Rheumatism of the legs: symptoms and treatment
Such a diagnosis as rheumatism of the lower extremities is by no means perceived by everyone as a serious health threat. Nevertheless, this disease can cause significant harm not only to the legs, but even the connective tissue of various organs, which makes it really dangerous.
Rheumatism of feet is dangerous
Rheumatism of the joints of the legs is a disease of the musculoskeletal system and is able to develop imperceptibly. But its consequences can be more than palpable. The very essence of the disease is reduced to the defeat of connective tissue in the joints themselves. In some cases, complications can cause damage to the internal organs. Many people are of the opinion that the rheumatism of the toes and the lower limbs as a whole is characteristic mainly for the elderly. In fact, this disease most often affects the joints of children from 7 to 15 years. Among the adult patients who are forced to treat rheumatism, approximately 80% have not reached the age of 40 years.
It should be noted that this disease is often called rheumatoid arthritis, or polyarthritis. This is due to the fact that the symptomatology in most cases has to do with the joints, although arthritis can affect the connective tissue of the cardiovascular system, internal organs and muscles. In some cases, even the nervous system of a person is affected by the pathological process.
Why does rheumatism occur
Often this disease manifests itself in those people whose relatives also had problems with joints. The risk of getting a lesion of connective tissue is high and in the owners of a rare protein of group B. Signs of rheumatism of the feet are often manifested in the case of their constant supercooling or frequent cases of infectious diseases. As another reason why you can hear such a diagnosis, it makes sense to consider a previous streptococcal infection. The bottom line is that the consequence of such a disease is inflammation of the connective tissue in various organs and joints including.
Studies have shown that rheumatism is manifested as the body's response to the process of infection with one of the beta-hemolytic streptococci belonging to group A. Precedence rheumatism may be such diseases as scarlet fever, tonsillitis, chronic pharyngitis, inflammation of the middle ear( tonsillitis) and others.
When streptococci is found in the human body, the response of the immune system is quite active, because this type of bacteria is defined as a significant threat. As a result, specific antibodies are produced. It is important to note the following fact: the same molecules as those that are attacked by antibodies in the fight against streptococcus, are present in people who are prone to rheumatism. And then the immune system begins to exert a destructive effect on the connective tissue. This can lead to the defeat of various organs and joints.
Rheumatism of the legs: symptoms of
In most cases, rheumatism develops 1-3 weeks after the streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract( tonsillitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis) has been transferred. It is important to know that far from in every case the manifestation of infection can be called bright. Sometimes the disease runs unnoticed and even atypical - the inflammation of the throat is light, and the temperature is minimal. For this reason, doctors often diagnose ARI with such symptoms, without considering antistreptococcal treatment as a real necessity. And such a mistake can lead to the fact that a re-infection against a background of weakened immunity will cause the development of joint rheumatism.
It manifests itself( rheumatism) within a few days after re-infection and affects large joints - knee, ankle, etc. Rheumatism of the legs symptoms is easily recognizable: inflammation of the joints occurs alternately, and the affected part swells noticeably, moreover it hurts when pressed. For example, first the knee joint becomes inflamed, after, several days later, and sometimes hours, the inflammation along with the pain subsides, and the disease begins to affect another joint, then the next. It is this - alternate - affection of connective tissue in different parts of the lower limbs and is an obvious sign of rheumatism of the legs. One attack on a particular joint lasts a maximum of 12 days. But as a result, not only the feet suffer - significant harm is inflicted on the heart.
Rheumatism of the legs, the symptoms of which are almost invisible, makes itself felt in most cases by mild, but constant weakness after moderate loads. These feelings are very similar to the usual fatigue at the end of a day's work. Another characteristic symptom that indicates the inflammation of the connective tissue is the temperature, which rises quickly and just as quickly returns to normal, after which the jumps are repeated again.
Subject: "Rheumatism of the legs: signs and treatment" is very relevant and serious. After all, if the disease is not treated, you can face such an unpleasant consequence, as rheumatic heart disease( inflammation of the heart).There are light rheumatic heart disease, medium stage and severe. In the process of its development, heart valves, membranes( pericarditis) and heart muscle( myocarditis) are affected.
Continuing to study how rheumatism of the legs manifests itself, it is important to note that the mild form of rheumacordita usually goes unnoticed, but the mean manifests itself through moderate cardiac hypertrophy( it increases in volume).In this case, patients feel unpleasant sensations behind the sternum, dyspnea and palpitations appear with relatively light loads( walking, climbing the stairs).
In the case of severe rheumatic heart disease, the size of the heart is significantly increased. Pain in the chest, shortness of breath and an intensified heartbeat disturb even at rest. Moreover, on the legs there are swelling. With this form of rheumatic carditis, there is a high probability of heart disease.
