Knee joint injury

How to treat a knee joint injury if there is swelling?

Knee injury Knee injury is a damage to the surrounding soft tissues caused by trauma. There are several types of knee injury:
- without fracture;
- with a fracture of the bones located inside the joint;
- without dislocation;
- with dislocation of the joint.
Contusion can be complete when all joints are damaged, and partial, when damage does not affect all parts of the joint. What can be damaged with a partial injury?
1. knee ligament, including intra-intestinal;
2. cartilage of the knee joint;
3. Surrounding joint muscles;
4. Tendons of the periarticular muscles.
Contusion can not occur without any traumatic factor. In most cases, injury is domestic or as a result of playing sports, when a person falls on his knee. The bruise is caused less often by strokes and the action of compressive forces in the region of the knee joint. This can happen, for example, during an automobile accident. Nevertheless, it is not important, for what reason the bruise occurred, it is important - as soon as possible to begin treatment.

ICD 10 classifies knee joint injury to grade 9 as a group of diseases caused by external causes.

Consequences of a knee injury

A bruise is one of the most common injuries of the knee joint. It can occur in both children and adults. Unfortunately, not everyone knows how serious the consequences might be, it would seem, a simple bruise. And at a certain age, this trauma can even become life-threatening, especially if there are any complications.
In some cases, if the injury has not been cured, a person loses the ability to walk normally due to severe pain in the knee joint area. Osteoarthritis often begins to develop after a knee injury, including a bruise. Therefore, do not think that the bruise will go away by itself, you need to start treatment. After all, the bruise is easier to cure than arthrosis of the knee of the 2nd degree( when there are obvious signs of arthrosis).The treatment of this injury-provoked disease includes: a diet for arthrosis of the knee joint, numerous medications and physiotherapy. You have to completely change your lifestyle. Therefore, it is better to cure a bruise and continue to live a full life.
Unfortunately, a bruise, like any other trauma, can not be foreseen, so prevention( except muscle strengthening and proper nutrition, strengthening joints) does not exist.

Diagnosis of injury

There is an opinion that the treatment of a bruise is very simple and does not require a doctor. Alas, this is completely wrong, since damage can be caused for very different reasons. The diagnosis of "knee joint injury" is placed only when other traumas that carry a very serious nature are excluded.
To accurately diagnose and, accordingly, to prescribe the appropriate treatment, a set of different methods are used: ask the patient about the consequences of the injury( swelling, pain, swelling, etc.), make a radiography that shows the most reliable result. It is not recommended to palpate the area of ​​the affected knee joint, as touching can be accompanied by very severe pain.

Symptoms of

Edema with a knee injury Knee injury can occur at any age, including in children, as they are constantly on the move. In most cases, a bruise is preceded by a fall on the knee or a blow to something. Sometimes even the most unpretentious jogging can provoke an injury to the knee joint.
The main symptom of a bruise is a sharp pain in the knee joint, more specifically, at the site of the injury. Some patients report almost unbearable pain. In a traumatized place, skin color changes, swelling and swelling occur. This is due to hemarthrosis, that is, with bleeding inside the joint. If the treatment is not started on time, the patient may even lose consciousness.

First aid for knee injury

To minimize the impact of the injury, it is important to provide first aid before going to a hospital or a trauma center. What should be done?
- As far as possible, protect the damaged joint.
- Completely eliminate the burden on the injured leg.
- Apply ice to remove swelling, swelling, reduce pain and slow hemorrhage in the cavity of the knee joint.
To stop bleeding is extremely important, because the hematoma formed as a result of hemarthrosis squeezes the end of nerves and intensifies painful sensations.
If a bruise has occurred on the street and to remove swelling, pain and swelling have nothing, you need to urgently call an ambulance. What should I do until the doctor arrives?
- Sit on a bench and lift an injured leg. This is necessary in order to reduce the flow of blood to the injured knee.
- To reduce pain, swelling and swelling, you can apply to a damaged knee, for example, a bottle with a cooled drink.
Remember that for the most effective treatment and to avoid complications you need to start treatment as soon as possible. If you have received a knee joint injury, postpone your affairs and postpone appointments, first of all you need to take care of your health.

