What is the peculiarity ofgrade 2 gonarthrosis? By gonarthrosis is meant the damage to the cartilage and bony growths that occur on the joint, xytic irritation of the articular tissue.
Knee Osteoarthritis - is a degenerative-dystrophic disorder of .
This deviation is of 3 degrees of severity, the most common is gonarthrosis of the knee joint of 2nd degree, because only at this stage people notice the disease and are engaged in treatment.It should be noted that arthrosis is a problem of the current society, this deviation was earlier characteristic only of older people.
Now the disease has no age restrictions, appearing even among young people due to injuries.
Causes of the disease
The main cause of the disease is a mechanical factor.
Microtraumatization of the cartilage of the joint is observed, which is why its destruction begins. As a consequence - the load on individual parts of the joint surface increases, and then - its destruction.
It is also proved that with this violation
There are such causes of the lesion:
- fractures of the bones of the knee joint;
- arthrosis in Paget's disease;
- bone formation;
- rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
If polyarthritis is painful, treatment at home will be a great help to traditional medicine. Recipes and advice will be relevant at any stage of the disease.
Stages of the disease
In development, the deviation goes through several stages:
- The initial stage of the disorder is the initial stage of the disorder, which is often neglected by patients. With it periodically there are pains, sometimes the composition swells, deformation of the joint is insignificant and imperceptible.
- Grade 2 gonarthrosis is already significantly more serious, and therefore requires more attention, pains appear both after sleep and during physical exertion on the joint. On the x-ray, deformation of the subchondral parts of the bones and a decrease in the joint gap are observed. This degree is accompanied by fast fatigue and the occurrence of moderate pain in the knee. Also a sign of difficulty in flexing and flexing, combined with a crunch in the joint, deformation and an increase in the volume of the knee is observed.
- The third stage of the is the heaviest stage. It is characterized by pain, arising both during movement and at rest, meteorological dependence is observed. The gait is greatly disturbed, the mobility of the joint is limited.
Types of the disease
There are such types of gonarthrosis:
- right-sided deforming arthrosis, affecting the right knee;
- left-sided is a disease that causes lesions in the left knee joint;
- unilateral - arthrosis, affecting only one knee;
- bilateral - a disease of both knees.
Basically, in the latter case, the cartilage tissues in both joints are destroyed at the same rate, but sometimes the lesion of one joint progresses faster than the other - this may be related to the specifics of the work or sport that the patient is engaged in, as well as to congenital deformity of the joints.
Symptoms and symptoms of the disease
Arthrosis of the 2nd degree is more intense, and its manifestations are more disturbing to the patients.
Pain in the broken joint is increasing and increasing. In addition to the standard pains that appear in the morning or after a long rest, pain occurs after a long walk or standing. They last long and pass only at rest after a while.
Pain often increases with exercise. Patients spare the sick knee and try not to step on the leg slightly. Because of this, there may be underdevelopment of the muscles of the affected leg.
If there is a deviation at this stage, there is a crunch in the knee. As the changes develop, it increases and becomes more pronounced.
At this stage of the disease, the first manifestations of deformity of the unhealthy joint are observed. Patients often can not fully bend their legs in the knee.
Grade 2 gonarthrosis mainly occurs after the first stage of the disease, so the diagnosis of the patient is usually already known to the doctor. The progression of the lesion is indicated by the appearance of new manifestations: pain intensification, joint deformation, mobility limitation, crunch.
Diagnostics consists in interrogation of complaints of the patient, check of volume of movement in a joint and survey of the joint. Naturally, according to this information, only preliminary conclusions are made, and the leading ones are instrumental methods of diagnosis.
Most often this is the x-ray of the joints. Depending on the general picture of the disorder, the stage of the disease is determined. Also, if gonarthrosis is detected, arthroscopy and ultrasound are used.
How to treat
disease When diagnosed, treatment of grade 2 gonarthrosis should begin without delay. First you need to "unload" the joint.
This is achieved in several ways:
- weight loss;
- load limit;
- using a walking stick or crutches;
- exercises physical therapy, aimed at strengthening the muscles of the aching legs.
