Hand injury is a closed upper limb injury that is not accompanied by a significant tissue structure disorder. Occurs when falling or striking. Possible damage to all limb segments: fingers, hand, forearm, elbow joint, shoulder and shoulder joint. It is manifested by pain and swelling, bruises often form in the place of the bruise. Movements are usually kept, but limited. If the joint is damaged, hemarthrosis may occur. To exclude more severe damage, radiography, CT and other studies are performed. The treatment is conservative.
Hand injury - traumatic damage to the soft tissues of the upper limb. Skin with such damage remains intact, however, in its thickness, as well as in the thickness of muscles and subcutaneous fat, hemorrhages occur. Contusions of the hands, as a rule, are a consequence of domestic or sports trauma. Can be detected in people of any age, are more often diagnosed in children, which is due to their high physical activity. Adult patients in winter usually get injured when falling on the street. In the summer period, the number of patients with injuries received during work at the dacha increases.
In 70% of cases, minor bruises are diagnosed, in 25% of cases - bruises of moderate severity and in 5% of cases - severe bruises. Symptoms of damage initially increase gradually, and then disappear completely within 1-3 weeks, the outcome is complete recovery. In some cases, contusions are complicated by the formation of large non-resorbable hematomas or hemarthrosis. The main task of the traumatologist is careful exclusion of more serious injuries( ruptures of ligaments, fractures, dislocations) and prevention of complications.
Pathogenesis of hand injury
In case of bruises, the skin, muscles and subcutaneous fatty tissue are damaged. Small vessels are torn. If blood permeates tissues, a hemorrhage is formed, if "spreads out" - a hematoma is formed( a blood-filled cavity).The flow of blood and increasing swelling compress the nerve endings, so the pain after the injury is gradually increased. If the bruise is in the joint area, microscopic lesions of intraarticular structures occur, which can lead to the development of hemarthrosis.
The size of the hematomas and hemorrhages depends on the number and diameter of the damaged vessels, as well as on the state of the blood coagulation system. Small vessels are clogged for several minutes, large ones can bleed for 24 hours or more. In people with hemophilia, severe liver disease, some autoimmune diseases and vascular diseases, as well as patients taking thrombolytics, warfarin and heparin, extensive hemorrhages and hematomas can occur even if a small number of small vessels are damaged.
In the first 3-4 days, hemorrhages( bruises) have a cyanotic or crimson color, and subsequently start to turn yellow. Blood located in the cavity of superficial hematoma, shines through the skin, so the area of the hematoma looks dark purple, dark cyanotic or almost black. Deeply located hematomas are voluminous formations of a soft-elastic consistency, the skin above them can be unchanged or bruised.
Shoulder joint bruise
Occurs when a sharp impact or a fall on the shoulder joint area occurs. Pain syndrome is usually mild. Puffiness, movement restrictions and hemorrhage are revealed( more often on the outer surface of the joint).In severe bruises with tearing of the capsule and damage to the intraarticular structures, the pains can be intense, resembling a pain syndrome in fracture. Possible hemarthrosis or post-traumatic synovitis. Sometimes, with such an injury of the arm, articular cartilage is damaged - its small pieces are broken off and fall into the joint cavity, forming freely lying intraarticular bodies.
The contusion of this area should first of all be differentiated from the fracture of the surgical neck of the shoulder( especially in elderly patients).If the arm is bruised, the movements in the joint are limited only slightly or moderately, with fractures the patient can not raise his arm or move it aside. Tapping on the elbow during a fracture causes pain in the shoulder region, with an injury not accompanied by unpleasant sensations. Absence of crepitus and pathological mobility suggests a bruised hand, but does not allow to exclude a fracture, since with punctured lesions, these symptoms are absent. To make the final diagnosis, a radiograph of the shoulder joint is prescribed.
Treatment of injuries is carried out by doctors specializing in traumatology and orthopedics. The arm is suspended on a bandage bandage, it is recommended to apply cold to reduce edema and hemorrhages. Pain is prescribed analgesics. From the third day the direction for UHF is being issued. At home advise to apply dry heat and gently rub the joint with absorbable ointments. Joint punctures with hand bruises are extremely rare, since the amount of fluid is usually small, and it dissolves itself. The period of incapacity for work varies from 1-2 weeks for minor bruises to 3-4 weeks for severe injuries with a violation of the integrity of the cartilage.
