Bilateral knee joint gonarthrosis treatment

Knee joint gonarthrosis: degrees, types, methods of treatment

What is gonarthrosis?

Gonarthrosis of the knee joint

Gonarthrosis is a degenerative-dystrophic disease of the knee joint. The second name is osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The nature of the disease is not inflammatory, often leads to disability.

According to statistics, he is given one of the leading places among all types of arthrosis. In figures this is more than 20%.Of all the diseases that affect the knee joint, the frequency of manifestations of gonarthrosis is 53%.

Gonarthrosis is well known to doctors for more than 100 years, in everyday life it is called "salt deposition".In fact, with arthrosis, calcification occurs( deposition of calcium salts).However, such calcifications are of limited nature, of clinical importance. The painful process occurs after the pathology of the circulation in small bone vessels, after which changes in the cartilaginous cover of the joint begin.

In the initial stages, changes occur at the molecular level in the cartilaginous tissue, followed by changes in the hyaline cartilage: in some places it becomes cloudy, thinens, stratifies, splits in different directions. This process ends with the complete disappearance of the cartilage, larger and smaller, exposing the underlying bone. In turn, the bone reacts to the death of the cartilage by densification, that is, excessive overgrowth of the bone along the periphery, spines are formed, the foot is deformed and warped. For these reasons, this disease is called "deforming arthrosis".

  • Exchange processes in the cartilage tissue are carried out due to osmotic pressure. When squeezing the lubricant is released, and when unloading it absorbs. So, during the movement, the cartilage is constantly fed. With incomplete recovery, dictated by increased mechanical stress, metabolic processes are violated. In the place of greatest pressure, the cartilage begins to thin out.

  • There is a violation of the structure of collagen fibers, which leads to loss of damping properties, chondromalacia( softening of the patellar cartilage), disruption of the metabolic function of chondrocytes. The cartilage loses stability, elasticity.

  • There is a violation of congruence in the joint. The process is exacerbated by enhanced synthesis of bone substance, which manifests itself in the form of osteophytes( bone growths).The synovial membrane is irritated and inflammation begins. This leads to a restriction of mobility of the joint.

  • Arthrosis of the inner part of the knee joint and between the surface of the femur and the knee is more common. The disease is more susceptible to people of mature and advanced age, athletes.

Causes of gonarthrosis

The main causes of arthrosis of the knee joint include:

  • metabolic disturbance;

  • pathological changes in blood circulation, increased fragility of capillaries;

  • excess body weight, which leads to an increase in the axial load on the joint;

  • traumatization of the knee joints( ruptures of ligaments, menisci, fractures, cracks);

  • transferred inflammatory diseases( rheumatism, arthritis);

  • excessive load on the joint, which is more affected by athletes. Tennis players, football players, athletes, gymnasts are more often ill;

  • hormonal and endocrine disorders;

  • old injuries that are inadequately treated or whose treatment has not been completed;

  • abnormalities of the structure of the joint tissues;

  • hereditary factors.

Symptoms of gonarthrosis

Symptoms of gonarthrosis

The danger of gonarthrosis, like most arthrosis, is untimely diagnosis. At stage 1, the disease almost does not manifest itself at all, except for a slight pulling pain, which the patient writes off for fatigue.

A common symptom of gonarthrosis is a feeling of stiffness in the joint, "pulling" under the knee, pain in the knee after a long walk. Many patients with gonarthrosis( arthrosis of the knee joint) complain of difficulty in walking mostly in the morning, after a dream or after a long sitting. A person needs to "disperse" in order to become easier. With the development of gonarthrosis, pain in the knee, especially on the inner side, becomes more stubborn and permanent. Often, patients with gonarthrosis feel a crunch when moving the knee joint. Further, the limitations of flexion and extension of the leg develop. When the disease progresses, lameness develops. In more neglected cases, a person can not move without the help of outsiders, support or without crutches. Often in the lying position the pain subsides, but it happens that at night a person suffers from pain.

When examining the knee joint in the initial stage of the disease, external changes are usually not detected. With the course of the disease, the deformity of the knee joint, the contours of the bones forming the joint, the coarse, the contracture( incomplete flexion or extension), the curvature of the shin are very noticeable. Putting a palm on the front surface of the knee, you can feel the crunching or extensor movement crunch in the knee joint of varying intensity and duration. A similar sensation can be obtained by shifting the patella outward in the transverse direction( positive patello-cordillary symptom).

When you feel the joint of a patient with gonarthrosis, a painful area is detected, usually on the inside of the joint, at the level of the condyles of the thigh, the large burtz, and the joint slit. Often an effusion accumulates in the cavity of the knee joint, ie, synovitis is attached. Such a state is determined by the smoothness of the contours of the knee joint due to bulging, protrusion of the tissues above the patella and from the side of it and a sense of fluctuation when the protrusion is felt with both hands.

As the disease progresses, the symptoms appear brighter, become more pronounced. Timely correct diagnosis plays an important role in the further fight against gonarthrosis.

Degrees of development of gonarthrosis

1 degree of gonarthrosis

With 1 degree of gonarthrosis fatigue of limb, slight discomfort. During movement, a small crepitation can be traced. Sometimes there is a subtle restriction of movement in the joint.

Knee bones at this stage are not subject to significant changes. On the X-ray, you can see a slight narrowing of the joint space.

2nd degree of gonarthrosis

The second degree is characterized by the onset of pain, especially after you have been standing for long or walk. The characteristic crunch becomes more pronounced. There are problems with extension and full bending of the limb. There is a so-called starting pain.

There may be atrophy of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh. The angle of full flexion and extension of the limb in the knee joint is severely limited. X-ray images clearly show a significant narrowing of the joint gap, the growth of osteophytes. The edges of the bones "flatten".

3 degree of gonarthrosis

At the third stage the character of the pain changes, it intensifies, it can manifest itself in rest. In the joint area, there is often swelling, a local increase in temperature. Due to the possible presence in the joint of the "articular mouse"( fragments of breakaway osteophytes), symptoms of joint blockade may occur. They manifest acute pain, accompanied by a sense of jamming.

The patient in this case may be deprived of the possibility of bringing the joint into motion. There is a deformation of the knee joints with a change in the axis of the limbs, which is clearly seen in the pictures. The instability of the joint may manifest itself.

Types of gonarthrosis

Types of gonarthrosis

Gonarthrosis is divided into species for reasons of occurrence:

  • Primary gonarthrosis of the knee joint proceeds against a background of comparative health. Mostly elderly people, especially women, are ill. In the risk group are people with excessive body weight, that is, obese, they are most often affected by arthrosis of the knee joint.

  • Secondary gonarthrosis of the knee joint develops mainly after a traumatized knee injury or after a previous illness. In the case of timely treatment of all of the above diseases of gonarthrosis can be avoided.

