Treatment of rheumatism of joints with folk and medicament meansJoint rheumatism is an inflammatory disease that occurs against a background of many infections. His treatment is based on the elimination of the pathogen and the return of motor activity to the person.
It is difficult to imagine the life without movement, a phenomenon that not only allows you to maintain good physical shape, lead an active lifestyle, but also exerts a considerable load on our joints.
The motor capacity of a person of any age category is completely dependent on their condition. Severe joint damage caused by injuries and diseases contributes to approaching the moment when no step, not even the slightest movement, will be possible without pain.
In order to preserve the motor activity of , it is necessary to take proper care of joint health : take preventive measures to prevent the development of various diseases, in particular inflammatory ones, to avoid injuries, shocks or falls whenever possible.
To date, widespread joint pathology, known throughout the world as "rheumatic disease" or " joint rheumatism" . To a greater extent, it affects women and adolescents, the age of which varies from 7 to 15 years. The results of a recent survey showed that over 80% of patients with rheumatism are people under 40 years of age, so the everyday belief that joint rheumatism is an age-related disease is just a delusion.
Every year more and more young people are faced with rheumatic fever, so it is very important to know the features of its course and treatment.A very unpleasant inflammatory disease of arthritis of the knee joint can lead to complete immobility and disability. Read how to avoid this in our article.
What to do if the loin is constantly hurting. What are the causes of discomfort in the lumbar region? Read here.
What is the specificity of the disease?
Rheumatism is an infectious-allergic disease of , which contributes to the destruction of the connective tissue of both the cardiovascular system and internal organs, muscles and joints.
As a rule, its first signs are observed even in adolescence and begin with a crunch, minor unpleasant sensations in the joints, to which few people pay attention. Over time, manifestations of rheumatism are aggravated, often exacerbating the onset of the cold season, as hypothermia is one of the factors that provoke the disease.
Rheumatism is characterized by a symmetrical lesion of large joints: knee, ankle and elbow. In the development of this pathological disease, a crucial role is played by genetic predisposition and streptococcal infections. Most often, people with rheumatism are ill, in the body of which there is a special protein from group B and those who are prone to infectious diseases.
Numerous studies in the field of rheumatic fever have made it possible to give one more definition of this disease. According to him rheumatism of the joints is a kind of allergic reaction to infection with one of the beta-hemolytic streptococci from group A. About 2.5% of people who have suffered a streptococcal infection within a month face its complication - acute rheumatism of the joints.
Angina, maternity fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, acute middle ear inflammation, chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis - are the most common precursor diseases of of this pathology.
Symptomatology typical of
The main symptom of , indicative of the development of joint rheumatism in the human body, is a sudden increase in body temperature to 39 ° C, accompanied by weakness and sweating, as well as the appearance of painful sensations in the joints. In some cases, patients mark localized, variable pains, passing from one affected joint to another. With rheumatism, the skin over them blushes, puffiness appears, and movements become more difficult.
We list general symptoms of , characteristic of rheumatic disease:
- elevated body temperature;
- joint pain, worse in the morning and night;
- stiffness of movements;
- swelling of the joints, redness of the skin above them;
- heart pain;
- formation of rheumatoid nodules in the elbow joint region;
- asthenic manifestations: lethargy, apathy, weakness;
- in some cases, deformation and lesion of small joints of the hands.
Diagnostic measures to identify the signs of
The basis for the diagnosis of joint rheumatism is the results of laboratory tests and the clinical signs of , indicating the malfunctioning of certain organs. It is very important to identify the causative agent of streptococcal infection no later than 6 to 7 weeks before the onset of joint damage.
It is believed that rapid identification of the pathogen is the key to timely and proper treatment. In order to identify it and confirm the diagnosis of "rheumatism of the joints", it is first necessary to carry out such procedures as tonsillol and blood test.You yourself can help the doctor put the right diagnosis! For this, try to accurately and in detail tell the specialist about the pains and other unpleasant sensations that you are experiencing. Do not underestimate the importance of this information. It is the key diagnostic method on the basis of which the doctor prescribes other methods of investigation.
A huge role in diagnosis is played by the time of the onset of pain, their duration and localization, as well as additional phenomena accompanying painful sensations.
A decrease in the level of hemoglobin, manifestations of anemia, an increase in the number of neutrophils in the blood indicate the course of this inflammatory disease. As the final stage of the diagnosis, an electrocardiogram, ultrasound and X-ray examination of the affected joints is used.
Recommendations that will help cure the disease
Rheumatism is a serious and dangerous disease, therefore its treatment should be carried out under strict medical supervision. It is extremely important to immediately consult a doctor if the first signs of joint rheumatism are found. On how quickly you begin treatment, depends its effectiveness.