For this, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ibuprofen, ketoprofen), non-narcotic analgesics are prescribed.
Well-acting preparations from arthrosis, containing components of cartilage tissue( chondroitin-sulfate, glucosamine).They contribute to the restoration of cartilage, i.e.help the body repair it. They can be taken in tablets, in the form of injections in the muscle, ointment or cream.
In some cases, injections of hyaluronic acid into the joint can be prescribed. In the absence of inflammation, physiotherapy can be used.
Physical exercises should always accompany the treatment of any form of arthrosis. Gymnastics anticipates the development of contractures, preserves the musculartone. Movement is the anticipation of any arthrosis.
Physiotherapy measures quickly eliminate pain, inflammation and restore the volume of movements in the knee. Laser and UHF therapy, phonophoresis, and massage are used. All procedures are appointed by a specialist.
For the fixation of the knee, knee pads and rigid orthoses are used.
With obvious disruption of the joint, the uselessness of conservative treatment and destruction of cartilage, surgical methods are used:
- endoprosthetics - replacement of the affected joint with artificial;
- osteotomy - excision of bone changes or restoration of the limb axis;
- arthroscopic intervention is performed by instruments injected through the puncture of the skin in the knee. By means of this low-traumatic method, parts of the destroyed cartilage are extracted from the joint cavity, drugs are introduced.
Read more about the treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis in our article.
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint - medicines, chondroprotectors, sport and diet
Knee joint gonarthrosis is a common disease that is a gradual drying of cartilage tissue that causes deformity of the joint with. ..
Forecast and complications
When the joint is damaged, biomechanics of the spine and other joints,which causes the appearance of a herniated intervertebral disc and arthritis of other joints.
Treatment is carried out for life, because the process is constantly progressing. But with a competent selection of funds and timely start of treatment, it is possible to significantly stop the process and prevent disability.
- weight control and its reduction with excess body weight;
- regular physical education;
- preventing large loads on the knees;
- for injuries or inflammation of the knee - an immediate request to a specialist for help.
Gonarthrosis is a chronic disorder that is aggravated over time. In order for the process not to become neglected, every effort should be made to prevent and treat under the supervision of experienced doctors.
Video: Knee joint gonarthrosis 2-3 degrees
Application shock wave therapy( UVT) for the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint 2-3 degrees.
Treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis - medications, chondroprotectors, sport and diet
Knee joint gonarthrosis is a common disease that is a step-by-step drying of the cartilage tissue , causing deformation of the joint with loss of its functions.
This violation is also called osteoarthrosis and deforming gonarthrosis.
Classification of the disease
Types of the disease:
- primary - it affects older people, although it is impossible to trace the pathogenesis of the disease in this case;
- ptorichny - appears due to mechanical damage to the knee or its lesion due to inflammation in the body, has no age restrictions.
Regardless of the type of deviation, 3 stages are distinguished:
- On the , the initial stage of the , the patient feels a slight knee pain that appears after prolonged exercise or walking. Joints in this period are not subject to deformation.
- In the second stage, the pains of start to increase and become more frequent, and not necessarily because of the loads. The mobility of the joint is worsened, it looks slightly swollen and deformed.
- The last stage of the process is characterized by an acute pain syndrome. The patient may have meteosensitivity, and the pain then becomes unbearable. The deformity of the joint can be seen with a normal look, and the knee has a bloated and cyanotic appearance.
Detail about gonarthrosis of 2nd degree:
What is the peculiarity of
grade 2 gonarthrosis? By gonarthrosis is meant the defeat of cartilage and bony growths arising on the joint, xytotic irritation of the articular tissue. Osteoarthritis of the knee - deg. ..
Detail about the third degree gonarthrosis:
Is it possible to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree and why does the disability come
Gonarthrosis of the third degree of the knee joint is the heaviest. The disease significantly complicates the life of patients, severely limits work capacity....
Goals and objectives of treatment
Treatment goals for deforming knee joint gonarthrosis:
- to neutralize pain;
- possible to restore the affected cartilage and ligaments;
- to increase the mobility of the joint.