Shoulder bruise is usually the result of a direct stroke. All the symptoms characteristic of bruising appear: swelling, hemorrhage and pain. Differentiation with a fracture of the shoulder is simple: fractures of the diaphysis are accompanied by a violation of the axis of the segment( sometimes in combination with its shortening), rough deformation, pathological mobility, bone crunch and almost complete loss of the ability to perform active movements. With a bruised hand, all of the listed signs are missing, the movements are preserved, but somewhat limited. Radiography of the shoulder without changes.
Treatment is performed in the emergency room. Use a dressing bandage, cold, and then heat. Assign UHF, if necessary, prescribe analgesics. Usually all trauma signs disappear within 1-3 weeks. In some cases, the outcome of a hand injury is ossifying myositis, an inflammation of the muscle, in which small parts of the ossification form in its thickness. In severe injuries, accompanied by a periosteal injury, exostoses( bone growths) are sometimes formed in the distant period.
Injury of the elbow joint
The injuries of the elbow joint can occur both with impact and with a fall. The victim complains of pain. Soft tissues are swollen, hemorrhages appear on the skin. The movements are usually preserved, but their amplitude decreases. Differential diagnosis with dislocation of the forearm bones is usually simple. With a contusion of the hand, unlike the dislocation, there is no gross deformation, active movements remain, there is no springing resistance in passive movements. Pain syndrome is less pronounced.
It is more difficult to differentiate heavy joint injuries with isolated dislocations of one of the forearm bones and a fracture of the ulnar bone head. The contusion of the hand is indicated by less intense pain and lack of pronounced limitations when rotating the forearm. Radiography of the elbow joint confirms the integrity of the bones and the preservation of congruence of the joint surfaces. With a fuzzy radiological picture, the comparative images of both joints or CT of the joint are prescribed.
Treatment is performed on an outpatient basis. Like with other bruises of the arm, recommend rest, a bandage bandage and cold to the place of injury. To thermal procedures, most trauma doctors treat with caution, since the elbow joint is "whimsical" and warming up can result in various complications. With light bruises choose expectant tactics, with severe electrophoresis. Hemarthrosis is usually minor or absent, punctures are not required. Recovery takes from 1 week to a month.
Contusion of the forearm and wrist joint
Occurs during strokes and falls, manifested by pain, swelling, hemorrhages and bruises. The bruise of the hand is easy to distinguish from the fracture of the forearm bones - with a bruise there is no deformation, there is no pathological mobility, the limb axis is preserved. Some difficulties may be the differentiation of the bruise and fracture of one bone of the forearm. The injury is indicated by the absence of pain with axial load and palpation of the bone. Radiography of the forearm is normal. Treatment - as with other bruises of the hand.
Wound of the wrist joint is differentiated from the fracture of the beam in a typical place. If the arm is bruised, the movements are limited only slightly, the edema is small or moderate, the axial load is painless. The absence of deformation is not an excuse for eliminating the fracture, since the displacement is not always observed for beam fractures. Radiography of the wrist joint is unchanged. Treatment - as with bruises of the shoulder and shoulder joint.
Brush and finger bruise
Local bruises of the hand and fingers usually occur when the impact, extensive - with compression. Distinctive features of such injuries are pronounced pain syndrome and a significant swelling of the rear of the hand. In addition, severe bruises of the hand are accompanied by numbness, a sense of heaviness and a pronounced impairment of function. After compression, pockets of necrosis often occur. Hemorrhages in small joints are weakly expressed( exception - joints of phalanges of fingers).
If the proximal parts of the wrist are damaged in the long-term period, dystrophic changes in the wrist bones can occur. With bruises of the arm in the wrist and projection of the metacarpal bones due to a significant swelling, the blood supply of the hand is sometimes impaired, which leads to an intensification of the pain syndrome, the appearance of stagnant phenomena, damage to small nerves, and the formation of a clawlike brush. Contusions of nail phalanges with the formation of subungual hematoma in each third case are combined with difficult to diagnose edge fractures of the fingers.
To prevent complications in the long-term period, careful differential diagnosis and thoughtful treatment helps. Patients are referred for radiography of the hand, with a doubtful result appoint CT.The hand is cooled with chloroethyl, a jet of cold water or an ice pack. In severe bruises impose a cast. When the tension of the tissues is expressed, loosening incisions are performed. They give directions to UHF or UFO.In severe cases in the recovery period, massage and exercise therapy are used.
Treatment of bruises with folk remedies: recipes at home.
Folk treatment of bruises: recipes.
The strong mechanical action of certain objects on the parts of the body contributes to the formation of a closed trauma, called a bruise.
In this case, popular medicine is becoming popular, the available methods of which will effectively reduce pain syndrome, relieve swelling and accelerate healing.