Note the following recommendations of that will help you cope with this inflammatory disease:
- follow all the prescriptions of your doctor;
- is in a well-ventilated and clean room;
- observe rest and bed rest during treatment;
- adhere to a special diet based on reducing the amount of carbohydrates consumed and increasing the number of proteins.
Treatment of joint rheumatism in hospital has several advantages, as it is based on the complex therapy of , which includes measures to suppress streptococcal infection, reduce the activity of inflammatory processes, and prevent the development of heart disease.
Clinical dispensary in the polyclinic is used to stabilize the patient's condition. It is the most common form of treatment for rheumatism, since its main part occurs at home.
Medical treatment is the first and most important stage of
Treatment of joint rheumatism is based on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, broad-spectrum antibiotics, vitamins, desensitizing drugs, and severe cases of steroid hormones.
As a rule, antibiotics of the penicillin line ( Amoxicillin, Carfecillin, Carbenicillin and Piperacillin) or macrolides( Binoclar, Vilprafen, Grunamycin, etc.) are usually prescribed to cure the infectious agent. It is believed that within 5 years after the disease with rheumatism, the patient should periodically take broad-spectrum antibiotics.
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are equally important part of drug treatment: Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and others. They help reduce the activity of inflammatory processes.
If a liquid is detained in the patient's body, then diuretics are prescribed for it - diuretics : Acrypamide, Diazide, Bufenox and others.
In the presence of heart problems, treatment is established depending on the degree of their severity, damage to the valves, etc. In most cases, diuretics, nitrates, and anti-arrhythmic drugs are prescribed, which prevent or eliminate heart rhythm disturbances. In serious situations, when drug treatment is powerless, heart valve operations are performed.Duration of use, dosage of medicines is determined by the doctor depending on the severity of the disease, the patient's health condition and in each case will be individual.
After the appointment of drug therapy, the patient can recommend a number of additional procedures :
- Paraffin applications. They contribute to the heating of the affected joints, and also remove toxins and purify the pores. This nontraditional method of treatment is used after the acute phase of the disease subsides, normalization of body temperature and improvement of the patient's condition.
- Warming with an infrared lamp. The lamp is used for general warming up of body parts, on which a surface effect is required.
- UHF-therapy. The electric field of UHF enhances the blood flow, selectively affects the permeability of the vessel walls, thereby eliminating residual swelling of the joint tissues and reducing inflammation foci.
- Electrophoresis. This therapeutic complex is characterized by the effect on the body of direct current and the introduction with it of the necessary parts of the body of medicinal substances.
Physiotherapeutic methods of treatment allow to fix the result from the main therapy, improve the patient's motor activity and eliminate the pain syndrome. To achieve maximum effect, physicians are advised to follow each course with the course.How and what to treat the rheumatism of the joints should be determined solely by the attending physician! Self-medication is dangerous to health and can lead to serious consequences.
Folk remedies for the treatment of
The treatment of joint rheumatism with folk remedies contributes to the consolidation of the positive effect of the main treatment, relieves puffiness and eliminates pain.
- Recipe # 1. For this recipe you will need dried leaves of a saber. Put them in a glass dish, pour half vodka and put it for three weeks in a dark place. The resulting infusion can be drunk 1 tablespoon 3 times a day, and can be used as lotions, daily rubbing them with aching joints.
- Recipe # 2. To prepare this recipe, take 1 kilogram of raw potatoes and a small piece of cloth. Peel potatoes and grate them on a fine grater. The resulting gruel lay on the fabric, and wrap it with a sick joint. Such a compress is recommended to be done every other day for 1 month.
- Recipe # 3. To fulfill this recipe you will need 3 peeled bulbs. Put them in a saucepan, pour 1 liter of water and cook for 15 minutes. After the onion water has cooled, it will be ready for use. It is recommended to drink 1 glass of broth every morning on an empty stomach.
Prevention is an integral part of the treatment of rheumatism
The following preventive measures are used to prevent from re-development of attacks of joint rheumatism: primary and secondary.
- Primary prevention. It includes measures to improve immunity. For this, the patient needs to practice hardening, correctly form the regime of the day, eat healthy food. With a deterioration of well-being, such people should immediately seek medical help, especially if symptoms of an infectious disease are detected.
- Secondary prevention. Secondary prevention measures are aimed at preventing recurrences of the disease, as well as its progression in patients on dispensary account.
Considerable attention is paid to the maintenance of cardiovascular functions in the prevention of rheumatism. Activities aimed at normalizing the heart rate, monitoring the heart condition includes such a thing as "cardio-prophylaxis" .
It is an obligatory part of the final stage of treatment of joint rheumatism and is characterized by regular medical examination, sanatorium treatment and intake of vitamin complexes rich in magnesium and calcium.
Treatment of rheumatism is a long and complex process, including medical and physiotherapy methods. Its main goal is to keep the joints healthy, improve the patient's condition and prevent relapse of the disease.