Mechanism for the development of
As mentioned above, with rheumatism, only one joint is very rarely affected - painful sensations constantly change the dislocation. In this case, according to doctors, rheumatism of the legs affects primarily those joints that are more loaded. Also, the joints that previously undergone stable supercooling, bruises, prolonged pressure and other adverse effects are at risk. If you resort to properly organized treatment, then there are all chances to defeat the disease within 1-2 weeks. In some cases, the inflammation process stops after the third day of treatment.
It should be noted that rheumatism does not always have a radically destructive effect on connective tissue. It is not uncommon for patients to retain the ability to actively move, even if they have a second inflammation, and do not feel severe pain.
Deepening into the topic: "Rheumatism of the legs: signs and treatment", it is important to pay attention to the methods of identifying the disease. The basis of diagnosis in this case are laboratory studies and a number of clinical signs that allow to determine the defeat of organs.
In order to identify the negative effects of inflammatory processes on the heart, it is necessary to undergo ultrasound or an ECG.It is not superfluous to carry out differential diagnosis with nonspecific infectious polyarthritis, tuberculosis, septic endocarditis, neurosis and other diseases.
It is worth knowing that in the case of the development of the acute phase of rheumatism in the blood, neutrophilic leukocytosis will be observed. It is also possible to reduce the level of hemoglobin in the first days of active inflammation. In the case of persistent relapses, there is a risk of anemia.
Pediatric leg rheumatism: symptoms and diagnostics
If we talk about the symptoms of rheumatism in children, it is worth saying that they are very similar to those listed above: fever and development of polyarthritis( severe pain) in the affected joints.
Rheumatic polyarthritis may have some peculiarities:
- Inflammation of large joints develops very quickly, sometimes even for several hours. Then the skin in place of the affected joint becomes red, hot to the touch and swells.
- In some cases, several large joints can be inflamed simultaneously, for example, both knees.
- Rheumatic polyarthritis in children lasts an average of 4-5 days.
- The child feels severe pain, which prevents him from moving freely. There are often cases when children with rheumatic fever can not get out of bed.
Pediatric rheumatism of the legs, as in adults, can be manifested through chest pain, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, weakness and irregular heartbeat. At the first signs of rheumatism in a child, he needs to conduct a heart examination and prescribe the appropriate treatment. If the disease is started, then it is possible to develop severe heart defects, which in the future can turn into heart failure.
Another sign of rheumatism in children is the appearance of a reddish rash, which is called annular erythema.
As for the diagnosis, if you suspect rheumatism it is worth the following tests:
- biochemical blood test;
- the general or common analysis of a blood;
- ultrasound of the heart;
- blood test for the level of ASL-O;
- electrocardiography, it's an ECG.
Diagnosis is better not to be neglected, so that later do not fight with complications.
Treatment of rheumatism
Trying to get an answer to the question of how to treat leg rheumatism, one must first of all realize the need for an immediate visit to the doctor with the first suspicions of the development of the disease. This is important for the reason that the course of the disease may in some cases differ, and this means the need for an individual and professional approach to the treatment process.
The following methods are commonly used:
- the use of glucocorticoids, as well as immunosuppressants to provide protective functions of the body;
- the use of antibiotics( Amikacin, Sumamed, etc.) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Ketoprofen, Movalis, Diclofenac - should be taken until the tumor completely disappears);
- a complex of vitamins for recovery after antibiotics( "Supradin", "Oligovit", "Vitrum", "Centrum");
- after acute symptomatology has been removed, various physiotherapeutic procedures( paraffin baths, UHF, electrophoresis and infrared lamp heating) are used for full recovery;
- if conventional treatment does not help to neutralize the symptoms of rheumatism, then doctors prescribe plasmapheresis - purification of blood from antibodies and toxins.
Some doctors advise for a more fruitful treatment process to reduce carbohydrate intake and increase the amount of protein in the diet. In any case, treatment should be comprehensive.
If the scheme of overcoming the disease has been determined correctly, and the patient followed all the recommendations of the doctor, then full recovery may occur in 2 weeks. In those cases when the visit to the doctor was immediate, the recovery process will take only a few days.
How to treat rheumatism at home
One of the main principles of home exposure to the disease can be determined by proper nutrition and phytotherapy. As for the recipes of various broths, in this case it is definitely better to consult with doctors who will be able to take into account all the features of the disease course in a particular person.
Food should be organized in such a way that all meals are without salt. The use of seasonings will also have to be limited. This is important for the reason that during the rheumatic attack there is a metabolic disorder.
When answering the question about how to treat leg rheumatism at home, it is important to pay attention to the detrimental effect of the dishes, which contain extractives( vegetable and strong meat soups, as well as broths).About soups of fast preparation and various broth cubes for the period of treatment it is necessary to forget. As mentioned above, for rapid recovery, it is necessary to limit the consumption of foods that are a source of easily assimilated carbohydrates( honey, sugar, jam, jam and confectionery).
