot develops, which leads to wear of the footwear along the entire length of the sole and heel from the inside.

    The degree of flatfoot depends on the degree of deformation of the foot. There are 3 degrees of flatfoot:

    1. With the first degree of flatfoot( slight longitudinal flatfoot), there is no visible deformation of the foot. Feeling of fatigue in the legs appears after physical exertion, long walking or running. When pressing in the foot area, painful sensations appear. By the evening, stops can swell, the smoothness of the gait is disturbed.
    2. The second degree of flatfoot( moderately pronounced longitudinal flatfoot) is characterized by the disappearance of the arch of the foot. Pain at 2 degrees of flatfoot is stronger, frequent, spreading from the feet to the ankles and lower legs. The muscles of the foot lose elasticity, the smoothness of the gait is disturbed.
    3. The third degree of flatfoot is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot. There is constant pain and swelling in the feet, legs, knee joints. At 3 degrees of longitudinal flat feet, pain in the lower back and painful headache. Decreased work capacity, even short walking is difficult. A man with a 3 degree of flatfoot can not walk in ordinary shoes.

    Transverse flatfoot

    With transverse flatfoot, the length of the foot decreases as a result of the divergence of the foot bones, the deviation of the thumb from the outside and the deformation of the middle finger, which takes on a hammer shape. At the base of the thumb appears a painful osseous thickening in the form of a cone.

    There are three degrees of transverse flatfoot, depending on the degree of curvature of the first toe:

    1. The first degree( slightly outlined lateral flatfoot).The angle of the deviation of the first toe is less than 20 degrees. After a long walk or standing, fatigue appears. On the foot in the area of ​​2-4 fingers appear on the skin( thickening of the skin), as well as redness and insignificant soreness in the area of ​​the first toe.
    2. At 2 degrees of flatfoot( moderately pronounced transverse flatfoot), the angle of deviation of the first toe is 20-35 degrees. When the load appears, pain and burning in the area of ​​the foot and in the first finger, especially in the shoes. Appearance spreads in the area of ​​the toes. Hemorrhages increase in size.
    3. Third degree of flatfoot( pronounced transverse flatfoot).The angle of the deviation of the first toe is more than 35 degrees. When the load is marked strong, persistent pain in the foot. The spreading of the forefoot is pronounced. On the foot in the area of ​​the fingers are formed significant burrs. The first finger is in the dislocation position, it is possible to develop bursitis( inflammation of the periarticular bag), severe deformation of 2-4 toes( hammer-shaped).

    Mixed flat feet includes longitudinal and transverse flatfoot and has more pronounced symptoms.

    Flattening in adults.

    In adults, as a rule, static flatfoot develops( longitudinal, transverse, or combined).In men, flat feet usually develop after injuries to the ankles or fractures in the foot, as well as professional flat feet, which is associated with prolonged standing on the legs, lifting weights. Women often cause flat feet to wear high-heeled shoes. The fact is that during the wearing of high heels, the center of gravity of the body shifts, which leads to an increase in the load on the front part of the foot and the turn of the foot inside.

    Diagnostics of flatfoot.

    If you have any of the main symptoms of flatfoot, it is recommended that you visit an orthopedic doctor. The doctor will examine you and conduct special studies:

    1. Podometriya - measuring the height of the arch of the foot from the floor.
    2. Plantography is the study of a footprint left on paper.
    3. To determine the degree of flatfoot, the doctor will prescribe the X-ray of the foot in the lateral projection

    Treatment of flat feet in adults.

    There are 2 main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically and conservatively.

    Conservative treatment of flat feet includes foot massage, foot baths, electrophoresis, curative gymnastics, wearing orthopedic shoes, special insoles, etc., and is prescribed in the first and second stages of flatfoot development. In some cases, conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, and therefore require surgical treatment.

    Also surgical treatment is required to treat the third stage of flatfoot. There are several types of operations with flat feet, but the main goal of surgical treatment is shortening of ligaments, correction of the arches of the foot and elimination of the effects of flat feet( for example, deviation of the first toe of the foot).

    Flat feet in children.

    All children are born with imaginary flat feet, which is explained by the abundance of subcutaneous fat in the foot. A peculiarity of imaginary childish flat feet is that as children grow older, they naturally get rid of flat feet: with the development of walking and running, muscles develop and the child's foot takes on the usual outlines. The full formation of the arches of the foot is completed by 3 years. In this regard, a flat foot in children under three years can not be attributed to a true flat foot.

