Flattening in children: its prevention and treatment
At first glance, it may seem that the child has the same foot as an adult, only in miniature. But if you look closely, you will quickly see that this is not the case. The foot of any newborn baby is flat, but this does not mean that the child has a flat foot. The fact is that during the growing up of the foot passes through a series of metamorphoses, eventually becoming a full-fledged functional organ of the human skeleton. But even if the disease does appear, it is encouraging that in the case of the diagnosis of "flat feet", the children will be treated fairly effectively and almost always leads to complete recovery.
It should be borne in mind that in any child from the moment of birth, the arches of the feet are always filled with a fatty layer, which begins to decay only when the child begins to walk. That is why the footprint of the child is flat. Approximately to three years, the contours of the child's foot acquire the outlines of the foot of an adult person, muscles, ligaments and bones are strengthened, so that the baby can stay on his feet for a long time. At the same time, the older the child becomes, the more noticeable the arch of the foot.
Flat feet appear in cases where the formation of the foot for some reason occurs with disturbances. But even if a person did not suffer from this illness as a child, this does not give him any guarantees that in the future flat feet will not appear.
How to identify flat feet?
Usually flat feet are diagnosed by a doctor using planography. In this study, they are spread with a special solution of the foot of the patient, after which he must stand on blank paper sheets. Thus, a clear footprint is formed, along which it is possible to detect the presence of flat feet. But this method works best with adults, in the case of children, mistakes are often made because of the age characteristics of the foot. The footprint will be more like flat feet, the younger the child. That is why it is better to undergo a direct examination with an orthopedic doctor, in this case there is a high probability of an exact diagnosis of flat feet in preschool children.
Do not let the flat-footed "on its own"
Parents should pay special attention to such symptoms:
- child when walking a club( turns the socks stop outside).This is one of the signs of a disease such as valgus flatfoot in children. Most often, such a symptom is manifested as a result of the muscles of the legs are too weak, so the child is unable to maintain the normal position of the foot. The normal position of the foot in this case is one in which the feet are parallel;
- the child attacks the inside of the foot when walking. The gait is quite peculiar, it is very noticeable.
If one of these symptoms is detected, you should immediately consult a doctor and undergo a complete examination.
Disease Sometimes a congenital form of flat feet occurs, but these are rare, almost exceptional cases. Of all cases of flatfoot disease in childhood, these are not more than 3%.
To determine the causes of the appearance of this disease and to understand what exactly can act as the best prevention of flat feet in children, scientists conducted a number of studies. One of them showed that the flat feet are almost three times more likely to suffer from those children who constantly wear shoes. Children who spend most of their time barefoot are less likely to be affected. As a result, it was concluded that the baby's foot better developed in natural conditions.
Another study made it possible to reveal that a considerable influence on the correctness of the formation of the foot is exerted by the amount of the load applied to it. With a low motor activity, the risk of flat feet appears much higher. It is worth noting that this is a very urgent problem for our time, since now most children prefer to spend time in front of a computer or television, while almost completely ignoring walks and active games. Therefore, lately, we have to face a flat foot, which is accompanied by a violation of posture.
Also the development of flat feet can provoke the shoes that your child wears. It should be remembered that children's shoes should be with a hard back, soft instep and a small heel( about half a centimeter).The supinator in this case is intended to compensate for the absence of unevenness or pebbles under the feet. Also, do not give the child to wear someone else's or old shoes - in this case, the load on the foot will be incorrectly distributed.
An important factor for the normal formation of a foot in a child is a full and healthy diet. It is very important to provide the child with enough vitamins and correct phosphoric-calcium metabolism.
A growing pediatric foot requires regular training, whose role is perfectly performed by walking barefoot. It is very useful for the child to walk on uneven surfaces at least occasionally - sand, stones, grass, etc. In this case, the child can remain in his toes, but the shoes must be removed. At home, by the way, you can recreate such surfaces. For example, as pebbles peas are perfect. These simple measures are quite effective prevention of flat feet in the child.
As you have already understood, the main cause of the appearance of the disease is most often a lack of exercise or an incorrect load on the foot. Children's bones grow, they are very susceptible to external influences, therefore it is necessary to take preventive measures to avoid this disease.
What kind of treatment is prescribed for flat feet?
Children often have longitudinal flat feet, which is successfully treated without surgery. In some cases, flat feet are congenital, then it must be treated from the first days of life. To treat the disease of this form, special langets and plaster bandages are usually used.
It is worth noting that you absolutely can not let the disease drift, when you have the first symptoms you need to see a doctor. Otherwise, you risk aggravating the situation, and the child will have instead of longitudinal combined flat feet, which combines longitudinal and transverse flat feet in children. This form of the disease is treated much more difficultly.
In general, because the main causes of the onset of the disease in a child are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as unstable bones, a treatment of a "toning" nature is prescribed. The main task of such treatment is to strengthen the muscles and ligaments, then they themselves will lead the foot into a normal state.
Therapy of this type includes curative gymnastics and massage.
Physical exercise( FL) with flat feet in children is the basis of treatment, because they can bring the muscles and ligaments of the foot into the right state.
Massage with flat feet in children is also an effective method of treatment, which improves blood circulation and improves muscle tone.
