Signs of arthrosis of the knee joint

Symptoms and signs of arthrosis, the main methods of treatment

Joint disease, in which the cartilaginous layer breaks down, is called arthrosis. Unfortunately, the cartilage that covers the inner surface of the joints grows old over time. Many reasons affect. Is arthrosis dangerous to humans and what does it threaten? Are there really effective methods to combat the disease?

To understand the specifics of the disease and to equip with the necessary elementary knowledge, we will consider what is arthrosis: its symptoms and treatment. The destruction of cartilage occurs gradually and at first the person can not feel its signs. The slightest trauma and overload, dislocations and subluxations help the development of the disease. The aging cartilage is recovering worse after them and salt is deposited on the injury site and scars are formed. The articular surfaces are not so smooth and even more injured during the movement. There is a specific crunch, pain and swelling. Gradually, the joint may become deformed.

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knee structure

Scheme of the knee joint

Causes of arthrosis

Heredity plays a big role in the appearance of the disease. If the parents had this ailment, then the probability of its appearance in children is great. In this case, the disease can significantly "grow young".Uneven loads on the joints are of great importance. They are exposed to people who perform sitting and standing work related to the profession: hairdressers, salesmen, drivers, and now those who spend a long time at the computer.

Also affect the joints are greater physical exertion. They suffer from athletes, builders, loaders, miners, as well as working with vibroinstrumentami. Lead to arthrosis can and endocrine diseases( obesity, diabetes), women during menopause - a deficiency of hormones, which makes cartilage vulnerable to injury and stress.
Arthrosis affects more women - 87%, in men it is noted in 83% at the age of 55-65 years. The disease can affect almost any joints. It is divided into primary and secondary arthrosis. The primary form begins without a noticeable cause at the age of over 40 and affects many joints simultaneously. It can be accompanied by high blood pressure, violation of fat metabolism, atherosclerosis, etc. Most often, arthrosis is localized on the fingers - nodular changes in phalanges.

Secondary arthrosis can develop at any age, it affects one or more joints of the limbs and spine. With this form of the disease the joint slits narrow, and the surface of the bones thickens due to bone growths. For example, when an ankle is affected, pain is seen in the anterior surface of the joint, swelling, mobility restriction, lameness, joint deformation appear most often in football players, runners, ballerinas.

arthrosis of the knee

Knee joint, damaged by arthrosis. Right - X-ray picture

Diagnosis and treatment of the disease

Only the doctor can determine the form of the disease and its causes. This is done through a comprehensive examination of the patient. The condition of the whole organism is assessed. To do this, a research system is conducted: a patient's questionnaire( anamnesis) for the purpose of identifying previously suffered diseases and injuries, radiographic examination, laboratory tests, instrumental and special examinations to obtain the complete picture. In this case, it is not always easy to determine the degree of development of arthrosis: with significant changes in X-ray images, the patient may not have severe pains and, conversely: with severe pain, changes in the images are quite insignificant.

Treatment of arthrosis today is a serious and urgent problem. And although the amount of medicines used for arthrosis is constantly increasing, they have only a symptomatic effect. And while none of the drugs has become a panacea in the treatment of joints. Because the treatment strategy is chosen by the doctor, and the patient himself helps. Treatment should be comprehensive.

The first action is the removal of the pain syndrome. During the exacerbation of the disease, joints need rest and less stress. It is recommended to unload them with a cane, crutches or walkers. Avoid prolonged standing or bending. Parallel to this, chondroprotectors are appointed - a group of drugs that "restore" the affected joint mechanically and are a kind of lubrication of the articular surfaces. They prevent further destruction of the cartilage.

The development of arthrosis is accompanied by an inflammatory process. To combat it, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. But their use as a double-edged sword can be vital, and can be very dangerous. Therefore, only the art of a doctor can skillfully direct it to the inflammatory process and at the same time avoid the risks of developing gastritis, thrombosis, liver disease.

At home, as prescribed by the doctor, the patient can use distractions in the form of ointments, sweets, gels, infusions of herbs. Good results are provided by physiotherapy, acupuncture, hirudotherapy( treatment with leeches), and also sanatorium treatment in the stage of remission( attenuation of the disease) with the use of natural mud and mineral baths.

leeches

Treatment with leeches - not very common, but gives good results

Arthrosis of large joints

Pain, knee joint damage( in this case we are talking about gonarthrosis) never appear sharply, in one second. Osteoarthritis in the knee joint is gradually growing. First, there are pains with prolonged walking, while climbing the stairs or descending from it. It is also difficult for the patient to start the movement after sleeping and sitting. After rest, pain in the knee disappears. At the first stage of the disease the joint has the same shape, but it can be swollen. Over time, pain intensifies, and mobility decreases. The knee bends less and reaches only 90 degrees. There is a deformation of the joint, a coarse crunch appears, more and more intensifying. In the third stage, the mobility of the joints is reduced to a minimum, they deform even more, the legs are bent, the gait becomes overtaxed.