Video: The complex of health-improving exercises for the joints of the legs
Rheumatism: symptoms and treatment
Rheumatism( acute rheumatic fever) is an immunological systemic inflammatory disease of connective tissue caused by group A B-hemolytic streptococcus with predominant cardiac damage, vessels of small caliberand joints.
Most often rheumatism develops in children, 7-15 years old, who have had an infection of the upper respiratory tract( sore throat, etc.) without timely treatment.
Reasons and mechanism of rheumatism development
Symptoms and signs of rheumatism
Treatment of illness + interesting video!
Prevention of rheumatism
The causes and mechanism of rheumatism
for rheumatism is primarily affected by the heart
The genetic predisposition is very important in the development of rheumatism, which proves the high incidence rate within the same family, and the presence of special genetic markers.
There are two main points in the development of rheumatism:
1. Direct exposure to toxins that secrete hemolytic streptococcus: hemolysins, hyaluronidase, proteinase, etc.;
2. The immune response of the body to streptococcal antigens, resulting in the synthesis of special antibodies that have a damaging effect on the heart cells, small vessels, skin, synovial membrane of the joints.
Main symptoms and signs of current rheumatism
The disease usually begins with tonsillitis
As a rule, rheumatic fever in children or adults develops acutely, a few weeks after the tonsillitis or strepitis of streptococcal etiology. When the child, it would seem, has already almost recovered and is ready to return to the educational process, his temperature rises sharply to 38-39 degrees.
There are complaints of symmetrical pain in the large joints( most often the knee), which have a distinctly migratory nature( today knees hurt, tomorrow elbows, then shoulders, etc.).Soon pains in the heart, shortness of breath, palpitations join.
The defeat of the heart during the first rheumatic attack is observed in 90-95% of all cases. This can affect all three walls of the heart - endocardium, myocardium and pericardium. In 20-25% of cases, rheumatic carditis results in a formed heart disease.
The main feature of heart failure in rheumatism in children and adults is the extreme scarcity of manifestations. Patients complain of unpleasant sensations in the heart, dyspnoea and cough after physical exertion, pain and irregularities in the heart. As a rule, children are silent about these complaints, without giving them serious significance. Therefore, the defeat of the heart most often can be identified even with a physical and instrumental examination.
Joint rheumatism begins acutely
Very often joint damage with rheumatism comes to the fore. As a rule, the inflammatory process in the joints begins acutely, with severe pain, swelling and redness of the joints, an increase in temperature above them, and restriction of movements.
Joint rheumatism is characterized by a lesion of articulations of large and medium caliber: elbows, shoulder, knee, ray, etc. Under the influence of treatment, all symptoms are quickly leveled without consequences.
Lesion of small joints of hands or feet is usually observed with repeated rheumatic attacks. More often, such lesions with rheumatism of joints do not pass without leaving a trace, leading to fibrotic changes in capsules of the joints, with the development of deformity of the fingers and arthritis Jacques.
Rheumatoid arthritis or joint rheumatism in most cases develops with carditis and horei, but can proceed in isolation. This suggests a more severe course of arthritis, resistance to therapy and pronounced joint damage.
Characteristic features of rheumatoid arthritis:
- acute onset;
- symmetrical lesion of large joints;
- volatility of pain: localization of pain is constantly changing;
- rapid regression of symptoms of rheumatism under the influence of treatment and the absence of irreversible changes in the joints.
Rheumatic chorea( small chorea)
chorea( dance of St. Witt)
This complication of the disease rheumatism develops mainly in girls 10-12 years old.
This is a rheumatic lesion of the nervous system that manifests itself as characteristic symptoms:
- hyperkinesis - the appearance of involuntary motor activity of the limbs;
- muscular dystonia - sharp muscle spasms, accompanied by painful sensations;
- coordination disorder;
- speech impairment.
Rheumatic skin lesions
Most often manifested in the form of annular erythema and subcutaneous rheumatic nodules.
Ring-shaped erythema is a dull pink spot that tends to increase in size, gradually fading in the center, acquiring a ring appearance. The appearance of spots is not accompanied by painful sensations, they do not protrude above the surface of the skin and disappear completely when pressed. Ring-shaped erythema is always located on the body and never on the scalp.
Subcutaneous nodules are a fairly rare specific symptom that occurs in children with recurrent rheumatism. Most often nodules are accompanied by the phenomenon of arthritis and carditis, located on the surface of large joints. These are small( 1-2 mm to 1-2 cm) subcutaneous nodules, dense, slow-moving and painless to the touch. After the main symptoms subsided, the nodules also undergo a reverse development in 1-2 months, leaving no traces behind them.
Lesions of other organs and systems of
occur infrequently and proceed without any specificity, being a manifestation of rheumatic vasculitis - a lesion of small vessels. Most often affected lungs, liver, kidneys, endocrine organs, eyes, abdominal cavity.