Also in the treatment of flat feet in children often use special orthopedic insoles and orthopedic shoes. This method of treatment allows you to adjust the load on the foot. It is also very useful to walk on uneven surfaces, as discussed above.
For the success of treatment, it is extremely important to diagnose the disease as early as possible and begin treatment, so when the first suspicions appear, do not delay the visit to the doctor.
Disease forms, degrees and their signs
The following types of disease stand out:
- plosco-valgus stop - X-shaped curvature of the ankle joint. Usually this is not an independent form of pathology, but the last stage is the longitudinal form of flatfoot.
The compaction of the arches of the foot has such stages:
- Predilezny. Muscles of the lower leg and the top of the foot ache only after prolonged exercise.
- Intermittent flatfoot( 2nd stage).The muscles of the lower leg and the feet tighten and hurt by the end of the day. Lowering the lift of the foot can be seen visually, in the evening. In the morning, the foot looks normal.
- At this stage, the final development of the flat foot is noted. The symptoms are as follows: legs become tired even after a short standing;there is a visual flattening of the foot, there is a need to choose shoes at once 1-2 sizes larger. In addition, the thumb is pushed aside.
- The stage of valgus curvature of the foot: the ascent is flattened simultaneously with the turn of the foot by the sole of the inside.
There are several degrees of transverse and longitudinal flat feet;they are evaluated according to different criteria. Diagnosis is carried out either according to the footprint( in children up to 7-10 years old), or by X-ray( after this age).The degree of transverse flattening is judged by the angle of the deviation of the thumb, and also by the angle between the thumb and the index finger:
- is normally the first indicator - less than 14 °, the second - less than 9 °
- at 1 degree - 15-20 ° and 10-12° between I and II fingers
- 2nd degree is characterized by the figures 21-30 ° and 13-15 °
- the transverse flatfoot of the 3rd degree is characterized by the digits 31-40 ° and 16-20 °
- 4th degree - more than 41 ° and more than 21 °.
Degrees of longitudinal flatfoot are estimated from the radiograph:
- 1 degree: arch 2.5-3.5 cm high, arch angle 131-140 °
- 2 degree: 1.7-2.4 cm, 141-155 °
- 3degree: less than 1.7 cm, 156 ° or more.
How to determine flat feet at home? This will help to make a simple test, which can be performed in a child over 5 years old( before this age - only medical diagnosis).To do this, you need to smear the baby's feet( especially painting the inside of the foot and thumb) with watercolor paint or oil, and then put it on a landscape sheet that can absorb your dye. The child is entertained for 30-60 seconds, so that he stands on the sheet calmly and in his usual pose. Further, the prints( scientifically, the plottogram) are evaluated:
- , the normal notch in the middle of the print leaves half the width of the foot
- at the I degree - slightly more than 1/3
- at the II degree - less than 1/3
- at III degree not at all
- atflattening of the transverse arch between the heel and the head of the metacarpal bone there is no generally shaded gap
- the valgus stop leaves a wide and deformed footprint( resembling a bear's paw).
Also look at the thumbprint.
Diagnosis of newborns and infants until the year is not put: if you suspect a flat foot recommendation for a set of passive exercises, the regime of the day, massage, wearing shoes and food.
In children older than 1 year, a survey is conducted, such as a doppler - measurement of the foot with subsequent calculations of the indices of the longitudinal and transverse arches.
Pre-school children also spend:
- podography - the study of the phases of walking, load distribution on the foot. A test is carried out in special shoes, in which the child is asked to pass on the metal track
- electromyography - examination of the activity of the calf and foot muscles
- determination of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood
- computer tests in which the programs calculate the biomechanics of walking.
If the diagnosis is confirmed by these methods, X-rays of the feet are performed, which gives the most accurate result.
Treatment of flatfoot
The disease is chronic, that is, if left untreated, it will progress, causing all of the above consequences over time.
How to correct platypodia: the nature of the therapy will depend on the stage of the disease and the age of the child. In early childhood, the foot has even more cartilage than bones, and if you give them the right position, then there is a great chance that their ossification will occur in the right position.
So how do I heal I-III stages of flatfoot? Everything starts with conservative methods.
Platypodial medications are prescribed when the disease is accompanied by severe pain or swelling of the legs. In these cases, tablets or syrups with pain medication can be used: Nurofen, Analgin. To eliminate edema, local medications that strengthen the venous vessels( Troxevasin-gel) and dilute blood( heparin ointment) can be used. A teenager can safely apply these drugs, but the parents of a baby should first consult a doctor.
For medicamental flatfoot therapy, drugs affecting the cause of the disease should be used: vitamin D - for rickets, muscle relaxants and antibiotics - for the treatment of the paralytic foot.
Antibiotics for the treatment of flatfoot itself are not used. They are used if there are symptoms of rheumatism or other bacterial diseases that are not related to flattening of the arches of the foot, even in the infant.
At home, but only in combination with other therapies, folk remedies can be used:
- Leaves of wormwood are washed, dried, applied to the soles of the feet and after bandaging are fixed with socks
- Trays with sea salt( 1 tbsp.for 1 liter of water)
- Contrasting baths: the legs should first be unzipped for 1-2 minutes, then rinse 15 seconds with cool water. In warm water, you can add a decoction of the bark of oak
- Warm baths with broth of mint
- Baths with sage.