Osteoarthritis of the hip joints( coxarthrosis) develops after 40 years, and they are more often affected by women. This is the most severe form of degenerative joint disease. Often it is caused by congenital dysplasia, dislocations and subluxations, suffered diseases and injuries of the femoral head. The main symptom of the disease is pain in the groin, which extends no more than up to the knee, increases with walking and it is especially difficult to get up from a chair or bed.

Gradually, the signs of arthrosis of the hip joint are supplemented by the restriction of the movement of the aching leg. A person can no longer take his foot to the side or pull up to his chest, there is a rough dry crunch. He finds it difficult to put on socks and shoes, he begins to limp. If the patient is put on his back, it will clearly be seen that the sick leg has become shorter and unfolded outward. Further, due to lameness, there is fatigue in the lumbar region and pain in the attachment of tendons in the knee joint. These pains can be even stronger than the pain in the groin and can provoke incorrect diagnosis.

Prevention

Maintain physical activity, avoid overcooling and professional overloads, do not injure joints and spine, eat rationally. Take care and train your bone system.

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Signs and symptoms of arthrosis in children

Recently, many diseases, which previously occurred only in the elderly, are increasingly affecting children. One of these diseases is arthrosis in children. Osteoarthritis is the destruction of the intraarticular cartilage, accompanied by inflammation and degeneration of the surrounding tissue. Causes of arthrosis can hide in the consequences of the resulting sprains, bone injuries, dislocations, fractures. Such traumas are typical for children's mobile way of life.

The main symptom that can be seen as a signal that the child has arthrosis of the knee or hip joint, with aching pain inside. In addition, the sign of arthrosis in children is the appearance of a crunch in the joint or a certain stiffness of movements. The child has painful sensations during the performance of any physical actions. At first, the pain appears only after a long walk, running, physical exercises, but after a while the pain becomes a permanent companion of the child.

It is extremely important to pay attention in a timely manner to the pain that arises in children in order to start treatment in a timely manner. For children, arthrosis is dangerous for the primary deformation of the joints, with a worse prognosis, there is a high probability of an absolute loss of mobility, up to the acquisition of a disability by the child.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and characteristics of

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is an insidious enemy, it disrupts the blood supply of the joint capsule and bones, which gradually leads to deformation and thinning of the cartilage, the changes can be irreversible.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint: symptomatology and diagnosis of

The following symptoms are noted as symptoms:

  1. The emerging and rather intense pain in the knee flexion area, with an unstable, changing character.
  2. Manifestation of edema or deformation in the area affected by arthrosis.
  3. Characteristic crunch when walking.
  4. Increased cartilage in the volume or its edema due to inflammation in the joint synovium.
  5. Reduced mobility and joint stiffness.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is diagnosed after a thorough examination of the medical history, confirmed by the information of sick children, clinical and radiological examination.

Stages, principles of treatment and prevention of knee arthrosis

Arthrosis of the knee joint is considered in 3 stages:

  1. Starting pains are irregular and disturb only in case of considerable physical effort. This pain always disappears. Examining the child, they detect significant accumulations of pathological fluid in the knee( synovitis), which are felt as a heaviness, a thickening of the knee, when pressing, a characteristic springiness is found. Despite the fact that there is no special deformation of the bone tissue, it is already possible to speak about the presence of arthrosis of the knee joint by external signs.
  2. In the second stage there is a mobility restriction syndrome, it is not possible to bend the leg completely. The reason for this is the proliferation of bone tissue, the appearance of osteophytes, which causes blockage of the joint and, as a consequence, a gradual atrophy of the muscles that are responsible for bringing it into motion. The cartilaginous layer is so thin that it causes friction of the joint surfaces against each other. The pain intensifies, acquires a pronounced character, appears even with minor physical exertion, for example, when climbing a ladder or walking for a short time. The pain subsides in the case of rest, but returns with repeated loading. Over time, there is a crunch in the knees, it provokes movement. The more arthrosis of the knee joint progresses, the more pronounced the crunch becomes.
  3. In the third stage, the pain sensation is diagnosed, for them the appearance and in a state of absolute rest is characteristic. Blood circulation is disturbed, which causes a feeling of "twisting".It is more difficult to find a pose in which the pain subsided. The gait becomes unstable, the mobility reduces to a minimum, its deformation is observed.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and the form of its treatment

exercises with arthrosis

It is well understood that the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint is a very long process. Principles of treatment are:

  • physical activity limitation;
  • compliance with the recommendations of a physician in orthopedics;
  • exercise therapy;
  • physiotherapy;
  • medication.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and preventive measures to prevent it:

  1. It is obligatory to include in the diet of children the amount of nutrients necessary for the growing body, to observe the diet.
  2. Performing regular gymnastic exercises that are aimed at maintaining the general tone, improve the blood circulation of the joints in children.
  3. The first painful sensations should be the reason for an immediate consultation with a specialist.