How to cure the disease
Modern medicine offers several techniques.
All medicamental treatment of gonarthrosis can be divided into 2 types: for internal and external use. Among other things, solutions for injection are also used.
In cases of arthrosis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are usually used to neutralize pain and inflammation.against a background of severe pain, one can not begin treatment.
Only by eliminating the acute pain, you can then go to massage, gymnastics and those physiotherapy activities that, because of the pain, would be unbearable.
Among other things, using these tools, it is necessary to take into account that they all have serious contraindications and with long consumption can give tangible side effects.
Therefore, long-term use is better to use selective drugs( movalis).
Application of chondroprotectors
Chondroprotectors - glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate - substances that feed cartilaginous tissue and restore the structure of the affected cartilage, the most useful form of treatment for violations.
They influence the cause of the disease: it favors the restoration of cartilage, the improvement of the production of joint fluid and the normalization of its properties.
This effect of the drugs makes them indispensable in the treatment of the initial phase of arthrosis.Chondroprotectors are not very effective at stage 3 of the disorder, when the cartilage is almost destroyed. After all, it is impossible to grow a new cartilage or to return the form to bones by means of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.
Treatment with these substances requires competent and long-term administration in combination with other methods of exposure.
Of all the drugs used in the treatment of arthrosis, this group is the most beneficial. In addition, they have almost no side effects.
To achieve a powerful therapeutic effect, chondroprotectors should be applied by courses, regularly, for a long period. It makes no sense to take glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate from case to case.
Ointments and creams can not cure arthrosis of the knees. But they can alleviate the condition and reduce pain in the affected area. To this end, ointments are extremely useful.
So, with arthrosis flowing without synovitis, warming ointments improve the blood flow in the joint. For this use of menovazine, gevkamen, etc. These ointments usually cause the patient a feeling of pleasant warmth. They rarely give side effects.
Ointments based on non-steroidal substances( indomethacin, butadione, dolgite) are used when the course of the disorder is combined with synovitis.
Compressors for compresses are more effective than ointments. Of the topical agents used today, the most common dimexide, bischofite, medical bile.
Sport and gymnastics
Many people think that physical activity is forbidden in case of illness. For the normal operation of the joint, he needs strong developed muscles, which is whymoderate sports activities in the disorder bring only good.
Two-sided gonarthrosis of the knee joint can and should be treated with leisurely exercises. It should be borne in mind that the patient joints can not be subjected to sudden movements and heavy loads.
Except gymnastics, long walks in the fresh air are useful.
The diet for gonarthrosis is a powerful way to influence the course of the disease.
Food should be balanced, but too high-calorie food needs to be removed, tk.they can lead to excess weight, which is one of the main causes of gonarthrosis.
The peculiarity of nutrition is that it must be saturated with animal proteins, because they are involved in the structure of muscles. But to feed the cartilage is necessary to use jelly, broth, brewed from the bones.There is also a list of products not recommended for arthrosis of the knees. This alcohol, fatty meat, cabbage, tomatoes, pepper, milk, sour fruit.
Manual therapy for violations of I and II stages gives a remarkable result. Sometimes several sessions are enough to make the patient feel better.This method of treatment is especially effective in combination with joint extension, chondroprotective consumption and intra-articular administration of ostenil.
Osteoarthritis of knee joints is a deviation passing through 3 stages of development.
And if at first you can cure by means of drugs from arthrosis, gymnastics and massages, then if the joint already changes, then the output is the operation.
Today, there are several types of interventions that can eliminate pain and discomfort due to a violation. Some of them, for example, artodes, give a certain immobility to the joint, rather than neutralize the pain.
More modern techniques involve the use of prostheses that can replace the joint or improve its work through a special plate.How and how to treat polyarthritis of the hands with traditional and traditional medicine.
What sections of the population are at risk of getting trochanthitis and what should be known about the prevention and treatment of this unpleasant disease.
Traditional treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis
In many situations, folk remedies are extremely effective. Tinctures and ointments on herbs give a good effect. So, you can rub a sore spot with camphor oil or make a compress with apple cider vinegar and honey.