Types and symptoms of bruises ^
A bruise is a closed injury to soft tissues, joints or internal organs with a minor damage to their structure. Their occurrence is facilitated by falls( ice, stone, asphalt) or blows with blunt objects.
Symptoms of bruises are severe dull pain, redness, swelling and the appearance of a small bruise. Depending on the severity, this type of injury is divided into four stages:
- First degree - minor damage to soft tissues;
- The second degree is the formation of a hematoma with edema;
- Third degree - damage to muscles, tendons or joints;
- Fourth degree - severe damage to soft and bony tissues or organs, leading to a disruption in their performance.
Depending on the site of damage, it is common to distinguish between contusions of the internal organs, shoulder, forearm, elbow, coccyx, thorax, knee, shin, foot, finger, spine, brain and other joints or organs.
Folk treatment of bruises gives excellent results in the presence of the first two degrees. For the third degree of injury, home treatment should be used as an additional technique to the prescribed therapeutic course.
Many folk remedies for bruising such as honey, raw potatoes, cabbage leaves, onions, alcohol, laundry soap, camphor powder, medicinal plants( aloe, plantain, wormwood, flax seed, etc.) are required for home treatment procedures,fir oil and others.
Treatment of bruises at home consists of the following procedures:
- Preparation of homemade ointments and mixtures for rubbing;
- Use of anti-inflammatory and resorptive compresses;
- Preparation of medicinal baths;
- The use of healing decoctions.
Treatment of contusions in children
High activity of children often leads to the formation of various injuries, one of which are bruises. In this case, to reduce pain and to remove hemorrhage, it is advisable to apply cold to the injured place for several minutes. If, as a result of the impact, an open wound is formed, it must be disinfected with hydrogen peroxide and zelenok.
With minor tissue damage to folk medicine, the following treatment of bruises by domestic means is suggested:
- Leaf of plantain or parsley wash, knead and attach to injury;
- To rub a sore spot with a tincture of calendula, then apply a fresh-water sponge.
Treatment of bruises with folk remedies at home: recipes.
Treatment of soft tissue injuries
- Fresh honey to connect with the pulp of aloe, apply to bruise and bandage;
- Piece of laundry soap gently rub the sore spot.
Treatment of bruises of joints
- Bulb grind, add powdered plantain( st.l) and honey( st.l).The resulting compress is applied to the joint, having sustained two hours;
- Grind fresh wormwood and in an amount of three tablespoons. Insist in 200 ml of vodka for seven days. Then tincture strain, moisten it with tissue and apply to the joints.
Treatment of a foot injury
- Prepared a strong broth from the flowers of a lemon grass and pour into the water and take a bath for 15-20 minutes;
- In 500 ml of 6% vinegar place a couple of chopped garlic heads, then remove the container in a dark place for a day. The prepared compound should be rubbed into the area of the sore leg.
Treatment of hand injury
- Raw potatoes to grate, put it in gauze and attach to the bruised hand;
- Peel the banana skin on the arm for two hours.
Treatment of contusion of ribs
- Ст.л.of dried calendula flowers bring to a boil in two glasses of boiling water, then insist for 2.5 hours. Take the broth should be 100 ml four times daily.
- In the same broth, you can add a little honey, moisten the cloth in it, attach it to the rib and tightly bandage another bandage.
Treating a bruise of the finger
- Grass pulp is pulverized, diluted with boiled water to a mushy condition, applied to the finger and bandaged;
- Fir oil moisten the bandage and bandage their bruised finger.
Treatment of knee injury
- Fresh leaf of white cabbage tied for an hour to the knee, then changed;
- Dry wormwood chop, mix with vaseline and place in the oven for a couple of hours. Ready ointment rubbed into the knee thrice every day.
Treating the contour of the coccyxum
- Mix and boil on a water bath 10 gruel-like bulbs, 150 g.copper sulfate, 180 gr.powdered gum, 100 gr.crushed spruce needles and 400 ml butter butter.
- The resulting burning ointment should be rubbed into the coccyx for the night.
Treatment of a head injury
- With camphor alcohol, moisten gauze and apply it to the place where the head is injured;
- Salt glow in a frying pan, pour into a tissue bag and apply to the bruised area.
Treatment of a foot injury
- Place a bay leaf, horsetail, birch, chamomile in salted water and insist until it cools.
- Then in the strained infusion, you should moisten the towel and tie it to the foot.
- This compress is best used at night.
Treatment of shoulder injury
- Soap the mild soap, combine in a raw egg yolk, stir and twice a day rub into a sore shoulder;
- Sheet burdock mash, attach to the shoulder, top to put the cellophane and secure with a bandage.
