Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree

Knee joint gonarthrosis of the third degree - treatment

gonarthrosis of the knee joint 3 degrees of treatment

Pain in the knees pains many women. It is mistakenly believed that almost always the reason for this is in the deposition of salts. In practice, it turns out that discomfort - the symptoms of gonarthrosis of the third degree of the knee joint - a disease that requires serious treatment. It is a degenerative-dystrophic disease, which in the people is commonly called osteoarthritis. If you do not start the fight against the disease in time, it can lead to disability.

Causes and Symptoms of Knee Joint Grade 3

Pain in the knee usually appears due to destruction of the cartilage or dystrophic changes occurring in it. These processes begin against a background of blood flow disturbance, as a result of which an insufficient amount of nutrients enters the knee. Cartilage tissue becomes thinner, it is easily erased while moving, and if it is neglected, it dies away altogether.

The main symptom of bilateral third-degree gonarthrosis is pain. Very often, a feeling of stiffness joins the unpleasant sensations, which initially appears only when walking, and then perspiring even in a state of rest. Many patients with knee osteoarthritis begin to limp and complain about the inability to bend the joint.

The following factors are considered to be infectious:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • incorrectly cured( or untreated altogether) inflammatory joint diseases;
  • injury;
  • pathology of joints and joint tissues;
  • is overweight;
  • metabolic disorder.

How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree?

The only method that is appropriate for the treatment of all patients with knee osteoratrosis is not to be named. Therapy is usually selected individually. It is important to understand that getting rid of problems once and for all will not succeed - in fact, gonarthrosis is incurable. But you can eliminate unpleasant symptoms of the disease. First of all, they turn to conservative methods of treatment.

To remove inflammation and anesthetize the joint, hormone-corticosteroids help:

  • Diprospan;
  • Hydrocortisone;
  • Kenalog.

Very effective drug-chondroprotectors. These medicines accelerate the process of restoring cartilage. The best in their category are:

  • Structum;
  • Alflutop;
  • Mucosate;
  • Rumalon.

To treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree, anesthetic ointments, creams, gels are also suitable. At the initial stages of the struggle, many experts recommend using:

  • Apizatron;
  • Feloran;
  • Fastum gel;
  • by Nikoflex;
  • Final;
  • Dolobene.

Vascular assist drugs help to speed up recovery. They normalize the blood flow. When knee osteoarthritis is prescribed:

  • Uppsitis;
  • Cavinton;
  • Ascorutin;
  • Trental.

Physiotherapeutic procedures are useful for deforming gonarthrosis of the third degree:

  • UHF;
  • electrophoresis;
  • microwave therapy;
  • paraffin therapy;
  • hydrogen sulphide bath;
  • massage.

In the most difficult cases, surgical intervention is required. During surgery, excrescences and deformed tissues are removed, sometimes the cartilage is completely replaced.

How does food affect gonarthrosis of the third degree?

A diet that presupposes proper nutrition will not hurt anyone. With knee osteoarthritis, it is vitally important to observe it for people who are overweight. Absence of extra pounds - a pledge to reduce the load on the affected joints.

gonarthrosis of the third degree of the knee joint

The diet should be balanced. It is advisable to add to it:

  • buckwheat;
  • beans;
  • fish;
  • lean meat;
  • lentils.

It is recommended to cook steamed dishes. Fill them best with vegetable fats. If possible, give up alcohol.


Treatment of gonarthrosis( arthrosis of the knee joint) 1, 2, 3 degrees

Gonarthrosis What is gonarthrosis? Knee joints can rightly be called the most loaded in the human body. The process of walking, as is known, is a fall, which prevents the second leg from setting. Thus, the knee joint( more precisely, the tibia) at every step experiences a load in the form of the weight of the complete human body( except the tibia of the standing leg).

Given the prevalence of obesity, which greatly increases the load on the articular cartilage, the lifting of various weights that also contribute to the gradual destruction of the knee joints, one can understand why the dystrophic degenerative lesion of the knee joints, called deforming gonarthrosis, occurs frequently, especially in adulthood and old age. Disability is often the outcome of gonarthrosis.