Many recipes for the treatment of disorders are used as the basis of the leaves of burdock. It is necessary to attach the sheet to the joint, wrap with a film and a warm scarf for the night.
By the same principle, you can use white cabbage leaves. To enhance the effect it is necessary to grease the cabbage leaf with honey.
It is necessary to understand the danger of diseases of knee joints. Means for treatment should be selected carefully, given all the nuances.
At the first manifestations of pain in the knees of , it is worthwhile to find an experienced doctor , which will give effective guidance on preventing this problem.
In the initial stages of gonarthrosis is better treated than late. If you want to live without pain and unnecessary complications, take care of your health and the health of your joints.
Video: Exercises for gonarthrosis
What should I do if my knee is sore and there are suspicions of gonarthrosis? You need to visit a doctor to make a correct diagnosis, and also to study these exercises.
Gonarthrosis. Causes and degrees of gonarthrosis. Treatment of gonarthrosis
What is gonarthrosis
Gonarthrosis( arthrosis of the knee joint, osteoarthrosis of the knee joint, deforming arthrosis of the knee joint) is a degenerative-dystrophic disease of the knee joint, characterized by progressive destruction of the cartilaginous tissue, deformation of the joint and a violation of its function. Gonarthrosis is widely distributed among elderly patients of , more often they suffer from women.
Reasons for gonarthrosis
Two main types of gonarthrosis are distinguished by pathogenesis. Primary or idiopathic gonarthrosis - the cause of the development of such an arthrosis is not known. Primary gonarthrosis is more common in elderly patients, mainly a bilateral process.
Secondary gonarthrosis - arthrosis of the knee, which arises as a result of the previous( or against the background) pathology of the knee joint ( injury of the knee joint , developmental disability, against the diseases of the knee joint infectious or systemic, etc.).Secondary gonarthrosis occurs depending on the cause of its occurrence at almost any age, it is more often unilateral.
Stages of gonarthrosis
Clinically, there are 3 stages of gonarthrosis. The essence of the stages is to describe the clinical manifestations of the disease and the degree of disruption of the knee joint function.
First-stage gonarthrosis is characterized by initial manifestations of the disease. Patients at this stage are periodically disturbed by dull pain, at the back of the knee joint that appears after a long walk or other load on the joints. Sometimes the knee joints swell, after which the symptoms themselves disappear. Knee joints are not deformed at this stage.
Gonarthrosis of the second stage of is characterized by an increase in the symptoms that appeared in the first stage. The pain syndrome becomes more prolonged and intense. Patients mark the appearance of a crunch in the joint with motion of the knee. Many complain of stiffness in the joints in the mornings, which passes after a short walk. At this stage, patients periodically use analgesics. There is an insignificant limitation of flexion and extension in the knee joint. The joint is enlarged in volume.
Gonarthrosis of the third stage of , is characterized by the greatest development of all the symptoms inherent in this disease. The pain syndrome acquires a practically constant character when walking and at rest. Often joint pain occurs when weather changes. Gait at this stage of the disease is severely impaired. Restrictions of movements in the joint are sharply outfitted. Visually the knee joint is enlarged in volume, deformed. There are X-shaped deformation of the knee joint - valgus and O-shaped deformation - varus.
Two-sided knee joint gonarthrosis: treatment and symptoms of primary deforming gonarthrosis
Bilateral gonarthrosis is a common pathology that combines an inflammatory component( often aseptic nature) and destruction of cartilage, which entails a change in the structure of bone tissue. Depending on the stage of the pathological process, symptoms of an inflammatory intraarticular reaction or persistent bone deformity can develop with the formation of outgrowths in the form of hooks, thorns, bony head roughness.
Two-sided gonarthrosis is accompanied by palpable pain, which increases with movement, associated with the support of the knee joint. Primary symptoms can begin to manifest at an early stage of the disease when climbing and descending from the stairs. In the future, as the pathology develops, the pain arises more often, in the advanced stage the pain syndrome is permanent, painful and is accompanied by a restriction of the physiological volume of movements in the affected joints.