Treatment of eye contusion
- The ground flax seeds should be placed in a tissue bag, lowered into boiling water, applied to trauma and allowed to cool. The number of procedures is three for each day;
- Mokritsu( garden green plant) rinse and apply for half an hour to the affected area.
Treatment of a bruise of the spine
- Colors of arnica pour for two hours with boiling water in the ratio tsp: 200 ml, then take two tablespoons each.thrice every day before eating;
- In well-heated bath water, add sea salt with a strong chamomile broth, and then take water procedures for 30 minutes.
During the day, the first help with bruises will be the application of ice or the use of cold compresses. After cold procedures it is recommended to apply to non-sterile sites, non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory and soothing ointments.
After the expiry of 24 days, it is advisable to use any suitable and available means for the early healing of the injury.
The basis of preventive measures is minimization of traumatic situations. For this, the following recommendations should be observed:
- Carefully choose comfortable footwear, especially in the winter-spring period;
- Observe the precautions when driving on rollers, bicycles, skates, skis and others.
- Use safety and protective devices for certain sports, where the risk of injury increases dramatically.
Shoulder joint bruise, shoulder bruise treatment - ointments and folk remedies
The main signs of a shoulder joint injury include pain in a damaged area, the formation of a hematoma, edema. Any joint movements cause pain, in most cases mobility is limited, but if the injury is not accompanied by complications, then the motor ability is possible in full.It is important to know how to distinguish the shoulder contusion from stretching and dislocation. Minor lesions are characterized by short pain, indirect tissue trauma caused by their rupture. Shoulder bruise is a direct tissue damage requiring longer treatment. To accurately diagnose the trauma, it is necessary to perform a radiograph of the joint in two projections, in case of a bruise, the bone-traumatic changes will not be noted in the picture.
Shoulder joint injuries
Symptoms of a shoulder joint injury also help to quickly determine the degree of damage. In total, 4 degrees of shoulder contusion are distinguished:
- 1 degree is characterized by painful sensations during the movement of the upper limbs, which pass independently after 3-4 days. Possible abrasions, scratches and other minor damage to the skin;
- 2 degree is accompanied by edema, bruises, redness, acute pain, which does not pass even at rest;
- 3 degree - damage to the skin, muscles and tendons of the shoulder joint. As a rule, it is complicated by a dislocation of the shoulder;
- With the 4th degree, the functions of the shoulder are violated, which causes a complete loss of motor activity. The hematoma increases to a large size, it can reach the elbow. Treatment of a shoulder joint injury in this case can take from 2 to 3 weeks.
First aid for shoulder contusion
The first thing you need to start treatment for a bruised shoulder in case of a fall or stroke is to ensure the immobilization of the joint. This is necessary in order to immobilize the hand, to ensure her complete peace. It is enough to hang a hand on a kerchief or to bandage to the body in a position of bending at the elbow at an angle of 90-100 degrees.
The next step in providing first aid for a shoulder joint injury is the application of a cold compress to the damaged area. Use for this purpose ice, snow, a bottle of cold water or any cold object.
If the injured person experiences severe pain, then he needs to take an anesthetic( Analgin, Ketonal, Aspirin, Naise).In case of severe damage, take the victim to the hospital or call an ambulance.
Treatment of a shoulder joint injury
There are two methods to treat a bruised shoulder: medicamental and physical. It is also important to keep the joint rest at all times, using the Dezo orthopedic bandage or the usual scarf. For 2 days after the injury, apply cold compresses every 3-4 hours for 15-20 minutes. With 3 days begin to act on the bruised shoulder with dry heat.
Drug treatment of a shoulder injury during a fall or stroke consists in taking analgesic medications( Ketanov, Ketalorak, Nimesil).They not only have an analgesic effect, but also relieve inflammatory processes.It is important to treat the shoulder joint with ointments. The following ointments have been recommended for the treatment of shoulder bruises: Nyz gel, Fefrofid, Ortophen, Bystrumgel, Nanoplast Forte, Troxevasin, Bruise-OFF, Ambulance, Finalgon and other anti-inflammatory ointments. Rub them with massage movements to restore microcirculation, improve blood circulation and relieve inflammation from the muscles.
When the swelling and pain subsided, begin to perform light exercises to develop the shoulder. They will make the joints work, will help restore the functions of the shoulder. Carry out such treatment of bruise shoulder injury at home by doing the following exercises:
Bruising hand: swollen, what to do at home?