    In childhood there is congenital and acquired flat feet. The cause of congenital flat feet are the developmental defects of the foot in the intrauterine period.

    Acquired flat feet in children is usually due to the following factors:

    1. Overweight child
    2. Wearing substandard shoes( too soft or too hard sole, rubber shoes, too high heel or missing)
    3. Rickets and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in a child
    4. Incorrectly fractured fracture
    5. Prolonged bed rest with severe diseases
    6. During puberty, hormonal changes cause a prolonged muscle spasm and can lead to flatfoot
    7. Excessive joint mobility
    8. Lifting weights( for example, when worn on the hands of younger siblings)
    9. Reinforced ballet classes

    What consequences resulting flat in a child?

    Children with flat feet are disturbed by an important function of the foot - depreciation. As a result, the vibration of the body during walking and running is transmitted to the shin, hip joints, spine, etc. Prolonged irritation of the joints leads to their inflammation - arthrosis. The effect of flat feet on the spine is the development of curvature of the spine, or scoliosis in children. Such symptoms of flat feet, such as leg pain, fatigue, headaches lead to reduced school performance.

    How to determine whether there is a flatfoot in the child?

    1. Walking on a log, climbing a rope © - Using information without a hyperlink to the source is prohibited.

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      October 7, 2011 12:54 Anel well helps walk on the mop, especially on wooden Soviet, as well as walk in the position of a bearded bear, also very good April 18, 201210:01 the searcher would like to know who is the author of this article? Who can I ask questions?who can reasonably explain why this is so, and not on another need to correct flat feet?on what are its conclusions based? May 29, 2012 12:02 Love I also have a transverse flatfoot, it's hard to walk. The feet of my feet are burning with fire, I probably will not be able to give up my legs at all. I've always worked physically, the load on my legs was huge, now I'm suffering, plus still fashionablenarrow shoes with heels. Now it is difficult to pick up shoes. I have a big problem. July 13, 2012 02:13 Natali With longitudinal flat feet, a child of 6 years old can be engaged in ballroom dancing?13 July, 2012 10:59 MedKollegia_Polismed Hello. Ballroom dancing can both improve, so to harm your child's condition. It depends on the degree of flat feet. That's why, before you give the child to the dance, be sure to consult an orthopedic doctor. August 22, 2012 08:42 Zuhra Hello. My son is 6 years old, found a plane 3-4 degrees. Now we go to the treatment to the instructor LFK, massage, SMT.Question. This diagnosis is curable? August 22, 2012 11:11 MedKollegia_Polismed Hello. When flat feet of 3-4 degrees with ineffectiveness of conservative measures( LFK, massage, etc.), an operation is prescribed. In any case, the chances of a full recovery are high.03 september, 2012 21:57 Denis Hello, I am 18 years old, flat feet 3 degrees or higher, the joints have recently started to hurt( Muscles in the knee, shin and bones), although before that I was engaged in cycling, tourism generally ledactive way of life, not paying attention as any other teenager, a flat-footed hostile, what and how do I do?tell me please, insoles ordered what else do I need to do? ?I do not want to lose interest in all my hobbies because of such "Trivia". .. Thank you in advance!12 October, 2012 18:02 Dina good evening! To the son 6j year, have diagnosed a flat-valgus feet. But I do not understand who to believe, one orthopedist scared that the transverse-longitudinal plane.and almost goes deformations.thorax, and the other is flat-valgus feet and everything is not so scary. . now I see that my daughter's legs go inside when walking, although half a year ago( in 2d) they said all the normal. What do I do not understand, here's to buy shoes, but I do not know what to take. Maybe somehow comment. . thanks! October 30, 2012 11:17 Katia Hello, my name is Catherine, today I went to see a surgeon and found out that I have a combined flat foot( transverse 2 degrees, longitudinal 2 degrees), advise what to do and what method to be treated? December 04, 2012 12:12 Sergey I'm 31 years old. When walking 4 km.the knee aches a day. What advise to do? April 18, 2015 23:03 Rimma Good evening. I'm 55 years old. I'm sick of feet on both feet.it is difficult to walk. on the left leg is a swollen ankle joint.sometimes it hurts a lot.when pressing a finger, a hole remains. I ask advice 05 May, 2015 12:56 nastya to which doctor will contact in this case need? May 06, 2015 18:47 The medical school Nastya in case of flat feet should consult an orthopedic doctor. June 27, 2015 17:17 Tatiana Up to what age can a child have a flat foot in a conservative way? June 28, 2015 08:03 Tatiana, the treatment of flat feet in a child depends on age, type of flat feet, the presence of concomitant diseases, hereditary factor, the type of conservative therapy. Of no less importance is the perseverance of ongoing activities. Conservative therapy is used not only in the treatment of flat feet in children, but also in adults. September 19, 2015 19:30 Natalia When treating longitudinal flatfoot with SMT therapy, it is necessary to arrange gaskets on the tables 12 January, 2016 09:12 Leo All this method of treating flatfoot is not effective. Existing and persistently recommended orthopedic parents orthopedic shoes, does not have a preventive function.treatment, and rehabilitation. This, in fact, is a prosthesis.which helps, relieves pain with active life, but no more. The prosthesis does not heal. And here.money from their parents is good. The same function is carried by all kinds of orthopedic insoles. There is a completely unique domestic patented technology for the prevention and treatment of flatfoot. It has no analogues in the world. Only, our health care system is not needed. The Ministry refused to introduce it. What for? Extra worries. February 04, 2016 08:54 Xenia Leo! And what kind of technique? Where can I get acquainted with it? What does it give? I'm not asking from curiosity, but from necessity.