From the diet of the patient it is also necessary to exclude products based on beans, mushrooms, spinach, sorrel and peas. But grape juice and grapes can be consumed. Vegetables need to boil, and meat and fish are only slightly stewed or boiled.
If you look at the topic: "Rheumatism: symptoms and treatment of legs" from the point of view of traditional medicine, it is worth noting that, according to the doctors, sand can help in the fight against inflammation. To do this, it must be washed and sieved through a sieve, preferably shallow. The most suitable option is the sea sand. After sowing it is necessary to heat it to 50 degrees and pour it into a comfortable fabric bag. It is this bag of hot sand that is applied to the place where pain is felt. But this method should not be used for those people who have been diagnosed with skin and heart diseases, tuberculosis, malnutrition and tumors.
Another technique that everyone should be aware of: "Rheumatism: symptoms and treatment of the legs" is clay. It can be used in the form of compresses and wraps. The clay, which is topical in such a disease, makes its ability to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
In order to prevent the re-development of leg rheumatism, it is necessary to focus on two purposes: to protect the body from a new infection with streptococcal infection and to strengthen the immune system. And this means that, if possible, everyone who has had rheumatism should visit a specialized sanatorium.
After the restorative measures are taken, it is necessary for 1-2 years not to visit other climatic zones for rest purposes, being content with native lands. Since rheumatism of the feet involves complex treatment, all factors that can create favorable conditions for the development of the disease must be taken into account. If within a few years after the rheumatic attack go to someone else's climate zone, you will have to face acclimatization, which, in turn, can lead to certain complications.
Those who have experienced rheumatic attacks should not be fond of bathing in cold water and a long process of sunburn. Active sports are undesirable for the reason that the heart weakened by the disease will not yet be ready for intensive work. But physical education is worthwhile, as well as literate hardening. In this case, in the case of increasing the pulse to 120 strokes and the appearance of dyspnea, it is necessary to pause.
Rheumatism can definitely be attributed to those diseases that require special attention due to the risk of significant complications. Therefore, as with any serious diagnosis, if symptoms of inflammation of connective tissue need to respond quickly - go to the doctor and start treatment. And, of course, it is always worth remembering about prevention.
How to treat joint rheumatism?
Rheumatism is an infectious-allergic disease, in which the joints of the joints, the cardiovascular system, internal organs, muscles and skin are affected. The causative agent of this disease is hemolytic streptococcus, but the main role is played by the allergy, which arises as a result of high sensitivity to the secondary introduction of streptococcus. Usually rheumatism develops after acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, tonsillitis, possibly the appearance of such a disease in dental caries. Also, the cooling of the body contributes to the development of this disease. Before deciding how to treat the rheumatism of joints, legs, for example, you should understand what this disease is and what its symptoms are.
General information about rheumatism
In fact, rheumatism is not as common a disease as it is commonly thought. In general, this disease is typical for children aged 6 to 15 years. In older people, this disease appears extremely rare. But even in that classic "children's" group, which is most susceptible to this disease, no more than one child per thousand is ill.
Most often, children with
get rheumatism. Many wonder why we so often hear this word, if this disease is so rare? In this case, it appears that earlier this disease was more common, but after medicine intensified and available antibiotics appeared, the number of cases of rheumatic fever decreased significantly.
The second reason is even simpler - earlier the word "rheumatism" denoted all joint diseases. Doctors simply did not distinguish them, because there was no such need - the choice of treatment procedures was small, respectively, and the treatment was almost always the same. But since the possibilities of medicine have increased, we have begun to distinguish between various joint diseases and to select appropriate treatment for each of them. Because now no doctor will confuse the symptoms of this rheumatism with manifestations of other diseases.
It should also be noted that rheumatism is characterized by seasonal exacerbations, with the intervals between seizures in all different and can range from a couple months to several years. In addition, if the first attack of the disease passes without the involvement of the joints, the disease in general can go unnoticed for a long time. Such a latent form of the disease is revealed only after a time when rheumatic heart disease is formed. Repeated attacks of the disease in this case are much more difficult.
How to identify the disease?
In general, the symptoms of this disease are very characteristic. As we have already said, mainly teenagers and children suffer from this disease. Most often the disease develops after a few( 1 to 3) weeks, after the child has had a streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract. It can be angina, pharyngitis, which is an inflammation of the pharynx, or tonsillitis, in which inflammation of the tonsils occurs.
Streptococcal infection itself does not always manifest itself vividly, often leaking atypical and secretive. In this case, it is necessary to encounter only a slight inflammation of the throat and a minimum temperature. That's why doctors very often just diagnose ARI, just not noticing the infection and not prescribing the necessary treatment in this case. As a result, an untreated infection, especially in the case when it appeared against a background of low immunity and repeatedly, often leads to joint rheumatism. As a result, after some time after the transferred disease( pharyngitis or sore throat) a person is faced with inflammation of various large joints - shoulder, elbow, knee, ankle, wrist. But the small joints of the toes and hands are very rarely affected by this disease.