By localization of origin:

  • right-side gonarthrosis - affects the right knee joint. This type of arthrosis is more common for athletes, people whose professional activities are associated with excessive static and dynamic loads on the right leg;

  • left-sided gonarthrosis - affects the left knee joint. Also more characteristic of athletes, middle-aged people with excessive body weight;

  • bilateral gonarthrosis - destroys the joints of both legs. This species is the heaviest, since it significantly increases the risks of disability. Most often it affects older people, since the nature of bilateral gonarthrosis in most cases is idiopathic( age).

All these species do not differ from each other in the nature and origin of the disease. Double-sided gonarthrosis in advanced form can be more pronounced, since both patients suffer simultaneous axial load.

Diagnosis of gonarthrosis

There are many diagnostic methods, but their effectiveness can be greatest only with a comprehensive approach.

Orthopedic examination

Orthopedic examination is the first and very important diagnostic exercise. This includes:

  • palpation of the joint;

  • linear measurements of bones;

  • angular measurement( determination of mobility in the affected joint at various angles).

Clinical Studies

Clinical trials include:

  • study of blood formula, erythrocyte sedimentation rate;

  • levels of fibrinogen, urea and other biochemical indicators of blood and urine;

X-ray studies

The main diagnostic method is the examination of the patient's joint radiographically. In the initial development of gonarthrosis, an x-ray examination can show nothing, and if it does, it will show minor changes. In the late stages of the disease, there is a narrowing of the joint gap, cartilage sclerosis, bone damage, and the deposition of salts.

Ultrasound examination of the

Ultrasound examination of the aching joint gives the best results, however, it can not completely replace the radiographic examination. Therefore, people suffering from joint disease must have an X-ray examination of the affected joint.

MRI - Magnetic Resonance Tomography

The most progressive diagnostic method that allows you to layer-by-layer examine all parts and tissues of the joint, determine the earliest change in the cartilage tissue. The disadvantage of the method lies in the rather high cost of examining each segment. Therefore, it often turns out that gonarthrosis in a patient is far from the only disease of the musculoskeletal system.

How to treat gonarthrosis?

How is gonarthrosis treated?

The procedure for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee differs little from the treatment of arthrosis of other joints.

Step 1 - we remove inflammation

For this traditionally used:

  • NSAIDs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are prescribed intramuscularly or intravenously. In the form of injections or candles, medications give a longer and stronger effect. These include drugs such as diclofenac, olfen, diclac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen.

  • NSAIDs COX-2, are the most effective and sparing compared to the COX-1 NVPD.They can be used for a long time, for several months. These are meloxicam, celecoxib, nimesulide.

  • Preparations of hormones. This group is used for intraarticular injections in the presence of synovitis. The purpose of the application is the removal of inflammation and pain syndrome as soon as possible. Minus of application is a damaging effect on cartilage tissue, a large number of contraindications and side effects. The most commonly used for gonarthrosis are representatives of this group: hydrocortisone, kenalog, diprospan.

  • Antiferment preparations. They neutralize the synthesis of certain enzymes and prevent further degeneration of the joints. The most famous drugs: counter-kal, ovomin, gordoks. When gonarthrosis they are administered intra-articularly.

Step 2. We have anabolic and anti-catabolic effect of

This group replaces the substances necessary for the synthesis of cartilage, has a narrowly specific effect on cartilaginous tissue. They are also called chondroprotectors. They contain substances that are part of the matrix of cartilage. These medicines are natural and well perceived by the body. Stimulate the synthesis of collagen.

To justified use of drugs include: structum, DONA, alflutop, rumalon, mucosate. All of them are slow-acting drugs that use long courses. Some of them are used as injections. This form of application is the most effective.

Step 3. Mage, heat, rub

We use various kinds of gels, ointments, creams. In their majority they are warming and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of their application is to activate local blood circulation, remove inflammation. The most famous of them: apizartron, finalgon, doloben, feloran, fastum gel, nicofleks.

Step 4. Improve blood circulation

Vasodilator drugs are used to reduce the tone of intravascular muscles. Allow to improve the internal blood flow, improve trophic tissue located near the joint. When gonarthrosis is recommended: Cavinton, Trental, Actovegin. To strengthen the vascular walls: upsavit, ascorutin.

Step 5. Remove excess tone

Such antispasmodics as: midolkalm, sirdalud, no-shpa, tyzalud, can remove unnecessary muscular tension in the damaged segment. Often it arises as a compensatory reaction of the body.

Step 6. Introduce synovial fluid prosthesis

The most progressive treatment in recent years has been the inclusion of hyaluronic acid-based drugs in the treatment protocol. It is a natural component of articular cartilage and synovial fluid. Therefore, its administration does not cause inflammation, rejection and other negative reactions.

At the same time, the use of such drugs as: otrovisk, sinocorm, hyalual, allow to soften movements in the joint and relieve the pain caused by friction of the joint surfaces. In gonarthrosis, the most recommended drug of this group is the fermatron.

The treatment sequence is determined by the attending physician, and leads him, according to the current protocols. At the same time, anti-inflammatory therapy can be conducted, a course of chondroprotectors, and a course of physiotherapy. Preparations of hyaluronic acid are allowed to enter the joint only when the inflammation is completely removed. Otherwise, instead of a curative effect, the course of the disease can be aggravated.

Author's and innovative methods of treatment of gonarthrosis

Author's methods include:

  • methodology Evdokimova

  • method Bubnovsky

  • method Geeta

All of them have different principles of influence, but have proven themselves as effective means of supporting joints affected by gonarthrosis. Unfortunately, there is no question of recovery.

Oxygenotherapy is a method of filling the joint cavity with medical oxygen. It helps to eliminate puffiness, reduce pain syndrome. Can be used as an alternative to hormone therapy.

Treatment with stem cells .The essence of the method is the transplantation of the patient's stem cells into the joint. The method is developed in Germany and allows to postpone conservative treatment for many years. It is used only in large medical centers in Germany.

Method of intra-articular laser therapy. Performed with a low-intensity helium-neon laser, which penetrates into the joint with the help of a waveguide introduced into the needle. It allows to reduce painful sensations, to increase the amplitude of motion in the joints. The method was developed in Russia, clinically investigated, but not widely used.

Ortokin is a biological technique for the treatment of gonarthrosis, which has been used in Europe since 2003.Autologous serum obtained by selecting specific proteins from the patient's own blood. These proteins have an anti-inflammatory effect. After the selection of blood and production of serum, the drug is again administered to a person intra-articularly, under the supervision of ultrasound or computed tomography.

The drug allows:

  • to slow down the process of destruction of cartilaginous tissue;

  • reduce pain syndrome;

  • to stop inflammation;

  • to increase mobility in the joint.

One or two injections are sufficient for treatment. About 70% of patients experience pain after the first injection.

Surgical treatment

Operative treatment

At different stages of gonarthrosis, conservative therapy may not give positive dynamics. In such cases, they begin to consider the need for surgical intervention.

There are several types of operations for gonarthrosis:

  • Arthrodesis. With this technique, remove the deformed cartilage tissue with the joint. The method does not allow preserving the physiological mobility of the limb. They resort to it quite rarely.