Hip Osteoarthritis and

Characteristics Osteoarthritis of the hip joint in children develops due to the rapid growth of pelvic bones. It is generally believed that the disease progresses in the case of visible disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint, as a rule, begins with the disease of one of the joints, with time the disease is able to move and in the second. Cartilage tissues become thinner and become fragile, the process of blood supply of joints worsens, the loss of organic properties occurs, the probability of formation of cysts in the areas of damage is high.

Hip Osteoarthritis: Symptoms and Diagnosis of

The following symptoms are considered to be symptomatic:

  1. Pain in the groin, thigh, joint, regardless of whether they are stressed or relaxed.
  2. Stiffness of movements, limitation of mobility.
  3. Stitching.

The diagnosis of arthrosis of the hip joint is formed on the basis of radiographic and clinical data. The examination reveals the degree and etiology of the disease.

Degrees, principles of treatment and prevention of arthrosis of the hip joint

Arthrosis of the hip joint is conventionally divided into 3 degrees:

  1. At 1 degree, there are cyclic painful sensations, provoking their long physical activity( running or long moving games).Typical concentration of pain in the hip area. Below the knee joint, pain does not fall. During rest, unpleasant and painful sensations disappear, because the child can ignore temporary discomfort. There are no changes in the gait, muscle strength remains at the same level, mobility is preserved. Already, in the case of an X-ray examination, there are some deviations - small bony overgrowths, located around the inner or outer edge of the articular surface of the swivel cavity. Bony growths do not go beyond the joint lip. X-ray shows a high density of pelvic bones, uneven narrowing of the joint gap, while the mobility is preserved.
  2. With 2 degrees of pain, they increase their intensity, acquire a pulsation, give into the inguinal region, the thigh and remain at rest. Long walks cause lameness. The normal functioning of the joint is disrupted. Limitation and internal rotation of the hip is limited. The muscles responsible for the removal and extension of the hip weaken. When X-ray examination of the hip joint deviations are seen better, there is a significant growth of the bone both on the inner and the outer edge of the swivel. Bony growths extend beyond the boundaries of the cartilaginous lip. There is a noticeable tendency to shift the head of the hip up and narrow the gap of the hip joint.
  3. At 3 degrees the pain intensifies, arises constantly, accompanies and in a state of absolute rest. Increases discomfort when walking, it becomes necessary to use the cane. Movement is forcedly limited, the muscles of the buttocks, thighs, tibia atrophy. The absent muscles of the hip weaken, and in view of this the pelvis tilts in the frontal plane, which leads to shortening of the leg on the diseased side. This leads to a shift in the center of gravity and excessive stress on the affected joint. On the roentgenogram, the enlarged bony enlargements on the side of the femoral head are visible, the joint gap disappears, sharply narrowing. The final loss of joint mobility, as it acquires the bone structure. Moving is possible only with the help of crutches.

Hip arthrosis and basic principles of therapy

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint in children

Therapy is aimed at restoring the mobility of the joint, its task is to prevent the final destruction of the cartilaginous tissue.

Osteoarthritis of the hip joint and the form of its treatment:

  • treatment and exercise complex of exercises;
  • physiotherapy;
  • chiropractic;
  • surgery;
  • alternative medicine;
  • medication.

For arthrosis of the hip joint, surgical intervention is the only last resort. Because it is much easier to conduct timely prevention of the disease, to warn him:

  1. The choice in favor of an active life position, preventive gymnastic classes in the morning.
  2. It is advisable to avoid sports that involve excessive load on the joints.
  3. Be sure to adhere to the formula of a healthy diet and avoid the appearance of excess weight.

Undoubtedly, prevention of arthrosis of the hip joint, as well as arthrosis of the knee joint in children, is more effective than long-term treatment. It is better and easier to avoid arthrosis, following simple recommendations. Adjusted nutrition in the child, the systematic conduct of a certain set of exercises, the consumption of vitamins and minerals necessary for the growing body of children, a mobile and active way of life, a reasonable distribution of physical exertions will preserve the health of children.

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Signs and symptoms Osteoarthritis( 4 main symptoms)

Osteoarthritis or asteroarthrosis is a joint disease, the main cause of which is the violation of the patency of the vessels that feed the joints of the joint. At its core, this premature wear of the intraarticular cartilage is due to a partial cessation or restriction of the supply of nutrients to it. In this case, the disease has a chronic, progressive nature, which is accompanied by increased pain in the joints and the gradual destruction of the cartilage resulting in the exposure of bone in the joint. After that, the joint stops working normally, the pain is present almost constantly, the formation of bone outgrowth begins with the possible deformation of the bone itself.

The most common arthrosis of the knee, hip and phalangeal joints. Traditionally, there are two types of arthrosis: primary - arising on the general background of age-related changes in the body, and secondary - developed as a result of trauma, excessive physical exertion, an infectious or other disease, for example, diabetes mellitus. Older people get arthritis more often, however, secondary arthrosis sometimes occurs at a younger age. The uncontrolled development of this disease can lead to disability. And here very important is the early detection of the disease and the timely initiation of treatment. In the early stages of asteroarthrosis can still be stopped, and prevent further development of the disease. Therefore, treat your health with due attention! And by subscribing to our newsletter, you will always be aware of all medical news and new treatments!

