Causes and differences of strengthened and smoothed thoracic kyphosis
Kyphosis of the thoracic spine - physiological curvature of the vertebral column posteriorly with angle of curvature( estimated by lateral radiograph) no more than 30 degrees. When the bend is strengthened( angle more than 30 degrees), pathological kyphosis( hyperkiphosis) is formed. It is accompanied by multiple clinical symptoms and can lead to disability.
Causes and types of pathological abnormalities
Pathological kyphosis can be congenital and acquired.
The congenital form arises because of the anomaly of the structure of the vertebrae( defects of the arches, spinous processes, disruption of the formation of the bodies).
The acquired form is more often congenital. It is formed by the following reasons:
- Infectious - tubercular and bacterial lesions of vertebral bodies;
- Vascular - lack of blood supply in the spinal column and muscular back skeleton;
- Compression - excessive physical stress leads to damage to intervertebral discs and displacement of the axis of the spine;
- Mobile - the weakness of the back muscles leads to the fact that the person stoops, the spinal column "warps";
- Rickets - lack of vitamin D leads to a "weakness" of the bone structure. Under the influence of physical activity, vertebrae with a weak backbone are rapidly deformed;
- Starch - develops against the backdrop of age-related changes in the muscular framework of the back and intervertebral discs;
- Total - with this form a kyphotic arch is observed throughout all parts of the spine.
Depending on the appearance, the pathology is divided into:
- Arc shape.
With an angular shape, the outer concavity has an acute angle in the region of the top of the curvature. With an arcuate analog, the curvature has a gentle appearance.
Classification of kyphosis by severity:
- I degree - light( with a concavity angle of more than 30 degrees);
- II degree - mild kyphosis of the thoracic spine( angle 30-60 degrees);
- III degree - heavy( it is characterized by a corner of a curvature more than 60 degrees).
Symptoms of strengthening the thoracic kyphosis
Thoracic kyphosis manifests itself in 3 sets of symptoms:
- Myofascial;Compression Myelopathy.
Compression myelopathy in the thoracic region occurs rarely, as it is anatomically characterized by minimal mobility. Attachment of the ribs to the vertebrae prevents their mobility, so the probability of infringement of nerve roots in this department is low. The thorax protects the inner part of the vertebrae from damage, which further increases the stability of the vertebrae.
At 2 degrees of the kyphotic arch in the thoracic spine appears local pain syndrome along the spinal column. The feeling of numbness of the upper extremities with the loss of skin sensitivity with compression myelopathy in this area arises even less often.
In severe infringement, pain syndrome can be irradiated in the intercostal space, inguinal region and abdomen. Kyphosis with compression myelopathy is often accompanied by a painful syndrome of a bursting nature, associated with irritation of sympathetic structures.
Spastic paresis of the lower and upper extremities is accompanied by a violation of the surface and deep sensitivity. At half of patients at this pathology disorders in work of pelvic organs are observed.
If the vertex of excessive convexity is located in the region of Th10-Th12 and is accompanied by the protrusion of intervertebral discs at a given level( hernia or protrusion), epiconus-cone syndrome is formed.
In rare cases, vertebrogenic manifestations of this pathology are accompanied by a lesion of radiculo-medullary arteries. These vessels nourish the spinal cord in the thoracic spine. If there is an accumulation of blood clots( thrombosis) and at this time the thoracic kyphosis is strengthened, a persistent spasm of skeletal musculature in the lower back, as well as a violation of the functions of the pelvic organs, is possible.
To treat this pathology is necessary depending on the degree of its severity and the cause that led to development. If the physiological kyphosis is smoothed, and posture disorder is observed, the muscular skeleton of the upper back is needed. When there is an increase, on the contrary, it is necessary to increase the tone of the muscles of the breast.
At the first degree of pathology, effective treatment can be performed without wearing a corrective corset. At this stage, the correction of the axis of the spine is performed using:
- Appointment of symptomatic agents;
- Massage and osteopathy.