  • Arthroscopic debridement. The technique is to release the joint from the deformed cartilage tissue with the help of an arthroscope. It is used in the early stages of the disease. Thanks to arthroscopy, pain is eliminated. The operation is simple. The effect of the procedure is temporary, 2-3 years.

  • Periarticular osteotomy. This is a technically complex and rare type of surgical intervention. It lies in the preliminary filing and fixing the bones of the joint from a different angle. This is done to redistribute the load. Rehabilitation is long enough, the effect is from 3 to 5 years. It is used rarely in the early and middle stages of gonarthrosis.


Nowadays it is the most common and effective type of surgical intervention. It allows you to keep the mobility of the limb, which provides the patient the opportunity to lead a full life. Prosthetics in gonarthrosis is a complex operation. It lasts about an hour, but after it it is necessary to undergo a course of rehabilitation and joint development. This is one of the main features of knee arthroplasty. The effect is retained for up to 20 years, depending on the modification of the material. After this, the joint will have to be changed again, since the prosthesis is blown under the influence of axial and mechanical loads.

Do not forget about possible complications such as:

  • marginal necrosis of the skin

  • paresis of the peroneal nerve;

  • thrombosis of the subcutaneous femoral vein;

  • risk of rejection.

Similar troubles occur extremely rarely and account for about 1% of the total number of transactions. Therefore, it must be taken into account that the effect of endoprosthetics, sometimes, is the only way to improve the quality of life.

Physical training in gonarthrosis - curative and not only

The goal of physical exercises with gonarthrosis is several factors:

  • preservation and increase of joint mobility;

  • formation of compensation by strengthening the musculoskeletal system;

  • increased blood circulation and improved trophism of adjacent tissues and the joint itself;

  • preservation of the physiological tone of the muscles.

Exercises and the method of their execution are selected depending on the surviving active movements.

Contraindicated include:

  • exercises with violent interventions, accompanied by pain;

  • performing exercises with the maximum load;

  • sharp and high-amplitude execution of exercises with great speed;

  • exercises with full axial load on the affected joint.

Complex of exercises for gonarthrosis

  1. Shaking. Standing, try to relax completely, hands down. Perform shaking movements with your whole body. Make sure that your knees are shaken with a small amplitude.

  2. While holding the support, bend the leg in the knee, point the heel to the buttock, then straighten the leg forward, put it on the heel in front of you. Execute 15-20 times. Then make the other leg.

  3. Put your palms on your knees. Perform small circular movements in the knee joint in one and the other side. Amplitude adjust for sensations. Do at least 20 times.

  4. Exercise on the folded blanket. The surface should not be too hard. Stand on your knees and perform shaking as in 1 exercise.

  5. From the position, as in the previous exercise, go on your knees, following several steps in different directions.

  6. Stand at point-blank position, lying on your lap( the floor should touch the palms and knees).Drop your chest on the floor, stretching your arms forward, then move the hips and buttocks to the heels, making the heel on the heels, without lifting the chest from the floor. Again, go straight up and repeat the exercise several times.

  7. Lie down on the left side, take the right leg up, bend the leg in the knee, straighten and stretch the heel to the wall as much as possible. Perform up to 12 times and change your foot.

  8. Sit down, put your bent legs in front of you. Stretch the knee of the right leg to the left, then straighten it, unbending the knee up, bend and return to the starting position. After 12 repetitions, change your leg.

  9. From the same initial position, straighten the legs alternately without lifting the heels off the floor, then simultaneously bend again, also without tearing off the floor. Repeat 12-14 times.

  10. Lie on your back, pull your bent leg to your chest, grip your toe of the foot and smoothly move your legs as straight as possible. Try to do it without jerks.

  11. Also, lying on your back, tie a rubber shock absorber to the ankles, and fix the other end to the battery. Smoothly bend and unbend your legs, pulling your knees to your chest.

Stand on the knees. One end of the rubber damper is tied to the ankle foot, the other is fixed to the battery. Slowly( smoothly) bend and unbend the leg at least 10-15 times. The shock absorber should not be too rigid.

Physiotherapy for gonarthrosis

Physiotherapy with gonarthrosis

All types of physiotherapy can be prescribed in the phase of remission or a slight exacerbation, but not in the most acute phase, with inflammation.

The most effective are:

  • electrophoresis with such drugs as bischofite, caripain. Deeper penetration of the drug in such cases is provided with the help of dimexide;

  • magnetotherapy;

  • ultrasound;

  • microwave therapy;

  • paraffin treatment;

  • application of radon and hydrogen sulfide baths;

  • mud treatment.

To maintain and prolong the phase of remission, it is necessary to undergo a course of physiotherapy 2-4 times a year. Depending on the degree of the disease.

Electrophoresis with karipainom allows you to remove excess tone, promotes resorption of contractures and adhesions. It is necessary to perform at least 20 procedures, since the drug is cumulative. It works only when the body receives the maximum concentration. A course of 10 procedures does not justify the costs spent.

The course of mud therapy for gonarthrosis should be performed 2 times a year, for 10-15 procedures. You can carry it at home using the dirt bought in the chemist's system. Before use, it must be heated to 38-40 degrees.

Massage, manual therapy for gonarthrosis

These kinds of effects on the knee joint are aimed at stretching, warming and improving blood circulation in the joint area. Massage is performed in the region of the knee, along the lymph flow from the periphery to the center, but without affecting the popliteal fossa. Manual therapy is performed after the massage, an experienced specialist. Its main thrust is the traction and stabilization of the joint. The following exercise can be performed independently.

Stand up with a healthy side to the support. Take your foot off the aching joint forward, then back, then with a sharp movement, "throw it" out of the way.

Prevention of deforming gonarthrosis

Gonarthrosis belongs to a group of diseases that are better and easier to prevent than expensive and long to treat.

To the list of preventive measures it is possible to attribute:

  • doing dances, sports, try to beware of serious injuries( ruptures of ligaments, fractures, severe knee injuries);

  • moderately engage in sports, since movement is the mechanical basis of cartilage nutrition;

  • correctly make up the diet;

  • watch the body weight;

  • When getting injured, or showing discomfort in the knee area, immediately seek qualified medical attention;

  • since 35 years, pass preventive courses of treatment with chondroprotectors;

  • daily, drink plenty of water.

Useful advices for

Helpful Tips
  • Begin the treatment of gonarthrosis with accurate diagnosis. It is better to get advice from several leading experts.

  • Do not self-medicate. All drugs, their dosage and duration of use should be prescribed and monitored by a physician.

  • Begin and end your day with gymnastics.

  • If you want to play sports, consult a doctor about the type recommended for you. Even some yoga asanas can be disastrous.

  • Eliminate from your diet salty, sharp, fatty dishes. Give preference to natural home products. Lactic acid products should have an average fat content, otherwise calcium will be poorly absorbed. Include in the diet low-fat jelly( cooked on turkey meat), natural jelly. Do not forget about the need to eat sea fish, seafood.