Osteoarthritis: symptoms of the disease

Unexpected pain in the joint

The main sign of arthrosis is an unexpected pain in the joint that appears when you are physically stressed on it and the possible occurrence of convulsive muscle tension. At the second stage of the development of the disease, small tumors can arise in the area of ​​the joint affected by the disease, audible crunch and constant discomfort during the joint operation.

Minor pain while walking

With arthrosis of the knee or coonarthrosis, the manifestation of the disease begins with minor pain when walking, especially when climbing the stairs, as well as in the case of prolonged standing in one place or sitting without moving.

Convulsive pain in calves

As a symptom of arthrosis, at night during rest, convulsive pains in calves may occur. After a while, in the second stage of development of coonarthrosis, a small knee tumor may form, and ordinary leg bending begins to cause painful discomfort. If at this stage of the disease bend the knee to the stop, then a crunch is heard and a painful feeling arises in the joint. When probing the joint, there is a feeling of pain if you try to dislodge the patella.

In the third stage, it is almost impossible to completely straighten the leg, and therefore a man affected by arthrosis of the knee joint goes all the time on slightly bent legs. The curvature of the legs begins to develop, the knee joints swell and protrude. This stage of the development of the disease is characterized by the constant presence of pain in the knee joints. Statistics show that the development of coonarthrosis in the third stage occurs in 15% of cases. In the majority of cases, its development stops earlier, thanks to the timely treatment begun. Therefore, if you noticed the primary signs of this disease from your friends or friends, then do not forget to draw their attention to this article.

Symptoms of coxarthrosis

Pain in the groin

The primary symptom of arthrosis of the hip joints or coxarthrosis is a recurrent pain in the groin that extends along the front or side of the thigh can reach the knee. At the same time, the pain sensation almost never appears below the knee, and in this the main difference in the signs of coxarthosis is the pain resulting from the lumbar injury, for example, in the hernia of the intervertebral disc.

Pain often occurs when you get up from the stool and the first few steps after that are painful enough. In the first stage, the pain in the joint is not sharp, but rather a background, noisy, more pronounced with long walks and physical exertion. As the disease progresses, pain sensations occur more often and their intensity increases. Already in the second stage, a sharp aggravation may occur, which lasts for several days. Appears clearly audible crunch of the joint. In the third stage, in addition to pain, there is a significant limitation of leg mobility. It is almost impossible to raise your knee to your chest or sit down with your legs wide apart. Rotation of the leg can be made only by the movement of the waist.

Diagnosis of arthrosis

Diagnosis of arthrosis is based, first of all, on the definition of such a predisposing factor as the appearance of pain and discomfort in the movements of the joints. If the above signs of the disease occur, it is possible to perform an X-ray, radionuclide and morphological study. All studies are conducted only in clinical settings and conclusions on them should be given only by qualified specialists. On our website, you can always ask questions about symptoms, treatment and prevention of arthrosis in the comments below.

Photo of patients with arthrosis

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Arthrosis of the knee joint: treatment, preparations

Doctors call osteoarthrosis an epidemic of the XXI century. According to statistics, every sixth inhabitant of the planet suffers from it. To date, it is not possible to completely cure this disease. However, there are methods that help stop its development and significantly improve the lives of patients.

Osteoarthritis( it's just arthrosis, or deforming arthrosis) is a chronic disease in which the articular cartilage is destroyed. Over time, their wear leads to negative changes in the surrounding tissues: muscles, ligaments, articulating bones.

A painful process can develop in any part of the body, but most often affects the supporting joints: hip, knee and wrist. And in this sad list is the osteoarthritis of the knee joints( gonarthrosis), which is revealed in 40-50% of patients.

Contents

  • 7 The best method of fighting - prevention

Culprits of the disease

Although arthrosis is not life threatening, it is one of the main causes of premature disability, yielding only to cardiovascular pathologies in this sense. It is believed that the disease occurs due to metabolic disorders in the cartilage tissues. Among the most likely factors that contribute to the development of this phenomenon doctors are called:

  1. Age. After 50 years, the ability of cartilage to reduce self-healing. In addition, with age, the body loses the moisture necessary to maintain the elasticity of the cartilage. However, this does not mean that all elderly people should suffer from ostearthrosis - a simultaneous combination of several factors is required to include the mechanism of the disease.
  2. Female gender. In women, arthrosis of the knee joint is diagnosed 10 times more often than in men. This injustice is associated with a genetic predisposition - the ailment is transmitted through the maternal line.
  3. High stress on the knee joints. Miners, loaders, professional athletes, dancers are at risk. The cause of the disease in them is a permanent microtraumatism of articular cartilage.
  4. Overweight. People with superfluous kilograms suffer from arthrosis 4 times more often than their slim peers. Excess weight not only increases the load on the joints of the legs, but also causes the violation of blood flow in the limbs, which makes it difficult to transport nutrients to the cartilage tissues.
  5. A sedentary lifestyle. Many patients with osteoarthrosis have many office workers. For normal operation of the joint, it is important that it receives a sufficient number of useful compounds. If a person spends most of the day without moving, the flow of necessary elements decreases.
  6. Endocrine pathologies and diseases of the osteoarticular system. Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, gout, arthritis, and osteoporosis contribute to impairment of innervation or nutrition of the joints.
  7. Dysplasia( weakness) of connective tissue. This is a congenital defect, which is manifested by hypermobility of the joints, because of which the load on them significantly increases and they wear out before the time.