Treatment of rheumatism
In the treatment of this complex disease with the name rheumatism, the following groups of drugs are used:
- Antibiotics. Used to eliminate the focus of infection in the nasopharynx.
treatment of the disease begins with antibiotics
The most active in this regard remain antibiotics penicillin series. Begin treatment with benzylpenicillin intramuscularly, or amoxicillin. If penicillins are intolerant, it is possible to prescribe antibiotics from the macrolide group( azithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin).
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( more about them - here).Are shown at development of a rheumatic arthritis, more often, a carditis of easy and average degree. The drug of choice is diclofenac or acetylsalicylic acid. Ibuprofen is also possible.
The intake of NSAIDs should be at least one month, with a gradual decrease in dose. Under their influence, there is a rapid disappearance of pain in the joints, chorea, dyspnea, positive dynamics in the ECG picture. However, in the treatment of NSAIDs, one must always remember about their negative effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
- Glucocorticoids. Applied with severe carditis, a significant accumulation of fluid in the cavity of the heart bag, severe joint pain.
- Metabolic therapy and vitamins. Assign a large dose of ascorbic acid, with the development of chorea - vitamins B1 and B6.To repair damaged cells of the cardiac muscle, apply riboxin, mildronate, neoton, etc.
Important: Treatment of such a complex disease as rheumatism in children or adults should be handled only by a doctor. Do not self-medicate, this can lead to serious complications! If the first symptoms described in the article occur, be sure to consult a doctor internally!
Prevention of rheumatism
exercise - good disease prevention
Primary( nonspecific) disease prevention rheumatism is aimed at preventing the development of rheumatic process in the body and includes a set of fortifying measures: hardening, exercise, balanced nutrition, etc.
Secondary( specific) - prevention of repeated relapses of rheumatism. This is achieved by the introduction of prolonged penicillin preparations. It is possible to introduce and import analogues - retarpen, pendepon, etc.
According to WHO recommendations, the prevention of rheumatism with bicillin should be carried out at least 3 years after the last attack, but not before reaching the age of 18.With the transfer of carditis - 25 years. Persons with developed heart failure should take preventive measures throughout their life.
Describing the signs of articular rheumatism, one can not help but touch rheumatic heart disease. This pathology is the basis of disability or death.
The main complications of rheumatism or what is rheumatic carditis and chorea
Depending on the course, the following degrees of rheumatic heart disease are distinguished:
At the first stage of the disease there is a lesion of individual parts of the heart muscle without any external manifestations of the disease. Therefore this degree passes in most cases imperceptibly.
When the second stage of rheumatic endocarditis is formed, cardiac muscle hypertrophy arises. The person has unpleasant sensations behind the sternum, shortness of breath while climbing the stairs, palpitations with physical exertion.
Severe disease leads to an increase in heart size and heart failure. Against this background, edema of the lower extremities is formed. Disability is caused by the wrinkling of the heart valves.
Another dangerous complication is chorea. Cross-antistreptococcal antibodies affect the nerve fibers. Against this background, the risk of developing multiple sclerosis in adolescents is increasing. They become irritable, capricious and slovenly. Nevertheless, rheumatic damage to nerve fibers( chorea) can pass without a trace, as well as signs of joint rheumatism.
How to treat rheumatic joint inflammation
When determining how to treat joint rheumatism, you need to tell about the basic principles of therapy of the disease:
- Suppression of streptococcal infection in the early stages;
- Strengthening of immunity;
- Symptomatic therapy of concomitant conditions.
How to get rid of streptococcus
To cure streptococcus, it is necessary to carry out anti-streptococcal antibiotic therapy of the disease. For these purposes, take drugs such as bicillin, augmentin, protected penicillins( beta-lactam).
With a qualified approach to the treatment of rheumatism in pulmonary hospitals, the material obtained from the patient's upper respiratory tract is sown to nutrient media. After the growth of the microorganism colonies, antibiotic dies are placed next to them. If bacteria are sensitive to drugs, there is a cessation of culture growth. Thus, a test is carried out for the sensitivity of streptococci to antibiotics.
The average and severe form of rheumatism requires combination therapy. There are whole schemes of treatment of staphylococcal infection. They include simultaneously several antibacterial agents: ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalosporin, erythromycin.
Simultaneously with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed, which completely eliminate pain syndrome and inflammation.
How to treat rheumatism of
joints When non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ibuprofen, diclofenac) appear, infiltrates appear. With a strong pain syndrome, corticosteroid hormones are used. They allow to eliminate rheumatic inflammation fairly quickly.
Thus, as an independent nosological form, joint rheumatism does not pose a serious threat to human health. Significant harm is caused by complications of the disease, which without adequate treatment will lead to a fatal outcome.
Below, we suggest you watch a video about what is the rheumatism of the joints and how it can be cured.