  • If a week of use of the anti-inflammatory drug does not bring relief, consult a doctor to review the treatment protocol.

  • If there is a remission and the disease does not bother, do not exceed the permissible loads. The absence of pain does not mean that you are completely healed.

  • Try not to overcool the joints. Although, gonarthrosis and non-inflammatory disease, the joint can react to hypothermia with a new relapse.

The main thing, remember! You can not help even the best doctor, if you do not want to make an effort and help yourself. In case of need of an operative intervention, it is better to delay this moment to more mature or advanced age. It is important that by the time of the surgery you were in good physical condition, so that postoperative rehabilitation was easier. And it depends only on you.

Author of the article: Candidate of Medical Sciences Volkov Dmitry Sergeevich, surgeon

Basic methods of treatment of gonarthrosis

In the inflamed joint, there is no cartilaginous layer and the articular cleft

In the inflamed joint, there is no cartilaginous layer and joint gap

is lost. Gonarthrosis is one of the most common forms of arthrosis. Not everyone knows what the essence of this disease is and how to get rid of it. This ailment implies the presence of a pathological process, which is degenerative-dystrophic in nature and leads to the defeat of hyaline cartilage. The cartilage covering the knee joint is most often affected.

Gonarthrosis affects mainly women after forty years. Pathology often occurs in young athletes after receiving injuries. The disease develops slowly, for several years. Important manifestations of the ailment is:

  • severe pain during movement;
  • accumulation of effusion in the joint.

Classification of disease types

Classification of gonarthrosis by pathogenesis.

  1. Primary. It occurs in the elderly. The disease has a two-sided nature.
  2. Secondary. The disease is observed in people with knee joint injuries. It is one-sided and manifests at any age.

Gonarthrosis is divided into three stages. The first is characterized by the initial manifestations of the disease. The patient complains of pain, wearing a stupid character. Painful sensations arise after physical overstrain. Some patients have swelling of the knee joint, which disappears on its own. Deformities in the diagnosis of "gonarthrosis of stage 1" is not observed. In this case, the disease is most easily cured.

Deformation of the legs in the patient due to joint damage

Deformation of the legs in a patient due to joint damage

In the second stage, symptoms develop. Pain in the knee joint becomes more intense. There is a restriction of motor activity, a slight deformation. Gonarthrosis of the 2nd stage can already be seen with an X-ray examination.

The third is the stage of vivid manifestations of gonarthrosis of the knee joint. The gait changes, the pains acquire a permanent character. Deformation becomes apparent, there is a restriction of movements in the joint.

Pathological changes in the knee joint

At 1 stage of the disease, changes in the joint are insignificant. The blood circulation in small vessels of a bone which provide a supply with hyaline cartilage is a little broken. As a result, the cartilage becomes dry and loses its smoothness, it begins to cover microcracks. As a result, cartilage begins to "cling".There are permanent microtrauma. Gonarthrosis 1 degree is characterized by loss of cartilage of its properties and its further thinning. This is the earliest, initial degree of damage to the joint structure.

In 2 stages of the disease, changes in bone tissue appear. The area for the joint is flattened. The bone located under the cartilage becomes denser. There are osteophytes( this is a proliferation of bone tissue).The disease affects the synovial membrane, the capsule of the knee joint, they begin to acquire a "wrinkled" appearance. Articular fluid becomes viscous, thick, because of this, its properties deteriorate. The cartilage is very much thinner, and in some places it disappears completely.

At 3 stages of gonarthrosis, irreversible changes in the knee joints are noted. Bone tissue is deformed. The joint is limited in movements. There is almost no cartilaginous tissue. Treatment requires emergency measures and even surgical intervention.

Causes and prerequisites of the disease

Most of the causes of the disease are few, not some one. Thirty percent of patients diagnosed with gonarthrosis associate the disease with a previous knee injury( fractures, lesions, ligament ruptures, etc.).The disease makes itself felt three to five years after the injury, but an earlier manifestation of symptoms is possible.

The cause may be excessive load on the knee joint. Many people after forty years begin to engage in regular exercise to maintain the body in a tone. But they do not think about the fact that their joints have already undergone age-related changes, so heavy loads on them are harmful. Very dangerous are sharp squats and jogging.

The causes of gonarthrosis are covered in the overweight body of the patient. If a person weighs a lot, the load on the knee and other joints increases significantly. The risk of a disease such as gonarthrosis increases dramatically.

Arthritis( rheumatoid, reactive and others), genetic predisposition, weighed heredity, craniocerebral trauma, spinal column injuries, metabolic disorders are factors that influence the development of the disease.

Description of the signs and symptoms of the disease

Inflammation in the knee joint causes aching pain and swelling

Inflammation in the knee joint causes aching pain and edema

Symptoms of the disease do not appear immediately. Gonarthrosis develops rather slowly. At the first stage of the disease symptoms are almost invisible. Patients feel soreness in the knee joints during movement( for example, ascent, descent from the stairs), slight stiffness. The disease has an important symptom in the form of "starting pain".It occurs when a person begins to move after sitting. But the pain does not last long. When walking for a long time, it decreases or disappears.

At external examination the knee joint is not changed at all. The knee may have a slight puffiness. There are cases of fluid accumulation in the joint cavity, this leads to the development of synovitis. Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree is well treatable.

With the 2nd degree of the disease, the symptoms become brighter. Soreness is intense and occurs with prolonged walking. Localization of pain - anterior-internal surface of the knee joint. After rest, the pain passes, and when walking again arise. As soon as the gonarthrosis starts to progress, the mobility of the joint decreases. When bending the leg in the knee, there is a sharp pain, you can hear the crunch. Very often a large amount of fluid accumulates in the joint cavity. Treatment is possible both operative and conservative.

In patients with gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 3rd degree, patients complain of severe pain. Soreness does not pass either when walking or at rest. Gonarthrosis at this stage leads to complete deformation of the joint. The affected joint increases in size. Moving becomes very difficult, since it is difficult both to flex and bend the knee.

X-ray picture - the best way to diagnose joint disease

X-ray picture - the best way to diagnose joint disease

To diagnose gonarthrosis of the knee joint, it is necessary to conduct a patient examination, evaluate the symptoms and send a person to do an x-ray. The last method of investigation is considered the most informative. X-ray examination allows excluding other pathological processes that can affect the femur or tibia( for example, tumor formations).But in an early stage gonarthrosis can not appear on the roentgenogram. Computer and magnetic resonance imaging are also effective diagnostic methods. Their results help the doctor to detail gonarthrosis.

Treatment measures

Treatment for such a disease should be started as soon as possible. Patients with a similar diagnosis are treated by orthopedic doctors. Reception of medicines takes place strictly under the supervision of a specialist. The doctor may prescribe the following medicines.

  1. Chondroprotectors are medicines that significantly improve the metabolic processes in the joint cavity. Gonarthrosis is primarily treated with these drugs, although it is impossible to completely get rid of the disease.
  2. Drugs replacing synovial fluid.
  3. Treatment by inserting hormonal agents into the joint cavity. Anesthetics. Since this disease is accompanied by severe pain, analgesics are very relevant.