Characteristic is also the fact that joints become inflamed not simultaneously, but in turn. For example, first the knee joint can inflame, after a few days this inflammation passes, but a new one appears, already in another joint, then in the third, etc. This is the movement of inflammation around the joints and is a kind of "business card" of rheumatism. In this case, the inflammation of each particular joint is usually short enough, it rarely lasts more than 10-12 days.the problem is that such inflammations usually occur in several turns, and they harm not only the joints, but also the heart.
As a result of untreated or in time untreated rheumatism appears rheumatic carditis, which is a rheumatic inflammation of the heart. This disease is of three degrees of severity, and the heart muscle, membranes and heart valves can be involved in the process.
Forms of rheumatic carditis
There are three forms of this disease - mild, moderate and severe.
The mild form of rheumatic carditis affects only some local areas of the heart muscle. At the same time, the blood circulation of the heart is not disturbed, and there are simply no external manifestations of the disease, because it practically always goes unnoticed.
In case of a moderate disease, a stronger defeat of the heart muscle occurs, the heart itself grows somewhat in size, there are unpleasant sensations behind the breastbone, increased fatigue, shortness of breath, a feeling of heartbeat that occurs with the usual household loads.
Severe rheumatic carditis leads to an even weaker heart, while its dimensions increase significantly. Even in a state of rest, the patient experiences pain in the heart, there may be swelling on his legs. As a result of this form of the disease, heart defects( wrinkling of the heart valves) can develop.
Another consequence of rheumatism - chorea
Chorea - one of the consequences of rheumatism
Rheumatic carditis is not the only possible consequence of rheumatism that has not been cured in time. Children also develop chorea, which is a defeat of the nervous system. As a result, the character of the child changes a little, it becomes capricious, irritable, untidy and absent-minded. Gait and handwriting change, memory and speech worsen, sleep disturbances may appear. However, in the early period of the disease this is all explained as indiscipline and capriciousness, and no one thinks about going to the doctor. Nervous parents begin much later, when the child begins involuntary twitching of the muscles of the hands, legs, trunk and face.
Chorea, as well as rheumatic inflammation itself, eventually passes without a trace. So the most serious result of untreated rheumatism is rheumatic heart disease, which can lead to serious problems, even disability. That is why it is important to diagnose as early as possible and start treatment for this disease, good, everyone knows which doctor treats rheumatism.
The main task of treating rheumatism
The main task, which is put before the attending physician - suppression of streptococcal infection, which both causes the development of the disease itself, and causes its complications. If it comes to how to treat rheumatism, then usually one of the many antibacterial agents, most often penicillin, is chosen. At the same time, active antibiotic therapy lasts about two weeks, after which the patient receives an intramuscular injection of penicillin every five years for several weeks to prevent possible complications on the heart.
In recent years, antibiotics of a "broad spectrum of action" in the form of tablets have been actively used to treat rheumatism. Such drugs( for example, erythromycin, ampicillin, oxacillin, etc.) have also shown their high effectiveness.
During the exacerbation for the removal of pain, various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. They act quickly and effectively eliminate pain and inflammation.
Rheumatism, despite its "secrecy" and danger, is perfectly treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics, in most cases this is quite enough to completely eliminate the disease. But in rare cases this treatment does not give the proper effect, then the doctor has to prescribe corticosteroid hormones. In combination with antibiotics, these drugs can remove rheumatic inflammation in just a few days.
It should be noted that analgesics in the treatment of rheumatism are practically not applied, since their effect in this case is only temporary, and they can not suppress inflammation. If the anesthetic relieves pain, then the inflammation is not lost anywhere, and the person, actively moving, causes additional harm to the sick joint.
Symptoms and treatment of rheumatism of hands
Rheumatism is a common disease both among women and men. The disease mainly affects the joints of the body: first inflammation of the connective tissue. This ailment soon turns into complications, in which a significant part of the body is affected. The most common type of rheumatism is articular. The disease itself is very dangerous, because it spreads to the skin and even the brain. Rheumatism can be chronic. Initially, the disease can also hide, and then come to light at some point. The main danger is that it partially destroys the immune system, and the person becomes susceptible to infectious diseases.
What is the danger of the disease?
It is important to know what threat rheumatism poses if not treated in time. As medical practice shows, the most vulnerable joints that previously injured or undercooled are affected. The disease is characterized by the fact that it does not cause any pathological disturbances in the tissue, but the outer shell of the joint changes significantly. In order to prevent this phenomenon, it is important to treat rheumatism of the joints of the legs, hands and others in a timely manner. In addition to the fact that the membrane of the joints is changing, the neighboring ones also suffer damage. If the patient does not start treatment on time, characteristic nodules may appear on the fingers and on the hand. It should be remembered that the disease can spread to internal organs.