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    2. Skate on the floor with a foot of a rolling pin or a small ball.
    3. A napkin is placed on the floor, which is suggested to be crushed with the help of a foot.
    4. The child is offered to collect his toes and move from place to place the objects scattered on the floor.
    5. Circular movements with feet out and inside.
    6. Standing on socks, reduce and spread the heels, without taking your fingers off the floor.
    7. Grasp the ball with both stops and lift it, keeping it between the feet.
    8. Alternately walk on toes, on the heels, on the outer edges of the feet.
    9. Rolling from heel to toe.
    10. Walk on the ribbed surface( massage mat, sand, pebbles).

    You can determine the presence of flat feet in a child orthopedist, but at home you can conduct a simple test for the presence of flat feet in the child. To carry out the test( planotography), it is necessary to lubricate the sole of the baby's foot with vegetable oil and put it on a blank sheet of paper. The result is a footprint of the child, from which you can determine the state of the arch of the foot. Normally, the cut on the foot is 2/3 of its width. With flat feet, there is not a small cutout. If you notice a change after this test, you should show your child an orthopedic doctor.

    How to choose the right shoes for a child?

    For the correct formation of the arches of the foot in a child, you need to buy quality shoes. The child's shoes must have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less), and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.

    Treatment of flat feet.

    The main goal of flatfoot treatment is to eliminate pain in the foot, strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and restore the functions of the foot. There are two main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically( surgery) and conservative way.

    Among the conservative methods of flatfoot treatment is allocated therapeutic gymnastics, massage, foot baths, physiotherapy, wearing the right orthopedic footwear or insoles.

    Treatment of flat feet in a child at the earliest stage of the disease, with the inconsistency of the ligaments of the foot is reduced to the appointment of rest, the temporary cessation of sports. We recommend warm foot baths and massage. An effective method of treatment at an early stage of flatfoot development is the foot bath, the bottom of which is packed with river pebbles. The child is offered to roll stones in the water with his feet.

    Plane prophylaxis in children.

    For the prevention and treatment of flat feet in children, the following set of exercises can be applied:


    When rest, massage and other methods do not help to eliminate pain, one can resort to medical therapy. Systemic analgesics: aspirin, flugalin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol, etc. Topical application: indomethacin ointment, Dolgit cream, voltarenic gel, etc. Special treatment procedures : Novocain electrophoresis, hydrophoresis with hydrocortisone,paraffin-ozocerite applications, etc.

    Release from the army of conscripts with flat feet( according to RF norms).