Recall, this method is an auxiliary method. The main effect of treatment is achieved with the help of exercise therapy, physiotherapy methods, massage, wearing orthopedic shoes or insoles.
This method of treatment is applied at all stages of children's flatfoot. The mother makes a small child massage, the teenager uses self-massage with the help of hands, orthopedic rugs, rollers, balls. You can also make an orthopedic mat with your own hands, if you paste on and paste pieces of rough puzzles, buttons, pebbles, caps from plastic bottles. A good effect is also provided by the Plant simulator - insole, laid out with massage elements, which are worn for a while.
Manual massage enhances blood circulation, restores muscle tone. Performed such techniques as stroking, rubbing, tapping, kneading. The elements of vibration are necessarily included. Using finger pads, we draw a number 7 on the foot, drawing from the thumb to the little finger, leading the line to the heel.
The complex of exercises
LFK is selected by an orthopedist, performed first with an instructor, then repeated at home and in kindergarten. With a child in 1 year passive medical gymnastics is performed - when the movement of the legs of the baby is performed by the mother.
The following exercises are used:
- Sitting on a chair and putting stops on the floor, press the fingers several times. The heels thus firmly stand on the floor
- In a sitting position on a chair, collect cloth, roll a rolling pin, grab small objects
- Perform in the same position. It is necessary to slide the other leg with one thumb, then change the legs
- Standing on the toes 5-10 times from standing position.
- Walk on the inner and then outer edge of the foot.
- . When charging, it is necessary to walk on bars, along ropes.
Orthopedic insoles and shoes
These devices are prescribed only by an orthopedic physician from the first stage of the disease. If at I-II stages it is possible to use footwear purchased at specialized stores that will be sold by the orthopedist's prescription, then at stage III shoes and sandals are ordered already at special plants.
- support arches in anatomically correct position
- improve blood circulation
- reduce stress on leg joints and spine
- improve stability when standing
- improve overall well-being.
Reviews about this type of treatment - only positive. You need to wear these insoles in your home and in street shoes, but periodically you need to give them rest, it is desirable that the child at this time was barefoot.
To relax the pathologically constricted muscles of the foot and improve circulation in them, the following apply:
- applications with paraffin and ozocerite
shock wave therapy is used to soften the ligaments.
operation. Surgery is performed in the orthopedic clinic if, in spite of conservative treatment, flat feet led to the formation of valgus flattening of the foot.
Surgical intervention can consist both in creating an artificial fusion between the calcaneus and navicular bone, and in the gradual, step-by-step plastering of the foot with additional fixation with its spokes.
Rehabilitation after arthrodesis surgery is performed in multi-profile or orthopedic clinics( for example, CM-Clinic, Family Clinic, Medical Center Olympus in Moscow).It consists in temporary plastering of the foot to a third of the shin with the subsequent performance of massage, physiotherapy, therapeutic gymnastics.
The diet after the operation is to eat a balanced diet that includes enough protein, calcium, vitamins( especially group B) and phosphorus.
Prevent flat feet is much easier than curing this chronic process. To do this, you must follow these rules:
- Do not try to put the baby before 7-8 months, and then with support. The best option - when the child himself becomes on the feet
- To conduct the prevention of rickets
- Buy an orthopedic mat or make a mat with your own hands. On it, the child will become during the game, charging, cleaning the teeth
- At home, it is necessary to perform therapeutic exercises: walking on the side edges of the foot, picking up the cloth and objects from the floor
- The first and subsequent shoes are chosen so: there should be a hard and long back, a small heel. Keds can not be worn categorically. Slippers and flip-flops for a short while, only with
- heat. Walking barefoot on different surfaces
- . Folk remedies used for the prevention of the disease are successfully used for its treatment.
- Attend kindergarten: the kindergarten will be given daily gymnastics that aims to prevent flat feet
- Diet contains a sufficient amount of meat and fish, as well as fruits and vegetables, fresh juices.
The advice is simple: do not look on the Internet how to fix the flatfoot found by you, but look for a specialist who:
- will pay attention to all aspects of the child's and family's life that will help to cope with the disease( that is, tell about the diet and vitamins,and will pick up a set of exercises)
- will be busy not only with the treatment of the investigation - flatfoot - but also with the search for its cause
- will tell you about the possible consequences of the disease and how they manifest so you know when to sound the alarm.
Flat feet in children - causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention.
Toddlers, starting from the age of seven months, are gradually accustomed to the upright, which causes them to significantly increase the load on the lower limbs. When wearing the right, quality shoes and proper development, normal physiological development of the feet and feet occurs. With a constant load on them, various diseases, excessive physical exercises, there may be various disorders in the development of the legs, one of which is flat feet.
flatfoot is the most common musculoskeletal disorder in children, characterized by deformation of the foot with a flattening of its arch( usually longitudinal), as a result of which the sole becomes flat, touching the floor with its entire surface.