Stages of gonarthrosis

Treatment of gonarthrosis should be differentiated, depending on the stage of the disease:

  • in the first stage of deformation of cartilage and articular bag does not happen, there is only swelling of soft tissues;
  • the second stage develops, usually after a few months. It manifests itself in the intensification of pain after minor loads and movements. It can be said that any movement hurts. To the pain has passed, you need a long rest. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is still reversible with proper and timely treatment.
  • Gonarthrosis of 3rd degree except functional disorders, is manifested by progressive destruction of cartilaginous tissue. The pain arises even at rest. It is at this stage that the classic aching in the knees "on the weather" begins, there is a significant restriction of movement in the knees. This disease brings considerable suffering, and leads to disability.

How to treat arthrosis of the knee joint

Treatment of all diseases, and gonarthrosis in particular, is only three types:

  • etiotropic, that is, aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease;
  • pathogenetic, directed to one of the links in the development of the disease;
  • is symptomatic, aimed at relieving suffering.

Only all these measures in the complex can give a lasting positive result. Applicable to gonarthrosis, therapeutic effects should be directed to:

  • pain relief( improvement of quality of life) - NSAID group;
  • improvement of trophism and restoration of the surface of articular cartilages - reparants( chondroprotectors);
  • reduction of blood stagnation( ischemia) and improvement of blood circulation in the microcirculatory bed of the periarticular tissues and the joint bag - vitamins, massage, physiotherapy, local treatment;
  • improvement in trophic muscles of the thigh and lower leg - exercise therapy.

In addition, with various arthrosis, treatment with folk remedies is quite effective: phytotherapy, deep warming.
The main groups of drugs used in the treatment of knee arthrosis

  • NSAIDs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Are non-hormonal. They are used to relieve acute pain. Therefore, they are used in the first place, since only after the withdrawal of the expressed pain syndrome other methods of treatment are possible. However, their administration should not be long, as it is possible to develop side effects, for example, such as NSAID-induced gastropathy.
    In addition, relieving pain, taking these medications does not prevent further destruction of the joints, but only improves the quality of life. Representatives of this extensive group of drugs are such as nimesil, tselebrex, movalis, orthophene, voltaren and many others.
    Modern NSAIDs( eg, meloxicam) cause few side effects, and are selective, that is, they exhibit selective, more precise action.
  • Preparations protecting cartilage surfaces from destruction and helping to restore it - chondroprotectors. Their main active substances are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine and hyaluronic acid( synviscus, fermatron).Simply put, these drugs contribute to the timely "lubrication" of the joint, the preservation of its biomechanical function, reducing friction and pain syndrome.
    Injection of the hondoprotector into the knee joint
    These drugs significantly help in the very beginning of the disease, as well as in the 2nd stage. If the cartilage does not already exist, then the best lubricant will be unable to restore the function. In addition, it has been shown to be effective only in intraarticular administration of the drug, only directly into the joint cavity( Don, Hondrolon, Elbon).
    All tablets( Artra, Teraflex, etc.), which are so expensive, are in fact not more effective than a cold containing approximately the same compounds. The course of treatment with chondroprotective agents is quite long.
  • Local treatment in the form of ointments, creams and applications on the surface of the knees. This is an extremely widespread method of treatment at all stages of the disease. They do not so much heal as they ease the condition and refer to the means of symptomatic therapy. Most often used ointments with a warming effect, able to improve blood circulation in the joint area. There are a lot of them: Nikoflex, Dolgit, Fastum-gel, Kapsikam, Finalgon and many others.
    In the event that the synovitis has joined, that is, there is inflammation and effusion, it is impossible to warm. This can increase swelling of the inflammatory fluid in the joint cavity. In the event that there is effusion, it is possible to use intraarticular injections of hormonal preparations of long-term action( Kenalog, Diprospan) and their analogues.
    Dimexid, penetrating through the skin, and bischofite have a good therapeutic( analgesic and anti-inflammatory) effect. Bishofit is an "oil brine" that accompanies the emergence of oil while drilling wells. It warms well and anesthetizes, if applied in applications and compresses.
  • Of great importance are non-medicinal methods: therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy, massage. Special exercises, especially in the pool, with reduced load, have a beneficial effect on the restoration of articular cartilage. Using the cane also reduces the load on the affected joint.
  • Also an important component of complex therapy of gonarthrosis is a diet. Food should not be monotonous, it is necessary to exclude refined meat byproducts that can cause urine acid diathesis and the attachment of microcrystalline arthritis, which worsen the course of gonarthrosis.