Rheumatism of joints: causes, symptoms and treatment
Rheumatism is a disease that affects connective tissue in various organs and body systems. The main target is the skin, cardiovascular system, internal organs, as well as structures of the musculoskeletal system, mainly the joints and muscles. The disease is infectious-allergic. Its manifestations are mainly observed in childhood and adolescence.
As is commonly believed at present, the causative agent of rheumatism is considered to be hemolytic streptococcus, but allergies are the main predisposing factor to the development of the disease.
In many cases, rheumatic fever is observed in people who have experienced acute inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract, for example, angina, it is also possible the development of the disease due to carious teeth. As additional factors contributing to the emergence of rheumatism, are: prolonged exposure to high humidity, hypothermia.
One form is rheumatism of the joints, or rheumatic polyarthritis .Contrary to the prevailing view that articular rheumatism is a disease of the elderly, statistics show that 80% of patients are people of working age who have not turned forty, and women suffer more often than men. Very often rheumatism of the joints occurs in children aged 7-15 years. The development of the disease for a person can pass completely unnoticed, but its consequences will be very serious.
Causes of the disease
A certain role in the development of this disease is played by a hereditary predisposition. Rheumatic polyarthritis often develops in people whose relatives suffer or suffer from this ailment. He is also susceptible to people prone to frequent infectious diseases and having in their body a specific protein of the group B. Articular rheumatism often develops after a previous scarlet fever, tonsillitis, tonsillitis, middle ear inflammation, chronic pharyngitis and other diseases.
The initial symptoms of the disease are severe pains that are intense, usually in large joints. The knee, ankle, wrist, shoulder and elbow joints are most often affected.
In the area of the affected joint, there is a local increase in temperature, as a result of which the joint becomes hot, the surrounding skin acquires a reddish hue. With the progression of rheumatism, the manifestations of symptoms become more pronounced, the pains increase to such an extent that they are sometimes intolerable.
Movement in the affected joint becomes severely limited or completely impossible, the slightest touch to the joint leads to a sharp pain, which causes great anguish in patients. In addition to pain, body temperature rises, often to high figures up to 40 degrees.
As a rule, several joints are affected, in very rare cases, a single joint injury is possible. In rheumatic polyarthritis, it is not simultaneous lesion of several joints at once, but their gradual involvement in the inflammatory process. First one joint is affected with all the characteristic clinical signs, then after a few hours, the symptoms decrease, but at the same time there are signs of damage to the other joint.
If during this period not to take active measures for the treatment of the disease, the pathological process can spread to a large number of joints, whereas with timely therapy, this process can be limited to two or three joints. Over time, in the absence of treatment, all limb joints are affected, possibly the spread of the disease to the joints of the lower jaw and spine.
Pain syndrome with rheumatism of the joints is not permanent, sometimes it can be worse or worse. Deformation of the joints is not observed. Inflammatory process in the joints lasts about a week. As noted by specialists in the treatment of rheumatism, those joints that are injured or were injured, or undercooled and otherwise negatively affected, or are heavily burdened by labor and other human activities, are most often affected. As an example, you can bring people who are keen on walking or running, they often have rheumatism of the joints of the legs.
In case of repeated cases of rheumatic fever, as well as in elderly people, the onset of the disease is not accompanied by an acute course. Sometimes the process is so sluggish that people continue to work and do not seek medical help. The complication of articular rheumatism can be rheumatic carditis , which can have both pronounced phenomena in the form of dyspnea, palpitation, pain in the heart, edema, and without any obvious signs, the disease in this case is revealed in a special examination. Rheumatic heart disease often occurs in young people aged 12-25 years. Often leads to severe disruption of the valvular heart apparatus.
Also, children may have nervous system damage, speech, gait, memory deterioration, the child becomes distracted, capricious, irritable.
Sometimes as a complication, skin lesions occur in the form of anuricular erythema. It manifests as ring-shaped rashes under the skin, which are called rheumatic nodules.
Treatment of rheumatism of joints
The maximum effect of treatment is possible only with timely access to a specialist in the manifestation of the first clinical signs. In the treatment of joint rheumatism, an important role is played by properly selected therapy, as well as strict compliance with all the recommendations of your doctor.
Patients are assigned bed rest, rest on the affected limb, compliance with a diet with increased protein intake and a decrease in carbohydrates.
Pharmacological preparations prescribe antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sometimes glucocorticosteroids. Also, therapy with immunosuppressants, gamma globulins. From the methods of physiotherapeutic treatment, paraffin applications, electrophoresis, infrared ray heating, UHF are used. With prolonged illness, procedures for purifying blood from toxins, for example, plasmapheresis, are indicated.
With properly selected treatment and patient compliance with all the necessary recommendations, in one two weeks you can completely remove the symptoms of the disease.
The disease is an inflammatory pathology of connective tissue, which is mainly localized within the cardiovascular system.