In all mice up to 2 years of age, the longitudinal arch of the foot is flat. And this is considered the norm, because in their soft and elastic bone tissue is not enough minerals to give it strength. Also, the muscular system is not fully developed. In 7-9 months, when the kids begin to get up on their feet and take the first steps, the function of the shock absorber is performed by the "fat pad" located on the sole. In 2-3 years in bones the amount of mineral substances reaches the norm, the ligaments and muscles become firm, the articular surfaces become normal. The formation of bone tissue stops until about 5-6 years of age. Only after this period it is possible to diagnose or eliminate flat feet in the child.
However, in some babies( about 3%) flatfoot can already be detected immediately after birth. It is considered congenital and is a developmental defect of the musculoskeletal system. Most often congenital platypodia is combined with the disease - flat-valgus deformation of the foot.
Symptoms of flatfoot in children
Children 6-7 years old who suffer from flat feet will complain of rapid fatigue on standing and walking, puffiness and aching pain in the area of the feet, worse by evening.
External symptoms of flat feet in children:
- an increase in foot width;
- quickly removes the outsole and the inside of the heel on the shoe;
- changes gait( impaired posture, appears clubfoot).
How to determine flat feet in children at home
You can determine the flat feet of a child with a simple test. It is necessary to smear his feet with oil or cream, put a clean sheet of paper on the floor and ask him to stand on it, evenly distributing the body. If the child has no problems with his legs, the footprint on the sheet of paper will look like in Figure 1; if, however, as in Figure 2, he is likely to have flat feet. It is necessary to visit a doctor-orthopedist, who will conduct a planography and be able to most accurately diagnose.
Factors provoking the development of flat feet in children:
- Heredity .There is a possibility of flat feet in children, if their close relatives suffer from this disease.
- Wrong, low-quality shoes .The development of flat feet is heavily influenced by the shoes that the child wears. It should not have a completely flat sole, be soft and without a instep. Excessive strain on the legs of the ( eg, due to obesity).
- Small motor activity of the child .In the age of high technology, most children prefer to stay at home with their favorite phone or tablet, rather than go out and play on the street. As a result, posture is added to the flat feet and a violation of posture.
- Rickets .The disease develops in children due to a lack of bones in vitamin D and calcium. As a result, the bones become brittle, and since large body loads fall on the feet, the child can experience flat feet.
- Traumas of feet ( fracture of calcaneus, ankle, tarsus bones).
- Paralysis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg .Paralysis arises from a disease that has been transmitted, which causes platypodia.
Treatment of flat feet in children
Congenital flat feet in children of mild form is treated by applying gypsum dressings, which will be fixed in the correct position of the foot. The dressings are applied for 7-10 days, then they are removed and new ones are applied again. Treatment lasts 8-10 weeks. After the baby is assigned courses of physiotherapy, massage and wearing individually manufactured orthopedic shoes. Heavy forms of congenital flat feet are treated only surgically.
Acquired platypodia in children is treated conservatively. Treatment is multicomponent and is designed for a fairly long period. It includes:
Therapeutic physical training .Exercises are aimed at strengthening the musculature of the feet and muscles of the legs. Spend them daily. Also in exercise therapy includes classes on a special massage mat, the surface of which consists of various irregularities. When in contact with the sole, these irregularities help to strengthen the muscles.
Orthopedic footwear .Treatment of flat feet in children will not be effective without wearing the right shoes - suitable in size, with a high rigid back, good fasteners for fixation on the foot made of natural materials, with a small heel( 5-7 mm).Particular attention should be given not only to the selection of shoes, but also to the insole with the instep. Medical shoes can be purchased in specialized stores or, according to the appointment of an orthopedist, it is made individually.
Massage .Depending on the degree of flat feet, the massage is conducted in courses of 10-15 sessions up to 4 times a year.
Physiotherapy .Pronounced flat feet need to be treated with physiotherapy. The most commonly used electrophoresis is the calcium of the ankles, which helps to strengthen the ligaments, and electromyostimulation of the lower leg muscles, which causes the weakened muscles to contract. Assign physiotherapy courses 2 times a year for 10 sessions.
Plane prophylaxis in children
To reduce the risk of flat feet in the child, it is necessary, starting from the earliest age when the baby starts to get up, to carry out the prevention, which is as follows:
- As soon as the baby starts to make the first attempts to stand at the support,, so he did it in the shoes to prevent the wrong installation of the feet. In this case, shoes should be made of natural materials, have a small heel, a hard back, a pronounced instep, an elastic and corrugated sole, be of size and well fix the ankle and foot.
- A toddler should not wear out someone else's shoes, because it always stalks in different ways and is not always right. Therefore, if a child wears out shoes inherited, he will get all the problems with the feet that are available to the previous owner.
- A good prevention is hardening. Often ill with colds of the baby, not only the immune system suffers, but muscles are weakened, which leads to a decrease in motor activity, and this can provoke the development of flat feet. Effective contrast baths for feet. For them, it is necessary to take two tanks into which the child's legs can be placed in the water up to the knee. In one tank water is poured 40 ◦С, in another - 33 ◦С.The legs of the child alternately for a few seconds should be lowered then into warm, then into cold water. The duration of the procedure is 5-10 minutes. It is performed only when the baby is healthy.
- Reduces the risk of flat feet with warm baths for feet with sea salt or bathing in sea water. Sea salt tones blood vessels and muscles, and water exercises a massage effect.