    Based on the "Statute of Military Medical Examination" No. 123, dated 25.02.2003, military service and admission to military schools and schools does not prevent people with the following violations:
    • I-II longitudinal flat-footed
    • Transverse flatfootI degree, in the absence of arthrosis in the joints of the foot( middle section), exostoses( bone-cartilaginous sprouting in the form of a spine) and contractures( restriction of joint mobility).
    To be released from the army with a flatfoot, the following conditions should be met:
    • Longitudinal or transverse flatfoot II degree c, presence of severe pain syndrome, deforming arthrosis of the II stage of the midfoot joints, contracture of the fingers;
    • Longitudinal flatfoot of III degree, transverse flat feet of III-IV degree
    Conscripts with such types of violations fall into the category - limited to go( "B"), that is, they will be invoked only in wartime. They get a military ticket on their hands, and they go to the reserve.

    Flat-foot prevention

    • The formation of the right gait, not to breed socks when walking - this overloads the inner edge of the foot and its ligaments.
    • With the predisposition to flat feet to choose the right place of work( work not associated with long loads on the legs).
    • Correctly matched shoes, on a thick and soft sole, heel not more than 4 cm.
    • Wearing insoles for long loads.
    • In his spare time, give rest to his legs, at least 30 seconds, 3-4 times a day to stand on the outside of the feet.
    • After work it is recommended to take warm baths for feet, with their subsequent massage.
    • Walking barefoot on an uneven surface, over pebbles, along the sand, walking on the heels, the inner surface of the feet, tiptoe, moving games.
    • Maximum limit the wearing of shoes with high heels
    • Correctly dose physical exercise, avoid excessive loads
    Healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, take food rich in vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium.

    Why does postural flaccidity disturb the posture?

    The human body works as a whole. Between bodies there are not only anatomical, but also functional interrelations. With flatfoot, the center of gravity is displaced backward. In order to maintain balance, the spine has to deviate forward. Over time, deformation increases, posture is formed - round back .The normal arch of the foot works like a shock absorber. With flatfoot this function is violated. As a result, the spine and knees have increased loads. This leads to an even more severe violation of posture, scoliosis, herniated discs. In the knee joints arthrosis can develop. Flattening and problems on the part of the spine have some common causes: weakness of connective tissue, ligaments and muscles, obesity, increased physical activity.

    Which mats can I use for flatfoot? How to choose them correctly?

    Special massage mats have on their surface a variety of pebbles, protrusions, "pimples".They are widely used for the prevention and treatment of flat feet. Effects of massage mats :
    • effect on reflexogenic foot points;
    • improvement of blood circulation and lymph drainage( due to this there is a decrease in edema on the legs);
    • strengthening of muscles and ligaments;
    • elimination of cramps, pain;
    • elimination of stresses, increase in general tone.
    Massage mats from flat feet are prophylactic and therapeutic .Usually preventive are made of softer materials, and therapeutic ones are made of more rigid materials. One-part massage mat is a single unit. The modular consists of several parts that can be interconnected. They can be marked with "pimples" of different sizes and shapes. Materials from which massage mats are made may also be different. Most often there are rubber( usually based on natural rubber), plastic, made of foamed polymers, on a silicone base. Many models have inserts from stones, for example, river pebbles. Rugs from the Altai birch are very popular. The right choice of a massage pad with flat feet will help the advice of :
    • First of all - consult a doctor .The expert will tell you which model of the rug is best to buy in your case.
    • It is best to buy a mat in the orthopedic salon .Before you buy the product, be sure to deploy it, stand with your bare feet and try to walk. If it causes pain or severe discomfort, it is better to choose another model.
    • For a child under 3 years old, a mat made of rubber is best. Later you can buy a model on a silicone base. Adults often recommend rugs from the Altai birch.
    • Try to choose a rug on which there is not one, but several different types of relief .This will provide different types of impact on the sole. For example, in addition to the "stones" on the surface may be villi for soft massage soles.
    • Inspect the mat before buying .Make sure that all the protrusions and "pimples" are strong enough. Think about how convenient it is to wash, store the selected model.
    How to use a massage mat for the prevention and treatment of flat feet? Begin with a daily walk on the rug for 3-5 minutes, gradually increase the time. Usually 5-10 minutes is enough. It is worth remembering that the massage mat can not be used as the only method of treating flatfoot - the effect will bring only its use in combination with other techniques. Who is recommended to use massage mats:
    • for children and adults diagnosed with flat feet;
    • for children, in order to prevent flat feet;
    • to people, leading a sedentary lifestyle, to those with sedentary work;
    • to women, who walk a lot in shoes with stilettos.

    How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?