Daily gymnastics allows to strengthen the muscular corset of the back, which will support the spine axis in the correct position.
If drug therapy does not bring the desired effect, doctors resort to surgical treatment.
Indications for surgical treatment of thoracic kyphosis:
- Low effectiveness of conservative methods;
- Severe pain syndrome, which is not eliminated by analgesics;
- Progressive deformation of the spinal column;
- Ulcerative defects in the thoracic region;
- 3 degree of bulge enhancement.
The operation takes place in 2 stages. In the first step, it is necessary to eliminate deformation by restoring the normal position of the vertebrae. The second step is the stabilization of the position of the spinal column with the help of a metal pin, rods and screws( transpedicular systems).
Complex of corrective exercises
To strengthen muscles of the thoracic part of the back, it is recommended daily to perform the following list of exercises:
- Touch the shoulders with your hands, lying on your stomach. On inhaling, try to throw your head back. In this case, lift the chest up. During the exercise, try to climb high. At the exit, return to the reclining position;
- To perform the second exercise you need a gymnastic stick. Put it on the shoulder blades, lying on your stomach and keep your hands on both sides. Raise your head and bend your spine. Lock the position for 6-8 seconds, and then go down. The number of repetitions is 8-10;
- Get on all fours and bend the chest area down, elbow joints aside. In this situation, try to go 50 steps;
- Take the gymnastic stick and spread your legs to the width of your shoulders. Take the stick behind your back so that it touches the shoulder blades. Sit down on your breath and stand on your breath;
- Position your legs shoulder width apart when standing. Take a stick behind your back and press it against the shoulder blades. On inhalation, lift it up, and throw your head back. On exhalation, return to the starting position.
If you perform the above set of exercises on a daily basis, you can prevent further curvature of the spine axis.
Thus, chest kyphosis in the initial stages is not accompanied by severe clinical symptoms due to low chest mobility. The second and third degree of curvature leads to serious complications, therefore treatment of pathology should be carried out as soon as possible.
Thoracic kyphosis - how to treat
Each person's backbone has four bends( cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and sacral kyphosis), which are necessary for better damping of the spine during movement. And the most important is the bending of the thoracic region, since it is he who protects the heart and lungs, and also the bearing of a person depends on him.
Spine kyphosis - acquired during life or by virtue of hereditary factors, curvature of the spine, exceeding the correct bend. Which later can lead to the appearance of a man's hump. Usually in medical practice you can encounter kyphosis of the thoracic, less often cervical and lumbar.
1 degree - on the roentgenogram the angle of curvature of 30-40 degrees is determined( determination by the Cobb method);2 degrees - an angle of 40-50 degrees;3 degree - an angle of 50-70 degrees;4th degree - an angle of more than 70 degrees.
Evaluation of the X-ray image of the degree of kyphosis by the Cobb method involves the holding of tangential lines to the vertebral end plates( the lower and upper parts of the vertebral body) at the levels of the upper and lower concavities. From these lines perpendiculars are drawn inwards. At the intersection, an angle is formed, which is measured with a protractor. It also reflects the magnitude of kyphosis.
Source of spinazdorov.ru
Cervical lordosis symptoms by reference.
Deforming spondylarthrosis of the thoracic spine http: //pozprof.ru/bn/spnd/ spondiloartroz-grudnogo-otdela.html # t2.
Tactics of treatment largely depends on the degree of kyphosis and associated diseases. So, at the first-second stage doctors recommend to use methods of manual therapy in combination with physiotherapy exercises. However, in any case, treatment of thoracic kyphosis should be comprehensive.
In advanced cases( severe pain, severe cardiac disorders, etc.), when the patient is diagnosed with a third to fourth degree of kyphosis, conservative methods are used as an additional treatment after a surgical procedure.
The main conservative methods of eliminating pathological kyphosis:
Different types of massage;Reflexotherapy( acupuncture, acupressure, magnetic vacuum therapy);Vacuum therapy;
So, a few simple and effective exercises.