- The correct formation of the arch of the foot is almost impossible without barefoot walks. In the warm season, the child should often walk barefoot on pebbles, grass, sand and other uneven surfaces. But before, you have to make sure that there is no broken glass, nails or other objects on the way of the baby, about which he can get hurt. Such surfaces can be recreated and at home, for example, on the floor to sprinkle beans, which will perfectly replace pebbles.
- Excellent prevention is to lift your toes from the floor of small items - pencils, large buttons.
Flattening is a disease that, in the absence of therapy, can cause serious consequences - diseases of the musculoskeletal system, severe deformities of the foot bones. Therefore, neglect treatment and prevention is not worth it!
According to statistics, more than 65 percent of children already have a flat-footed approach to school age. Even more patients are leaving school. What is a flatfoot? Flat feet in children - is a deformity of the foot. Often parents do not even understand the seriousness of this disease, they think that it will pass - after all, the child is not disabled. But the flat feet never pass. In the neglected form, treatment becomes more complicated and expensive, even surgery is possible.
Flat-footed children is the loss of all the spring functions of the foot - it's like riding a car with working springs and a car with faulty ones. In the first car, even significant pits will be invisible, but in the second it will shake even on a small one. That's how the spine and the hip joint shake when walking in children suffering from flat feet. This can lead, first of all, to the curvature of the spine, as well as pain in the head, legs, back, or even some serious illnesses.
What is the danger of flat feet?
Flat feet quickly progress and can lead to scoliosis, osteochondrosis, sciatica, arthritis, arthrosis, varicose veins and other diseases. Flattening accelerates the wear and tear of the whole musculoskeletal system! That is why at the first signs of flat feet it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor!
The baby's feet are formed before the age of 5 years. The earlier flat foot is detected, the easier it is to cure it. After five years of life, it is already more difficult. But, having begun treatment, it is possible to improve the condition of the foot, to stop the development of flat feet and to prevent the deformations of the spine. It is necessary to show the orthopedist of a child who quickly gets tired of walking and asks for his hands. Treatment flat feet in children is very difficult, so it is better to start as early as possible, and it is best to do preventive maintenance. Consider the factors that trigger the appearance of flat feet in children .These factors weaken the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot: clubfoot( congenital condition), severe infections with complications, trauma to the foot, rickets, weight lifting, overweight, wrong shoes.
Of all these factors, one conclusion can be drawn that the flat feet in children may appear in a healthy child, and the parents themselves can provoke it. According to statistics, 80% of flat feet is static, that is, arisen with excess weight, loads or irregular shoes. Very often flat feet become the result of a whole bunch of incorrect actions. First of all - substandard footwear. You can scoff at tasteless and scary Soviet children's shoes, but the medical requirements were strictly enforced in them.
To properly form a growing baby foot, shoes must necessarily have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less) and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.
And now look at the modern shoes for kids, which offer us merchants. Slippers, slippers on "carnations", slippers on absolutely flat soles. Socks from deliberately stupid to supersaturated. The other extreme is modern running shoes: they are so springy when walking and running, which completely free the foot from this function, and it, like any muscle construction, begins to "lazy."
Like the one and the other shoes described above, maybe, and it will instill a good taste for your child( and, most likely, will simply amuse your own vanity), but it will really reward him with flat feet. To finish the theme of shoes, I will note that some doctors advise not to let babies wear other people's shoes, since the shoe, which is worn by someone else's foot, is essentially a footprint of someone else's foot and incorrectly distributes the load on the feet.
Before putting on shoes for a child, you need to take into account that for 2 or even 3 sizes larger than his own size, shoes will only hurt him. Free shoes will not help the tired muscles of the foot to keep it in the right position, and the tight will disturb the blood circulation and the legs will not recover after the loads. Be sure to have a heel, since its absence can lead to deformation of the foot. So remember, putting on your child's shoes from your older sister or brother is not always a cost saving, you can earn a sore like children's flat-footed .
shoes The "Culprit" of the acquired flatfoot may have incorrectly matched shoes. As soon as the child starts to get up, it's time to buy his first boots. Usually it occurs in the period from 7-8 months. The criteria for "correct" children's shoes are indicated quite clearly. The first shoe should:
Tightly fix the foot and ankle with lacing or Velcro, but never squeeze the foot and be too loose.
Have a minimum number of internal seams so that the toddler does not rub the skin around the ankles.
In its manufacture( including insoles), natural materials should be used.
The backside should be high, rigid, reaching the border of the lower or middle third of the shin. This is necessary in order to avoid lateral curvature in the ankle joint.
It is better if the surface of the boots is perforated so that the legs can "breathe".
The sole should be stable and non-slip, with a small heel. In addition, it must be rigid. This prevents re-flexion in the joints of the foot and overgrowth of the ligaments. And for the baby, the toddler on the leather soles is quite suitable.
In shoes for children under 2 years there should be no instep, because the function of the shock absorber is the same "fat pad", otherwise it will prevent the normal formation of the arches of the foot. True, everything is very individual. Perhaps some babies will have to choose shoes without a supinator and at an older age. This issue is better discussed with the doctor.
When fitting, it is necessary to take into account that the shoes were with a stock that does not prevent the child from walking - about 1.5 cm.