Genuine scourge of the twenty-first century is gonarthrosis of the knee joint. If several years ago only elderly people were at risk, now the disease does not spare the youth.

In most cases, gonarthrosis develops on the background of injuries received by athletes in training and competitions.

Causes of

Knee joint destruction occurs gradually: first against a background of mechanical damage microtraumatic cartilage arises, then the process of its degeneration occurs.

This disease is characterized by a change in the tissue of the cartilage of metabolism, the essence of which is that the saturation of the cartilage with chondroitin sulfate is markedly reduced. The causes of progression of gonarthrosis are:

  • arthrosis, formed against the background of Paget's disease;
  • bone tumors of benign or malignant nature;
  • fractures of the bones of the knee joint;
  • ankylosing spondylitis( arthritis, affecting the joints of the sacrum and spine);
  • rheumatoid arthritis.

Modern physicians distinguish 3 degrees( or stages) of gonarthrosis.

First-degree gonarthrosis

Unfortunately, this stage of gonarthrosis is often ignored by most people. Pain syndrome occurs only after a load, and the deformation of the knee joint to notice with the naked eye is almost impossible.

Second-degree gonarthrosis

Symptoms of the disease become more specific. Thus, the duration and intensity of painful sensations localized in the joint increases, and often a characteristic crunch is formed during flexion.

Gonarthrosis of the third degree

Gonarthrosis, developed to 3 degrees, is characterized by quite strong painful sensations, arising both during movement and when a person is standing or sitting. In addition, the affected joint "reacts" to the weather change. The mobility of the knee joint is limited, there are changes in the gait( lameness).

Types of

Medicine is known for two types of disease: primary( idiopathic) and secondary.


The disease occurs and develops due to intensive loads of the knee joint. The risk group includes middle-aged and elderly women, as well as athletes and people suffering from obesity.

The pathological process extends to both the joint and both. When there is a simultaneous destruction of both joints, doctors diagnose bilateral gonarthrosis.


The provoking factors of gonarthrosis secondary are:


Knee joint gonarthrosis: symptoms and medical gymnastics

All information on this site is for informational purposes only and should not be accepted by you as an instruction for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. Remember that you have only one health, so only qualified specialists - doctors should take care of it!

This disease most often causes discomfort in the knee joint of people who have crossed the 40-year threshold. And although many suggest that the cause of pain in the legs when walking is the deposition of salts, in fact, it can be deforming arthrosis. With this disease, thinning of the cartilaginous tissue of the knee joint occurs at the expense of deterioration of its blood supply, which leads to complete destruction of cartilage and denudation of bones. As a result of rubbing the bare bones against each other, during the movement of the legs, a person suffering from gonarthrosis experiences terrible pain. Over time, if the disease is not treated, it leads to deformation of the knee joint and curvature of the entire limb.

Factors causing the development of the disease

Physicians call several reasons, which mainly cause the onset of gonarthrosis of the knee:

  • the presence of excess weight in humans;
  • is a sedentary lifestyle;
  • various injuries of the knee joint, transferred earlier( as a result of this, post-traumatic gonarthrosis of the knee joint may develop);
  • the age of a person who has exchanged the fifth decade in his life;
  • engaging in activities that involve a long standing on the legs;
  • excessive load on the legs, for example, when playing sports;
  • the presence in a person of a certain type of diseases, for example, diabetes, gout and others.

In this case, the primary and secondary types of disease are distinguished. So, a secondary disease is considered to have developed as a result of injuries of the knee joint or due to some disease. However, only the primary gonarthrosis of the knee joint can be bilateral.

Symptoms of the disease

Symptoms of this disease may differ from each other, depending on the stage of development of gonarthrosis of the knee joint.

1 degree:

  • the affected joint makes itself felt by the feeling of tightness in the knee region;
  • a person begins to experience difficulties during walking after waking up or a long walk, as well as after physical work and so on;
  • the pain fades, if you walk a little, and also at rest;
  • no noticeable violations in the joint work is not seen.