The main symptoms of knee arthrosis

The first sign of osteoarthritis is pain. In the early stages of the disease, it is mechanical, that is, it occurs after physical exertion, prolonged walking, climbing the stairs, or just towards evening, when fatigue accumulates. Unpleasant sensations pass after rest.

Sometimes the pain can be episodic, appearing suddenly, for no apparent reason. Acute seizures occur when pieces of splinter cartilage fall into the joint cavity. In such cases, the disease is complicated by synovitis - inflammation of the internal( synovial) membrane of the joint bag. The affected area swells and becomes hot.

Over time, pain syndrome increases and worries already continuously. In the morning, patients need time to disperse and "develop" a knee. During the movement, crunching sounds and clicks due to the destruction of the cartilage can be heard. In the later stages, the joint becomes practically immobile.

What happens to the joint?

When gonarthrosis affects the entire knee joint. But everything begins with the defeat of its cartilaginous surface.

During movement, the cartilage acts as a shock absorber, making it easy for the bones to slide relative to each other. At the same time, the slightest load( walking, running, jumping) leads to the destruction of some part of it. In a healthy joint, instead of old cartilaginous fibers, new ones are formed immediately, so the person does not feel any discomfort. But in people with ostearthrosis, the processes of recovery occur at times more slowly - the cartilage becomes more and more delicate and fragile until it finally breaks down.

Along with the articular surface, the underlying bone also changes. At the edges of the joint, bone growths are formed, which deform it and cause inflammation of the surrounding tissues.

When should I contact a rheumatologist?

Very often patients with ostearthrosis come to see a doctor only when the pain in the knee becomes intolerable. Alas, such a picture in the overwhelming number of cases indicates that the joint has already been seriously destroyed and the patient can save only surgical prosthesis.

That's why it's important to contact specialists as soon as possible - with the appearance of the first signs of discomfort in the legs. In the early stages, the course of the disease can still be corrected, keeping the patient's "native" joint and normal working capacity.

How is the examination?

An experienced physician, in order to suspect gonarthrosis, it is enough to examine and talk with the patient. However, additional studies may be needed to confirm the diagnosis:

  • X-ray examination.

    This is how the joint looks from the inside

    According to the X-ray images, the doctor will evaluate the degree of destruction of the cartilage and determine the stage of the disease.

  • ultrasound. Allows you to examine soft tissue and detect fluid accumulation in the joint bag, which is not available to the X-ray machine.
  • Arthroscopy. This diagnostic method is used only in the most severe cases. During the procedure, a cut is made above the knee joint, where the mini-camera is inserted with the lighting device. The tool allows you to look at the bones, cartilages and reveal changes in surrounding tissues, as they say, from the inside.
  • MRI. An optional but very desirable method of investigation. It allows you to notice the slightest deformations in the joint, when even the external signs of the disease are not clearly pronounced.

How is arthrosis of the knee joint treated?

Treatment of osteoarthritis is a long and complex process. In the early stages, non-drug therapies are recommended, which help to cope with the symptoms and stop the progression of the pathological process. To such measures first of all are:

  • Therapeutic physical training. A special set of physical exercises designed to strengthen the musculoskeletal system, it is necessary to perform 2 times a day. Gymnastics well improves blood flow and restores nourishment of joints.
  • Massage. Manual techniques are aimed at relaxing the pathologically tense muscles, eliminating spasmodic pains, strengthening lymph and blood circulation in the diseased area.
  • Physiotherapy. Electrophoresis, ultrasonic irradiation, mud therapy, electromagnetic therapy are used as auxiliary agents. Different methods help reduce pain and eliminate inflammation. The optimal set of procedures is appointed by the attending physician.
  • Acupuncture. Stimulation of biologically active points in the process of acupuncture leads to an increase in the production of hormones of joy - endorphins and enkephalins, which contribute to the removal of pain.

What drugs are used to treat arthrosis of the knee?

Drug therapy is aimed at both eliminating symptoms and restoring damaged joint tissues.

During the exacerbation of the disease, treatment begins with the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).This group of drugs( Movalis, Celebrex, Diclofenac) effectively relieves pain and inflammation, but does not affect the articular cartilage. In addition, NSAIDs negatively affect the gastrointestinal tract, so they can not be used for a long time. In severe pain and synovitis, drugs are administered intramuscularly, in other cases, tablets and capsules are recommended.