After walking, pay attention to the foot of the baby: if the skin is imprinted with the relief of tights or internal seams of the shoe - shoes need to be changed. This will allow the small legs to relax from the usual position, and if the child's feet sweat, - how to dry the raw shoes without affecting the next walk. To properly form a foot, children need not only good shoes. The power of also matters. The connective tissue in its composition is somewhat similar to bone tissue. And in exactly the same way it suffers from rickets, that is, the wrong phosphoric-calcium metabolism in the body. When there is a lack of calcium, as is known, bones become soft and deformed under the influence of weight and muscles, and the connective tissue of the foot ceases to be elastic and elastic and similarly obeys the pressure of body weight.
So even if your baby does not have signs of rickets, do not forget about flatfoot - another consequence of calcium deficiency. So, support in the daily diet of the child a sufficient amount of rich in phosphorus and calcium products. Do not forget about a sufficient number of sunbathing or preventive intake of vitamin D in the winter.
There is a misconception that flat feet in children up to six years is physiological and does not require correction. This is not correct, it is up to 5-6 years, when the ossification points are not closed, it is easier to correct or prevent the development of deformation of the feet and to form the correct gait. And after that, only treatment will help, which is much more difficult.
Independently treatment of the child is not recommended, it is better to visit the orthopedist constantly, it is better to conduct preventive maintenance. Such prevention will be running on hillocks and hills, exercises, on balance, leaning on one foot, climbing along a rope or pole, walking on a log. Stop is not suitable for surfaces such as asphalt, concrete, linoleum, laminate and other hard coatings. On such surfaces, the muscles do not work, and therefore, atrophy and sag. Prevention is considered the best fight with flat feet in children !At the initial stage and children under 5 years of age, it is not recommended to wear felt boots, soft slippers and open-toed heels. It is not necessary, aspires to parents that the child has started to walk earlier, also it is necessary to stop the desire of girls to wear high heels with a narrow toe. A useful prevention will be swimming in the water, and you need to work as much as possible with your feet.
Like any other muscular function, the formation of an elastic arch of the foot requires development and training. The best thing for this is the "barefoot life". Let the child at least occasionally walk on pebbles, sand, earth, grass bundles - everything that causes his legs to constantly strain, transfer the weight of the body from one surface to another, from the heel to the toe. At home, this exercise can be successfully done with small cubes, balls, small playful toys, peas, beans, beans, the word of any uneven sex. However, it can be in thick socks, but not in shoes( even on a thin sole).Very important is therapeutic exercise. Such physical culture can be done while playing with the child, walking on a rolling pin, getting objects with the help of legs, climbing on the Swedish wall. The most common signs of flatfoot in children are aching feet when walking, fatigue of the legs, by the evening swelling of the foot, which by morning passes, the inner side of the sole wears out quickly. Children with such a diagnosis walk with their legs apart, bending their knees, thus the foot becomes wider.
A very simple flatbed test can be performed at home. It is enough just to moisten the cotton wool with paint and to anoint the baby's feet and put it on a blank sheet of paper. If there was only an imprint of the heel, the front part with the fingers and the contour means everything is in order. And if the entire foot or its middle part is visible, then this is a flatfoot. It is not necessary to do such experiments at an early age, since the fat pad causes a flat-footed contour and the result will not be correct. In this way it is good to check how the treatment is going.
If you think that flat feet - only a slight deviation from the norm, which does not require treatment, you are very wrong!
The main thing in solving the flatfoot problem is to really evaluate the problem and turn to the right specialist in time.
In childhood, a complete cure for flat feet is still quite realistic. Daily exercise for the "lazy" muscles of the foot is done with the help of massage, contrasting trays and special gymnastics. In the evenings, soak the child's legs in a hot bath with a tonic infusion of chamomile, pine extract or sea salt. Stroke the steamed feet, and then forcefully pound them with your thumbs or fist. Especially energetically puzzle out the outer edge of the foot - it should be the strongest. After kneading, pour your feet with cold water or wipe it with a piece of ice.
For a special gymnastics from a flatfoot , the child will have to spend at least 10 minutes a day. Where can I get these ten minutes? Buy a massage mat and put it in the bathroom. While the child is washing and brushing his teeth( twice a day), let him stand on the mat with his bare feet, rise on his toes, roll from toe to heel, stands on the outer edge of the soles.
When to go to the doctor
It is not necessary to treat the child independently. Massage, physiotherapy, corrective devices( orthopedic insoles), therapeutic exercises are prescribed by a doctor who takes into account the age, severity of pathology, and also takes into account the main cause of flatfoot development.
Probably all parents understand that preventive examinations of specialists are not a whim of doctors, but a necessary measure. The main thing is not to miss the time of visiting the doctor. An orthopedic examination is performed:
in the first month of life, this is necessary to exclude congenital deformities and skeletal diseases, including congenital flat feet;
at 3 and 6 months of age, when rickets can be detected;
in 1 year. This is an important stage in the life of the child, when he sits alone, crawls, walks. At this time the doctor checks the correctness of the natural curves of the spine, the volume of movements in the joints;
in 3 years. The orthopedist checks the posture, gait, measures the length of the limbs, examines the condition of the feet. Ideally, at this age, an orthopedic with a child should be visited every year - in order not to miss the development of flat feet. Parents need to be prepared for the fact that the orthopedist( if he doubts the final diagnosis) will send a small patient to an additional examination in a consultative and diagnostic center.