How to treat a knee injury?

Any knee injury requires careful treatment and a special approach, and a bruise is no exception. After all, it is accompanied not only by the pain syndrome, but also by edema, bleeding and swelling of the periarticular tissues. With severe pain, the doctor removes it with the help of special medications. Preparations for the treatment of knee inflammation with bruises are most often NSAIDs, that is, they belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Often used also special ointments, which help to reduce hematoma. But such treatment should be coordinated with the doctor in order to avoid side effects.
With such knee injury as a bruise, it is necessary to reduce pain, remove the swelling of surrounding tissues, so that the tumor does not interfere with the patient. Therefore, it is important to remove the accumulated blood from the joint cavity. Typically, bleeding is eliminated with a puncture, sucking the syringe blood from the joint cavity. After a puncture, a fixative bandage is placed on the knee joint area, limiting the movements and warming the damaged area. Thanks to the bandage, swelling of the tissues and swelling practically do not occur.
After injury it is important to protect the damaged joint, to limit the motor activity, so that it will return to normal. As a rule, the recovery after an injury of the knee joint takes an average of 2-3 weeks. During rehabilitation, a physician can prescribe a physiotherapy that will speed recovery.
With severe bruises, when not only swelling of the tissues and edema, but also rupture of ligaments, urgent surgical treatment is prescribed. In such cases, rehabilitation is much longer and more difficult.

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Puncture of the knee joint

First, a specialist must carefully inspect the injured joint. He will feel it, determine the amplitude of the movements, explore the radiographic images. If blood or articular fluid accumulates in the injured joint, the limb is fixed with a permeable plaster bandage.

Accumulated blood and inflammatory fluid is removed by a special puncture - knee joint puncture. A soft needle is pierced by soft tissues and the joint cavity. Then the suction of accumulated fluid and blood is done. If required, a drug is administered to rinse and disinfect the joint cavity. Treatment is provided by a traumatologist or surgeon.

NSAID

The intake of nonsteroidal drugs is justified in cases of severe pain syndrome. In addition, they help to remove inflammation and swelling of tissues surrounding the knee. Among these drugs, the most common are analgin, voltaren, indomethacin.

Local therapy

The essence of local therapy is a local effect on the bruised joint. Ointments or creams, acting locally, relieve many of the symptoms that accompany the bruise. The tactics of treatment include the use of: local NSAIDs( which act in the same way as the general ones);

  • means, improving hemodynamics;
  • chondroprotective drugs.

To local NSAIDs include ointments Indomethacin, Traumeel C, Diclofenac, Fastum gel, Diclac, etc. They contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory components.

Since the knee injury is disturbed by microcirculation, the use of local remedies restores blood flow in damaged vessels. With the help of Lyoton ointment or Heparin ointment, it is possible to restore the structure of the vessels, strengthen their walls due to the destruction of microthrombi.

Chondroprotective agents improve healing and promote rapid joint repair( eg, gel or Collagen Ultra Cream).Provoking an analgesic effect, these drugs purposefully act on the destroyed connective tissue, nourish it and restore it. The achievement of this effect is due to the presence in the composition of the natural metabolite of tissue of cartilage, vessels, skin - collagen. Strengthening the effect is facilitated by ingestion of the Collagen Ultra supplements. The active effect of preparations containing collagen in the shortest possible time reduces pain and restores the efficiency of the knee.

Physiotherapy

Approximately a week after injury of the joint, you can start physiotherapy methods. A good result is UHF therapy. It is conducted by courses. To get the desired effect, 1015 courses are carried out. In addition to UHF, electro-therapy with dynamic current is also used.

Thanks to the curative effect of physiotherapeutic procedures on damaged tissues, their accelerated regeneration occurs.