Rheumatism is a disease that develops, as a rule, against the background of an exacerbation of a certain infection in people with an increased degree of predisposition to such pathologies. Rheumatism most often affects children, as well as adolescents( the age range is seven to fifteen years).
The main factor causing the appearance of rheumatism is hemolytic streptococcus( group A).It often affects the upper respiratory tract and provokes joint rheumatism.
The condition for the development of the disease is the presence of streptococcal infection in the nasopharyngeal zone or untimely, incorrect treatment. A confirmation that the etiology of rheumatism is directly related to streptococcus is that rheumatism often develops and spreads at the first stages of the formation of so-called "closed collectives".
The pathology of leg joints is due to the presence of a significant number of toxins and antigens that affect connective tissues, causing complications of rheumatism.
Streptococcus infection plays an important role in the occurrence of age-related rheumatic carditis. In this situation, immunity does not work, and this, in turn, serves as a reason for finding other factors that fit into the problem of rheumatism: etiology.
In the situation of resolving the issue of the origin of rheumatism, there are two main aspects:
- the role of group A streptococcal infection;
- study of predisposition to the disease with rheumatism of leg joints.
In order to develop chronic rheumatism, a subjective, increased immune response to streptococcal type antigens is required, as well as the extent of this reaction. This is evidenced by some signs of rheumatism of the joints of the legs with a dynamic study of antibodies to streptococcus.
The mechanism of starting the disease begins with the effect on the body of bacteria - beta-hemolytic streptococci( group A).They can provoke:
- sore throat;
Chronic rheumatism occurs only when the patient has defects associated with the functioning of the immune system. So, statistics show that only from 0, 3 to 3 percent of people who have suffered infectious diseases caused by streptococcus( photo), subsequently face rheumatism.
Rheumatism of the joints of the legs is characterized by the presence of risk factors that should be taken into account:
- the presence of rheumatism or diseases affecting the connective tissues of family members of the first degree of kinship - sisters or brothers. Parents;
- belonging to the female sex;
- age range from 7 to 15 years;
- regular infections in the nasopharynx, streptococcus;
- rheumatism of the legs arises because of the presence in the human body of a specific protein - the B-cell marker type D8 / 17.
Rheumatism in children affects the joints of the legs, when when a streptococcus enters the body, it begins to fight the infection with the production of special antibodies. Cells recognize bacteria through molecules that are on their surface.
If there is a predisposition to rheumatism, in the cardiac muscle there are structural units similar in structure to streptococcus.
Chronic rheumatism is associated with an attack of antibodies of "native" cells of the body. So there is an inflammatory process, develops rheumatism of the joints of the legs. The connective tissue can be deformed - heart defects develop, the morphological structure of the joints changes, and rheumatism arises.
There is a definite classification of rheumatism, distinguish several types of the disease:
- Polyarthritis, it is also articular rheumatism. Often affects the knees, elbows, shoulders, rarely - toes and hands. The acute form of the disease is characterized by swelling, the presence of an inflammatory process in the area affected by rheumatism. Sweating, general weakness in the whole body, elevated temperature can be observed.
- Rheumatic carditis is another type of rheumatism;is manifested by the presence of a general intoxication of the body, heart pain of varying intensity, tachycardia may manifest itself.
- Rheumatism is fraught with the appearance of lesions of the smallest vessels in the brain, a disease called rheumatic chorea. The main signs - the violation of coordination of movement, psycho-emotional disorders.
- Classification of rheumatism involves the isolation of skin manifestations of diseases. These are specific nodules and erythema.
- Pleurisy rheumatic - severe pains in the chest area are observed, respiratory activity becomes more difficult. The temperature can rise, there is a cough and shortness of breath.
Initial signs of rheumatism appear several weeks after the patient has transferred any infectious disease - for example, pharyngitis or sore throat.
At first the patient experiences weakness, joints begin to ache, hyperthermia is observed.
Rheumatism in children can develop in a latent form: so, a small fever can rise, there is a slight general malaise, cardiac work is not broken, joint pains are absent. In such cases, rheumatism of the joints ends with chronic arthritis. Rheumatism in children affects the middle, as well as large joints. There are such signs of the disease:
- pain in the drains;
- tingling in the elbows and wrists;
- pain in the knees.
Rheumatism of the joints can have blurred symptoms - they then disappear, then reappear. Nevertheless, you can not relax - rheumatism in children should be diagnosed in time and appropriate therapy is prescribed.
Additional signs of rheumatism - pronounced problems with the heart: the pulse may be disturbed, irregularities in the rhythm are observed, the heart hurts. Also, the patient may experience shortness of breath, there is general weakness, increased sweating. These symptoms are caused by the inflammatory processes that are observed in the heart - rheumatic carditis. The consequence of the disease is heart disease.
In the case when rheumatism affects the nervous system, the patient may experience involuntary jerking of the limbs, as well as muscles of the face and neck. This symptomatology was called small chorea. There are signs on average in 15% of patients. Basically, these girls are from 6 to 15 years old.