Standing straight, get your hands on your back and clasp them. Pull the connected hands down, straightening the forelegs.
Lie on the rug, slipping under the shoulder blades a height of three to five centimeters( you can use a bag of sand or millet grains).Relax and stretch straight arms behind your head. Lie so for a while.
Lying, take in the palm of your hand a light dumbbell or a bottle filled with water. Optimum weight - from 0,5 to 2 kg.for an adult person depending on his physical condition. Alternately, pull one straight arm by the head, and the other - lower to the thigh. Keep your hands "walking" in a straight line.
Lying on your stomach with your hands at the body, with your hands turned upwards, start slowly and smoothly lift your head and shoulders. After rising to the limit point, rest on the floor with your hands and stretch a little higher. Take it easy.
Massage with kyphosis is a complex of mechanical methods of affecting the surface of the human body by friction, vibration, pressure. Manipulation can be performed directly at the site of pathological changes of the spinal column or above it.
Classical massage consists of 3 stages:
Introductory - takes about 3 minutes and involves gentle manipulations on the surface of the skin;
Basic - performed for 5 to 20 minutes and includes specialized methods of affecting the skin, depending on the clinical and physiological features of the pathology;
Final - aims to reduce nervous innervation after the procedure. Its duration is about 3 minutes.
Massage with kyphosis of the thoracic spine is not a medical procedure, but significantly improves the effectiveness of therapy of pathology.
Contraindications to the massage:
The fact that LFK very well helps with a disease such as kyphosis of the spine. Especially it is effective in childhood and adolescence, when the spine is flexible enough and therefore almost any curvature can be corrected. An adult can not completely straighten kyphosis with the help of exercise therapy is hardly possible. But constant physical exercises, as well as yoga, will help restore a beautiful posture, reduce pain, increase the flexibility of the spine, strengthen the back muscles and improve the quality of life.
The effectiveness of kyphosis exercises is that the muscles that support the spine are strengthened, thereby preventing the vertebrae from moving further. If the muscles are weak and untrained, then this creates a favorable environment for the appearance of various curvatures. And strong and strong muscles are able to support the spine, not allowing it to bend further. That's why you need to regularly perform therapeutic gymnastics, do not give yourself to be lazy, otherwise exercises will not bring good results.
How to fix
Repeatedly wondered who is suffering from this disease. To date, many alternative therapies are envisaged. But, in the first place, conservative treatment is envisaged. If it does not give positive results, then radical treatment is prescribed. Conservatively treatment, which effectively fights against the disease, includes the following types of therapies:
Courses of medical and physical therapy, health gymnastics;Extension of the spine;Wearing an orthopedic corset, belts, and also a bandage;Manual therapy and massage courses;Reflexotherapy - treatment with acupuncture;Physiotherapy;Drug treatment;Folk therapeutic manipulations.
Breast kyphosis treatment requires compulsory, if it is absent, the disease can develop into a hernia, which is much more dangerous. With kyphosis, massages and stretching of the spine are very good. Their goal is to increase the flexibility of the spine, the development of mobility of the vertebral segments, the development of muscles, the ability of the muscular corset to withstand the stresses. Massage additionally restores blood circulation, which leads to better nutrition of vertebral bodies and muscles, preventing dystrophy. Patients with a diagnosis of cervical kyphosis massage is especially indicated.
Healthy exercises are very effective in correcting kyphosis. Exercises for kyphosis should be systemic in nature, in the case of pain, it is necessary to stop execution.
The big advantage that LFK carries in itself is its accessibility, it is easy to engage in recovery at home. Exercises have several key starting positions, for example. Lying, standing, on his back, on his stomach, with a stick and stuff.
Kifoz spine - types of disease and prevention
No one will argue that the state of the entire human body depends on the state of the spine. At the present stage, a large number of people lead a "sedentary" way of life, and, rarely, one of those sitting constantly maintains a correct posture. After a while this can lead to disastrous consequences. One of the most common deformations of the spinal column is the pathological kyphosis of the spine.