Rheumatism can affect the heart, which is a significant health hazard. The disease has an extremely negative effect on the peripheral nervous system of the body, blood circulation is disturbed, and heart valves can not function fully. It is important to know that rheumatism can spread to the lungs. The disease can develop in a normal, healthy body for several reasons. The first of these is a hereditary predisposition of a person. The second reason may be the penetration of streptococcal infection. As you know, streptococcus is almost in every organism, however, if it is in an overabundance, rheumatism may occur. It is important to refrain from hypothermia, this will help prevent infection.
Different types of disease can be observed in children. The young organism has an increased sensitivity to infection. Reaction to the pathogen occurs instantaneously. It may happen that antibodies in the child's body counteract each other. This happens because streptococci are similar to them. To determine the disease, it is important to identify the symptoms. Rheumatism often occurs in childhood. The disease can progress and accompany a person for a long time.
Disease Symptoms appear immediately. At first, intoxication occurs in the body. This is due to the fact that a person suffered an infectious disease. At first the patient can feel weakness, periodic headaches appear, the temperature rises. It should be remembered that rheumatism does not appear immediately. As a rule, it takes 3-4 weeks after the infection. Rheumatism of the hands has a number of similar signs with arthritis: a person experiences severe aching pain. Rheumatism of the fingers does not begin immediately, usually it comes from above. At first, the symptoms are difficult to recognize, because there are a number of similar diseases with the same signs.
The main symptoms of rheumatism: redness of the skin, swelling, which arises from the fact that the joints were affected. A person has pain, which prevents a full-fledged movement. The skin is shining. The patient's heart starts to beat more often, pain and dyspnea may appear, weakness is felt. After you see all of the above symptoms, you can draw conclusions about his presence of rheumatism. When the disease worsens, pink spots of a small size, called annular rashes, may appear on the skin, they disappear when pressed, and then become visible again. In this case, urgent treatment is needed to avoid complications.
When a person's hands are affected, it becomes very difficult for him to unbend his fingers. This happens with difficulty. Sometimes fingers can not be unrolled independently, and this requires help from outside. For rheumatism of the fingers, they should be massaged at least 3 times a day. Also it is necessary to carry out special medical gymnastics: to bend and unbend them. These movements will help to keep the mobility of the joints and restore their flexibility. It is important to know that with rheumatism of fingers you can not wet them in cold water.
Symptoms of the disease can be very different. If there is a more complex, severe form of the disease, a person on the skin appears nodules, which are called "rheumatoid".It is important to carry out the treatment in time, because these signs arise as a result of the absence of such. In frequent cases, these nodules are formed on the joints of the fingers. It should be remembered that it is in this area that the disease progresses most. If you find these symptoms, you need immediate treatment. When rheumatism in the area of the fingers is exacerbated, it can deprive the joints of mobility.
Diagnosis and treatment of rheumatism
Symptoms of the disease are characterized by rheumatic fever. In order to conduct optimal treatment, it should be identified where the focus of streptococcal infection and then appoint a number of drugs that will help to eliminate the infectious disease. After this, you should carefully monitor the level of streptococci in the body. For this, special treatment and tests for bacussis are required. First of all, this is necessary in order to avoid the occurrence of infection in the future. Diagnosis and treatment include a variety of tests, including rheumatic tests. This analysis is able to show whether there is a disease and at what stage it is.
Treatment involves many methods that are designed to avoid disability and, if possible, restore the full functions to the joints. There are a number of measures that can change the course of the disease. In the first place, chemotherapy is used. It helps to lower the level of streptococci in the body. It is important to carry out such treatment even when, as a result of washings from the pharynx, a large number of streptococci were not detected, as microorganisms can hide in inaccessible areas. A person is given penicillin or novocaine salt in an appropriate amount. After treatment with penicillin has been carried out, it is necessary to prevent streptococcal infection. Suppressive therapy is necessary if the patient has acute arthritis. In some cases, codeine and salicylic acid are injected. The latter gradually helps to remove fever and heal inflamed joints. Rheumatism of the joints of the legs: symptoms and treatment |
For a long time rheumatism was called all diseases that cause suffering of the muscular and articular tissue and other components of the support apparatus. In modern science the concept of rheumatism is replaced by "acute rheumatic fever".This is an independent pathology, in the nature of which "lies" streptococcal infection.
For a long time, acute rheumatic fever was considered one of the most common rheumatic diseases. But, in recent years, due to the emergence of effective preventive measures, its significant decrease has been noted.
Now, doctors are more likely to face the effects and symptoms of joint rheumatism suffered in childhood, at a time when there was no widespread prevention of the disease.