Common causes of bilateral gonarthrosis
There are various theories that consider the probable causes of bilateral gonarthrosis. In a number of predisposing factors are called:
- sedentary lifestyle;
- overweight against a background of alimentary and constitutional obesity;
- blood flow disturbance in the circulatory system of the lower limbs;
- infringement of a nervous fiber at an osteochondrosis, a radiculitis and an intervertebral hernia of the bottom department of a vertebral column;
- trauma, sprain, fractures of the bones of the lower limbs, muscle fiber ruptures with the formation of structural strands of connective tissue;
- rheumatism and other diseases affecting cartilaginous tissue;
- hereditary predisposition, congenital pathology associated with chondromalacia;
- heavy physical labor.
Bilateral gonarthrosis can become a complication in severe infections of other organs and systems. So, in particular, there is a danger of knee joint damage in case of pyelonephritis, pneumonia, acute bronchitis, tonsillitis. The infection is transferred by the lymphatic route and with the blood flow. When penetrating the cavity of the knee joint, disseminated inflammation occurs, which can trigger primary scar changes. They contribute to reducing the cushioning ability of cartilage. In the future, a chain reaction is triggered with involvement of the synovial fluid in the pathological process and its biochemical properties. The primary symptom of this condition is pain in large joints in the development of a clinical picture of an acute respiratory viral disease.
Primary bilateral deforming gonarthrosis and its symptoms
Primary bilateral bilateral symptomatology can manifest itself in different ways, depending on the stage of the disease. At the beginning of the disease, external manifestations are almost completely absent. Patients feel a pronounced heaviness in the calf muscles. At night, restless legs syndrome can occur - a condition in which a person can not find a comfortable position for the lower limbs and requires constant movement. There may also be a convulsive syndrome. Pain at the initial stage occurs only after serious physical exertion.
Two-sided deforming gonarthrosis in the second stage is manifested by such symptoms as:
- morning stiffness, which passes after a small gymnastic complex;
- weak clicks and easy creaking when walking or descending the stairs;
- pain, which can occur both in the period of exacerbation, and during remission.
When carrying out the radiography in the picture, a clear narrowing of the joint gap can be seen, different growths can be determined on the bone surfaces. From their intensity and dimension, the diagnosis of the stage of the pathological process depends.
In the third stage there is a serious difficulty in moving without assistance. When viewed, a clear deformation of the knee joints is visible. The physiological position of the tibia in the joint cavity may be impaired. This leads to different variants of curvature of the shins.
Treatment of primary bilateral deforming gonarthrosis of the knee
Bilateral deforming gonarthrosis is a condition that does not threaten human life, but significantly impairs its quality. In the late stages, patients do not have the ability to move independently, lose their ability to work, suffer from persistent severe pain.
Treatment of bilateral knee joint gonarthrosis is easiest to conduct at an early stage. In this case, there is a high share of the probability of complete restoration of cartilaginous tissues. With more neglected forms of pathology, treatment is also possible, but it will be long and can bring additional suffering to patients. This is due, above all, to the need for a surgical operation for prosthetics. After this intervention, a long rehabilitation period follows, in which both septic inflammation and implant rejection can be observed.
But there are other methods that allow not only to slow down the process of joint destruction, but also to reverse the primary bilateral gonarthrosis of the knee joint. This is a technique of manual therapy, which is offered at our clinic. Experienced specialists develop individual treatment programs during the initial admission.
As a result of the targeted impact, the pain syndrome is significantly reduced after the first session. Completely refuse to take pain medication will be possible in about 3-5 sessions. Normalization and recovery of motor activity is difficult to predict, because much depends on the stage of destruction and the general mood of the patient.
For treatment we offer massage and physiotherapy, osteopathy and acupuncture, traction traction and reflexology. Also, doctors are actively working to reduce weight, developing healthy eating habits and regular physical activity.
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Two-way gonarthrosis: diagnosis of the disease and its treatment
Most of us rarely pay attention to discomfort, periodic pain in the knee, writing off this for an old bruise. And in vain, this may well be the beginning of a very serious disease - gonarthrosis. This is called arthrosis of the knee joint, when the cartilage tissue undergoes changes and eventually loses mobility.