See also Gymnastics with flat feet
Oksana I have flat feet. I am 23 years old. Apparently at a time when I was little, no one bothered about the flat feet of the child. My father also had a flat feet, everyone thought "into him" and even no one tried to treat him. Plants in the garden and the school wrote flat foot, but no treatment was prescribed. Only at the university on a medical examination I was told for the first time that in the future there will be problems and wondered why they were not treated as children. After that, I tried to do something, I rolled a tennis ball, but hardly anything would help, the bones were formed. Sometimes I feel the consequences. Often the back pain, legs during walking, I think with age the problems will increase(
Lily At the very flatfoot since childhood.) Problems in a heap. In childhood, my legs ached that I climbed on the wall. By the way, barefoot never could walk, it was very painful stopI also run very badly, I constantly stumble and fall, I often dislocate legs when walking fast, and I also have a lot of work to do. I'm afraid that I'm waiting in my old age
Olga Very informative. Now we are 3, let's go to the orthopedist. .. Empty
Olesya My daughter was diagnosed with flat-valgus feet at 3.5 years old, was prescribed a massage, electrostimulation of the muscles of the feet and exercise therapy. . At home, pencils and buttons were raised with the fingers of the feet while they were waiting for our turn to massage,we do all the prescribed 2 times a year, we registered for choreography, we wear orthopedic insoles, the improvement is observed. As the doctor told me, the main thing is to have everything fixed up to 7 years, until the skeleton is formed. Then all bones become strong and all these measures can be useless. Before the massage, the legs hurt very much, especially at night or after a load( trampoline, a long walk, etc.).So do not delay with treatment. It is very important!
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Flat feet in children. Exercises.
Since the second half of life, the child is gradually accustomed to the "upright".During this period, the load on the lower limbs( legs) increases. With the proper development and wearing of good shoes, physiological development of the legs occurs. With various diseases, constant stress on the legs, excessive physical exercises, various changes in the lower limbs may appear, one of which is flatfoot.
Symptoms of flat feet in children
Normally the child's foot has a concave structure.then the structure depends on the strength of the muscles that attach to the bones of the foot. Some muscles pull bones up, others - down. In a normal structure, the arch of the foot has an angle of 90 °.If the child develops flat feet, then this angle increases, and depending on the degree may have values approaching the right angle( 180˚).
Flattening is the flattening of the foot. If you take the child's sole, lubricate it with paint and attach it to paper, then you will get a footprint in which you can select the painted and not painted areas. In medicine, this study was called planktography, and helps to establish the presence and degree of flat feet. To determine the presence of flat feet, a straight line is drawn through the center of the print between the third and fourth finger. Normally, the shaded part should not go beyond this line. If she leaves the child for her, then he has a flat foot. Depending on the relationship between the shaded and not shaded parts, the degree of flat feet( 1, 2 or 3) is established.
Flattening can be congenital or acquired. Congenital flat feet develop during intrauterine growth of the child. The development of this disease is more affected by the mother's disease than the environment. Very often, a hereditary factor can be traced in the development of congenital flat feet. The peculiarity of congenital flat feet is a pronounced clinical picture. This condition develops due to the fact that there is an incorrect attachment of muscles to the bones, and the muscles too strongly extend the foot. In some cases with congenital flatfoot, the changes in the foot can be so severe that the foot looks like a paperweight when the center of the foot is bent outward, and the toes and heel are raised. In this condition, the child is very difficult to walk, so he needs medical care.
Acquired flat feet can be traumatic, rachitic, paralytic and static. The most common among children is static flatfoot. This form of flatfoot develops due to increased load on the lower limbs and from a prolonged systematic standing. Most often this flat foot begins to develop in 3-4 years. In addition to constant loads, static flat feet can develop if the footwear is not properly worn.
Child's shoes should be comfortable, you need a small heel. Shoes should not be too hard, but not too soft. It is very important that the leg is tightly clasped by the shoes, and not staggered from side to side. Therefore, it is very important to take into account the completeness of the foot when choosing shoes. It is very important that the child runs barefoot at home, as this promotes proper loading on the legs.
Traumatic platypodia develops due to improper splicing of bones after a fracture. In some cases this type of flatfoot may develop due to unrecognized ligament ruptures.
Ricky flatfoot develops on the background of a lack of vitamin D. in the body. Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium in the body, which is used to build bones. If the body receives insufficient calcium, this leads to the fact that the bones become softer and supple. Since in the second half of the child's life the load on the legs increases, this leads to a change in the structure of the foot. In addition to changes in the foot, other manifestations of rickets are observed in the child: curvature of the bones of the lower extremities, flattening of the occiput, the appearance of characteristic outgrowths on the ribs( rachitic rosary).
Paralytic flat feet is associated with the development of paralysis of the muscles of the lower limbs, which in this connection can not keep the foot in the correct form. Very often, this condition is observed after the transferred poliomyelitis.