What is acute rheumatic fever? This is a pathology of connective tissue. It is typical for young people who have suffered from infectious diseases.
Causes of rheumatism of the joints of the feet
At the moment, the cause of rheumatic fever, which is usually called rheumatism is established. This is a special microorganism, a beta-hemolytic streptococcus from the group A.
After some time, after the infection( scarlet fever, angina, pharyngitis), some patients have acute rheumatic fever. This is not an infectious disease, like influenza, intestinal infections, etc. Its distinctive feature is that specifically streptococcus does not cause damage to the joints and heart.
Consequences of infection are manifested in the violation of the immune system. There is an opinion that some proteins of staphylococcus, similar in structure to articular proteins and immune response to streptococcus, are an "attack" of the body's own tissues, in which the symptoms of inflammation develop. This is the main cause of rheumatism.
A significant role in the development of symptoms of rheumatism is played by untreated streptococcal infections. So the symptoms of rheumatism of the joints of the legs are most often manifested in a week or two after the pharyngitis or sore throat and are manifested by inflammation of the large joints of the lower extremities( knee, ankle).The smaller joints of the feet are much less affected. Together with the large joints of the legs, the joints of the upper part of the trunk often suffer( shoulder, wrist).
Risk factors for leg joint rheumatism
First of all, it is the weakening of the human body. At risk are people whose relatives have ever tolerated the disease.
It should be noted that rheumatism is a social disease. If the living conditions are not favorable( frequent hypothermia, mud, etc.), and this occurs against a background of poor nutrition, the risk of this disease is significantly increased.
Prevention of rheumatism of leg joints
The main prevention of acute rheumatism is the competent treatment of streptococcal infection. When streptococcal infections require the appointment of specific antibiotic therapy, and in other words, antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic treatment should not be less than ten days. If the course of such treatment is reduced, then the risk of the probability that the causative agent of the infection will not be destroyed to the end increases.
As for everyday life, it is necessary to observe simple rules, such as: the right daily routine, regular meals, exercise and physical training, hardening. Because a healthy body is more resistant to streptococcus.
Unfortunately, streptococcus surrounds a person literally everywhere - dust, dirty linen, handkerchiefs, etc. This factor implies that regular cleaning of the premises is necessary, and wet including, as well as ventilation and regular linen change. In addition, it is necessary to timely cure chronic diseases, especially such as tonsillitis and dental caries.
Diagnostics of rheumatism of the joints of the legs
It is possible to detect acute rheumatic fever only based on the analysis of the clinical picture of the current disease. It is important to accurately determine streptococcal infection( sore throat or skin), not later than a month before the onset of development of rheumatic joint damage. It is necessary to accurately determine the causative agent of the disease, for which the flora is planted with tonsils, etc.
At the same time, the following laboratory tests are assigned:
- blood content of C-reactive protein,
- increase in ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Treatment of the symptoms of foot joint rheumatism
The main treatment is strict adherence to the regimen( in case of active illness a strict bed rest is prescribed) and the use of medication, to relieve rheumatic symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse.
To get rid of streptococcus, which is the cause of the disease, prescribe antibiotics, usually penicillin series. In the next five years after the suppression of the active phase of the disease, the appointment of antibacterial drugs having a prolonged effect is required.
An important part of treating rheumatism is the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They can reduce the pathological effect of inflammation. As for the dosage of drugs and the timing of their use, this protocol is developed taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient suffering from rheumatic lesions in each case.
If the body detains fluid, prescribe diuretics( diuretics).
Rheumatism of the legs: symptoms and treatment
Symptoms characteristic of rheumatism:
- pain syndrome of different nature, depends on the severity of the course of the disease - quite intense, but in duration, short-term, can abruptly appear in different parts of the joint and instantly disappear;
- swelling and redness in the affected area, the skin glosses;
- increased body temperature, namely, the skin over the joint becomes hot to the touch;
- is the most dangerous clinical picture - the gradual formation of heart valve defects. According to statistics, the first attack of rheumatism remains unnoticed, since it is practically not recognized, but when the main organ of human vital activity is struck - the heart, rheumatism immediately makes itself felt.
Causes of the development of the disease
We highlight the main causes of this disease:
- bacteria penetrating the joints with blood;
- is an allergic reaction of the body to toxic substances.
Treatment of foot rheumatism, first of all, should begin with the elimination of factors that cause rheumatic ailment. If the diagnosis of rheumatic fever is established, the treatment includes inpatient and dispensary observation. The main stages of the disease therapy include the following:
- The first stage is inpatient treatment of a patient with anti-inflammatory therapy. To prevent recurrence, the drug is administered with bicillin.
- The second stage is characterized by a decline in the manifestation of the rheumatic process, the patient's condition is improving and it is already observed in the polyclinic at the place of residence under the supervision of the attending physician. Rheumatologist continues treatment with NSAIDs, which were individually selected at the first stage of therapy.