Rehabilitation

After about ten days the patient will be able to perform active movements under the supervision of a specialist. From this time, you can begin therapeutic massage and physical education.

After the treatment procedures, rehabilitation does not take much time, depending on the severity of the injury. As a rule, the symptoms disappear through the days of the week. Only the hematoma remains strongly pronounced for a while. But gradually it disappears.

Treatment of contusion according to traditional medicine prescriptions

Knee injury is treated with ointments, which can be prepared independently. There is a huge number of folk ointment recipes, which effectively relieve the symptoms that accompany the bruise of the knee.

  • To prepare the ointment, the mashed leaves of the plantain should be mixed with the pork fat, until the consistency of sour cream is obtained. This ointment can notably cope with the pain syndrome.
  • According to another recipe you need to steal the stems of the saber, boil semolina and mix everything. This mixture is superimposed on a diseased knee and wrapped in a warm cloth.
  • Also a good effect on the joint has a tincture of flowers of Ledum. It needs to be rubbed into the knee twice a day.
  • An excellent healer from bruises is fresh wormwood. From her grass you need to prepare a slurry and let this mass through the meat grinder. Then it is applied to the bruised joint and covered with a bandage. Change until the pain passes.

Restorative procedures

The tasks of therapeutic gymnastics and massage are:

  1. activation of local lymph and blood circulation;
  2. reduction of pain;
  3. increased metabolism in the bruised zone;
  4. resorption by hematoma;
  5. recovery in the joints of the volume of movements;
  6. recovery of muscle function;
  7. formation of temporary compensation for lost functions.

Physiotherapy

Therapeutic exercises should be performed in a recumbent or sitting position. The amplitude of movements in the knee joint gradually increases. Then increase the pace and the number of repetitions. It is very important to remember the inadmissibility of heavy loads on the joint in the form of squats, jumps and others. Through the day of the week, movements in the joint are supplemented by exercises on the simulators( classes on block machines are effective) together with cryomassage.

A good therapeutic effect leads to hydrokinetic therapy, consisting in exercises in water and swimming.

Massage

Massage is carried out according to the following procedure. First, the reflexogenic zones( lumbar or cervicothoracic) are massaged. Then proceed to massage the muscles located above and below the bruised joint with the help of kneading techniques. At the very joint exercise is stroking. If the muscle atrophy is strongly pronounced, the following massage techniques are absolutely unacceptable:

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Knee injury - symptoms, consequences, treatment

Knee injury is a closed trauma, in which damage to superficially located soft tissues is most often observed without severe disruption of joint function. Knee injury( knee cap) is one of the most common injuries of the lower limbs, characteristic of all age categories. Sometimes this injury is not given much importance, but it must be remembered that its consequences can be very serious, such as meniscal inflammation, sprain and ligament tearing, and others.

Causes and symptoms of knee injury

Knee injuries are always caused by external causes, this can result in a variety of situations in which there are possible: falls, getting punches, jamming in accidents and much more. Especially often the knee cap is affected by children and sportsmen involved in such sports as football, athletics, wrestling. With a knee injury, symptoms may appear after a few hours after the injury. These include:

  • Abrasions, wounds, bruising;
  • Edema of the periarticular tissues;
  • Limited mobility of the joint.

Also, the main symptoms of a knee injury include localized pain, its nature and intensity depends on the severity of the injury, and in some cases, painful shock can lead to loss of consciousness. Sign of a severe injury is the appearance of a significant tumor, exceeding the size of the joint. Such a leak testifies to the possible development of hemarthrosis - violation of the integrity of blood vessels and the accumulation of blood in the joint cavity, also with soft tissue hematoma, a painful swelling, the so-called cone, can form above the knee. Any of these symptoms require adequate medical attention.