2 degree:

  • the pains become intense and last a long time;
  • when you move in the joint, you hear a crunchy sound;
  • weak mobility of the knee, especially in the morning;
  • the knee begins to bend badly - to unbend( it may even cease to unbend);
  • appears swelling of the knee;
  • shows the first visible deformities of the foot;
  • there are pain in calf muscles in the evening and at night.

3 degree:

  • persistent pain, regardless of whether you are on the move or at rest;
  • knee begins to ache while worsening weather conditions;
  • limb deformations continue so intensively that they become visible to the eye;
  • amplitude of mobility of the knee joint is sharply reduced;
  • appearance of lameness during walking.

4 degree: in principle - very neglected state of the third degree of the disease, characterized by a strong deformation of the surfaces of the joint bones, as a result of which the gap between them is almost absent. This causes the patient to continuously intense pain.

If you show, at least some, signs of the disease you need to see a doctor who will diagnose and tell you how to treat it.

Diagnosis and treatment

The specialist will listen to your complaints, examine the knee and send to:


Knee joint gonarthrosis 1, 2, 3 degrees: symptoms and features

  • Knee joint ganglion of 3rd degree

Degenerative and dystrophic disease characterized by defeat andchanges in cartilage tissue, a decrease in its functions, is called gonarthrosis of the knee joint. This insidious disease is associated with the slow destruction of connective tissue. Developing, gonarthrosis can affect all the elements of the joint: directly cartilage, ligaments, bone, articular membrane and periarticular muscles.

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Consider the beginning of the development of knee disease can be a time when under the influence of an unfavorable internal or external factor, there is a disturbance in the supply of cartilage. There is a shortage of nutrients with a decrease in the capacity of the vessels as a result of their spasm or blockage. This process can be combined with a malnutrition of the inner layer of the joint bag.

Changing important biological processes leads to degeneration and death of cellular cartilage elements. The elasticity and elasticity of the connective tissue decreases, defects appear in it. The so-called "dry joint" is formed, the deadly particles of which are capable of causing inflammation. Accompany this process will be ingress into the cartilage of substances capable of splitting and changing the composition of tissues.

Degeneration and destruction of the joint structure will constantly provoke further development of gonarthrosis. As a result, an important cushioning body will become incapable of performing its functions. On the surfaces of the cartilage, the growth of the growths will increase. The adjacent bone will change its shape, and the ligaments become shorter. There will be contracture - restriction of mobility. In the advanced stage, muscles are atrophied.

When reaching 60 - 70 years of age, such a disease as deforming gonarthrosis of the knee joint is diagnosed in almost 70% of people. But according to scientists, in recent years, the ailment has become noticeably "younger".

Symptoms of knee joint gonarthrosis

At the initial stage of the disease, minor knee pain is felt, especially after a load. Patients, as a rule, pay little attention to this discomfort, since after rest everything passes. Sometimes the pain is felt in the thigh. Strengthen and acquire a permanent character discomfort will be in damp and wet weather. With inflammation, the joint of the knee increases in volume and swells.

As a typical representative of such an ailment as arthrosis - the knee joint gonarthrosis has symptoms typical of it:

  • edema of the periarticular zone;
  • pain in connective tissue during movements;
  • a sense of instability in the cartilage;
  • articular changes( lead to the formation of O-shaped and X-shaped legs).

Many patients are forced to "pacing" the affected leg in the morning or after a long sitting on a chair. At the same time, they feel pain, a crunch in the knee joint and limited flexion-extensor movements. Gradually develops lameness, the patient loses the ability to move independently. When the disease passes into the final stage, a person can simply lay in a layer.

There is one feature that characterizes gonarthrosis of the knee joint - the symptoms of the disease are expressed regardless of the degree of progression of the process. Only with a steady increase in the signs of the disease, they will correspond to a certain stage.

Types of gonarthrosis

In traumatology and orthopedics, two types of knee joint gonarthrosis are distinguished, taking into account the pathogenesis of the disease: primary( idiopathic) and secondary. The first type of disease occurs usually for no apparent reason and in most cases is bilateral. Secondary gonarthrosis is formed already on the existing platform of pathological changes or knee injuries. It can occur at any age, often on the one hand.