Normally, the bending of the spine in the chest region varies in the side altitudes of 20-45 degrees, if the bend is more than 45 degrees, the pathological kyphosis
is diagnosed. What do the terms "kyphosis" and "lordosis" include?
Lordos and kyphosis are very "close relatives", which, at the same time, are antagonists. The term "kyphosis" means the deflection of the spine back, and "lordosis" - forward. Kifoz, translated from Greek, sounds like "humpbacked" or "bent".In clinical practice, physiological and pathological curvatures of the spine differ. Physiological kyphosis is a normal condition of the spine with a backward deflection in the thoracic and sacral areas. In the case when a person has a change in the position of the spine with a deflection back along the entire length, a pathological kyphosis is diagnosed. Lordosis is normal to a minor extent in the cervical spine, as well as in the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. Often pathological kyphosis and lordosis are caused by the same reasons, that is, if kyphosis develops in one section of the spine, then compensatory lordosis is almost always formed in the other.
Types and causes of the disease
- Functional kyphosis( stoop) is a condition that develops due to incorrect posture and weakness of the dorsal muscles. In some cases, the psychological factor influences the development of functional kyphosis. This is often observed in tall people, who, embarrassed by their growth, stoop, seeking to appear lower. In this condition, there is no deformation of the vertebrae, and the patient, if desired, can completely straighten the back. As a treatment in this case, conservative methods are used( exercise therapy, which helps to strengthen the muscles of the back, and also training correct posture).
- Congenital pathological kyphosis is a condition that arises from a violation of the fetal development of the fetus. Often, it is combined with other abnormalities of the pelvic and urogenital system, and can also lead to paralysis of the lower extremities. Typically, such patients are shown surgery as early as childhood. It allows you to improve the prognosis, reducing the deformation of the spine and the degree of neurological disorders.
- Dorsal juvenile kyphosis( Sheyerman-Mau disease) is a deformity of the spine, reaching in some cases 75%.This pathology is caused by the formation of a wedge shape of three or more cervical vertebrae. In this case, intervertebral hernias and hypertrophy of the anterior vertebral ligament are revealed in patients. To date, the exact causes of dorsal juvenile kyphosis are not known.
Note: According to experts, most often it occurs due to excessive growth of bone tissue, necrosis of hyaline cartilage, pathologies in the development of back muscles and osteoporosis in osteoporosis.
- Degenerative kyphosis is a condition that is caused by changes in the vertebrae due to osteochondrosis or osteoporosis. As a rule, the degree of curvature of the spine with this form of pathology is negligible.
- With complete or partial paralysis of the muscles of the back, a paralytic thoracic kyphosis forms. Such deformation often progresses, arising after the transferred poliomyelitis and in patients with infantile cerebral palsy.
- Posttraumatic kyphosis is a pathology that occurs after a trauma in the thoracic or lumbar spine. As a rule, it quickly progresses, accompanied by neurological complications, and requires urgent surgical care.
- Postoperative thoracic or cervical kyphosis is a condition that manifests itself after an unsuccessful spinal stabilization operation and requires repeated surgical intervention.
Types of kyphosis of the spine in terms of the severity of
Pathological kyphosis in clinical practice is usually distinguished in terms of severity:
- The first degree of kyphosis is a condition in which the kyphosis of the thoracic spine, or rather the angle of curvature of the spine in the thoracic region does not exceed 30 degrees.
- II degree of kyphosis is diagnosed with an increase in pathological bending from 30 to 60 degrees.
- III degree is assigned to the patient if the angle of curvature exceeds 60 degrees.
Note: The most favorable predictions for the treatment of the first degree of kyphosis. But, unfortunately, this condition sometimes remains unnoticed by the parents of the child. They consider it a temporary shortcoming, which must be eliminated in the process of growth by itself. However, in the absence of an adequate load on the spine, or with excessive loads, the pathology can progress and take severe forms.
Do they take the 2nd degree with the kyphosis?