Rheumatism, diagnosed only in clinical settings, is subsequently subject to a thorough correction by a rheumatologist.
The rheumatologist performs a complex of necessary measures with the help of which diagnostics of rheumatism is carried out. Most often, he undergoes a comprehensive comprehensive examination of the patient.
The first appointment is a general analysis of the blood composition for inflammation. The second is an immunological study aimed at revealing substances characteristic of rheumatism.
Additional technologies - ECG, X-ray. If necessary, to identify rheumatism, arthroscopy, articular biopsy, puncture for the subsequent study of the composition of fluid in the joints is prescribed.
The first stage is indicated by antibiotic therapy. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also prescribed. If the case is severe, the rheumatologist prescribes corticosteroids.
Prevention of rheumatism in children includes:
- gymnastics and physiotherapy;
- lifestyle correction( in particular, day regimen and nutrition);
Classification of drugs that are issued by a rheumatologist when a disease is detected, is as follows:
- antimicrobial agents;
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
The basis for the optimal treatment of rheumatism is such a consistent mechanism: the clinical stage - procedures at home and in the office of a doctor - rheumatologist - spa therapy.
First, special anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out, rehabilitation is carried out, then the patient is sent to a specialized medical sanatorium, intended especially for patients with rheumatism. At the third stage of therapy - medical examination. The procedure sets itself such functional tasks:
- activities aimed at the final fight against rheumatism;
- the implementation of symptomatic treatment for circulatory dysfunction in those patients who suffer from the presence of heart defects, their possible correction;
- rehabilitation period;
- preventive measures.
Prevention of rheumatism and its treatment at home - the task is quite feasible. There are several effective recipes designed to combat the disease.
- A couple of peeled large bulbs are cooked for 15 minutes in a liter of water. The drug is taken in the morning after awakening on an empty stomach, before going to sleep. Dosage is a glass. Good prevention of rheumatism.
- To the aching joints of the feet, a fresh grated onion is applied for no more than half an hour. Periodicity - several times a day.
- Rheumatism of children is susceptible to the treatment of raw potatoes. To do this, you need to double fold any fabric, in the middle of which is placed a potato gruel. The compress is placed in the affected area of the joints of the legs. From above it is necessary to cover the area with something warm. The procedure is repeated every two days.
- Children's rheumatism responds well to a combination of drinking potato juice and an external compress from this root. The procedure should be carried out within a month.
- Broth, cooked potato peel, is suitable for making compresses that are applied to joints affected by rheumatism.
Herbal preparations for the treatment of leg joint rheumatism:
- At 10 grams of St. John's Wort, one glass of warm water is needed. This mixture should be boiled for half an hour on a small fire. A remedy for rheumatism is taken during the day before meals( at a time - a third of the container).
- Put the leaves of cranberries in a jar, top up with water, insist. The drug is taken twice a day for two teaspoons.
- For two small spoonfuls of blueberry berries you should take a glass of boiling water. Infused broth for half an hour. Take the remedy several times a day on a large spoon.
Timely diagnosis of rheumatism of leg joints, as well as its qualitative prevention and treatment, allow to minimize the negative consequences that the disease results.
Joint rheumatism is characterized by the involvement of articular surfaces due to the formation of antibodies against bone-cartilaginous structures of the joints. The cause of the disease is beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The bacterium most often provokes inflammatory diseases of the respiratory organs and paranasal sinuses. If it can not be cured in a timely manner, the pathological process acquires a chronic course. Against this background, the reactivity of the immune system increases, which begins to produce antibodies against the antigens of the microorganism. The defeat of articular surfaces is due to the fact that the substances in the bacterial wall are similar to the antigens of the pathogen.
Cross-allergy primarily affects connective tissue structures of the heart valves. The joints become inflamed again.
Some clinical studies have shown that cardiac pathology in rheumatism can be caused not only by immunoglobulins, but also by direct infection of the heart with streptococcus, which enters the circulatory system from the primary inflammatory foci.
Thus, in order to develop rheumatism of joints, 3 factors are necessary:
- The presence of an inflammatory focus, "populated" with beta-hemolytic streptococcus;
- Cross-reacting of the immune system;
- A provoking factor leading to chronic infection.
Symptoms and manifestations of rheumatism
Symptoms of rheumatism are observed in patients with relapsing and protracted forms of the disease.
Rheumatic carditis is formed in the majority of patients. Pathology is accompanied by a violation of the functionality of the heart valves, in which there is stagnation of blood in a large circle of blood supply. Consequence of the condition - swelling of the lower limbs, increased blood pressure, changes in the frequency and amplitude of the heart rhythm.
The symptom of "molecular masking" is a specific term describing rheumatic heart disease. He suggests the presence of anti-streptococcal antibodies with selective damage to the heart tissue.