Chondoprotectors are used to stimulate the restoration of cartilaginous tissues. Most of these drugs are based on chondroitin( chondroxide), glucosamine( DONA) or their combinations( Structum, Artra).Both compounds are natural components of articular cartilage. They improve the metabolism in the joint and protect it from further destruction. To obtain the desired effect, these medicines must be taken for a long time - within 2-3 months. The form of administration is tablets or powders.

However, the best effect is given by injection chondoprotectors based on mucopolysaccharides( Alflutop) or hyaluronic acid( Durallan).They are injected directly into the cavity of the joint bag and take on the role of lubricant, which facilitates the sliding of the cartilage relative to each other. As a result, the destroyed joints experience much less stress. But these medications can be used only at the initial stages of the disease, until the joint space narrowed. To maintain the result, the course should be repeated 2 times a year for several years.

Another type of injection involves the introduction of a joint of corticosteroid hormones( Diprospan).They quickly eliminate inflammation and swelling, but have a large set of side effects, so they are recommended by doctors only in extreme cases.

From local treatments that combine with internal medication, doctors can recommend a wide range of painkillers( Voltaren, Ketonal) and chondoprotective( chondroxide, chondroitin) ointments. The former are used for exacerbations of the disease, the latter for periods of calm.

Endoprosthetics

In the last stages of arthrosis, the replacement of the knee joint becomes the only measure that helps to improve the patient's condition. There are practically no age limits for the operation. But most often patients of the surgeons are people aged 50-70 years.

In endoprosthetics, the destroyed joint is replaced by an artificial joint, consisting of metal and polymers. He serves for 15-20 years. The operation is under general anesthesia. Within a day the patient is allowed to move with crutches, after 5-7 days they are discharged from the hospital. After a month of outpatient observation, the crutches are replaced with a cane. The whole period of rehabilitation takes 2-3 months.

Recommendations for home treatment

At home, follow the recommendations given by your doctor. It is useful to perform gymnastics - but with a small amplitude of movement and only during periods of calm of the disease, so as not to accelerate the destruction of the joint. It is good, if the complex of exercises will be selected individually by a specialist in physiotherapy exercises. Some doctors believe that swimming can be an excellent alternative to gymnastics: cartilage is not loaded during water procedures, but muscles and ligaments are strengthened.

In the absence of puffiness, warming compresses can be a great help in the fight against the disease. To this end, apply dry cotton-gauze dressings or bags with heated salt. Compresses are heated in the oven and applied to the affected joints once a day for 20-25 minutes.

It is also possible to apply anti-inflammatory applications with dimexidum, bischofite alone and use portable physiotherapeutic devices.

Without exacerbations, self-massage of the knee joint is allowed. For this, the patient's leg, slightly bent at the knee, is laid on the couch, the second is lowered to the floor. It is not the joint that needs to be massaged, but only the surrounding tissues. The procedure is performed between meals( 2 hours after and 1.5-2 hours before meals).

Muscles of the legs should be relaxed as much as possible. Massage is carried out with the use of cosmetic oils( peach, apricot), baby cream or recommended by the doctor anesthetic ointments. The area around the knee is stroked, rubbed and circularly massaged with pads of fingers. The procedure is carried out for 5-10 minutes and is completed by the application of a dry warm bandage.

It is very important to establish the correct motor mode against arthrosis. The load from the affected joint should be minimized. Long walks are not recommended, frequent descents and ascents on the stairs, lifting weights. Half-hour walks are required to alternate with a 10-minute rest.

The chairs in the house should be with armrests, so that it is convenient for the patient to get up from them - the main emphasis for lifting should fall on the wrists, and not on the legs.

During forced physical activities it is desirable to use special fixatives - knee pads, supporting bandages, elastic bandages. In addition to relieving knee joints, supportors and orthopedic insoles will help. Choose them individually, taking into account the nature of the foot.

If you have difficulty with movement, you can use auxiliary tools - walking sticks, crutches. The cane should be matched exactly for growth. It is important that its handle is located at the base of the thumb. If the left knee hurts, the cane should be in the right hand, and vice versa.

Proper nutrition of

Patients with arthrosis are strongly encouraged to revise their menu. From the diet it is necessary to exclude fatty meat dishes. They contain arachidonic acid, which provokes inflammation of the joints. You can replace meat food with fish. It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, releasing arachidonic acid from the body.

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Causes of arthrosis

Unequivocally it is impossible to name the reason and prevent arthrosis of the knee joint, but knowing what can lead to the formation of the disease you can try to avoid them or at least start the treatment at least in time. Species that are secreted with arthrosis are divided into:

- is the primary form of arthrosis - , it appears in a person at birth, due to defects in the knee joint. To develop such arthrosis begins as a child , in some cases in adolescence. It occurs because of the incorrect development of the surfaces of the joints or ligaments, which subsequently leads to degenerative changes.

- secondary appearance of arthrosis - it occurs due to injuries or diseases.