There is article 66 of the Schedule of Diseases, which regulates the presence of pathological kyphosis. For exemption from military service, a pathological kyphosis occurs against a background of moderate deformation of the chest, as well as the detection of respiratory insufficiency of the 2nd degree according to the restorative type. Patients with osteochondropathy kyphosis are also exempted from military service, with a wedge-shaped deformation of three or more vertebrae and a decrease in the height of the anterior surface of the vertebrae by 2 or more times. In the event that all of the above requirements are met, the draftee is released from service in the army. He is given a category of validity B( limited in scope), a military ticket is issued and he is credited to the reserve.
The choice of preventive measures is the prerogative of orthopedic physician
Pathologies of the thoracic and kyphosis of the cervical spine are not only defects in posture, but also cause serious diseases, and only early correct diagnosis will allow to take adequate measures in time and get rid of the disease. In the advanced stage, these diseases are very difficult to treat and entail the deformation of the ribs, clavicles, sternum, shoulder girdle and pelvis. Get rid of kyphosis 1 degree can be a month, the second degree is treated for three months, the third - six months, and the fourth - a few years. All preventive measures that prevent the development of kyphosis, are aimed at eliminating the causes that contribute to the development of this or that type of curvature of the spine. However, these measures are used to treat the initial stage of the pathological process. They help not only to prevent the progression of the disease, but also make it possible to give the curved spine a correct physiological position. Do not forget about observance of the generally accepted simple rules, which allow to avoid the curvature of the spine.
Kyphosis degrees 1, 2, 3 - characteristics and treatment of
It is not difficult to determine kyphosis, because at least the appearance of the patient speaks about the presence of this ailment. In the early stages of development, this is just a stoop that persecutes a person constantly, and when the disease is neglected, you can see a pronounced hump. It is important to note that not always the patient has severe pain in the back, so the diagnosis is based on examination.
Causes and features of
pathology The healthy spine has small bends forward in the cervical and thoracic region, as well as bending back at the thoracic level. This physiology allows you to evenly distribute the load on the vertebrae, maintain maximum flexibility and move normally. With the increase in these bends due to a sedentary lifestyle, trauma or hereditary predisposition, we have to talk about the appearance of kyphosis. Most often it occurs in the cervico-thoracic region, and is especially often observed in people engaged in office work. It is important to note that back pain begins to appear during the transition of kyphosis to the second stage, when the incorrect posture and stoop are more pronounced.
Description of the degrees of kyphosis
Different medical publications indicate different gradations of kyphosis degrees. In some there are only four, in others the fourth stage is part of the third. In any case, the following degrees are generally accepted:
- I - curvature is 30-40 degrees( stoop and light pain that appear during physical exertion);
- II - curvature 40-50 degrees( there are aching pains in the back, strengthening of which is possible with prolonged walking or staying in one position);
- III - a curvature of 50-70 degrees, accompanied by the appearance of a hump, visible through clothing and severe pain, not only in the back, but also in the internal organs.
The fourth degree, at which the spine bends more than 70 degrees, practically does not stand out, as such cases are rare. As for the first degree, when the curvature starts at 30 degrees, it is only appropriate in case of thoracic kyphosis, for which the readings of 15-30 degrees are normal. Given that the normal physiological curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine suggests less than 15 degrees, then for them, the first degree of kyphosis can begin with a mark of 15 degrees.
Treatment of different degrees of the disease
The degree of kyphosis 1, 2, 3 determines the specificity of treatment, but almost always the initial appointment of conservative therapy. This is sport, gymnastics, diet, wearing a special orthopedic corset, straightening the posture, etc. If there has been a change in the shape of the intervertebral discs and vertebrae, medication may also be prescribed. Surgery is used only for serious deformities of the spine, and also if a specific kyphosis is diagnosed, for example, Sheyermann-Mau, when it is necessary to carry out a two-stage operation that reconstructs the normal arch of the spine. Therefore, you can not always cope with kyphosis on your own, and it is better to consult a doctor.