We used to think that such diseases are the destiny of the elderly. In fact, now the disease occurs at any age, although people more than 40 years old are more inclined to it. The reason is simple - changes in the cartilaginous tissue begin after knee injuries, which is very often the case with lovers of an active lifestyle. The cause may be an infection, a violation of blood supply in the presence of varicose veins, especially if there is excess weight.
Types of the disease
The disease manifests itself in different ways. For example, one leg may be affected - right-sided or left-sided, or two - then it is called bilateral gonarthrosis.
According to its origin, gonarthrosis can be of two kinds:
- Primary - its victim is any healthy person. Too large, regular physical activity, age-related changes in cartilage, diseases with metabolic disorders, overweight. .. All this directly or indirectly leads to deformities. Primary gonarthrosis can be bilateral.
- Secondary gonarthrosis appears after a trauma or other disease, for example - arthritis. Bad, incomplete treatment of one disease over time leads to its manifestation.
Both primary and secondary gonarthrosis eventually leads to pathological deformation of the cartilaginous, bone tissue of the knee joints, which greatly reduces their mobility, and without adequate treatment may eventually lead to disability.
The course of the disease
This disease does not begin immediately, it has certain clearly defined periods. They are divided into 3 degrees:
- 1 degree - knee joints can sometimes hurt after a long walk or running. Sometimes the knee can swell a little, but after rest everything passes. Although this is only the very beginning of the disease, but there is also a bilateral gonarthrosis of 1 degree, with the defeat of both legs.
- 2 degree - even with a small load a person begins to feel a strong pain. Passing a small distance or raising a small weight for him becomes torture. It becomes heard a crunch when bending the knee, extension. The diseased knee becomes more healthy, the stiffness of movements appears. Two-way gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is able to severely limit the life of a sick person.
- 3 degree - pain in the knee is almost all the time, regardless of whether a person is sitting or walking. Constant pain can prevent a person from sleeping. It is well noticeable that the joint is greatly enlarged compared to the healthy one. The deformation of the diseased knee causes a noticeable curvature of the legs. The joints at this stage are very limited in movement.
As a rule, the disease of the 1st degree goes unnoticed - it does not bother the person practically, but go to the reception because of a slight pain in the knee. .. Many people think this is just not serious, and are very mistaken - because it's possible to cure the disease at this stage almost completely quickly.
To see a doctor usually get with gonarthrosis 2 degrees, as a rule - bilateral. The disease goes too far, causing irreversible changes in the joints, so you can not completely get rid of it - you can only move the offensive of the 3rd degree for a long time.
Diagnosis of the disease
Of course, in neglected form it is possible to visually determine the increase, deformation of the knee. But much more reliable methods of research work - radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, MRI - magnetic resonance imaging. Any of these methods can show changes in the cartilaginous tissue, and even more so - bone growths around the joint heads.
For a complete diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe a blood test. Particularly help him analyze the rheumatoid factor. Other diagnostic methods are assigned more to clarify the individual characteristics.
Joint diseases are not one that can be treated independently. It is possible to be treated only under the control and on prescription of the doctor. Especially self-medication is fraught with consequences for bilateral gonarthrosis, and even 2 degrees - you can aggravate the situation and become a complete disabled person.
The doctor will correctly assess the course of the disease, prescribe the appropriate physiotherapy, treatment. Therapy is aimed at improving the blood supply to the affected leg, increasing its mobility. In addition, they can prescribe injections or tablets from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - to reduce the inflammatory process, anesthesia. All this is quite effective when the disease is not started.
In severe cases, when the knee function is completely broken, it is severely deformed, causes permanent pain, the doctor can decide that an operation is necessary. Methods of surgical treatment are different - from the superimposition of metal structures, to the replacement of its parts by artificial ones. In particularly difficult cases, the surgeon will replace the entire joint.
As you can see, the path from an untreated knee injury to such a serious illness as gonarthrosis is very small. So do not treat such "little things" scornfully. Any sore should be cured completely, then it will not have to receive such "surprises".