Gonarthrosis of the 1st degree supposes restriction of loads on the knee joint, administration of drugs of the oxicam group. When treating the disease at any stage, non-drug methods are mandatory:

Physiotherapy helps to relieve inflammation in the cartilaginous tissue of the joint
  • physiotherapy;
  • chiropractic;
  • physiotherapy( all exercises are conducted in a relaxed atmosphere, slow, sudden movements are excluded).

Patients diagnosed with gonarthrosis are required to follow a diet. From food, it is necessary to exclude salt, mayonnaise, chips, smoked products. If the patient is overweight, you must limit the intake of high-calorie foods. The best option is to eat fruits and vegetables. Pathology in the remission phase can be effectively treated at resorts.

Treatment of a disease such as gonarthrosis of the knee joint takes time and fully corresponds to the treatment of arthrosis of the hip joint. The knee joint is in second place after the hip in size. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is very common, as is gonarthrosis.

Operation as a method of treatment

Surgical intervention is an extreme method of treatment. It is indicated in the following cases:

  • if the patient has gonarthrosis of the knee joints of the third degree( cartilaginous tissue is practically absent);
  • symptoms are not stopped by drugs: painkillers do not have an effect or have, but a short-term;
  • if a person has gonarthrosis of the knee joint of 2 degrees, the pathology will not be cured definitively, but for some time there will be no severe pain( from six months to three years).

Gonarthrosis is operated in such ways.

  1. Artrodes. The purpose of the operation is to remove the joint. Very radical method. Currently, it is infrequent.
  2. Arthroscopic debridement. Essence - removal of necrotic parts of cartilage. The operation gives only a temporary result.
  3. Periarticular osteotomy. This operation does not help to recover from gonarthrosis forever. In the modern world, this surgical intervention is rarely used.
  4. Endoprosthetics. A very common method of intervention. The essence of the operation is that the joint is replaced with a prosthesis. Endoprosthesis can last for at least twenty years.

Traditional methods of treatment and prevention

Treatment with folk methods does not always give a positive effect. But gonarthrosis can be treated with their help in combination with medications. A few useful recipes.

  1. Treatment with the help of beef bones. Beef knees and hooves must be boiled. Take 100 g of decoction before meals.
  2. It is necessary to mix honey( one tablespoon) and apple cider vinegar( three tablespoons).This mixture is applied as a compress.

Gonarthrosis requires careful attention, you can not start a disease. The consequences will be very unpleasant. An illness can be treated at home, inpatient monitoring is not always necessary.

Cold and trauma provokes the onset of illness

Prevention of disease is very important. To prevent deforming gonarthrosis, you need to intelligently combine the load with breaks for rest, engage in exercise therapy. If a person marks the first signs of the disease, you should immediately seek medical advice from an orthopedic doctor. The earlier the gonarthrosis examination is performed and the treatment is prescribed, the better for the patient. It is necessary to improve the condition of the knee ligaments, for this the patient needs to adhere to certain rules.

  1. Wearing comfortable shoes.
  2. Proper nutrition.
  3. Regular physical exercises( in particular, exercise "bicycle").
  4. Elimination of heavy loads on the knee joints.
  5. Vitamin use.

Patients who have been diagnosed with gonarthrosis should carefully protect their joints, avoid hypothermia. If symptoms of exacerbation or disease progression appear, you should immediately go to a doctor.

Two-sided gonarthrosis of the knee joint, treatment of any degree, diagnosis and prevention of the disease.

General Information

Gonarthrosis is a degenerative-type disease. This is the most common type of arthrosis. It is characterized by progressive destruction of the knee cartilage, accompanied by deformation and dysfunction of the entire joint. This disease is observed, as a rule, in people in old age. Most often they suffer from women.

The development of the disease leads to a narrowing of the joint cracks, which causes the rapid deterioration of the cartilage. The process is accompanied by the restructuring and deformation of bone tissue. As a result, there are osteophytes, called spines. Increasing, they cause pain. If the treatment of knee gonarthrosis does not begin on time, then the most unfavorable consequences can be expected in the form of destruction of the cartilage and exposure of the bones under it. The result is a complete deformation of the joint.

This disease has a common name - "salt deposition".And for this there are grounds. Indeed, arthrosis of the knee joints can be accompanied by the deposition of calcium salt in soft tissues, but this process is of an organic nature and does not have clinical significance.

Causes of the disease

Depending on the origin of gonarthrosis there are two types:

  • Primary or idiopathic

    Scientists have not yet been able to determine its cause. As a rule, this is a bilateral gonarthrosis that occurs in elderly people with excess weight.

  • Secondary

    It is the result of an earlier knee pathology: trauma, infection, chondromatosis. As a rule, this is a one-sided affliction that appears in people outside of any dependence on age.

The main symptoms of

The insidiousness of the disease lies in the absence of pain at an early stage. Therefore, it may take years before the patient seeks help from a specialist. At first, people feel barely noticeable pain that occurs after long walks or in other situations when their legs experience increased loads, for example, when walking on a ladder.

This disease has 3 degrees of

  • I stage.

    On the first occasionally shows dull pain. It occurs only after exercise and may be accompanied by swelling of the knees. At this stage, the knee does not yet have a pronounced deformation.

  • II stage.

    Gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree has already more pronounced symptoms. The pain intensifies and becomes longer in time. Patients complain of stiffness in the morning, they use analgesics. There is a crunch when walking, and the joint increases in size, its flexion or extension is very limited.

    GGonarthrosis of the 2nd degree has already more pronounced symptoms. The pain intensifies and becomes longer in time. Patients complain of stiffness in the morning, they use analgesics. There is a crunch when walking, and the joint increases in size, its flexion or extension is very limited.

  • III stage.

    In the third stage of the disease, patients experience almost unceasing painful sensations, which increase with weather changes. Their gait is disturbed. The knee acquires a larger volume and changes shape. There are valgus - X-shaped deformations and varus - O-shaped.


This disease is diagnosed with the help of X-ray study, which allows you to put a fairly accurate diagnosis to find out the stage of the disease, and also to track the dynamics of its development. With a disease such as gonarthrosis of the knee, treatment requires a mandatory change in the lifestyle of the patient. It is important to start eating right, and also get rid of bad habits.

  • Therapeutic gymnastics

    To people with a diagnosis of gonarthrosis, gymnastics helps stop pathological processes and increase muscle tone. There are special sets of exercises, which you need to learn from a specialist, and then do them several times a day. It is necessary to rest lying down after work for at least 40 minutes.

  • Medical treatment

    You can reduce pain, and also relieve inflammation with the help of anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs. For this, medicines from a number of chondroprotectors are used, they replace the synovial fluid. For warming, apply half-alcohol compresses, as well as warm baths with pine needles or sea salt.