- The third stage includes prophylactic treatment, in which the patient is assigned to a cardiologic or rheumatic sanatorium resort treatment by symptomatic therapy.
Areas of damage to rheumatism.
Rheumatism of bones is often struck during periods of seasonal exacerbations, and it occurs in an undisclosed form, with its joint loses its motor activity, the bones become porous, a mineral deficiency is observed. Repeated rheumatic attacks are more severe, which affects the patient's ability to work.
Disease rheumatism often occurs in young people and in children , namely, the risk group includes the female half. It should be noted and the fact that rheumatism also introduces a hereditary imprint.
Timely provision of medical care for rheumatism and properly directed treatment will help at least forget about the illness for a while, and if you are self-medicated, the rheumatic attack can strike:
- muscles and heart valves - rheumatic carditis,
- peripheral nervous system - neuritis and sciatica,
- centralthe nervous system is the origin of chorea.
Rheumatism of the joints of the legs is a disease not of an epidemic nature, but the causative agent is streptococcal infection, refers to the epidemic. With this ailment, pain and swelling of the joints of the legs also cover a number of other small and large joints.
To prevent rheumatic illness, the following preventive measures should be taken:
- active hardening;
- compliance with bed rest during periods of exacerbation;
- balanced and nutritious food, a restriction in the consumption of carbohydrate products and salt;
- suppression of supercooling.
- The last articles
The disease is an inflammatory pathology of connective tissue, which is mainly localized within the cardiovascular system.
Rheumatism is a disease that develops, as a rule, against the background of an exacerbation of a certain infection in people with an increased degree of predisposition to such pathologies. Rheumatism most often affects children, as well as adolescents( the age range is seven to fifteen years).
The main factor that causes the appearance of rheumatism is hemolytic streptococcus( group A).It often affects the upper respiratory tract and provokes joint rheumatism.
The condition for the development of the disease is the presence of streptococcal infection in the nasopharyngeal zone or untimely, incorrect treatment of it. A confirmation that the etiology of rheumatism is directly related to streptococcus is that rheumatism often develops and spreads at the first stages of the formation of so-called "closed collectives".
The pathology of leg joints is due to the presence of a significant number of toxins and antigens that affect connective tissues, causing complications of rheumatism.
Streptococcus infection plays an important role in the occurrence of age-related rheumatic carditis. In this situation, immunity does not work, and this, in turn, serves as a reason for finding other factors that fit into the problem of rheumatism: etiology.
In the situation of resolving the issue of the origin of rheumatism, there are two main aspects:
- the role of group A streptococcal infection;
- study of predisposition to the disease with rheumatism of leg joints.
To develop chronic rheumatism, a subjective, increased immune response to streptococcal type antigens is required, as well as the extent of the duration of this reaction. This is evidenced by some signs of rheumatism of the joints of the legs with a dynamic study of antibodies to streptococcus.
The mechanism for starting the disease begins with the effect on the body of bacteria - beta-hemolytic streptococci( group A).They can provoke:
- sore throat;
Chronic rheumatism occurs only when the patient has defects associated with the functioning of the immune system. So, statistics show that only from 0, 3 to 3 percent of people who have suffered infectious diseases caused by streptococcus( photo), subsequently face rheumatism.
Rheumatism of the joints of the legs is characterized by the presence of risk factors that should be taken into account:
- the presence of rheumatism or diseases affecting the connective tissues of family members of the first degree of kinship - sisters or brothers. Parents;
- belonging to the female sex;
- age range from 7 to 15 years;
- regular infections in the nasopharynx, streptococcus;
- rheumatism of the legs arises from the presence in the human body of a specific protein - the B-cell marker type D8 / 17.
Rheumatism in children affects the joints of the legs, when when streptococcus enters the body, it begins to fight the infection with the production of special antibodies. Cells recognize bacteria through molecules that are on their surface.
In the presence of predisposition to rheumatism, in the cardiac muscle there are structural units similar in structure to streptococcus.
Chronic rheumatism is associated with an attack of antibodies of "native" cells of the body. So there is an inflammatory process, develops rheumatism of the joints of the legs. The connective tissue can be deformed - heart defects develop, the morphological structure of the joints changes, and rheumatism arises.
There is a certain classification of rheumatism, distinguish several types of the disease:
- Polyarthritis, it is also articular rheumatism. Often affects the knees, elbows, shoulders, rarely - toes and hands. The acute form of the disease is characterized by swelling, the presence of an inflammatory process in the zone affected by rheumatism. Sweating, general weakness in the whole body, elevated temperature can be observed.
- Rheumatic carditis is another type of rheumatism;is manifested by the presence of a general intoxication of the body, heart pain of varying intensity, tachycardia may manifest itself.