If the patient has "molecular masking", it is not necessary to damage the joint surfaces. It is believed that the nature of immunoglobulins against streptococcus is genetically determined, that is why in some people the organism successfully copes with the pathogen without complications, while in others, chronic damage to internal organs is observed.
Frequent symptoms of rheumatism:
- Cyclic temperature increase up to 39 degrees as a fever. Headache, fatigue and weakness accompany an increase in the temperature response. When it decreases, the symptoms decrease;
- Puffiness of joints 3 weeks after pharyngitis or sore throat;
- In 60% of patients with rheumatic heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis is observed;
- "Fugacity" of articular inflammation;
- Palpitation, dyspnea, pain in the heart( 85%).
Rareer manifestations of the disease: rheumatic nodules, and anular rash. Such symptoms are observed in the classical course of the disease( approximately in 10% of patients).Rheumatic nodules - dense mobile formations from 1 to 5 cm in diameter, located in the area of the elbow, knee or wrist joints. The formations are located subcutaneously, so they are felt with finger feeling. For nodules is characterized by an unexpected appearance and self-extinction.
Ring erythema( anuricular erythema) with rheumatism has the form of rashes that are located around the primary rim in the form of red spots. Specific feature of the rashes - they do not rise above the surface of the skin. With pressure, these spots disappear. There is a rash in 10% of patients with acute disease.
If there is rheumatism of the joints, the symptoms of which are not noticeable, it is difficult to identify the disease in the early stages. In such a situation, an investigation of the immune system is made, which makes it possible to detect an increase in the blood concentration of immunoglobulins.IMPORTANT TO KNOW!Doctors are dumbfounded! The pain in the joints is FOREVER!Just before bedtime. .. Read on - & gt;
Extra-articular symptoms of rheumatism
. Rheumatism of joints does not always begin directly with the defeat of articular surfaces. Often its manifestations are observed at first in other organs. Only after some time after the defeat of the kidneys, intestines, nervous system, there are inflammatory changes in the joint surfaces.
Extra-articular symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis:
- From the gastrointestinal tract: colitis, gastritis and enterocolitis( inflammatory changes in the stomach, small and large intestine).In children with this form of the disease appears a specific symptom of Schetkina-Blumberg, which causes severe pain in the abdomen due to irritation of the visceral pleura of the intestine;
- From the kidneys: hemorrhagic vasculitis( inflammation of small vessels of tubules and glomeruli) with the appearance of erythrocytes and protein in the urine( observed in laboratory tests);
- From the side of the nervous system and sensory organs: neuropathy, which leads to emotional instability, irritability and violation of muscle tone.
Clinical studies show that in modern conditions, joint rheumatism often begins with neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially often such symptoms are traced in children.
Treatment of joint rheumatism
Treatment of joint rheumatism is performed by complex methods. The main task of getting rid of the disease is antistreptococcal therapy in case of acute inflammation of the nasopharynx, bronchi or paranasal sinuses.
The whole process of treatment of the disease can be divided into 3 stages:
- Inpatient therapy( in the conditions of therapeutic or rheumatological department);
- Aftercare in a rheumatological sanatorium;
In the hospital, the patient is prescribed medicines aimed at correcting nutrition, exercise therapy and other necessary procedures.
If the patient has acute joint rheumatism, hospital treatment includes the following procedures:
- Antirheumatic therapy is based on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ibuprofen, nurofen).With a low effectiveness of NSAIDs, steroid analogs are prescribed( hydrocortisone, prednisolone);
- Antibiotic therapy is performed with penicillin for 2 weeks;
- If the patient has chronic infectious foci, antimicrobial treatment is supplemented with drugs from the group of macrolides( clarithromycin, azithromycin), amoxicillins( augmentin), cephalosporins( ceftriaxone, cefuroxime);
- In the presence of neurological complications of rheumatism, it is rational to prescribe choline agents for several years to prevent mental illness.
In the 2nd and 3rd stage of rheumatic therapy treatment is aimed at restoring the functional abilities of damaged organs and achieving a stable remission of the disease.
Antibacterial therapy with penicillins continues at these stages, bicillin prophylaxis is performed.
Prevention of arthritis of joints
Prevention of joint rheumatism is aimed at preventing the chronicity of streptococcal infection. For these purposes, urgent treatment of all bacterial foci in the respiratory system and internal organs is recommended. The effectiveness of the procedure depends on the correctness of the antibiotic selection, the duration and the course of its application.
If a patient breaks the course of antibiotic therapy prescribed by a doctor, the chances of a bacterial infection increase.
For the strengthening of immunity, it is recommended to optimize the work and rest regime, hardening, normalization of nutrition.
Despite the fact that joint rheumatism is considered a dangerous disease, with proper prevention, its occurrence is unlikely. It is more difficult to fight chronic infections, but modern medicine has the potential to achieve persistent remission in patients with rheumatic fever.