Primary gonarthrosis

Approximately 40% of cases are diagnosed as primary gonarthrosis of the knee joints. The causes of this type of illness are metabolic disorders and disorders of the endocrine system. It is believed that any process that leads to damage to the cartilage can become a provoking factor in the development of the disease. Most of the gonarthrosis is bilateral, that is, it affects both knees.

Usually, primary gonarthrosis is diagnosed in the elderly. A variety of circulatory disorders in the limbs, such as varicose veins or atherosclerosis, also contribute to the occurrence of knee arthrosis. Favorable conditions for the disease creates a sedentary lifestyle . A sharp increase in the physical load on the joints( prolonged running, jumping) also often leads to cartilage damage.

Two-sided gonarthrosis of the knee joint usually develops in such people:

  • patients with diabetes mellitus;
  • patients with thyroid disease;
  • people with excess weight;
  • of women in the menopause and after it, due to the decrease in the amount of estrogens.

Secondary gonarthrosis

Secondary gonarthrosis is observed on one of the knee joints. And the left side lesion is formed when the right leg is injured, and vice versa. This occurs at a time when the weight of the body is unconsciously transferred to one side, exposing the intraarticular tissue heavily to the load. When research is usually found narrowing the gap, cartilage damage, deposition of salts, sharpening the edges of the condyles of the bones.

Often after injuries, secondary gonarthrosis of the knee joint develops - the reason for this is not enough correct treatment of fractures and permanent microtraumas of cartilage:

  • shock impacts on the knee joint during running, water and mountain skiing, snowboarding, when jumping, playing football, basketball;
  • trauma of the meniscus( detachment, pinch, tear) as a result of unsuccessful movement;
  • prolonged static load on the cartilage of the knee, for example, with prolonged squatting.

Secondary gonarthrosis usually develops on the background of an inflammatory process of an autoimmune or infectious nature. People who have too loose or weak ligaments from birth are at risk. This is due to the development of tissue dysplasia and uneven distribution of the load on the cartilage. Often gonarthrosis of the knee develops due to a trauma of the rounded bone forming part of the cartilage.

Degrees of gonarthrosis of knee joint

In medicine, it is accepted to distinguish 3 degrees of gonarthrosis - from the moment of minor changes, to catastrophic cartilage damage and its disappearance. It is established that at some stages of the disease people do not feel pain and discomfort when moving. Therefore, it is rather difficult to independently determine the gonarthrosis of the knee joint - that such things are not known to everyone. Stiffness helps to recognize the ailment.

Knee joint gonarthrosis 1 degree

Even today, it is very difficult for physicians to detect 1 degree of gonarthrosis. It is impossible to detect the changes that have begun in the tissue of cartilage even with X-ray examinations. Diagnosis of the disease relies primarily on an individual description of the patient's condition. For example, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree can be manifested by morning stiffness or slight pain in the cartilage.

Many note the disappearance of unpleasant sensations when overcoming a short distance and their renewal after a long walk. However, only a few know that with such symptoms it is necessary to go straight to the doctor immediately. Neglecting the first signs is risky. At this time, there may already be a slight narrowing of the joint gap, a crunch and tingling. Then the disease will only develop.

At the first degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, the cartilage does not deform, which is why people usually do not feel pain. In this period, the disease can be overcome not only with the help of medicines. Help preventive gentle charging, full and balanced nutrition.

Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree

With gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree, narrowing of the gap and growth of osteophytes, osteophytes, over the surface of the joint becomes evident. Visually, one can observe a slight inflammation in the knee area, feel a pain syndrome while walking. X-ray method diagnoses reliably. The emergence of degenerative gonarthrosis of 2 degrees leads to a disruption of the nutritional process of the cartilaginous tissue.

The following factors can lead to the development of second degree gonarthrosis:

  • heavy work;
  • vascular disease;
  • problems with the absorption of nutrients by the body.

Because of the lack of ability to fully bend the leg, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree leads to the curvature of the spine. The danger of this pathological process lies in the gradual formation of changes, while treatment removes inflammation and pain syndrome. The morphological changes that have occurred in the joint remain. Therefore, therapy should be started as soon as possible.