    Orthopedic insoles can be used for preventive purposes or to combat flatfoot. Medical orthopedic insoles need to be selected together with a doctor. Usually they are made individually, according to one of three methods:
    • Computer modeling .A person stands on a special platform, which registers the pressure of various parts of the foot and transfers to the computer. An image is displayed on the monitor.
    • Manufacture of plaster casts .
    • Thermoforming . Insole is made of special material, which takes the form of a patient's foot.
    • Obtaining a print with a special bio-foam.
    Orthopedic insoles are usually made of genuine leather or synthetic materials( flexible plastic, expanded polyethylene, microporous rubber).If a person has a lot of weight, more rigid materials are used: graphite, special plastics, steel. Also, the insole is made of silicone, but they are less comfortable, have a low elasticity, wear out more quickly. But due to its flexibility, silicone insoles adapt well to the relief of the sole. In the manufacture of insoles for athletes take into account increased loads and intense sweating. Orthopedic insoles for diabetics have additional protection.

    How is flatfoot encoded in the ICD?

    In the international classification of flatfoot diseases, two codes are assigned:
    • M21.4 - acquired flat foot;
    • Q66.5 - congenital flat foot.

    What gymnastics can I perform with flatfoot?

    Gymnastics with a flat foot are chosen individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot. Start classes only after you consult a doctor and find out what exercises are recommended in your case. Some exercises that can be performed with a flatfoot : In prone position : 1. With your legs slightly apart, squeeze and unclench your toes for about 2 minutes. 2. With your legs spread out, rotate the feet clockwise, then in the opposite direction. 3. Pull your foot socks over. You can perform both legs simultaneously or alternately. 4. Detach the heels from the floor, leaning their toes. 5. Bend your knees, spread them apart, simultaneously folding the soles together, so that they touch. Then "clap" your heels: dilute and reduce them, resting with your toes. 6. Place the right foot on the left ankle joint. Move the right foot along the left shin towards the knee, while trying to clasp her leg. Repeat with the left foot. In sitting position on a chair : 1. Squeeze your right hand into a fist and tightly hold it between your knees. Raise the inner parts of the feet, and the outer one is pressed harder against the floor. Repeat several times. 2. Detach the heels from the floor - at the same time with both feet, then alternately. 3. An exercise similar to the previous one, only this time you need to remove socks from the floor. 4. Place different small items on the floor. Grab their fingers with your feet and shift from one place to another. 5. Bend your fingers while pulling your heels forward, then straighten them. The foot should "crawl" on the floor, like a caterpillar. In standing position : 1. Stand several times on your toes. Then alternately tear off the right and left heel from the floor. 2. Stand on your heels several times. In this case, the toes must be completely detached from the floor. 3. Perform several sit-ups and half-squats on your toes.

    Is the release of physical education given to a child with flat feet?

    This question is solved individually, depending on the type and severity of flat feet, other factors. With severe deformity and violation of foot function, the child can be completely released from physical culture. In other cases, it is classified into one of four groups:
    • group LFK: children who have a disease requiring an individual program of study;
    • special group: for children, for whom the load in ordinary lessons is too high, restrictions are required;
    • preparatory group: no restrictions in physical activity, but the child is exempted from the delivery of standards;
    • core group: no restrictions.

    How does flatfoot differ from clubfoot?

    Flat feet are any deformation of the foot at which the longitudinal or transverse arch falls. The reasons for this violation can be different. Clubfoot is a congenital disorder whose causes are not yet fully established. In this case, the foot is most often turned down and inward.

    What kind of sports can you practice with flatfoot?

    For flat feet, the following sports are recommended: :
    • Free style swimming .It has a beneficial effect not only on the legs, but also on the spine column, the muscles of the back, helps to fight with impaired posture and other pathologies. But with flat feet, you should not get involved in swimming with a crawl, as this increases the load on the muscles of the legs.
    • Skiing .In this case, the load on the legs should be small. Intensive skiing is contraindicated.
    • Equestrian sport . Horse riding helps strengthen the muscles and tendons of the back, legs.
    • Some types of martial arts .Aikido, karate and kung fu do not assume an increased strain on the legs, but help strengthen the tendons and muscles.
    When flatfoot is not recommended such sports as skating, dancing, weightlifting, weight training, jumping, figure skating, hockey, walking on the steppes. Specialty: Practicing doctor of the 2nd category

    Published: 03.7.2013


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