Knee joint arthritis 1, 2, 3 degrees: symptoms and features
- Knee joint gynarthrosis of the third degree
A degenerative-dystrophic disease characterized by defeat and alteration of the cartilage tissue, a decrease in its function, is called gonarthrosis of the knee joint. This insidious disease is associated with the slow destruction of connective tissue. Developing, gonarthrosis can affect all the elements of the joint: directly cartilage, ligaments, bone, articular membrane and periarticular muscles.IMPORTANT TO KNOW!A new means of restoring joints in 99% of subjects. The pain goes away 100%!Read more here - & gt;
Considering the onset of the development of knee disease can be a time when, under the influence of an unfavorable internal or external factor, there is a disturbance in the supply of cartilage. There is a shortage of nutrients with a decrease in the capacity of the vessels as a result of their spasm or blockage. This process can be combined with a malnutrition of the inner layer of the joint bag.
Change in important biological processes leads to degeneration and death of cellular cartilage elements. The elasticity and elasticity of the connective tissue decreases, defects appear in it. The so-called "dry joint" is formed, the deadly particles of which are capable of causing inflammation. Accompany this process will be ingress into the cartilage of substances capable of splitting and changing the composition of tissues.
Degeneration and destruction of the joint structure will constantly provoke further development of gonarthrosis. As a result, an important cushioning body will become incapable of performing its functions. On the surfaces of the cartilage, the growth of the growths will increase. The adjacent bone will change its shape, and the ligaments become shorter. There will be contracture - restriction of mobility. In the advanced stage, muscles are atrophied.
When reaching 60 - 70 years of age, such a disease as deforming gonarthrosis of the knee joint is diagnosed in almost 70% of people. But according to scientists, in recent years, the ailment has become noticeably "younger".
Symptoms of knee joint ganglion
At the initial stage of the disease, minor knee pain is felt, especially after a load. Patients, as a rule, pay little attention to this discomfort, since after rest everything passes. Sometimes the pain is felt in the thigh. Strengthen and acquire a permanent character discomfort will be in damp and wet weather. With inflammation, the joint of the knee increases in volume and swells.
As a typical representative of such a disease as arthrosis - the knee joint gonarthrosis has the symptoms typical of it:
- edema of the periarticular zone;
- pain in connective tissue during movements;
- sensation of instability in the cartilage;
- articular changes( lead to the formation of O-shaped and X-shaped legs).
Many patients are forced to "pacing" the affected leg in the morning or after a long sitting on a chair. At the same time, they feel pain, a crunch in the knee joint and limited flexion-extensor movements. Gradually develops lameness, the patient loses the ability to move independently. When the disease passes into the final stage, a person can simply lay in a layer.
There is one feature that characterizes gonarthrosis of the knee joint - the symptoms of the disease are expressed regardless of the degree of progression of the process. Only with a steady increase in the signs of the disease, they will correspond to a certain stage.
Types of gonarthrosis
In traumatology and orthopedics, two types of knee joint gonarthrosis are distinguished, taking into account the pathogenesis of the disease: primary( idiopathic) and secondary. The first type of disease occurs usually for no apparent reason and in most cases is bilateral. Secondary gonarthrosis is formed already on the existing platform of pathological changes or knee injuries. It can occur at any age, often on the one hand.
Approximately 40% of cases are diagnosed as primary gonarthrosis of the knee joints. The causes of this type of illness are metabolic disorders and disorders of the endocrine system. It is believed that any process that leads to damage to the cartilage can become a provoking factor in the development of the disease. Most of the gonarthrosis is bilateral, that is, it affects both knees.
Usually, primary gonarthrosis is diagnosed in the elderly. A variety of circulatory disorders in the limbs, such as varicose veins or atherosclerosis, also contribute to the occurrence of knee arthrosis. Favorable conditions for the disease creates a sedentary lifestyle . A sharp increase in the physical load on joints( prolonged running, jumping) also often leads to cartilage damage.