Consequences of knee injury

One of the most minor consequences of a knee injury is the development of subcutaneous hematoma with preservation of the integrity of the skin without damage to the knee joint. In this case, the consequence of damage is only an aesthetic defect. But in some cases, without a qualified help, the consequences of a knee injury can be serious pathologies. Consider some of them:

  • Inflammation and rupture of the meniscus. Inflammation of the cartilaginous formation, performing a cushioning function between the joints, is characterized by the appearance of sharp pain during flexion and extension of the knee, which restricts the motor activity. Also in the future, the knee joint may retract with internal hemorrhage into the cavity of its outer capsule, followed by blocking. The sensation of pain becomes diffuse in this case. Without timely treatment, the lesion can pass into a chronic form, with the threat of degeneration of the meniscus;
  • Fluid accumulation in the knee. Complication with a knee injury is accompanied by pain and swelling of the joint, which indicates the accumulation of fluid in its cavity. In this case, edema may exceed the joint size several times. The patient is given complete rest and fixes the knee with a plaster bandage. If no positive result is observed, the knee joint is punctured;
  • Sprain or ligament rupture. Occurs as a result of a direct blow to the knee, as well as blows to its back or side. When stretching there are swelling, bruising, movement becomes difficult and painful, with a rupture of ligaments the knee is loses its ability to move. These conditions are also characterized by the instability of the joint, its "fallout" during walking with a serious degree of injury;
  • Dislocation and fracture of the patella. The kneecap( patella) plays an important role in the functioning of the knee joint, and partially serves as a protection against damage, and because of its location itself is often injured. The patella shows various dislocations, subluxations and fractures of varying degrees of complexity. The most common with bruises in athletes is the habitual dislocation. It is characterized by instability, pain in the joint, destruction of cartilage, muscle weakness, and restriction of motor function;
  • Prepatellar bursitis. Inflammation of the prepatellar sac, which prevents friction between tissues in the region of the knee joint, arises from bruises and injuries. It is accompanied by swelling, tenderness and redness in the knee area, an increase in temperature, if the skin is damaged, infection and development of purulent bursitis are possible, in which case surgery is required.

In addition to the above consequences of knee injury, there are other complications, so with such injuries, mandatory specialist consultation is required to prevent possible pathological processes.

First aid for a knee injury

With a knee injury, it is very important to provide first aid before contacting a specialist. To do this, it is necessary to protect the damaged joint, excluding the impact on it of any load, it is better to put the patient, while raising the leg above the level of the heart, and try to immobilize it with a pressure bandage. It is also recommended to attach a hot-water bottle to the damaged area with ice or a cold compress for 10-15 minutes, after the same period of time, the procedure should be repeated. This will prevent the appearance or growth of hemarthrosis, reduce joint flushing and stop bleeding. In addition, the patient can take an adequate analgesic to relieve the condition. If the injury occurred outside the home, you must call for emergency help, pre-plant or lay the patient, lifting a damaged leg to reduce the flow of blood to the affected area.

Treatment of a knee injury

Treatment of a knee injury is usually performed with conservative methods, surgical intervention is resorted only to the development of a significant hemarthrosis. To address to experts it is necessary right after an occurring trauma to exclude probability of complications it is recommended to make a roentgen of a knee. First of all, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed for the removal of inflammation and pain relief. At ruptures or sprains of ligaments a fixing bandage can be applied to limit movements, and in extreme cases even gypsum. A week after the knee injury, UHF therapy and other physiotherapy procedures may be prescribed, and ointments can be used to dissolve the hematomas, remove swelling and inflammation. Operative treatment of a knee injury consists in puncture of soft tissues and suctioning of accumulated blood for removal of pain syndrome and swelling.

To restore the lost functions of the knee joint will help special gymnastics, matched for you by a doctor. Do not self-medicate, but follow all the recommendations of specialists.

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Causes and mechanism of development of

Such a common trauma as a bruise of the knee joint can be observed at any age, however, the causes and symptoms of this trauma may be slightly different.

  • in children and young people most often bruises the knee - this is the result of a sports injury or an active game;
  • in the elderly - fall by negligence or on a slippery surface;
  • unfortunately, any person can get into an accident, a traditional injury arises - a bruise as a result of a bumper's impact on the knee;
  • is often injured due to domestic or industrial situations.