The causes of arthrosis of the knee joint in the second form of the disease can be the following:

  • Meniscal removal operations - contribute to the rapid wear of the knee;
  • Fractures of bones, dislocation or any other knee injury that lead to damage to the cartilaginous or osseous bases of the knee;
  • An immeasurable load on the knee joint area is especially common in athletes;
  • To provoke arthrosis can inflammation of the joints - arthritis;
  • Excess weight also contributes to the appearance of the disease, due to excessive load on the ligamentous and articular apparatus;
  • Incorrect metabolism leads to accumulation of salts in knee joints;
  • Any knee surgery can also cause arthrosis;
  • Other diseases can also affect the formation, which were accompanied by contraction of the muscles of the vessels or legs.

Whatever the types of knee arthrosis, the process can lead to the formation of unilateral or bilateral arthrosis. Injuries most often lead to unilateral arthrosis, but obesity can contribute to the formation of bilateral. If any kind is not treated, arthrosis of the knee joint can be formed, is a developed form of the disease.

Symptoms of arthrosis

Arthrosis of the knee joint can form after several years or months, since it develops gradually and no visible symptoms are immediately observed, but unusual sensations and discomfort in the knees may arise. The disease is mainly women after forty, subject to varicose veins and obesity. Osteoarthritis has four stages of development:

1 degree - does not cause severe pain and is practically not manifested, if not started treatment, the disease will progress, it will worsen the motor ability of a person.

2nd degree - there are pains while walking, but they can not stop even at rest.

3rd degree - During this degree of progression, a person begins to feel severe pain, almost unbearable. Pain fetters and immobilizes the patient, mainly this stage is common in the elderly. In these cases, surgical intervention is performed, sometimes the knee joint has to be replaced.

4th degree - The latest stage, when the cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, one way is to perform a surgical treatment of .

The main symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint are accompanied not only by pain, but also by swelling, especially those signs can be intensified after physical exertion. Stiffness of movements also forms, absence of treatment leads to non-recoverable processes.

Treatment of knee arthrosis

It does not matter what degree of arthrosis the knee joint is prone, it needs to be treated, the faster, the better for the general condition of a person. Any signs of the disease should be examined by the doctor so that the patient does not subsequently develop a knee arthrosis deforming arthrosis, which can be cured by combining conservative treatment with a medical one.

At an early stage of the disease, doctors try to identify the cause of arthrosis and apply more sparing methods. People suffering from excess weight, it is recommended to choose a balanced diet for arthrosis of the knee joint, in order to save excess burden on the knees. In general, the actions are aimed at alleviating pain, restoring the cartilaginous structure, and increasing the musculoskeletal function.

Treatment is selected by according to the stage of progression of the disease , mainly used: medicines, massage, manual therapy, surgeries, physiotherapy exercises. Drugs include various anti-inflammatory, analgesic tablets and ointments. The medicine is selected strictly by a doctor, you can not trust advertising and your own intuition. It may also require injections aimed at eliminating pain and inflammation.

Massage and manual therapy procedures help to reduce pain, relax the muscles of the knee joint, restore blood circulation, increase the motor system. In the event that the cartilage of the knees is destroyed, then prosthetics are carried out, the replacement of the joints with implants. But this method is very expensive and not so common. After the treatment, daily special exercises are required. Complex treatment, which includes therapeutic procedures, physical education, massage, ointments and manual therapy will normalize the functionality of the knee joint and facilitate the patient's condition.

Dietary nutrition for arthrosis

For arthrosis, in addition to all other medical procedures , it is necessary to follow the power supply of .It should be balanced, useful and include only a healthy diet. At the time when the body recovers, you need to consume as much as possible of vitamin products, rich in calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, B, C and D. It is necessary to exclude harmful foods, such as coffee, heavily salted foods, carbonated drinks, alcohol, allthese products wash out calcium from bones.

Diet for arthrosis of the knee joint is especially necessary for people with excess weight. Meals should be five times a day, during a snack it is better to eat vegetables and fruits, and a day you should drink at least 2 liters. In the diet also need to include broths, jelly, jelly, foods rich in protein: cheese, sour cream and other dairy products. People with excess weight are recommended to choose skim milk products.

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Very often people turn to doctors, complaining of pain in their knees. Knee joints can suffer from many ailments, the reason may be simple fatigue of the knee joints and muscles around them, but the most common reason is arthrosis of the knee joint. This disease has a number of signs, characteristic symptoms and treatment options.

Types and signs of the disease

Arthrosis of the knee joints, which is called gonarthrosis otherwise, is a disease that is not expressed by the inflammatory form, but leads to complete destruction of the joint, complete deformation of the knee and complete restriction of mobility by the leg and shank( flexion and extension).The disease is divided into two main forms:

  • primary or preventive is most often caused by the presence of birth defects in the development of the knee;
  • secondary occurs due to injuries and damage.

Preventive form begins to develop in childhood or adolescence, is expressed by the abnormal development of the joint tissue, cartilage lining or knee as a whole. The leg with such a joint is subjected to very strong and uneven loads, which leads to its accelerated deformation.