Two-sided gonarthrosis of the knee joint usually develops in such people:
- patients with diabetes mellitus;
- patients with thyroid disorders;
- people with excess weight;
- of women in the menopause and after it, due to the decrease in the amount of estrogens.
Secondary gonarthrosis is observed on one of the knee joints. And the left side lesion is formed when the right leg is injured, and vice versa. This occurs at a time when the weight of the body is unconsciously transferred to one side, exposing the intraarticular tissue heavily to the load. When research is usually found narrowing the gap, cartilage damage, deposition of salts, sharpening the edges of the condyles of the bones.
Often after injuries, secondary gonarthrosis of the knee joint develops - the reason for this is not enough correct treatment of fractures and permanent microtraumas of cartilage:
- shock impacts on the knee joint during running, water and skiing, snowboarding, when jumping, playing football, basketball;
- trauma of the meniscus( detachment, pinching, tearing) as a result of unsuccessful movement;
- prolonged static load on the cartilage of the knee, for example, with prolonged squatting.
Secondary gonarthrosis usually develops on the background of an inflammatory process of an autoimmune or infectious nature. People who have too loose or weak ligaments from birth are at risk. This is due to the development of tissue dysplasia and uneven distribution of the load on the cartilage. Often gonarthrosis of the knee develops due to a trauma of the rounded bone forming part of the cartilage.
Degrees of gonarthrosis of the knee joint
In medicine, it is common to distinguish 3 degrees of gonarthrosis - from the moment of minor changes, to catastrophic cartilage damage and its disappearance. It is established that at some stages of the disease people do not feel pain and discomfort when moving. Therefore, it is rather difficult to independently determine the gonarthrosis of the knee joint - that such things are not known to everyone. Stiffness helps to recognize the ailment.
Knee joint gonarthrosis 1 degree
Even today, it is very difficult for physicians to detect 1 degree of gonarthrosis. It is impossible to detect the changes that have begun in the tissue of cartilage even with X-ray examinations. Diagnosis of the disease relies primarily on an individual description of the patient's condition. For example, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree can be manifested by morning stiffness or slight pain in the cartilage.
Many note the disappearance of unpleasant sensations when overcoming a short distance and their renewal after a long walk. However, only a few know that with such symptoms it is necessary to go straight to the doctor immediately. Neglecting the first signs is risky. At this time, there may already be a slight narrowing of the joint gap, a crunch and tingling. Then the disease will only develop.
At the first degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, the cartilage does not deform, which is why people usually do not feel pain. In this period, the disease can be overcome not only with the help of medicines. Help preventive gentle charging, full and balanced nutrition.
Knee joint gonarthrosis of 2nd degree
With gonarthrosis of the 2 nd degree, the narrowing of the cleft and the growth of osteophytes, osteophytes, over the surface of the joint becomes evident. Visually, one can observe a slight inflammation in the knee area, feel a pain syndrome while walking. X-ray method diagnoses reliably. The emergence of degenerative gonarthrosis of 2 degrees leads to a disruption of the nutritional process of the cartilaginous tissue.
The following factors can lead to the development of second-degree gonarthrosis:
- heavy work;
- vascular disease;
- problems with the absorption of nutrients by the body.
Because of the lack of ability to fully bend the leg, gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree leads to curvature of the spine. The danger of this pathological process lies in the gradual formation of changes, while treatment removes inflammation and pain syndrome. The morphological changes that have occurred in the joint remain. Therefore, therapy should be started as soon as possible. Knee joint gonarthrosis of 3rd degree
Significant, sometimes irreversible changes in the joint occur at grade 3 gonarthrosis of the knee. On the X-ray, a rough deformation of the cartilage structure is seen. Patients constantly feel cutting pain. They do not stop day nor night, nor after loads, nor at rest. At this stage, people are practically immobilized, joints cease to bend, lameness develops.
Treatment of such patients is carried out in a complex manner. To defeat gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree, drug therapy is used in combination with various physiotherapy procedures, such as electrophoresis, laser therapy, magnetotherapy, etc. In severe third degree gonarthrosis of the knee, when intraarticular injections do not help, surgical intervention is also used.