A bruise is a trauma mainly to the soft tissues of the knee joint, while as a rule there are no dislocations or bone fractures, however, the integrity of the ligamentous apparatus or the cartilaginous layer( meniscus) often occurs.

Disturbance of the microcirculation of the tissues of the knee joint is different in severity, as a result of which the edema of all its structures develops. The pressure of surrounding tissues provokes a growing pain syndrome.

Intra-articular bleeding can cause accumulation of blood in the knee joint and possible subsequent suppuration or the formation of connective tissue. In this case, the symptoms of a knee injury can remain with a person for life.

Clinical picture

Symptoms with knee injury are expressed with varying intensity. The first and main symptom is pain in the knee - from moderate to unbearable, worse at movement and somewhat diminishing at rest.

The swelling of the tissues is expressed depending on the initial state of the tissues: mostly in children( more water content in all tissues), somewhat less in the elderly, because the water content is less. Sometimes the swelling is so significant that the joint significantly increases in size and loses its original configuration.

The above symptoms lead to a sharp decrease in the volume of motion of the knee joint. It is from the anatomical and physiological characteristics of this joint that a person's ability to stand and move depends. The absence of movements in the knee joint leads to considerable difficulty in walking. Sometimes a knee injury can provoke prolonged lameness and subsequent deformation of other parts of the lower limb and even the spine.

In some people, a knee injury causes a rather intense bleeding, but the blood does not flow out, but into the joint cavity. Accumulating blood exerts additional pressure on damaged tissues. Often, the long-persisting blood in the joint cavity can undergo aseptic inflammation or, conversely, be replaced by a connective tissue, that is, ankylosis of the knee joint and muscle contracture is formed.

Diagnosis of knee injury

The first place in the diagnostic algorithm is the assessment of the clinical situation and the data on the onset of the injury( for what reason it arose, how long ago and so on).In order to exclude another, more serious injury, the following methods are used:

  • radiograph of the knee joint( with and without contrast) - allows to assess the presence or absence of bone fragments( i.e., intra-articular fracture);
  • ultrasound helps to suspect the presence of blood or pus;
  • puncture of the joint pursues both a diagnostic and therapeutic goal: with its help, the blood flows outward, symptoms such as pain and swelling decrease;
  • magnetic resonance imaging allows you to study the condition of tissues in detail, assess the degree of damage to the knee joint, plan, if necessary, the course of surgery.

Should not be left without due attention and medical advice bruised knee joint. Incorrect( at home) or untimely treatment can cause prolonged pain and swelling, sometimes a complete or partial decrease in mobility.

General principles of treatment of

The first help in such trauma is to immobilize the knee and apply cold to reduce pain and swelling. In the future, the doctor for fixing the knee will recommend a plaster lingette or a tight bandage.

Treatment of a knee joint injury is also a reduction or elimination of the pain syndrome. For this, non-narcotic analgesics( NSAIDs) or narcotic medicines are prescribed if the pain is very severe( ketans, tramadol).

Local remedies( ointments and gels) are effective enough. Some reduce pain and swelling( Fastum gel), others accelerate resorption( Troxevasin).

After 1-2 weeks from the moment of injury, physiotherapy methods can be used: magnetotherapy, UHF, electrophoresis. Favorable effect is provided by various water procedures: hydro-massage, swimming, various baths.

It should be understood that early diagnosis and treatment with a knee injury is a pledge of complete and rapid recovery.

Author of the article:

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How to treat a knee injury, consequences and symptoms of a knee joint injury


Consequences of a knee joint injury

When a knee or collision with a blunt object strikes or collides, the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, ligaments,cartilaginous tissue and vessels. Of course, all tissues and muscles are not always damaged at the same time. If the skin is damaged, a wound surface is formed, painful sensations occur when the muscular tissue of the knee is damaged, and mobility is limited if the ligaments suffer. If the cartilage is damaged, the bones begin to decay, and the functioning of the knee joint is disrupted due to damage to the vessels.