  • Physiotherapy

    Physiotherapy techniques are also effective in the fight at the initial stage. Patients are treated with phonophoresis with hydrocortisone, diadynamic currents, ultraviolet irradiation, electrophoresis with novocaine, laser and magnetic therapy, UHF, foot massage.

  • Orthopedic treatment

    Patients are assigned to wear individual insoles. They use when walking the cane to unload their joints. Sometimes special orthoses are used to relieve pressure on certain bone areas.

  • Surgical treatment

    When conservative therapy has no effect, one of three operations is performed: arthroplasty, arthrodesis or corrective osteotomy.

  • Arthroplasty can restore the lost motor function of the knee. During the operation, a new joint surface is modeled and special pads are placed in it, which replace the affected parts. They are produced from the patient's own tissue or artificial material.
  • For arthrodesis, bone fixation is performed using various devices( screws, plates, transplants).After that they fuse. But the restrictions in the movement will still remain. An arthrodesis allows to forget about a pain at an arthrosis.
  • An osteotomy is called dissection of bones and their subsequent fixation in a functionally correct position. Due to this operation, the distribution of loads on the joint bones will be more even, with normalization of intraosseous pressure, and pain disappears.

Osteotomy is the dissection of bones and their subsequent fixation in a functionally correct position. Due to this, the distribution of the load on the joint bones becomes more uniform and, as a consequence, intraosseous pressure normalizes, and the pain disappears.

In arthrodesis, the fixation of the ossicles occurs with the help of special devices( transplants, plates, screws).After that, they grow together. Although the motor limitations still remain, but this allows you to get rid of the pain with deforming arthrosis.

Arthroplasty will restore the lost motor functions of the knee. During the operation, new articular surfaces are modeled and special spacers are placed between them, which will replace the affected areas. The gasket is made of an artificial material or the patient's own tissue.

Knee joint gonarthrosis( arthrosis): treatment of 1 degree, 2 degrees, 3 degrees.

Along with this, the bone tissue is restructured and deformed, so-called spines or osteophytes are formed. It is they that limit the movement of the joint and cause pain.

If, in the presence of a man diagnosed with knee joint gonarthrosis, the treatment should be started, this may result in the disappearance of the cartilage, deformation of the joint and exposure of the underlying bone.

Knee joint gonarthrosis 1 degree

The first signs are the appearance of a feeling of discomfort in the joint and periodic pains. As a rule, the disease develops gradually and pain over time is more periodic.

Especially it is necessary to pay attention to a joint condition in the morning, after a dream. Most people complain about morning pains( after a long period of immobility), but leaving and developing joint pain goes away.

Also a person feels discomfort when climbing and descending the stairs, becausethe weight of the body rests on one leg and the articular cartilages in the knee joint are compressed. It is worth paying attention to crunches in the joints.

Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree characterizes such features:

  • fatigue of the limb
  • moderately restricted movement in the joint
  • a slight crunch

can be heard. In the gonarthrosis of the knee joint, 1 degree of pain will occur at the beginning of the walk, after a prolonged load, and at rest or a small load theyare absent. At this stage, the knees still retain their natural form and are practically not deformed. In the joint space, there will be some narrowing.

Knee joint gnatroz of 2nd degree

Knee joint gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree already restricts in the movement of a person. At this stage, pain will accompany any movement associated with the affected knee. Especially severely affected knee will hurt after a long walk and wearing a light weight.

The pain syndrome can only be reduced after a long rest. Check the joint for flexion right now - if you can not bend your leg in your knee, serious deformations have already begun.

In the second stage, a knee crunch will be well audible, joint deformation will also be visible, the patient will begin to limp and muscle malnutrition will develop. On the x-ray, you can see the narrowing of the joint gap in comparison with the norm 2-3 times.

A pathological fluid may also accumulate in the joint. At the second degree, drug treatment becomes necessary, it is impossible to cope with the disease alone with one's folk remedies.

3rd degree

knee joint gonarthrosis Grade 3 knee joint gonarthrosis will further strengthen the patient's pain syndrome. The mobility of the knee joint will decrease to a minimum. Pain will bother a person even when the knee joint is at rest. Deformation of the joint bones becomes very noticeable.

It will be difficult for the patient to find a comfortable position for rest. In the case when the destruction of the joint is observed and a violation of blood circulation, the joints will twist at night and on the weather.

In the structure of the knee joint articular cartilage is practically absent, because of the sharp sealing of the articular surfaces. Pain relieves patients even when lying down. The likelihood of gait disturbance due to X or O-deformity is very high.

At this level, it is advisable to perform arthroscopic surgery of the knee to remove outgrowths and deformed elements, as well as to replace joint replacement with artificial analogues

. On the x-ray, the joint gap will be practically absent.

Treatment of

How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint? Treatment of gonarthrosis should be started as early as possible, as the patient's recovery process will be quite long.

The main task in the treatment is to remove the load on the joint as much as possible. Get rid of excess weight( diet and proper nutrition), do regular massage of the affected part of the joints, practice physical exercises on the recommendation of a doctor( exercises and gymnastics).

In the first stage, the treatment can be conservative and include:

Two-sided knee joint gonarthrosis: treatment and symptoms of primary deforming gonarthrosis

Bilateral gonarthrosis is a common pathology that combines an inflammatory component( often aseptic nature) and destructioncartilage, which entails a change in the structure of bone tissue. Depending on the stage of the pathological process, symptoms of an inflammatory intraarticular reaction or persistent bone deformity can develop with the formation of outgrowths in the form of hooks, thorns, bony head roughness.

Two-sided gonarthrosis is accompanied by palpable pain, which increases with movement, associated with the support of the knee joint. Primary symptoms can begin to manifest at an early stage of the disease when climbing and descending from the stairs. In the future, as the pathology develops, the pain arises more often, in the advanced stage the pain syndrome is permanent, painful and is accompanied by a restriction of the physiological volume of movements in the affected joints.

Common causes of bilateral gonarthrosis

There are various theories that consider the possible causes of bilateral gonarthrosis. In a number of predisposing factors are called:

  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • overweight against a background of alimentary and constitutional obesity;
  • blood flow disturbance in the circulatory system of the lower limbs;
  • infringement of a nervous fiber at an osteochondrosis, a radiculitis and an intervertebral hernia of the bottom department of a vertebral column;
  • trauma, sprain, fractures of the bones of the lower extremities, muscle fiber ruptures with the formation of structural strands of connective tissue;
  • rheumatism and other diseases affecting cartilaginous tissue;
  • hereditary predisposition, congenital pathology associated with chondromalacia;
  • heavy physical labor.

Bilateral gonarthrosis can become a complication in severe infectious lesions of other organs and systems. So, in particular, there is a danger of knee joint damage in case of pyelonephritis, pneumonia, acute bronchitis, tonsillitis. The infection is transferred by the lymphatic route and with the blood flow. When penetrating the cavity of the knee joint, disseminated inflammation occurs, which can trigger primary scar changes. They contribute to reducing the cushioning ability of cartilage. In the future, a chain reaction is triggered with involvement of the synovial fluid in the pathological process and its biochemical properties. The primary symptom of this condition is pain in large joints in the development of a clinical picture of an acute respiratory viral disease.