- Rheumatism is fraught with the appearance of lesions of the smallest vessels in the brain, a disease called rheumatic chorea. The main signs - the violation of coordination of movement, psycho-emotional disorders.
- Classification of rheumatism involves the isolation of skin manifestations of diseases. These are specific nodules and erythema.
- Pleurisy rheumatic - severe pains in the chest area are observed, respiratory activity becomes more difficult. The temperature can rise, there is a cough and shortness of breath.
The initial signs of rheumatism appear several weeks after the patient has transferred any infectious disease - for example, pharyngitis or sore throat.
At first the patient experiences weakness, joints begin to ache, hyperthermia is observed.
Rheumatism in children can develop in a latent form: so, a small fever can rise, there is a slight general malaise, cardiac work is not broken, joint pains are absent. In such cases, rheumatism of the joints ends with chronic arthritis. Rheumatism in children affects the middle, as well as large joints. There are such signs of the disease:
- pain in the drains;
- tingling in the elbows and wrists;
- pain in the knees.
Rheumatism of the joints can have blurred symptoms - they then disappear, then reappear. Nevertheless, you can not relax - rheumatism in children should be diagnosed in time and appropriate therapy is prescribed.
Additional signs of rheumatism - pronounced problems with the heart: the pulse may be disturbed, irregularities in the rhythm are observed, the heart hurts. Also, the patient may experience shortness of breath, there is general weakness, increased sweating. These symptoms are caused by the inflammatory processes that are observed in the heart - rheumatic carditis. The consequence of the disease is heart disease.
In the case when rheumatism affects the nervous system, the patient may experience involuntary jerking of the limbs, as well as muscles of the face and neck. This symptomatology was called small chorea. There are signs on average in 15% of patients. Basically, these girls are from 6 to 15 years old.
Rheumatism, diagnosed only in clinical settings, is subsequently subject to a thorough correction by a rheumatologist.
The rheumatologist performs a complex of necessary measures, which help to diagnose rheumatism. Most often, he undergoes a comprehensive comprehensive examination of the patient.
The first appointment is a general analysis of the blood composition for inflammation. The second is an immunological study aimed at revealing substances characteristic of rheumatism.
Additional technologies - ECG, X-ray. If necessary, to identify rheumatism, arthroscopy, articular biopsy, puncture for the subsequent study of the composition of fluid in the joints is prescribed.
The first stage is indicated by antibiotic therapy. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also prescribed. If the case is severe, the rheumatologist prescribes corticosteroids.
Prevention of rheumatism in children includes:
- gymnastics and physiotherapy;
- lifestyle correction( in particular, day regimen and nutrition);
Classification of drugs that are issued by a rheumatologist when a disease is detected, is as follows:
- antimicrobial agents;
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
The basis for the optimal treatment of rheumatism is such a consistent mechanism: the clinical stage - procedures at home and in the office of a doctor - rheumatologist - spa therapy.
First, special anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out, rehabilitation is carried out, then the patient is sent to a specialized medical sanatorium intended especially for patients with rheumatism. At the third stage of therapy - medical examination. The procedure sets itself such functional tasks:
- activities aimed at the final fight against rheumatism;
- the implementation of symptomatic treatment for circulatory dysfunction in those patients who suffer from the presence of heart defects, their possible correction;
- rehabilitation period;
- preventive measures package.
Prevention of rheumatism and its treatment at home - the task is quite feasible. There are several effective recipes designed to combat the disease.
- A couple of peeled large bulbs are cooked for 15 minutes in a liter of water. The drug is taken in the morning after awakening on an empty stomach, before going to sleep. Dosage is a glass. Good prevention of rheumatism.
- To the aching joints of the feet, a fresh grated onion is applied for no more than half an hour. Periodicity - several times a day.
- Rheumatism in children is susceptible to the treatment of raw potatoes. To do this, you need to double fold any fabric, in the middle of which is placed a potato gruel. The compress is placed in the affected area of the joints of the legs. From above it is necessary to cover the area with something warm. The procedure is repeated every two days.
- Children's rheumatism responds well to a combination of taking potato juice and an external compress from this root. The procedure should be carried out within a month.
- Broth, cooked potato peel, is suitable for making compresses that are applied to the joints affected by rheumatism.
Herbal preparations intended for the treatment of rheumatism of leg joints:
- At 10 grams of St. John's Wort, one glass of warm water is needed. This mixture should be boiled for half an hour on a small fire. A remedy for rheumatism is taken during the day before meals( at a time - a third of the container).
- Leaves of cranberries put in a jar, top up with water, insist. The drug is taken twice a day for two teaspoons.
- On two small spoons of blueberry berries you should take a glass of boiling water. Infused broth for half an hour. Take the remedy several times a day on a large spoon.
Timely diagnosis of rheumatism of the leg joints, as well as its qualitative prevention and treatment, allow to minimize the negative consequences to which the disease results.