As you can see, the consequences of such a trauma are very sad. Therefore, it is necessary to treat a knee tumor. Otherwise, the functioning of the tissues will be disturbed, you will not be able to move. And with violation of the integrity of the knee joint, inflammation is formed, which can later spread to the bone tissue. Against this background, arthritis, meniscal inflammation develops, tissue destruction or sprain of the knee ligament occurs.

First aid for knee injury

  • Limit the mobility of the knee joint, protect it from any movement. The leg should be in an elevated position. For the immobilization of the knee joint, a pressure bandage can be applied;
  • Apply a cold compress for 10-15 minutes to the site of the injury. This is necessary to relieve pain and swelling;
  • With severe pain, the patient needs to take an anesthetic;
  • Take the victim to the hospital or call an ambulance if the blow was severe and the knee pain does not pass.

Diagnosis and symptoms

If after a damage, it is necessary to stop blood quickly, then it is a question of wounds. Confusing them is usually difficult. But in the case of bruises, not everything is so obvious. The main symptoms of a knee injury are:

  • hemarthrosis - blood accumulation inside the joint cavity;
  • pain, which is particularly severe at the time of impact / collision;
  • formation of a bruise( bruise) if the vessels were damaged;
  • appearance of a tumor, with palpation there is a sharp pain;
  • limitation of joint mobility;
  • the knee may increase in size, since the blood from the damaged vessel enters the joint cavity.

Only a doctor can diagnose knee injury after inspection. To exclude the possibility of fracture and other serious injuries, an X-ray examination is performed. If necessary, according to its results, treatment is prescribed.

Treatment of knee joint injuries

Knee injury can be treated at home if there were not severe injuries. First, it is necessary to apply cold compresses within 2-3 days after receiving the injury. Apply ice wrapped in cloth or gauze, or another cold object for 10-15 minutes every 2-3 hours, this will help relieve pain and swelling.

The second stage of treatment of a knee tumor is the imposition of a tight bandage. You can choose a special knee in the pharmacy or bandage the damaged area with an elastic bandage. But be careful that the dressing is not too tight.

A week after getting the injury, begin treatment of the knee injury with physiotherapy procedures. UHF-therapy and electrophoresis help to accelerate the regeneration of tissues.

To restore mobility of the knee joint, it is necessary to engage in therapeutic gymnastics. Knead knees, do light exercises, gradually increasing the load. Massage of the knee joint after trauma is also useful.

If the pain does not go away, then take painkillers, for example, Nurofen or Ketanov. To treat knee injury, you must use a variety of ointments and gels. Fastum gel, Traumeel C - preparations, which contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory components. When a hematoma is prescribed Lyoton or Heparin ointment, they dilute blood and relieve inflammation. If you comply with all the above rules, then cure a knee injury is not difficult.

Treatment of bruise knee folk remedies

Restoration of knee mobility can be carried out not only with the help of medicines, but also treat the bruise of the knee joint folk methods. By preparing yourself an ointment yourself at home or by making a compress, you can return the statute to the previous mobility.

Among the methods of treating knee injuries folk remedies, a compress of vegetable oil, vinegar and boiled water deserves special attention. Enough 1 tablespoon of each ingredient. Dampen a clean cloth in the resulting solution, attach to the knee, apply polyethylene, tie a scarf, leave for 4-5 hours. Repeat in the morning and in the evening for 2-3 days.

A good folk remedy for knee injuries is an ointment based on birch tar, pork fat( without salt) and spruce resin. Mix all the ingredients in equal proportions, hold the day in a warm place and rub it into the sore spot 2 times a day.

Treatment of knee injuries can also be carried out as follows:

  • On the cabbage leaves make a few cuts and crush them until the juice is formed. Apply to the bruised place cabbage leaf 2-3 times a day;
  • To remove the edema and significantly reduce the inflammation will help comfrey ointment curative;
  • Rinse the adder with a fat knee two times a day.
7th April 2015

sportobzor.ru

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