The main symptom of flat feet is increased fatigue when walking. The load on the foot when walking is not uniform, and that's why the children quickly get tired, they have pain in the foot, in some cases they can climb into the calf muscles. Most often, pain intensifies toward evening, after rest the pain is completely gone. In some cases, with severe flat feet, it becomes much more comfortable for children to walk on the inner surface of the foot.
Treatment of flat feet in children
For the diagnosis, the foot of the child is inspected, paying attention to the presence of natural foot structures. For more accurate examination, planotography is carried out. One way to clarify the diagnosis is the radiographic examination of the foot with the calculation of the angle of the arch of the foot. The diagnosis on the basis of a single examination is not possible, because in children more than in adults, the fat tissue of the foot is developed, and this may look similar to flat feet, but in reality they are not.
After the installation of the exact diagnosis, treatment is started. When congenital flat feet are resorted to the application of plaster bandages, which fix the foot in the correct position. These dressings are applied for a period of 7-10 days, after which they are removed and applied again. Treatment lasts 8-10 weeks. After completion of treatment, massage courses and physiotherapy procedures are prescribed. Surgical treatment for congenital flat feet is shown only in extreme cases, when it is impossible to achieve adequate correction in other ways.
For correcting the acquired flat feet, the child is given a massage and physical therapy. During physiotherapy, children are asked to be like socks, on the heels, on the inner and outer surfaces of the foot. It is necessary that the children try to take the rope from the floor with their toes, throw the ball, holding it with two legs. All these exercises you can easily carry out at home independently. A good effect is having classes on the sand.
Wearing orthopedic insoles depends on the child's age. If the child is preschool, it is recommended to wear shoes with a hard sole and a small heel. At this age it is not recommended to wear orthopedic insoles. Since the school age, the load on the legs is increasing in children, which is associated with physical training, so at this age it is recommended to wear orthopedic insoles, which are selected individually by an orthopedic doctor. If the child has a pronounced pain syndrome while walking, it is recommended that the foot is placed in the correct position and fixed with a plaster bandage. Leave the bandage for 2-3 weeks, then remove the bandage, and again dress it, but with a smaller fixation. Re-bandages are applied for 3-4 weeks. After their removal, the child is recommended to massage and wear orthopedic insoles. Surgical treatment is indicated only in very severe cases of flatfoot in older children.
Treatment and prevention of flatfoot must be started as early as possible.
Exercises for treatment and prevention
The duration of one lesson is 10 minutes. Before the exercises you should be like a socks, then jump through a rolling pin( also on socks) - on one and two legs.
1. Exercise "skating rink" - a child rolls back and forth a ball, a rolling pin, or a bottle. The exercise is carried out first one, then the other foot.
2. Exercise "robber" - the child sits on the floor with bent legs. The heels are tightly pressed to the floor and do not detach from it during the entire period of the exercise. With the movements of the toes, he tries to drag a towel( or a napkin) on which lies some kind of load( for example, a stone) under the heel. The exercise is carried out first one, then the other foot.
3. Exercise "painter" - a child sitting on the floor with legs outstretched, knees straightened, with the thumb of one leg holds on lifting the other leg in the direction from the thumb to the knee."Stroking" is repeated 3-4 times. The exercise is carried out first one, then the other foot.
4. Exercise "collector" - a child sitting on the floor with bent knees, collects various small objects laid out on the floor( toys, clothespins, fur-trees, cones, etc.) with the fingers of one leg, and puts them into heaps. He repeats the other with the same foot. Then, without the help of his hands, he shifts objects from one heap to another. Do not allow objects to fall during transport.
5. Exercise "artist" - a child with a pencil clamped toes, draws on a sheet of paper different shapes, holding the sheet with the other leg. The exercise is carried out first one, then the other foot.
6. Exercise "caterpillar" - the child sits on the floor with bent knees, heels are pressed to the floor. Bending the toes, he pulls the heel forward to the fingers, then the fingers again straighten and the motion repeats( imitation of the movement of the caterpillar).Moving the heel forward by flexing and straightening the toes continues until the fingers can touch the floor. Exercise is performed with both feet simultaneously.
7. Exercise "boat" - a child sitting on the floor with bent knees and pressing the soles of the feet to each other "gradually tries to straighten the knees until the fingers and toes of the legs can be pressed together( trying to give the feet the shape of the boat).
8. Exercise "mill" - the child, sitting on the floor with his legs straight, describes the feet with circles in two directions.
9. Exercise "sickle" - a child sitting on the floor with bent knees, puts the soles of the feet on the under( distance between them is 20 cm).The bent toes first approach each other, and then they are bred in different directions, with the heels remaining in one place. The exercise is repeated several times.
10. Exercise "drummer" - a child sitting on the floor with bent knees, without touching the heels of the floor, moves his feet up and down, touching the floor with his toes. During the exercise, the knees gradually straighten.
11. Exercise "window" - the child, standing on the floor, dissolves and reduces his straightened legs, not tearing the soles off the floor.
12. Exercise "walking on the heels" - the child walks on the heels;not touching the floor with your fingers and soles.
For the prevention of flat feet, you must wear the right shoes, you can always exercise with the child exercises that are used during physical therapy, especially on the beach, in the sand. After a long walk, it is recommended to take a warm foot bath.
Doctor pediatrician Litashov M.V.