The reasons for the development of the secondary form include the following factors:

  • traumatic injuries: closed fractures, joint damage. In this case, the development of posttraumatic gonarthrosis is noted;
  • removal of the meniscus in an operative way leads to disruption of the knee integrity;
  • is a great sports and workload on knee joints, often found in loaders and runners;
  • excessive vertical pressure for fatness and obesity;
  • initial inflammatory processes - arthritis, This phenomenon, in almost all cases, leads to arthrosis of the knees;
  • a metabolic disorder and an investigational deposition of salts in the joint tissue;
  • diseases that cause vasospasms and blood supply disorders;
  • surgery on the knees or ligaments.

Osteoarthritis, as a pathology is bilateral and one-sided. One-sided develops as a consequence of trauma, and obesity is a frequent cause of bilateral.

Symptomatic symptoms of

This disease has a gradual development, which can last for many months and years, while the patient can observe only some inconveniences in the knees with very rare periodicity.

The risk group consists of women of forty years old who suffer from obesity and varicose veins and vessels in the legs.

Gonarthrosis develops in several consecutive stages:

  1. The initial stage may take several years to develop . Pain in the knees is present only at strong stresses, at the first steps after awakening from a dream or fast rising on a ladder.
  2. The second stage is accompanied by pains of more frequent periodicity, with knee extension, a characteristic crunch is heard. Begins mild deformity, the knee joint accumulates fluid from the synovitis and lymph. The fullness of the movement begins to be limited.
  3. In the third stage, the pain does not pass even in the immobile joint. Change of weather has a significant effect on pain. Joints completely lose their purpose and functionality: the legs do not bend completely or do not unbend fully. Essential changes also undergoes a walk: either on bent legs or waddling on the stiff. Legs are twisted due to deformity of the joints, take a barrel shape or bend the letter X - this form of the disease has the name "deforming arthrosis of the knee joint".

Posttraumatic gonarthrosis has a more pronounced form: immediately diagnoses knee pain, swelling. Pain usually worsens immediately after exercise. The pain is accompanied by a feeling of tightness in the knee and under it. It must be remembered that it is advisable to consult a doctor at the first symptoms, since irreversible processes can begin in a few months.

Preventive measures

With the help of many factors it is possible to carry out prophylaxis:

  • it is necessary to normalize the food, to normalize the consumption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. If necessary, a diet is used;
  • is not desirable, but it is necessary to get rid of all bad habits;
  • maintain its weight in the norm, if there are diseases that lead to obesity, it is necessary to identify the root cause and get rid of it;
  • physical load should be adequate to physical development and the capabilities of the body;
  • preventive measures to avoid injuries in work and sports.

The advanced stages of gonarthrosis lead to disability, therefore, a doctor must be implemented in the shortest possible time. If the symptoms are insignificant, then there are huge chances of cumulative treatments to get rid of the disease.

Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint

Treatment depends largely on the stage of the disease. But the doctor decides how to treat arthrosis of the knee joint. Since the disease is chronic, all treatment is aimed at enhancing remission, that is, delaying the development of more complex stages. Complete recovery is possible only in the first stage.

Treatment of gonarthrosis is directed to:

  • if possible, then restore the joint and affected periarticular tissues;
  • significantly increase the ability of the joint to move.

Treatment methodology:

  • therapeutic treatment with pharmacological agents;
  • acupuncture and massage;
  • in case of irreversible joint destruction, joint and calyx prosthesis are used;
  • procedures for recovery: exercise therapy, gymnastics, physiotherapy.

Medication should be prescribed only by the attending physician, self-medication is fraught with even greater problems. Almost all medications are aimed at the following effect:

  • elimination of the main symptomatology: the removal of pain and tumors. To do this, appoint non-steroidal ointments and gels, hormonal drip drugs, which are injected into the knee joint;
  • restoration of blood circulation. If there is a build-up of fluid in the knee, then the lymph is removed by a drip, with penetration under the joint;
  • restoration of thinned cartilage tissue. For this purpose preparations with fastum - substance, which is similar in texture to articular tissue( chondroprotectors) are prescribed.

The action of massage and manual procedures is aimed at removing puffiness, improving the outflow of lymph, normalizing blood supply through blood vessels and capillaries.

If the disease has gone too far, then it is treated with radical surgery measures - by operative means. The damaged joint is replaced by a prosthesis made of surgical titanium and polymer materials. This is a very good method, since it completely solves the problem of the patient's joint, but the prosthesis has its life span, after which the prosthesis is replaced with a new one.

Restorative procedures include treatment in boarding houses, treatment with a balanced load of physiotherapy exercises and gymnastics. The measures for unloading the patient's joint can include the use of various devices, which can be attributed to the cane.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is a disease that can create a lot of inconveniences, but you have to fight for your health. At the slightest discomfort, you do not need to hesitate to contact a doctor, because later it may be too late - there will be irreversible processes and it will be very insulting for your own stupidity.

At the end of the article, we suggest that you watch a video on how to treat arthrosis of the knee joint.

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