Knee joint gynarthrosis of 3rd degree

Significant, sometimes irreversible changes in the joint occur at the third degree of knee gonarthrosis. On the X-ray, a rough deformation of the cartilage structure is seen. Patients constantly feel cutting pain. They do not stop day nor night, nor after loads, nor at rest. At this stage, people are practically immobilized, joints cease to bend, lameness develops.

Treatment of such patients is carried out in a complex manner. To defeat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree, drug therapy is used in combination with various physiotherapy procedures, such as electrophoresis, laser therapy, magnetotherapy, etc. In severe third degree gonarthrosis of the knee, when intraarticular injections do not help, surgical intervention is also used.


Knee joint gonarthrosis - the development of the disease and its treatment

In the company of degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the musculoskeletal system, the gonarthrosis of the knee joint is one of the first places. For the first time gonarthrosis manifests itself after forty years, and women suffer this pathology somewhat more often than representatives of the stronger sex. Among predisposing factors, it is necessary to allocate excess weight, insufficient motor activity and knee arthritis in the anamnesis( arthritis of the knee joint, intraarticular fracture of the tibia or femur, rupture or sprain of the ligaments, menisci, hemarthrosis).

How the development of the disease occurs

The key role in the development of gonarthrosis is played not by the deposition of salts, as most of our audience mistakenly believe, but the dystrophic changes in the hyaline cartilage that covers the condyles of the femoral and tibia.

Changes at the molecular level remain behind the scenes for a long time, but the cartilage gradually collapses, exposing the subchondral surfaces of the bones that form the knee joint. At some point, the hyaline cartilage becomes so thin that it ceases to perform its damping function, and soon it disappears altogether. As a consequence - the condyles of the bones are exposed, and this leads to their destruction.

Further, the body includes protective mechanisms, which leads to the appearance of the tibia and the femur on the surface of bone growth, forming spines or osteophytes. These deformations can already be determined with the help of palpation, they are clearly visible even during X-ray examination. Gonarthrosis passes into the stage of deforming arthrosis. The synovial membrane of the joint also suffers, an aseptic synovitis is attached, an exudate is formed in the cavity of the knee joint.

Depending on which stage of destruction and deformation the process has achieved, three degrees of severity of gonarthrosis are distinguished. The clinical picture and complaints of the patient directly depend on the stage of the disease.

Gonarthrosis degrees

gonarthrosis of the knee joint is manifested by morning stiffness and minor pain in the affected joint. The patient notes that the pain occurs after a prolonged stay in a sitting or lying position, more often in the morning. It is worth it - and the pain subsides. The joint is not deformed at this stage, there are no external changes, mobility is not violated.

2 grade gonarthrosis of the knee joint requires more attention. The pains occur not only after sleep, but also due to prolonged exercise, the knee is already deformed, enlarged in volume, and an experienced specialist can determine an unnatural increase in the size of the joint surfaces. Often the patient complains of the inability to bend the leg in the knee "to the end", feels a crunch in the joint during movement.

X-ray, we can already see a bright picture, in which the central place will be allocated to deformations of the subchondral bone sections and narrowing of the joint gap.

grade 3 knee joint gonarthrosis shows the same symptoms, but only their severity increases many times. Pain becomes an integral part of the life of such a patient, it tortures him both during walking, and at rest, and even at night, preventing sleep. The function of the joint is severely impaired - the patient is unable to bend the leg in the knee even by 90 degrees, moreover, often he can not fully unbend it. Appears lameness, a person falls on the affected leg, or can not move at all without help. The deformation of the joint is visible to the naked eye, and on the x-ray we see a gross change in the structure of the knee joint.

Treatment of

Disease Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint is a long and complex process that requires the consolidated efforts of the physician and patient. Because there is no inflammation in the joint, anti-inflammatory drugs will not give anything. A key role is given to the regime measures, such as physical therapy, massage, sanatorium treatment.

Patient, if, of course, he wants to keep the joint, he must perform a daily exercise program in the morning, during the day, take care of the joint as much as possible, and in the evening apply warming compresses to it. In the physiotherapy room, the patient can undergo a course of electrophoresis with medications that will calm the pain.

In the case of severe deformity, surgical treatment is indicated, which consists in arthroplasty of the joint.


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