A hand injury means injury to the soft tissues of the limb while maintaining the integrity of the skin and the absence of broken bones, sprains, ligament ruptures and tendons. Symptoms of such trauma are severe pain, swelling and bruises( bruises).
If a patient with a soft tissue injury is competent to provide first aid, which can be done at home, there will be no health problems in the future, and all discomfort will disappear with time. However, this can not be said about the bruises of the large joints of the arm - the shoulder and the elbow. Due to trauma in these anatomical structures, there may be a buildup of fluid( mainly blood flowing out of small vessels that burst under the influence of a traumatic factor), and nerves can also be damaged. Therefore, in such situations it is better to immediately consult a traumatologist.
If the shoulder of the patient is hurt, pain, swelling of the limb in the projection of the injury. After a while, a hematoma appears, which subsequently changes color from red-blue to yellowish-green. The appearance of bruises and swelling is associated with damage to blood vessels in soft tissues, leakage of tissues with blood and the accumulation of intercellular fluid in them. The larger the vessel or blood vessels are affected, the more hematoma and the longer it dissolves. The first aid in case of a shoulder injury is the following: the patient must lift the affected limb and bandage it with an elastic bandage, after which it is necessary to impose a cold( special cooling pack or any improvised means).Since it is possible to remove the swelling from the hand after the fall and stop the bleeding in the soft tissues in this way, the described manipulations should be carried out as quickly as possible.
To reduce pain, you can give the patient an anesthetic drug inside( eg Ibuprofen).Well-proven with injuries anesthetic ointments with anti-inflammatory components( such as Diclofenac), and Traumeel C, which can be used even in children. In addition, the bruised limb should be spared at least the first few days after the injury.
After 2 - 3 days, the affected area can be started warming with compresses or ointments with a warming effect. This helps reduce puffiness and inflammation. To quickly dissolve hematoma, use a special external means with a directed effect on the blood, lymph vessels and microcirculation( Indovazin, Sinyak-off).
In cases of shoulder injuries, in addition to the described symptoms( swelling, pain), the patient may complain that his arm does not rise. This sign indicates a rupture of tendons of the rotator cuff of the shoulder. This condition requires an immediate request to the doctor, because self-treatment only temporarily "masks" this problem and creates all the prerequisites for the development of complications.
The contusion of the elbow joint often occurs with falls. This trauma is accompanied by very severe pain, since large nerves are located near the elbow. In addition, there is swelling and bruising. To reduce the pain and puffiness helps cold, which can be applied with small interruptions to the elbow until the unpleasant symptom disappears. A sick limb needs complete rest, a good effect is provided by an elastic bandage.
If, after a day or two, soreness does not disappear and stiffness of movements in the elbow remains, it is possible to assert with certainty that the fluid in the elbow joint has accumulated. This pathological condition should be treated with a traumatologist. It may be necessary to puncture the joint to remove the accumulated fluid and inject anti-inflammatory drugs.
Wrist of wrist and hand has the following symptoms: pain during movement, swelling. To reduce these unpleasant consequences of injury, it is necessary to apply cold and apply an elastic bandage on the arm. If the brush is strongly swollen, movements in the fingers are disturbed or their deformities are noticeable, the traumatologist should be consulted immediately to avoid fracture.
What can not be done with bruises of the hand?
Correct first aid with bruises guarantees a quick recovery. For this, in addition to the above-described treatment measures, you should know what doctors do not recommend doing in such situations.
- Immediately after injury, the injury site can not be heated. This can increase bleeding in the soft tissues and swelling of the hand.
- It is impossible to rub and massage the injured limb intensively, especially if it is not clear if there is a fracture or not( bone fragments can damage large vessels and nerves).
- Do not open the hematoma.
- You can not try to forcibly lift, bend your hand, squeeze your fingers into a fist or carry out other similar movements with a limb.
If treatment at home does not help, as well as a severe injury, you should always consult a doctor. To exclude more serious damage, it is necessary to carry out radiography or computed tomography. If the ligament rupture, fracture or fracture is confirmed, special treatment will be required-the application of gypsum or even surgical intervention.
shoulder injury, how to treat at home?
You should use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments on the area of the damaged joint. But such treatment is enough, if there is absolute certainty that there is no fracture, dislocation or subluxation, when immobilization is required for a certain time.
The assortment of therapeutic ointments in pharmacies is sufficient.
Buy at the pharmacy ointment "Kapilar", lubricate the shoulder according to the instructions-will help.
but it is better to dohturo
painkillers ointment type Nize, ketonal.smear need more often, but apply a little, so that the accumulation of anti-inflammatory and anesthetic components in the tissues, if there is a bruise-iodine grid can