Primary bilateral deforming gonarthrosis and its symptoms

Primary bilateral bilateral symptomatology can manifest itself in different ways, depending on the stage of the disease. At the beginning of the disease, external manifestations are almost completely absent. Patients feel a pronounced heaviness in the calf muscles. At night, restless legs syndrome can occur - a condition in which a person can not find a comfortable position for the lower limbs and requires constant movement. There may also be a convulsive syndrome. Pain at the initial stage occurs only after serious physical exertion.

Two-sided deforming gonarthrosis in the second stage is manifested by such symptoms as:

  1. morning stiffness, which passes after a small gymnastic complex;
  2. weak clicks and easy creaking when walking or descending the stairs;
  3. pain, which can occur both in the period of exacerbation, and during remission.

When carrying out the radiography in the picture, a distinct narrowing of the joint gap can be seen, different growths can be determined on the bone surfaces. From their intensity and dimension, the diagnosis of the stage of the pathological process depends.

In the third stage, there is a serious difficulty in moving without assistance. When viewed, a clear deformation of the knee joints is visible. The physiological position of the tibia in the joint cavity may be impaired. This leads to different variants of curvature of the shins.

Treatment of primary bilateral deforming gonarthrosis of the knee joint

Two-sided deforming gonarthrosis is a condition that does not threaten human life, but significantly impairs its quality. In the late stages, patients do not have the ability to move independently, lose their ability to work, suffer from persistent severe pain.

Treatment of bilateral gonarthrosis of the knee is easiest to conduct at an early stage. In this case, there is a high share of the probability of complete restoration of cartilaginous tissues. With more neglected forms of pathology, treatment is also possible, but it will be long and can bring additional suffering to patients. This is due, above all, to the need for a surgical operation for prosthetics. After this intervention, a long rehabilitation period follows, in which both septic inflammation and implant rejection can be observed.

But there are other methods that allow not only to slow down the process of joint destruction, but also to reverse the primary bilateral gonarthrosis of the knee joint. This is a technique of manual therapy, which is offered at our clinic. Experienced specialists develop individual treatment programs during the initial admission.

As a result of the targeted effect, the pain syndrome is significantly reduced after the first session. Completely refuse to take pain medication will be possible in about 3-5 sessions. Normalization and recovery of motor activity is difficult to predict, because much depends on the stage of destruction and the general mood of the patient.

For treatment we offer massage and physiotherapy, osteopathy and acupuncture, traction traction and reflexology. Also, doctors are actively working to reduce weight, developing healthy eating habits and regular physical activity.

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Knee joint ganglion of 1, 2 and 3 degrees: treatment, causes, symptoms

What is it - gonarthrosis is a non-inflammatory disease of the knee that disrupts the blood supply of the cartilage covering the joint surfaces of the femoral and / or tibia. As a result, the cartilage is destroyed, the parts of the bones begin to rub against each other, as a result of which they become denser and expand. This is often accompanied by inflammatory phenomena. Symptoms of the disease are due only to the above processes;calcium salts, if they are deposited in the joints, the cause of the pathology is not. Pathology most often develops in individuals 40 years and older, mainly women and people who are engaged in professional sports or having knee injuries. Articular cartilage does not regenerate, so the disease must be detected and treated early in the early stages.

Causes of gonarthrosis

The disease develops with a combination of several causes:
  • fractures of the bones of the lower leg involving the knee joint;
  • trauma of cartilage interlayers of the joint - meniscus;
  • ruptures of ligaments of the knee joint;
  • increased load on the joint - running, squatting, lifting weights from the vertical position of the body - after 40 years of age, especially if a person does not exercise regularly;
  • overweight
The disease develops not immediately after the action of the damaging factor, but in a few years. The gonarthrosis of the knee joint develops more rapidly if a person has one or several risk factors for the development of the disease. The latter include:
  • inflammation of the joint( arthritis), which has a different - psoriatic, gouty, rheumatoid or reactive - etiology;
  • genetically determined weakness of the ligamentous-capsular apparatus of the joint, because of which its looseness occurs;
  • pathology of joint innervation, characteristic of craniocerebral and spinal cord injuries;
  • metabolic disease.
Given the mechanism of the disease, two main types of gonarthrosis are distinguished:
  1. 1) Primary. It occurs against the background of full joint health( without pre-injury or inflammation).It is based on metabolic diseases, long reception of hormonal means, genetic predisposition of articular cartilage. The process is usually two-sided( although it can begin as one-sided).It develops more often in the elderly.
  2. 2) Secondary. Develops due to injuries, inflammations, tumors transferred to the joint operations. Can develop at any age. The process is usually one-sided.

Symptoms of knee joint graft disease

How the disease manifests itself will depend on how far the degenerative process has progressed. Depending on this, three stages of the disease are distinguished, each of which has its own symptomatology. As a rule, the first degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint is manifested by certain symptoms, which should be noted:
  • a feeling of contraction under the knee;
  • stiffness in the knee, which manifests itself after sleep, prolonged sitting or prolonged immobility of the joint;
  • joint pain:
  • arising from prolonged walking, squats, walking on stairs;
  • aggravated after standing or physical exertion
  • swelling of the joint can occur for a short time, passes by itself.
The second degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint. The following signs indicate that the disease has passed into this stage:
  • joint pain becomes more intense, lasts longer. It disappears after rest.
  • pain is felt inside the joint or on the inside of the knee.
  • there is a crunching in the knee when walking.
  • in the morning it is impossible to unbend the knee.
  • closer to night and at night there are pains in calves.
  • the leg is not fully straightened.
  • joint swells, acquires signs of initial deformation.
Third degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint. Symptoms of this degree of pathology are as follows:
  1. 1) Joint pain is a constant concern, regardless of the physical activity of a person.
  2. 2) Pain syndrome increases with changing weather.
  3. 3) The mobility of the joint is limited, due to which the person limps.
  4. 4) The knee is enlarged in size and deformed. When the process progresses, the joint becomes an X-shaped or O-shaped.
If gonarthrosis is associated with inflammation of the lining of the joint( synovitis of the knee joint), the knee swells, its contours are smoothed out, on the anterolateral surfaces there is a prominent protrusion that has a soft consistency.

Diagnosis of gonarthrosis

It is possible to suspect the presence of gonarthrosis of the knee in the patient already on the basis of his complaints and objective examination data. The diagnosis is confirmed with the help of such instrumental studies:
  1. 1) Radiography. This method may be uninformative at the first stage of the disease, but subsequently it visualizes the narrowing of the joint gap, the compaction of the bone zone below the articular cartilage, and the sharpening of the edges of the condyles.
  2. 2) Computed tomography of the joint. This is more expensive, but more informative( even at stage I) method based on x-ray radiation. Visualizes the joint itself and surrounding tissues in more detail and layer by layer.
  3. 3) Magnetic Resonance Tomography - a method based on a non-radiological, considered harmless radiation, which can be used for contraindications to CT.Also layer-by-layer displays the picture in the joint, but is more informative regarding the surrounding soft tissues.
  4. 4) Arthroscopy is an invasive technique for joint research when a fiber optic device is inserted into a hole made under local anesthesia, allowing a specialist to examine the joint from the inside.
  5. 5) The knee ultrasound is informative for the diagnosis of such complication of gonarthrosis as synovitis.

Treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis

A doctor who is treating this disease is an orthopedist. Drug therapy of the disease includes the following groups of drugs:
  1. 1) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and pain medications: Voltaren, Celebrex, Rofika, Nimesil, Movalis.
  2. 2) Chondroprotectors: "Artra", "Arthron", "Dona", "Teraflex", "Chondroitin complex".These drugs are taken for at least six months in the dosage prescribed by the doctor.
  3. 3) Inside the joint with pronounced inflammatory phenomena, enter "Hydrocortisone" or "Kenalog" no more than 3 times.
  4. 4) The preparations of hyaluronic acid are shown, which must be introduced into the joint when the inflammatory phenomena in it abate: "Hyalurum", "Ostenil", "Sinocrom".These medications show a very good effect, they are administered only a few times, while having a fairly high cost.
  5. 5) Heating compresses with "Dimexide", "Bischofite", medical bile to improve the blood supply of the joint, increase the production of "lubricating" liquid in it.
  6. 6) The preparation on the basis of drawing from soya and avocado plants - "Piascladin" - has also established itself as an effective tool in the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint. At the same time, the treatment course is not less than six months.

Physiotherapy for gonarthrosis

In an acute period a person needs to provide complete rest for a diseased knee. Then proceed to the gradual introduction into his regime of the day of physical exertion. Exercises are carried out in the position of the patient lying on his back, they consist mainly in lifting the straightened legs, keeping them in the raised position. It is important to perform exercises smoothly, carefully, so that they do not cause pain. Begin with 10 minutes, gradually, 2 minutes a day, increasing the duration of classes. Increase and the amplitude of movements, which should be selected by specialists individually for each.

Gonarthrosis of the 1st degree of the knee joint: left-sided, bilateral, deforming, treatment

The term gonarthrosis in medicine denotes degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue of the knee joint, which leads to destructive changes in the bone tissues of the bone heads entering this articulation. In this article, we consider gonarthrosis of the first degree, in which a rapid and complete restoration of damaged tissues is possible with the subsequent restoration of the physiological volume of mobility of the lower limbs. It is very important to recognize the pathology at the initial stage of development, this allows us to apply non-surgical methods of treatment.

Gonarthrosis of the first degree of the knee joint can manifest itself with minimal symptoms, which are difficult to formulate to the patient at the primary address to the doctor. Typical signs can be short-term pain, crunching and clicks during sudden movements. These symptoms intensify after a busy working day, during which increased physical stress on the knee joints appeared.

Destructive changes do not appear in any way. When the radiograph is taken, the thickness of the cartilaginous layer is seen to decrease. There may appear a decrease in the amount of synovial fluid and a decrease in its biochemical properties.

Causes of bilateral first-degree gonatrosis

As mentioned above, bilateral first-degree gonarthrosis is well suited for conservative treatment, pathology can be completely stopped. With the right approach, it is possible to achieve a stable remission, the beginning of a complete regeneration of damaged tissues. But as with any other disease, an important factor of therapy is the elimination of probable causes that contributed to the destruction of cartilaginous tissue. Therefore, it is worth investigating the causes that cause gonarthrosis. They can include the following pathogenic factors:

  • excess body weight, which is accompanied by a deficiency in the development of muscle mass of the femoral and gastrocnemius muscle groups;
  • incorrect placement of the foot, which leads to an incorrect position of the heads of bones in the cavity of the knee joint;
  • heredity and the presence of systemic connective tissue diseases;
  • concomitant diseases of the hip, ankle, spine;
  • trauma and predisposing working conditions;
  • infection during medical manipulations.

This is not an exhaustive list of possible causes, but they are highly likely to provoke destructive processes. Therefore, they should be excluded first.

What is a bilateral deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree?

Double-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree is the most common diagnosis in case of systemic involvement of the joint tissues. In the traumatic nature of the disease, a one-sided degenerative process arises. In the initial diagnosis it is important to understand how much the cartilage tissue is weakened and whether there are reliable signs of a change in the bone structure.

Deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree differs in that with a significant change in the depreciation properties of cartilage there is an increased mechanical stress on the heads of bones. As a result, microscopic cracks may appear, which are filled with deposits of calcium salts. Radiographically, it can look like outgrowths, thorns, roughness. There are no external signs at the initial stage. Pain during movement can occur after severe physical exertion.

Double-sided deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree can be diagnosed already at the age after 30 years. The risk group includes persons engaged in manual labor with the primary load on the knee joints. Symptomatically, this can manifest as a slight stiffness in the morning hours after awakening. After a short walk, all the pains disappear. In the evening and at night, there may be cramps in the calf muscles, pulling pains, restless legs syndrome.

To answer the question about what is deforming gonarthrosis of the 1st degree, it can be very simple. This pathology, which in the absence of timely treatment can go into the pronounced destruction of the articular tissues. This inevitably leads to disability and significant difficulties in the independent movement of a person.

Left-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree and its distinctive features

Left-sided gonarthrosis of the 1st degree is not common. Usually, the predecessor of the disease is a trauma in the form of stretching of the ligamentous apparatus, dislocation of the knee joint, stroke, inflammation of the meniscus, detachment of the patella and much more. In a number of patients, pathology may occur after medical intervention for arthroscopy or an operation to restore the integrity of the meniscus.

On the right side, a pathological process occurs in a similar way. It is worth noting the inflammatory component in the development of subsequent destruction. An aseptic inflammatory reaction with a compensatory purpose is possible if the physical properties and volume of the synovial fluid are disturbed.

Differential diagnosis is performed with various forms of arthritis, bursitis, traumatic lesions. It is not necessary to exclude the possibility of irradiation of the pain syndrome in the hip joint lesion.

Treatment of gonarthrosis of the 1st degree by the methods of manual therapy

For the treatment of gonarthrosis of the 1st degree, official medicine suggests using mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with chondroprotectors. Additional methods of therapy can be therapeutic exercise, massage physiotherapy. However, often the measures taken are not sufficient to stop the destructive process.

We recommend that you use manual therapy techniques in addition to traditional methods of treatment. In our clinic, effective programs have been developed that allow the restoration of knee joints to be started at the expense of hidden reserves in the human body.

For the treatment of gonarthrosis of the 1st degree, osteopathy and therapeutic massage, a course of gymnastics and reflexotherapy are widely used. For each patient an individual technique is developed that takes into account possible causes leading to this disease. In particular, the specialists of our clinic work with overweight the patient, recommend changes in the diet, develop a program to increase physical activity.

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